Biography of Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199
Philip Plantagenet was born to Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199
On 08 Sep 1157 Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 was born to Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (24) and Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks Queen Consort England 1122-1204 (35) at Beaumont Palace, Oxford, Oxfordshire
In Jan 1169 Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (11) and Alys Capet Count Ponthieu 1160-1220 (8) were engaged to be married as part of a peace treaty.Alys Capet Count Ponthieu 1160-1220 (8) was sent to England to be a ward of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (35).
In 1177 Cardinal Peter of Saint Chrysogonus, on behalf of the Pope, threatened to place England's continental possessions under an interdict if Henry did not proceed with the marriage.Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (19) was somewhat reluctant given the rumours that Alys Capet Count Ponthieu 1160-1220 (16) had become the mistress of his father Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (43) and, possibly, had a child by him.
Death of Henry II
On 06 Jul 1189 Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (56) died at Chinon Castle, Chinon. Geoffrey Mandeville 3rd Earl Essex, Count Aumale -1189 was present.
On 06 Jul 1189 Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (31) succeeded I King England: Plantagenet Angevin.He was buried at Fontevraud Abbey, Chinon.His heart was buried at Rouen Cathedral, Rouen.
Coronation of Richard I
On 03 Sep 1189 Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (31) was crowned I King England: Plantagenet Angevin by Baldwin Avigo Archbishop Canterbury 1125-1190 (64) at Westminster Abbey. Geoffrey Mandeville 3rd Earl Essex, Count Aumale -1189 carried the Crown.The Coronation of Richard I was marred by violence against London's Jewish population.Prior to his Coronation Richard had issued a proclamation forbidding Jews to attend.When some did a riot broke out, which spread.
Richard I Appoints his Bishops
On 15 Sep 1189 Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (32) held a Council meeting at Pipewell, Corby, Northamptonshire at which he appointed a number of Bishops:
Richard I Takes Messina
On 04 Oct 1190 Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (33) attacked and captured Messina.
Wedding of King Richard I and Berengaria of Navarre
On 12 May 1191 Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (33) and Berengaria Ramirez Queen Consort England 1165-1230 (26) were married at Chapel of St George.Richard's sister Joan Plantagenet Queen Consort Sicily 1165-1199 (25) was present.
Richard I Lands at Acre
On 08 Jun 1191 Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (33) landed at Acre.
Richard I arrives Limasol
On 04 Oct 1191 Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (34) arrived in Lemesos where he met with Guy I King Jerusalem 1150-1194 (41).
1192.Letters of Royal And Illustrious Ladies of Great Britain Volume 1. Letter VI. Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks Queen Consort England 1122-1204 (70) to Pope Celestine.
To the reverend father and lord Celestine, by God's grace highest pontiff, Eleanora the miserable, and I would I could add the commiserated, queen of England, duchess of Normandy, countess of Anjou, entreating him to shew himself a father of mercy to a miserable mother.
I am prevented, O holiest pope, by the great distance which parts us, from addressing you personally; yet I must bewail my grief a little, and who shall assist me to write my words?
I am all anxiety, internally and externally, whence my very words are full of grief. Without are fears, within contentions; nor have I a moment wherein to breathe freely from the tribulation of evils, and the grief occasioned by the troubles which ever find me out. I am all defiled with grief, and my bones cleave to my skin, for my flesh is wasted away. My years pass away in groanings, and 1 would they were altogether passed away. O that the whole blood of my body would now die, that the brain of my head and the marrow of my bones were so dissolved into tears that I might melt away in weeping ! My very bowels are torn away from me; I have lost the light of my eyes, the stafi^ of my old age : and, would God accede to my wishes, he would condemn me to perpetual blindness, that my wretched eyes might no longer behold the woes of my people. Who will grant me the boon of dying for thee, my son ? O mother of mercy ! look upon a mother so wretched; or if thy Son, the inexhausted fount of mercy, is avenging the sins of the mother on the son, let him exact vengeance from her who has alone sinned : let him punish me, the wicked one, and not amuse himself with the punishment of an innocent person. Let him who hath begun the task, who now bruises me, take away his hand and slay me; and this shall be my consolation, that, afflicting me with grief, he spares me not. O wretched me, yet pitied by none! why have I, the mistress of two kingdoms, the mother of two kings, reached the ignominy of a detested old age ?
My bowels are torn away, my very race is destroyed and passing away from me. The Henry the Young King 1155-1183 and the Geoffrey Plantagenet 2nd Duke Brittany 1158-1186 sleep in the dust, and their most unhappy mother is compelled to live that she may be ever tortured with the memory of the dead. Two sons yet survived to my solace, who now survive only to distress me, a miserable and condemned creature : King Richard (34) is detained in bonds, and John (25), his brother, depopulates the captive's kingdom with the sword, and lays it waste with fire. In all things the Lord is become cruel towards me, and opposes me with a heavy hand. Truly his anger fights against me, when my very sons fight against each other, if, indeed, that can be called a fight in which one party languishes in bonds, and the other, adding grief to grief, tries, by cruel tyranny to usurp the exile's kingdom to himself.
