Biography of Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall

Timeline

Around 1284 Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall was born.

Around 1305 Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall assigned to the household of the young (future) Edward II King England.

On 26 Feb 1307 Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall exiled by Edward "Longshanks" I King England for being Edward II King England 's favourite.

Death of Edward I

On 07 Jul 1307 Edward "Longshanks" I King England died at Burgh by Sands whilst on his way north to Scotland. Edward "Longshanks" I King England gathered around him Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl Leicester, 2nd Earl Lancaster, 5th Earl Salisbury, 4th Earl Lincoln, Guy Beauchamp 10th Earl Warwick, Aymer Valence 2nd Earl Pembroke and Robert Clifford 1st Baron Clifford and charged them with looking after his son in particular ensuring Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall didn't return from exile. .

Return of Piers Gaveston

On 06 Aug 1307 Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall was appointed 1st Earl Cornwall (5C 1307) by Edward II King England to the shock of the nobility; Earl Cornwall usually reserved for the heir. The earldom gave Gaveston substantial landholdings over great parts of England, to the value of £4,000 a year. These possessions consisted of most of Cornwall, as well as parts of Devonshire in the south-west, land in Berkshire and Oxfordshire centred on the honour of Wallingford, most of the eastern part of Lincolnshire, and the honour of Knaresborough in Yorkshire, with the territories that belonged to it. .

06 Aug 1307 Close Rolls Edward II. King Edward II. Dumfries. To the treasurer and the barons of the Exchequer. Order to discharge the Abbot of Hayles of 50l. Yearly, which he used to pay for the town of Leechelade to the late Edmund earl of Cornwall, and, after his death, to the late King, the king having granted the earldom of Cornwall and all the lands of the said Edmund to Peter de Gavaston, knight.
To the like favour of Michael de Meldon for 4 marks annually for his lands in Worton.

Marriage of Piers Gaveston and Margaret de Clare

On 02 Nov 1307 Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall and Margaret Clare Countess Gloucester were married. Arranged by Edward II King England. Margaret Clare Countess Gloucester grand-daughter of Edward I through his daughter Joan and, as such, significantly higher than Gaveston in the nobility. .

Tournament at Wallingford

On 02 Dec 1307 Edward II King England held a tournament to celebrate Piers Gaveston's recent wedding. Gaveston took the opportunity to humiliate the older nobility including John Warenne 7th Earl Surrey, Humphrey Bohun 4th Earl Hereford, 3rd Earl Essex and Edmund Fitzalan 9th Earl Arundel further increasing his unpopularity. .

On 02 Dec 1307 Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall took part in a tournament.

After 02 Dec 1307 Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall was appointed as Lieutenant Ireland.

After 02 Dec 1307 Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall exiled as a result of the nobilty forcing Edward II King England to do so.

08 Jan 1308 Close Rolls Edward II. Edward II King England To the Sheriff of Leicester. Order to cause a coroner for that county to be elected in place of John de Noveray, of Burton, lately elected in the late King's reign, who is insufficiently qualified.
Memorandum, that on Sunday before the Feast of St Vincent the Martyr [22 Jan], at Dover in the King's chamber in the Priory of St Martin, in the evening (crepsusculo noctis), in the presence of William Inge, knight, William de Melton and Adam de Osgoodby, clerks, John Langton Bishop ChichesterSir William Melton to be carried with him in the wardrobe beyond sea; and the King straightaway delivered by his own hand another seal of his shortly before made anew at London for the government of the realm in the King's absence in a red bag (bursa) sealed with the seal of William Inge to the chancellor. With which seal the chancellor caused writs to be sealed, after the King's passage, in the hospital of Domus Dei, under the testimony of Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall then Keeper of the realm of England, on the Monday next following, on which day the King in the early morning (summo mane) passed the sea at Dover.

22 Jan 1308 Close Rolls Edward II. Edward II King England. Dover. Robert Terry, of Whytefield, imprisoned at Northampton for the death of Galianus de Bek, has letters to the Sheriff of Nottingham to bail him until the first assize. Witness: Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall.

22 Jan 1308 Close Rolls Edward II. Edward II King England. Dover To the Sheriff of Kent. Order to provide 75 thousands of wood and 200 quarters of charcoal for the expenses of the King's household on his return from parts beyond the sea, so that he have at Dover against the King's return 25 thousands of wood and 30 quarters of coal, and at Canterbury 30 thousands of wood and 100 quarters of coal, and at Rochester (Rofham) 20 thousands of wood and 70 quarters of coal; to be delivered by indenture to John de Sumery, scullion (scutell') of the king's household, or such as supply his place. Witness: Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall.

