Biography of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury

Timeline

In 1428 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury was born to Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury and Alice Montagu 5th Countess Salisbury.

In 1434 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury and Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick were married.

Warwick Succeeds

On 03 Jan 1448 Anne Beauchamp 15th Countess Warwick died at Ewelme aged four whilst in the care of Alice Chaucer Duchess Suffolk. After a prolonged legal dispute between her three half-aunts, and her full aunt, the courts decided her full aunt Anne Beauchamp should succeed; Anne Beauchamp succeeded as 16th Countess Warwick. Her husband Richard Neville became jure uxoris 16th Earl Warwick (1C 1088); the first step on his journey to becoming Kingmaker. The decision of the court was not subscribed to by Edmund Beaufort Earl Somerset who was married to Anne's half-sister Eleanor; he wanted his share of the considerable Beauchamp inheritance. .

Warwick becomes Kingmaker

On 28 Jul 1450 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury succeeded his mother as 6th Earl Salisbury (2C 1337), 8th Baron Montagu, 7th Baron Monthermer adding to the earldom of Warwick he had already acquired through his wife some two years previously. The combined earldoms of Warwick and Salisbury made Warwick the second most powerful man in the Kingdom making him Kingmaker. .

On 05 Sep 1451 Isabel Neville was born to Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury and Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick at Warwick Castle.

On 20 Oct 1453 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu, and his brothers Thomas Neville and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury, met with Henry Percy 2nd Earl Northumberland and to negotiate peace.

First Battle of St Albans

On 22 May 1455 the Wars of the Roses commenced with the First Battle of St Albans. Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales commanded with Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury, Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury, Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham and Walter Strickland.
The Lancastrians Edmund Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset, Henry Percy 2nd Earl Northumberland, William Cotton, Thomas Clifford 8th Baron Clifford and Richard Fortescue were killed. Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke Buckingham was wounded and captured. Henry VI King England, II King France, John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley and Edmund Dudley were captured. Henry Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset was wounded. James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire, 5th Earl Ormonde and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock both fought.

After 25 May 1455 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury was appointed as Captain Calais.

On 11 Jun 1456 Anne Neville Queen Consort England was born to Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury and Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick.

Loveday

On 24 Mar 1458 Cardinal Thomas Bourchier presided at Westminster Abbey at a ceremony known as the "Loveday". John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford, Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury, Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury, Henry Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset, Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales, Henry Percy 3rd Earl Northumberland, Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont and Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England attended in an attempt to reconcile the Lancastrian and Yorkist factions.

Battle of Ludford Bridge

On 12 Oct 1459 the Battle of Ludford Bridge nearly took place at Ludford Bridge. In the event a large number of the Calais garrison refused to fight against Henry VI King England, II King France who was present. The Yorkist leaders left overnight: Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales, the future Edward IV King England, Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland, Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury, Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury and John Dinham 1st Baron Dinham. Thomas Parr was present. The Lancastrian army included Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke Buckingham and William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel.

Around Nov 1459 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury fled to at Calais.

On Dec 1459 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury was attainted.

Battle of Sandwich

On 15 Jan 1460 Yorkist forces commanded by John Dinham 1st Baron Dinham and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury raided Sandwich capturing a number of Lancastrian ships. In addition, the Woodville family: Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers, his wife Jacquetta Luxembourg Duchess Bedford and their son Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers were captured. .

Battle of Wakefield

On 11 Jun 1460 Parliament enacted attainders against the Yorkist supporters who fought, some of whom were killed, at the Battle of Wakefield including: Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales, Edward IV King England, Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury.

On 26 Jun 1460 Edward IV King England and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury landed at Sandwich [Yorkist Raid on Sandwich].

Battle of Northampton

On 10 Jul 1460 the Yorkist army led by the future Edward IV King England and including Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury, George Neville Archbishop York, William Neville 1st Earl Kent, Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent, Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham and John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope Bolton defeated the Lancastrian army at the Battle of Northampton. Henry VI King England, II King France was captured. Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke Buckingham, John Talbot 2nd Earl Shrewsbury, 2nd Earl Waterford, Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont and John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont were killed. Thomas Tresham fought. William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont and William Norreys were knighted. Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland was executed following the battle. .