O good Jesus! who will grant me thy protection, and hide me in hell itself till thy fury passes away, and till thy arrows whiqh are in me, by whose vehemence my very spirit is drunk up, shall cease ? I long for death, I am weary of life; and though I thus die incessantly, I yet desire to die more fally; I am reluctantly compelled to live, that my life may be the food of death and a means of torture. O happy ye who pass away by a fortunate abortion, without experiencing the waywardness of this life and the unexpected events of an uncertain condition ! What do I? why do I remain ? why do I wretched, delay? why do I not go, that I may see him whom my soul loves, bound in beggary and irons? as though, at such a time, a mother could forget the son of her womb ! Affection to their young softens tigers, nay, even the fiercer sorceresses.
Yet I fluctuate in doubt : for, if I go away, deserting my son's kingdom, which is laid waste on all sides with fierce hostility, it will in my absence be destitute of all counsel and solace; again, if I stay, I shall not see the face of my son, that face which I so long for. There will be none who will study to procure the liberation of my son, and, what 1 fear still more, the most delicate youth (34) will be tormented for an impossible quantity of money, and, impatient of so much affliction, will easily be brought to the agonies of death. Oh, impious, cruel, and dreadful tyrant ! who hast not feared to lay sacrilegious hands on the anointed of the Lord ! nor has the royal unction, nor the reverence due to a holy life, nor the fear of God, restrained thee from such inhumanity!
Yet the prince of the apostles still rules and reigns in the apostolic seat, and his judicial rigour is set up as a means of resort : this one thing remains, that you, O father, draw against these evildoers the sword of Peter, which for this purpose is set over people and kingdoms. The cross of Christ excels the eagles of Ceasar, the sword of Peter the sword of Constantine, and the apostolic seat is placed above the imperial power. Is your power of God or of men ? Has not the God of gods spoken to you by the Apostle Peter, that " whatsoever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatsoever you loose on earth shall be loosed also in heaven ?"" Wherefore, then, do you so long negligently, nay, cruelly, delay to free my son (34), or rather do not dare to do it ? You will, perhaps, say that this power is given to you over souls, not over bodies : be it so; it will certainly suffice me if you will bind their souls who hold my son bound in prison. It is your province to loose my son, unless the fear of God has given way to human fear. Restore my son to me, then, O man of God, if indeed thou art a man of God and not a man of blood; for know that, if thou art sluggish in the liberation of my son, from thy hand will the Most High require his blood. Alas, alas for us, when the chief shepherd has become a mercenary, when he flies from the face of the wolf, when he leaves the little sheep committed to him, or rather the elect ram, the leader of the Lord's flock, in the jaws of the bloody beast of prey! The good Shepherd instructs and informs other shepherds not to fly when they see the wolf coming, but to lay down their lives for the sheep. Save, therefore, I entreat thee, thine own soul, whilst, by urgent embassies, by salutary advice, by the thunders of excommunication, by general interdicts, by terrible sentences, thou endeavourest to procure the liberation, I will not say of thy sheep merely, but of thy son. Though late, you ought to give your life for him, for whom, as yet, you have refused to write or speak a single word. The Son of God, as testifies the prophet, came down from heaven that he might bring up them that were bound from the pit in which was no water. Now, would not that which was fitting for God to do become the servant of God ? My son is tormented in bonds, yet you go not down to him, nor send, nor are moved by the sorrow of Joseph. Christ sees this and is silent; yet at the last there shall be fearful retribution for those who do the work of God negligently. Ambassadors have been promised to us three times, but never sent; so that« to speak the truth, they are bound rather than sent. If my son were in prosperity, they would eagerly hasten at his lightest call, because they would expect rich handfuls for their embassy from his great munificence and the public profit of the kingdom. But what profit could be more glorious to them than to liberate a captive king, to restore peace to the people, quiet to the religious, and joy to all? Now, truly, the sons of Ephraim, who bent and sent forth the bow, have turned round in the day of battle; and in the time of distress when the wolf comes upon the prey, they are dumb dogs who either cannot or will not bark. Is this the promise you made me at the castle of Ralph with such protestations of favour and good faith ? What availed it to give words only to my simplicity, and to illude by a fond trust the wishes of the innocent ? So, in olden time, was King Ahab forbidden to make alliance with Ben-hadad, and we have heard the fatal issue of their mutual love.*^ A heavenly providence prospered the wars of Judas, John, and Simon, the Maccabsean brothers, under happy auspices; but when they sent an embassy to secure the friendship of the Romans, they lost the help of God, and, not once alone, but often was their venal intimacy cause of bitter regret.* You alone, who were my hope after God, and the trust of my people, force me to despair. Cursed be he who trusteth in man. Where is now my refuge?