24 Jan 1308 Close Rolls Edward II. Edward II King England. Canterbury To the Sheriffs of London. Order to deliver John de la Dune, Roger de Hopton, Richard le Harpour, Roger de Soppewalle, Roger le Keu, Rober le Hunt, Thomas de Sydenham, Henry le Gardener, Thomas de la More, Philip Kemp, John le Wayt, and John le Wodeward, the men and servants of Adam de Kyngeshemede, in the King's prison of Newgate for a trespass committed by them upon the King's men at Westminster, from prison upon their finding sufficient mainpernors to have them before the King or his Lieutenant in the quinzaine of the Purification of St Mary to stand to right concerning the said trespass. Witness: Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall.

03 Feb 1308 Close Rolls Edward II. Edward II King England. Ewell. To the Treasurer and the Barons of the Exchequer. Whereas the king lately commanded them to put into execution all the writs of the late King pending in the exchequer, and although the late King commanded his treasurer and barons of the exchquer, at the supplication of the burgesses of Great Yarmouth, by his writ now in the exchequer, as the said burgesses assert, to allow them 1,000 marks in which the late king was bound to them for a loan in the time when John de Kirkeby was his treasurer, and 1,760l. for the arrears of the wages of divers men sent by them to the late King's command into Gascony for the expedition of this war and for remaining there for a great time, and also for 250l. which they expended, by the order of the late King, in the making of two galleys (galiarum) in the said town, and also 780l. for the wages of certain sailors and divers other costs expended by them at divers times for the expedition of the war in Scotland, to be allowed to them out of the debts owing by them to the said late King, as well as the tenth, eleventh, sixth, seventh, twentieth, and thirtieth granted by the community of the kingdom to the late King, as from other causes whatsoever; they are ordered to execute the said writs. Witness: Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall.

09 Feb 1308 Close Rolls Edward II. Edward II King England. Dover. To Alice, late wife of Roger Bigod, earl of Norfolk and Marshall of England. Order to meet the king at Dover on his return from France with his consort about Sunday next after the feast of the Purification of St Mary [02 Feb]. Witnessed by Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall.
The like to:
Elizabeth, countess of Hereford and Essex.
Henry de Lancastre
Robert de Monte Alto
Almaric de Sancto Amando[Ibid]
To R Archbishop of Canterbury. Order to attend the king's coronaion on Sunday next after the feast of St Valentine [14 Feb] at Westminster, to execute what pertains to his office.
To the sheriff of Surrey. Order to proclaim in market towns, etc. , that no knight, esquire, or other shall, under pain of forfeiture, pressure to tourney or make jousts or bordices (torneare, justos seu burdseicas facere), or otherwise go armed at Croydon or elsewhere before the king's coronation.

Coronation of Edward II and Isabella

On 25 Feb 1308 Edward II King England was crowned II King England: Plantagenet Angevin at Westminster Abbey by Henry Woodlock, Bishop Winchester. Isabella Capet Queen Consort England was crowned as Queen Consort England. .
Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall carried the Royal Crown.
William Marshal 1st Baron Marshal carried the Gilt Spurs.
Humphrey Bohun 4th Earl Hereford, 3rd Earl Essex carried the Royal Sceptre.
Henry Plantagenet 3rd Earl Leicester, 3rd Earl Lancaster carried the Royal Rod.
Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl Leicester, 2nd Earl Lancaster, 5th Earl Salisbury, 4th Earl Lincoln carried the sword Curtana (the sword of Edward the Confessor).
Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March carried the table bearing the Royal Robes.
Thomas Grey and Robert Fitzwalter 1st Baron Fitzwalter attended.

06 Mar 1308 Close Rolls Edward II. Edward II King England. Westminster. To Thomas de la Hide, late steward of Cornwall and sheriff of the same. Order to deliver to Peter de Gavaston, knight, all the ferms, rents, and issues of the said County from Michaelmas last, and of the lands of the late Edmund earl of Cornwall, the king having granted to the said Peter the county of Cornwall, and all the lands of the said Edmund.
The like to John de Tresimple, for the ferms, etc. , of the manor, etc.
The like to Walter de Gloucester, escheator this side of Trent, for the ferms, etc. , of the manors.

On 05 Aug 1309 Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall was restored 1st Earl Cornwall (5C 1307).