Second Battle of St Albans

On 18 Feb 1461 the Lancastrian army defeated the Yorkist army at Second Battle of St Albans and rescued Henry VI King England, II King France. The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter and included Henry Percy 3rd Earl Northumberland, John Mowbray 3rd Duke Norfolk, Henry Grey 7th Baron Grey Codnor and Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby Eresby, 7th Baron Welles. Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley, William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme, John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury, 3rd Earl Waterford and Thomas Tresham were knighted.
The Yorkist army included Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury, William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel, John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock and Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu, 1st Earl Essex. John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu was captured. Robert Poynings and James Luttrell Baron Dunster were killed.
John Grey was killed fighting for Lancaster. A death that was to have far reaching consequences; his widow Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England subsequently married Edward IV King England.
After the battle William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville and Thomas Kyriell were beheaded after having protected Henry VI King England, II King France during the battle against all decent laws of battle. Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England reneged on their immunity and tried them in front of her seven year old son Prince Edward who ordered them to be beheaded.

Battles of Ferrybridge

On 27 Mar 1461 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury fought at Ferrybridge at the with John Radclyffe capturing the bridge.
On 28 Mar 1461 a further skirmish occurred near Ferrybridge. Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury fought. John Radclyffe was killed. For Lancaster John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford and John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby.
On 28 Mar 1461 John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford was killed at Dintingdale during a skirmish. William Neville 1st Earl Kent fought for York.

After 28 Mar 1461 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury was appointed 181st Knight Garter: Henry VI.

On 28 Feb 1463 Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell succeeded his father as 9th Baron Lovel of Titchmarsh, 6th Baron Holand at around eight years of age. He became a ward of Edward IV King England who gave his wardship to Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury spending his childhood at Middleham Castle with the young (future) Richard III King England.

Edward IV announces his marriage at Privy Council

On Sep 1464 Edward IV King England announced his recent marriage at Privy Council to the astonishment of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury who had until recently been actively seeking a French Princess as Edward's future wife. .

Marriage of Charles the Bold and Margaret of York

Before 03 Jul 1468 Charles "Bold" Valois-Burgundy Duke Burgundy and Margaret of Burgundy were married at Bruges. John Paston travelled with Margaret. The marriage re-enforced Edward's connection with the Low Countries. After Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury rebelled against Edward IV King England escaped to the Low Countries. .

Marriage of George Duke of Clarence and Isabel Neville

On 11 Jul 1469 George York 1st Duke Clarence and Isabel Neville were married by George Neville Archbishop York at the Église Notre-Dame de Calais in Calais witnessed by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury. Isabel Neville by marriage 1st Duchess Clarence (3C 1461). .

On 10 Sep 1469 Edward IV King England was released by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury afer Warwick realised he didn't have sufficient support for an alternative regime.

Execution of the Neville Brothers

On 29 Sep 1469 brothers Humphrey Neville of Brancepeth and Charles Neville of Brancepeth were beheaded at York in the presence of Edward IV King England and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisburybringing to and end the Neville-Neville fued that arose as a consequence of the senior line being dis-inherited. .

Angers Agreement

On 22 Jul 1470 Warwick the Kingmaker, Henry VI King England, II King France and Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England signed the Angers Agreement at Angers Cathedral. The agreement had been brokered by King Louis XI of France. Edward Lancaster Prince Wales and Anne Neville Queen Consort England were formally betrothed as part of the Agreement.

Battle of Barnet

On 14 Apr 1471 Edward IV commanded at the Battle of Barnet supported by hos brothers George and Richard, John Babington, Wiliam Hastings (commanded), Ralph Hastings, William Norreys, William Parr, John Savage, Thomas St Leger, John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley Heighley, 3rd Baron Tuchet, Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh and Thomas Strickland.
The Yorkists William Blount, Humphrey Bourchier, Humphrey Bourchier and Thomas Parr were killed. Henry Stafford was killed making his wife Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond a widow for the second time.
The Lancastrians Warwick the Kingmaker, John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu, William Fiennes 2nd Baron Saye and Sele and William Tyrrell were killed. Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter commanded the left flank, was badly wounded and left for dead, Henry Stafford and John Paston were wounded, John Vere 13th Earl Oxford commanded, and John Paston and William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont fought. .

