1454-1464 First War of the Wars of the Roses

Neville - Percy Battle

On 31 Oct 1454 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu and Thomas Neville captured Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont and Richard Percy at Stamford Bridge. .

Battle of Arkinholm

On 01 May 1455 the Douglas rebellion was brought to an end at the Battle of Arkinholm near Langholm. Archibald Douglas 8th Earl Moray was killed. Hugh Douglas 1st Earl Ormonde was executed. John Douglas escaped.

First Battle of St Albans

On 22 May 1455 the Wars of the Roses commenced with the First Battle of St Albans. Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales commanded with Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury, Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury, Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham and Walter Strickland.
The Lancastrians Edmund Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset, Henry Percy 2nd Earl Northumberland, William Cotton, Thomas Clifford 8th Baron Clifford and Richard Fortescue were killed. Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke Buckingham was wounded and captured. Henry VI King England, II King France, John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley and Edmund Dudley were captured. Henry Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset was wounded. James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire, 5th Earl Ormonde and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock both fought.

Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales, Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales and Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury were required by an Act of Parliament to pay for the burial and masses for those who died at the First Battle of St Albans.

Battle of Clyst Heath

On 15 Dec 1455 the Courtenay family, Earls of Devon since 1355, and Bonville family resolved their differences at the Battle of Clyst Heath. Thomas Courtenay 13th Earl Devon defeated William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville.

John Neville married Isabel Ingaldsthorpe

On 25 Apr 1457 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu and Isabel Ingaldsthorpe were married by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier at Canterbury Cathedral during the John Neville married Isabel Ingaldsthorpe.

Loveday

On 24 Mar 1458 Cardinal Thomas Bourchier presided at Westminster Abbey at a ceremony known as the "Loveday". John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford, Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury, Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury, Henry Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset, Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales, Henry Percy 3rd Earl Northumberland, Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont and Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England attended in an attempt to reconcile the Lancastrian and Yorkist factions.

Battle of Blore Heath

On 23 Sep 1459 John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley attempted to ambush John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu whilst he was travelling to Ludlow to join up with the main Yorkist army. Forewarned by scouts he arranged his troops into battle order. The Yorkist army included John Conyers, Thomas Harrington, James Harrington, Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury, William Stanley Lord Chamberlain, Roger Kynaston, John Savile, Walter Strickland and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock. The Lancastrian army included brothers John Dutton, Thomas Dutton and Peter Dutton who were killed. James Tuchet 5th Baron Audley Heighley was killed by Roger Kynaston. John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley and Edmund Dudley were captured. Lionel Welles 6th Baron Welles fought.
After the battle James Harrington, John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu and Thomas Neville were captured at Acton Bridge and imprisoned at Chester Castle having been detached from the main Yorkist force.

Battle of Ludford Bridge

On 12 Oct 1459 the Battle of Ludford Bridge nearly took place at Ludford Bridge. In the event a large number of the Calais garrison refused to fight against Henry VI King England, II King France who was present. The Yorkist leaders left overnight: Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales, the future Edward IV King England, Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland, Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury, Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury and John Dinham 1st Baron Dinham. Thomas Parr was present. The Lancastrian army included Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke Buckingham and William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel.

Parliament of the Devils

On 09 Oct 1459 Thomas Tresham was appointed as Speaker of the House of Commons at Coventry during the Parliament of the Devils. John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu was attainted.

Battle of Sandwich

On 15 Jan 1460 Yorkist forces commanded by John Dinham 1st Baron Dinham and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury raided Sandwich capturing a number of Lancastrian ships. In addition, the Woodville family: Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers, his wife Jacquetta Luxembourg Duchess Bedford and their son Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers were captured. .

Yorkist Landing at Sandwich

Battle of Northampton 1460

Battle of Roxburgh

On 03 Aug 1460 William Douglas 3rd Lord Drumlanrig fought at Roxburgh Castle, Roxburgh during the Battle of Roxburgh.

Richard of York claims the Kingdom of England

On 10 Oct 1460 Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales claimed the Kingdom of England in Westminster Hall witnessed by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier. .