Thou, O Lord my God. To thee, O Lord, who considerest my distress, are the eyes of thine handmaid lifted up. Thou, O King of kings and Lord of lords, look upon the face of thine Anointed, give empire to thy Son, and save the son of thine handmaid, nor visit upon him the crimes of his father or the wickedness of his mother!
We know by certain and public relation that the emperor, after the death of the Bishop of Liege (26) (whom he is said to have slain with a fiital sword, though wielded by a remote hand (42)), miserably imprisoned the Bishop of Ostia and four other provincials, the Bishop of Salerno, and the Archbishop of Treves; and the apostolic authority cannot deny that, to the perpetual prejudice of the Roman church, he has, in spite of embassies, supplications, and threats of the apostolic seat, taken possession of Sicily, which from the times of Constantine has been the patrimony of St. Peter. Yet with all this his fury is not yet turned away, but yet is his hand stretched forth. Fearful things he has already done, but worse are still certainly to be expected; for those who ought to be the pillars of the church are swayed with reed-like lightness by every wind. Oh, would they but remember that it was through the negligence of Eli, the priest ministering in Shiloh, that the glory of the Lord passed away from Israel I*" Nor is that a mere parable of the past, but of the present. For the Lord drove from Shiloh the taber- nacle, his tabernacle, where he had dwelt amongst men, and gave their strength into captivity and , their beauty into the hands of the enemy.
It is imputed to your pusillanimity that the church is trampled upon, the faith perilled, liberty oppressed, deceit encouraged by patience, iniquity by impunity. Where is the promise of God when be said to his church, 'Thou shalt suck the milk of the Gentiles, and shalt suck the breasts of kings ?" I will make thee the pride of ages, and a joy from generation to generation." Once the church, by its own strength, trod upon the necks of the proud and the lofty, and the laws of emperors obeyed the' sacred canons. But things are changed, and not only the canons, but the very formers of the canons, are restrained by base laws and execrable customs. The detestable crimes of the powerful are borne with. None dare murmur, and canonical rigour falls on the sins of the poor alone. Therefore, not without reason did Anachar^is the philosopher compare laws and canons to spiders' webs, which reti^in weaker animals but let the stronger go. ^* The kings of the earth have set themselves, and the rulers have taken counsel together/*^ i^ainst my son, the anointed of the Lord. One binds him in chains, another devastates his lands with cruel hostility, or, to use a vulgar phrase, " One clips and another plunders; one holds the foot and another skins it." The highest pontiff sees these things, and yet bids the sword of Peter slumber in its scabbard; so he adds boldness to the sinner, his silence being presumed to indicate consent. He who corrects^ not when he can and ought seems even to consent, and his dissimulating patience shall not want the scruple of hidden companion- ship.'* The time of dissension predicted by the apostle draws on, when the son of perdition shall be revealed; dangerous times are at hand, when the seamless garment of Christ is cut, the net of Peter is broken, and the solidity of Catholic unity dissolved. These are the beginnings of sorrows. We feel bad things; we fear worse. I am no pro- phetess, nor the daughter of a prophet, but grief has suggested many things about future disturb- ances; yet it steals away the very words which it suggests. A sob intercepts my breath, and absorbing grief shutS' up by its anxieties the vocal passages of my soul. Farewell.
Richard I Released
On 04 Feb 1194 Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (36) was released from his captivity; his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks Queen Consort England 1122-1204 (72) was present.
Richard Returns to England
On 04 Mar 1194 Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (36) and his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks Queen Consort England 1122-1204 (72) sailed from Antwerp on board the Trenchemer. The royal admiral, Stephen of Turnham, who was commanding in person, had to employ experienced pilots to take her through the coastal islets and out into the estuary of the Scheldt. It was a long crossing, perhaps deliberately so, to avoid ambush. The Trenchemer was escorted by a large cog from the Cinque port of Rye, Sussex.
On 13 Mar 1194 Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (36) and his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks Queen Consort England 1122-1204 (72) landed in England at Sandwich, Kent.
Richard I's Ransom
In Dec 1194 Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks Queen Consort England 1122-1204 (72) left Orford, Suffolk with her son Richard's (37) ranson of 100,000 marks in silver and 200 hostages. She was accompanied by Walter de Coutances -1207 and William Longchamp Bishop Ely -1197.!Hubert Walter Bishop Salisbury (34) was Regent of England in her absence.