After 14 Apr 1471 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury was buried at Bisham Priory.

Anne Neville declared Legally Dead

In 1474 Parliament declared Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick legally dead (she lived until 1492) so that Edward IV's two younger brothers George and the Richard, who had married Anne Beauchamp's daughters, Isabel and Anne respectively, could enjoy the significant Beauchamp inheritance after her husband Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury had been killed at the Battle of Barnet in 1471. !Some of the inhertance should have been given to George Neville 1st Duke Bedford but he was only thirteen at the time; his father John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu, younger brother of Warwick the Kingmaker, had also been killed at the Battle of Barnet. He, George Neville 1st Duke Bedford, died in 1483 aged twenty-one somewhat conveniently after the death of Edward IV King England and before Richard III King England acceded to the throne. Curiously the Act of Parliament described Richard III King England enjoying the inheritance as long as there were Neville living heirs male. Upon the death of George Neville 1st Duke Bedford the Neville heir male was Richard Neville 2nd Baron Latimer Snape born 1468 whose wardship was held by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier. .

The Beauchamp Family, pronounced bee-cham, meaning 'beautiful field(s)', is of French or Norman, origin. Earls of Warwick from 1088. Ultimately the male line ended with Henry Beauchamp 1st Duke Warwick whose daughter died young. The inheritance passed, after a legal challenge by her half-sisters, to Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick who had married Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury giving him, unexpectedly, an Earldom, his first of two by which he became "Kingmaker", attracting the enmity of Henry Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset, his half-brother-in-law who believed he was entitled to a share of the inheritance. The enmity was one of the causes of the Wars of the Roses.

Family Trees

Paternal Family Tree: Neville

Maternal Family Tree: Aoife NI Diarmait Macmurrough Countess Pembroke, Countess Buckingham

Descendants Family Trees:

Edward III King England

Descent

Kings Wessex: Great x 17 Grand Son of Aethelwulf King Wessex

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 9 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 15 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg, King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 10 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Great x 2 Grand Son of Edward III King England

Kings Scotland: Great x 10 Grand Son of Malcolm III King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 8 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Great x 4 Grand Son of Philip "Fair" IV King France

Ancestry

Father: Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury Great Grandson Edward III King England

GrandFather: Ralph Neville 1st Earl Westmoreland Great x 5 Grandson Henry "Curtmantle" II King England

Great GrandFather: John Neville 3rd Baron Neville Raby Great x 4 Grandson Henry "Curtmantle" II King England

Great x 2 GrandFather: Ralph Neville 2nd Baron Neville Raby Great x 4 Grandson Henry "Curtmantle" II King England

Great x 3 GrandFather: Ralph Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby

Great x 3 GrandMother: Euphemia Clavering Baroness Neville Raby Great x 3 Granddaughter Henry "Curtmantle" II King England

Great x 2 GrandMother: Alice Audley Baroness Greystoke, Baroness Neville Raby Great x 3 Granddaughter Henry "Curtmantle" II King England

Great x 3 GrandFather: Hugh Audley 1st Baron Audley Stratton Audley Great x 2 Grandson Henry "Curtmantle" II King England

Great x 3 GrandMother: Isolde Mortimer Baroness Audley Stratton Audley Great x 3 Granddaughter John "Lackland" I King England

Great GrandMother: Maud Percy Baroness Neville Raby Great x 5 Granddaughter Henry "Curtmantle" II King England

Great x 2 GrandFather: Henry Percy 2nd Baron Percy Great x 5 Grandson John "Lackland" I King England

Great x 3 GrandFather: Henry Percy 1st Baron Percy

Great x 3 GrandMother: Eleanor Fitzalan Baroness Percy Great x 4 Granddaughter John "Lackland" I King England