Act of Accord (39 Hen VI)

On 25 Oct 1460 Parliament enacted the Act of Accord (39 Hen VI) by which Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales was declared heir to Henry VI King England, II King France disinheriting Edward Lancaster Prince Wales 1453-1471[Edward of Westminster at the same Parliament on 31 Oct 1460 Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales was appointed as Prince Wales, Earl Chester, Duke Cornwall and Lord Protector.

Battle of Wakefield

On 11 Jun 1460 Parliament enacted attainders against the Yorkist supporters who fought, some of whom were killed, at the Battle of Wakefield including: Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales, Edward IV King England, Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury.

On 30 Dec 1460 the Lancastrian army took their revenge for the defeats of the First Battle of St Albans and the Battle of Northampton during the Battle of Wakefield at Sandal Castle. The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter and Henry Percy 3rd Earl Northumberland, and included John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon and William Gascoigne, both knighted, and James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire, 5th Earl Ormonde, John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford, John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby, Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley and Thomas St Leger.
The Yorkist army was heavily defeated. Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales, Thomas Neville, Thomas Harrington, William Bonville 6th Baron Harington and Edward Bourchier were killed. Following the battle Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury was beheaded by Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland. William Bonville was executed. Thomas Parr fought in the Yorkist army.
Following the battle Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland was executed by John "Butcher" Clifford by which he gained his sobriquet "Butcher".

Battle of Mortimer's Cross

On 02 Feb 1461 at the Battle of Mortimer's Cross at Wigmore the future Edward IV King England commanded the Yorkist forces including William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings, John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock, John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley Heighley, 3rd Baron Tuchet, John Savage and Roger Vaughan. In the Lancastrian army Owen Tudor (captured by Roger Vaughan ) and his son Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford fought as well as James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire, 5th Earl Ormonde. Gruffydd ap Nicholas Deheubarth was killed.
Following the battle Owen Tudor was beheaded in the Market Place. He was buried thereafter in Greyfriars Church in a tomb paid for by his son David Owen.

Second Battle of St Albans

On 18 Feb 1461 the Lancastrian army defeated the Yorkist army at Second Battle of St Albans and rescued Henry VI King England, II King France. The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter and included Henry Percy 3rd Earl Northumberland, John Mowbray 3rd Duke Norfolk, Henry Grey 7th Baron Grey Codnor and Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby Eresby, 7th Baron Welles. Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley, William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme, John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury, 3rd Earl Waterford and Thomas Tresham were knighted.
The Yorkist army included Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury, William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel, John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock and Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu, 1st Earl Essex. John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu was captured. Robert Poynings and James Luttrell Baron Dunster were killed.
John Grey was killed fighting for Lancaster. A death that was to have far reaching consequences; his widow Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England subsequently married Edward IV King England.
After the battle William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville and Thomas Kyriell were beheaded after having protected Henry VI King England, II King France during the battle against all decent laws of battle. Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England reneged on their immunity and tried them in front of her seven year old son Prince Edward who ordered them to be beheaded.

Proclamation of Edward IV as King

On 04 Mar 1461 Edward IV King England declared himself King of England. William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings was present. .

Battles of Ferrybridge

On 27 Mar 1461 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury fought at Ferrybridge at the with John Radclyffe capturing the bridge.
On 28 Mar 1461 a further skirmish occurred near Ferrybridge. Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury fought. John Radclyffe was killed. For Lancaster John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford and John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby.
On 28 Mar 1461 John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford was killed at Dintingdale during a skirmish. William Neville 1st Earl Kent fought for York.