On 16 Jan 1310 Close Rolls Edward II. Edward II King England. Stamford. To the Sheriff of York. Order to proclaim that the king does not intend to change the money current in the Kingdom in the late King's time, as had been rumoured, and to forbid anyone from thinking little of it, whereby victuals and other necessaries may be sold more dearly.
The like to all the Sheriffs of England [Ibid].
Enrolment of deed of Peter de Gavaston, knight, surrendering to the king the castle, manor, and honour of Knaresborough, with the free chase of Knaresborough, and the manors of Routheclyve and Auldburgh, lately granted to him by the King for his lifetime. Witnesses: Gilbert Clare 8th Earl Gloucester, 7th Earl Hertford, Henry Lacy 3rd Earl Lincoln, 4th Earl Salisbury, John Warenne 7th Earl Surrey, John de Brittania, Earl of Richmond, Hugh "Elder" Despencer 1st Earl Winchester, Henry Percy 1st Baron Percy, Robert son of Walter, Robert son of Payn, William de Burford, William Inge. Dated at Stamford July 26, 3 Edward II.
Enrolment of like surrender by the said Peter of the county of Gaure and the castles of Talanon, Tantalon, and Mauleon, the provostships (preposituras) and Camparian(um) called 'la Cointal' and of the city of Bayonne, the manor of Erebafaveyra, Born, Comtad, Salmun, Dagenes, and the island of Oleron, and the lands of Marempne and of Lancras in Saintogne, and all rights, appurtenances, etc. , etc. , thereto pertaining to the king, which the king lately granted him for life. Witnesses as above. Dated August 4, 3 Edward II.
Memorandum, that this deed was delivered to the king in his chamber in the House of the Friars Preachers at Stamford, by the hands of the said Peter and the king delivered the said deed to J his chancellor, to be enrolled in the chancery, and it was afterwards delivered to Ingelard de Warle, keeper of the King's Wardrobe to be kept in the king's wardrobe, but the king's charters that the said Peter hereof were not then restored. [CONTINUES].

16 Jan 1310 Close Rolls Edward II. Edward II King England. The Grove [?]. To the Treasurer and the Barons of the Exchequer. Order to discharge the Abbot of Hayles of 100l. yearly, the rent of the manor of Lychelad, as the King granted it to Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall and Margaret his wife.
To the same. Order to discharge the men of Wallingford of the ferm of that town from August 5 last, to Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall and Margaret his wife.

Exile of Piers Gaveston

In Apr 1311 Parliament exiled Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall. Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall was appointed Lieutenant Ireland by Edward II King England who immediately started to plot for his return. .

On Aug 1311 Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall withdrew at Bamburgh Castle.

On 03 Nov 1311 Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall exiled.

Gaveston Returns from Exile

On 13 Jan 1312 Edward II King England and Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall were reunited at Knaresborough Castle (probably). .

Gaveston's Escape from Newcastle

On 04 May 1312 Edward II King England and Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall were at Newcastle on Tyne Castle where they barely escaped a force led by Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl Leicester, 2nd Earl Lancaster, 5th Earl Salisbury, 4th Earl Lincoln, Henry Percy 1st Baron Percy and Robert Clifford 1st Baron Clifford. Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall escaped to Scarborough, Edward II King England to York. .

Gaveston Surrenders

On 19 May 1312 Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall surrendered to Aymer Valence 2nd Earl Pembroke, John Warenne 7th Earl Surrey, Henry Percy 1st Baron Percy and Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall who were besieging the castle. The terms of the surrender were that Pembroke, Warenne and Percy would take Gaveston to York, where the barons would negotiate with the king. .

Capture of Piers Gaveston

On 09 Jun 1312 Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall, under the protection of Aymer Valence 2nd Earl Pembroke, stayed at The Rectory whilst en route south. Aymer Valence 2nd Earl Pembroke left Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall there whilst he left to visit his wife. The following morning Guy Beauchamp 10th Earl Warwick, with Edmund Fitzalan 9th Earl Arundel, Humphrey Bohun 4th Earl Hereford, 3rd Earl Essex and John Botetort 1st Baron Botetort arrested Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall and took him to Warwick Castle. .

Trial of Piers Gaveston

Around 15 Jun 1312 Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall was tried at Warwick Castle by Guy Beauchamp 10th Earl Warwick, Humphrey Bohun 4th Earl Hereford, 3rd Earl Essex, Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl Leicester, 2nd Earl Lancaster, 5th Earl Salisbury, 4th Earl Lincoln and Edmund Fitzalan 9th Earl Arundel. He was condemned to death. .

On 19 Jun 1312 Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall was taken to Blacklow Hill where he was beheaded. Blacklow Hill being outside of the Guy Beauchamp 10th Earl Warwick 's lands. Gaveston's body was left where it lay eventually being recovered by Dominican friars who took it to Oxford [Execution of Piers Gaveston].

Funeral of Piers Gaveston

On 02 Jan 1315 Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall was buried at King's Langley Priory in a lavish ceremony some two and a half years after his murder. The ceremony was attended by Edward II King England and his wife Isabella Capet Queen Consort England as well as Humphrey Bohun 4th Earl Hereford, 3rd Earl Essex, Aymer Valence 2nd Earl Pembroke, Thomas of Brotherton 1st Earl Norfolk, Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere, Hugh Despencer 2nd Baron Despencer and his son Hugh "Younger" Despencer. .