Great x 2 GrandMother: Idonia Clifford Baroness Percy Great x 4 Granddaughter Henry "Curtmantle" II King England

Great x 3 GrandFather: Robert Clifford 1st Baron Clifford

Great x 3 GrandMother: Maud Clare Baroness Clifford, Baroness Welles Great x 3 Granddaughter Henry "Curtmantle" II King England

GrandMother: Joan Beaufort Countess Westmoreland Granddaughter Edward III King England

Great GrandFather: John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster Son Edward III King England

Great x 2 GrandFather: Edward III King England Son Edward II King England

Great x 3 GrandFather: Edward II King England Son Edward "Longshanks" I King England

Great x 3 GrandMother: Isabella Capet Queen Consort England Great x 4 Granddaughter Henry "Curtmantle" II King England

Great x 2 GrandMother: Philippa Hainault Queen Consort England Great x 5 Granddaughter Henry "Curtmantle" II King England

Great x 3 GrandFather: William Hainault I Count Hainault, III Count Avesnes, III Count Holland, II Count Zeeland Great x 4 Grandson Stephen I King England

Great x 3 GrandMother: Joan Valois Count Zeeland, Count Holland, Count Avesnes, Count Hainault Great x 4 Granddaughter Henry "Curtmantle" II King England

Great GrandMother: Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster

Great x 2 GrandFather: Giles "Payne" Roet

Mother: Alice Montagu 5th Countess Salisbury Great x 3 Granddaughter Edward "Longshanks" I King England

GrandFather: Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche, 4th Earl Salisbury Great x 3 Grandson Edward "Longshanks" I King England

Great GrandFather: John Montagu 3rd Earl Salisbury Great x 2 Grandson Edward "Longshanks" I King England

Great x 2 GrandFather: John Montagu 1st Baron Montagu, 3rd Baron Monthermer

Great x 3 GrandFather: William Montagu 1st Earl Salisbury

Great x 3 GrandMother: Catherine Grandison Countess Salisbury

Great x 2 GrandMother: Margaret Monthermer Baroness Montagu, 3rd Baroness Monthermer Great Granddaughter Edward "Longshanks" I King England

Great x 3 GrandFather: Thomas Monthermer 2nd Baron Monthermer Grandson Edward "Longshanks" I King England

Great x 3 GrandMother: Margaret Brewes Baroness Monthermer

Great GrandMother: Maud Francis Countess Salisbury

GrandMother: Eleanor Holland Great x 2 Granddaughter Edward "Longshanks" I King England

Great GrandFather: Thomas Holland 2nd Earl Kent Great Grandson Edward "Longshanks" I King England

Great x 2 GrandFather: Thomas Holland 1st Earl Kent Great x 4 Grandson Henry "Curtmantle" II King England

Great x 3 GrandFather: Robert Holland 1st Baron Holand

Great x 3 GrandMother: Maud Zouche Baroness Holand Great x 3 Granddaughter Henry "Curtmantle" II King England

Great x 2 GrandMother: Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Plantagenet Princess Wales Granddaughter Edward "Longshanks" I King England

Great x 3 GrandFather: Edmund Plantagenet 1st Earl Kent Son Edward "Longshanks" I King England

Great x 3 GrandMother: Margaret Wake Countess Kent Great x 3 Granddaughter John "Lackland" I King England

Great GrandMother: Alice Fitzalan Countess Kent Great x 2 Granddaughter Henry III King England

Great x 2 GrandFather: Richard Fitzalan 10th Earl Arundel, 8th Earl Surrey Great x 5 Grandson John "Lackland" I King England

Great x 3 GrandFather: Edmund Fitzalan 9th Earl Arundel Great x 4 Grandson John "Lackland" I King England

Great x 3 GrandMother: Alice Warenne Countess Arundel

Great x 2 GrandMother: Eleanor Plantagenet Countess Arundel, Countess Surrey Great Granddaughter Henry III King England

Great x 3 GrandFather: Henry Plantagenet 3rd Earl Leicester, 3rd Earl Lancaster Grandson Henry III King England

Great x 3 GrandMother: Maud Chaworth