Battle of Towton

On 29 Mar 1461 the Battle of Towton was a decisive victory for York bringing to an end the first war of the Wars of the Roses. Said to be the bloodiest battle on English soil 28000 were killed mainly during the rout that followed the battle.
The Yorkist army was commanded by Edward IV King England with John Mowbray 3rd Duke Norfolk, Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter, William Neville 1st Earl Kent, William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (knighted), Walter Blount 1st Baron Mountjoy, Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu, 1st Earl Essex, John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope Bolton and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock.
The Lancastrian army suffered significant casualties including Henry Percy 3rd Earl Northumberland, Richard Percy, Ralph Bigod, Ralph Bigod, John Bigod, Robert Cromwell, Ralph Dacre 1st Baron Dacre Gilsland, Ralph Eure, John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby, Lionel Welles 6th Baron Welles, John Beaumont, Thomas Dethick, Everard Simon Digby, William Plumpton and William Welles who were killed.
Those who fought for the Lancaster included William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme, John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley, William Norreys, Thomas Grey, Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford, John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury, 3rd Earl Waterford, Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby Eresby, 7th Baron Welles, Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers, James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire, 5th Earl Ormonde, John Butler 6th Earl Ormonde, William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont and Thomas Tresham. Cardinal John Morton was captured.
On 03 Apr 1461 Thomas Courtenay 14th Earl Devon was beheaded at York.

Edward IV marries Eleanor Talbot (possibly)

Around Jun 1461 , the record is very vague, Edward IV King England 1442-1483 and Eleanor Talbot were possibly secretly married by Robert Stillington Bishop Bath and Wells. The marriage came to light after Edward's death. Robert Stillington Bishop Bath and Wells provided the information to the future Richard III King England in 1483; Richard used the information to justify his succeeding to be King since Edward IV's children with Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England were, therefore, illegitimate as a result of their marriage being bigamous and George Duke of Clarence's children were barred from the throne as a consequence of their father's attainder. .

Coronation of Edward IV

On 28 Jun 1461 Edward IV King England was crowned IV King England: Plantagenet York by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier who was assisted by William Booth Archbishop York at Westminster Abbey during the Coronation of Edward IV.

Robert Stillington appointed Keeper of the Privy Seal

On 28 Jul 1461 Robert Stillington Bishop Bath and Wells was appointed as Keeper of the Privy Seal. .

Vere Plot to Murder Edward IV

Before 20 Feb 1462 John Vere 12th Earl Oxford, his son Aubrey Vere and Thomas Tuddenham were arrested for treason against King Edward IV. They were subsequently tried by John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester.
On 20 Feb 1462 Aubrey Vere was executed at Tower Hill.
On 23 Feb 1462 William Tyrrell, John Montgomery and Thomas Tuddenham were beheaded at Tower Hill.
On 26 Feb 1462 John Vere 12th Earl Oxford hanged at Tower Hill.

Siege of Alnwick

In Jul 1462 William Douglas 3rd Lord Drumlanrig fought at Alnwick Castle during the Siege of Alnwick.

Battle of Piltown

Around Jul 1462 the Yorkist army of Thomas Fitzgerald 7th Earl Desmond defeated the Lancastrian army of John Butler 6th Earl Ormonde at Piltown, Kilkenny, County Kilkenny. The Lancastrian army suffered around 1000 killed. .

Suppressing the Lancastrian Northern Resistance

Battle of Hedgeley Moor

On 25 Apr 1464 a Yorkist army commanded by John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu defeated a Lancastrian army commanded by Henry Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset at Hedgeley Moor during the Battle of Hedgeley Moor. Lancastrians Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley and Ralph Percy were killed.

Battle of Hexham

On 15 May 1464 a Yorkist army commanded by John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu defeated a Lancastrian army commanded by Henry Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset at Hexham during the Battle of Hexham. Those fighting for York included John Stafford 1st Earl Wiltshire, John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope Bolton and Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby Eresby, 7th Baron Welles. Of the Lancastrian army William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme fought. Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford and Philip Wentworth 4th Baron Despencer were both captured. Henry Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset was beheaded following the battle.
On 18 May 1464 Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford was executed at Newcastle on Tyne. Philip Wentworth 4th Baron Despencer was executed at Middleham. .

Marriage of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville

Around May 1464 Edward IV King England and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England were married at Grafton Regis. Jacquetta Luxembourg Duchess Bedford, Elizabeth's mother, being the only witness. .

Edward IV announces his marriage at Privy Council

On Sep 1464 Edward IV King England announced his recent marriage at Privy Council to the astonishment of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury who had until recently been actively seeking a French Princess as Edward's future wife. .