Death of Richard I
On 06 Apr 1199 Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (41) was besieging Châlus-Chabrol Castle, Domfront.During the course of the evening Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (41) was shot by a crossbow.The wound quickly became gangrenous; Richard died in the arms of his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks Queen Consort England 1122-1204 (77).
Death of Eleanor of Aquitaine
On 01 Apr 1204 Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks Queen Consort England 1122-1204 (82) died at Fontevraud Abbey, Chinon.
On 23 Dec 1230 Berengaria Ramirez Queen Consort England 1165-1230 (65) died
Paternal Family Tree: Anjou aka Plantagenet
Maternal Family Tree: Dangereuse Ile-Bouchard Viscountess Chatellerault 1079-1151
Descendants Family Trees:
Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189
William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087
Kings Wessex: Great x 10 Grand Son of Aethelwulf King Wessex -858
Kings England: Son of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189
Kings Scotland: Great x 2 Grand Son of Malcolm III King Scotland 1031-1093
Kings Franks: Great x 10 Grand Son of Louis "Pious" King Aquitaine, I King Franks 778-840
Kings France: Great x 4 Grand Son of Robert "Pious" II King France 972-1031
Father: Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Grandson Henry "Beauclearc" I King England 1068-1135
GrandFather: Geoffrey Plantagenet Duke Normandy 1113-1151
Great GrandFather: Fulk "Young" King Jerusalem 1089-1143
Great x 2 GrandFather: Fulk "Réchin" Anjou 4th Count Anjou 1043-1109
Great x 3 GrandFather: Geoffrey "Ferréol" Anjou 2nd Count Gâtinais -1043
Great x 3 GrandMother: Ermengarde-Blanche Ingelger Queen Consort Jerusalem 1018-1076
Great x 2 GrandMother: Bertrade Montfort Queen Consort France
Great x 3 GrandFather: Simon Montfort 1025-1087
Great x 3 GrandMother: Agnes Normandy
Great GrandMother: Ermengarde La Flèche-De Baugency Count Anjou
Great x 2 GrandFather: Elias La Flèche-De Baugency I Count Maine -1110
Great x 3 GrandFather: Jean de la Flèche La Flèche-De Baugency
Great x 3 GrandMother: Paula Maine
Great x 2 GrandMother: Matilda Chateau-Du-Loir Count Maine
Great x 3 GrandFather: Gervais II Lord Chateau-Du-Loir
GrandMother: Empress Matilda Duchess Normandy 1102-1167 Daughter Henry "Beauclearc" I King England 1068-1135
Great GrandFather: Henry "Beauclearc" I King England 1068-1135 Son William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087
Great x 2 GrandFather: William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087 Great x -2 Grandson William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087
Great x 3 GrandFather: Robert "Magnificent" Normandy I Duke Normandy 1000-1035
Great x 3 GrandMother: Herleva Falaise
Great x 2 GrandMother: Matilda Flanders Queen Consort England 1031-1083
Great x 3 GrandFather: Baldwin "The Good" Flanders V Count Flanders 1012-1067
Great x 3 GrandMother: Adela Capet Duchess Normandy 1009-1079
Great GrandMother: Edith aka Matilda Dunkeld Queen Consort England 1080-1118
Great x 2 GrandFather: Malcolm III King Scotland 1031-1093
Great x 3 GrandFather: Duncan "The Sick" I King Scotland 1001-1040
Great x 3 GrandMother: Bethóc Unknown Queen Consort Scotland
Great x 2 GrandMother: Margaret Wessex Queen Consort Scotland 1045-1093
Great x 3 GrandFather: Edward "The Exile" Wessex 1016-1057
Great x 3 GrandMother: Agatha Unknown
Mother: Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks Queen Consort England 1122-1204
GrandFather: William "Saint" Poitiers X Duke Aquitaine 1099-1137
Great GrandFather: William "Troubadour" Poitiers IX Duke Aquitaine 1071-1127
Great x 2 GrandFather: Guy William Poitiers VIII Duke Aquitaine 1025-1086
Great x 3 GrandFather: William "Great" Poitiers V Duke Aquitaine 969-1030
Great x 3 GrandMother: Agnes Ivrea Duchess Aquitaine
Great x 2 GrandMother: Hildegarde Burgundy Duchess Aquitaine 1056-1104
Great x 3 GrandFather: Robert Burgundy I Duke Burgundy 1011-1076
Great x 3 GrandMother: Ermengarde-Blanche Ingelger Queen Consort Jerusalem 1018-1076
Great GrandMother: Philippa Rouerge Duchess Aquitaine
Great x 2 GrandFather: William Rouerge Duke Narbonne 1040-1094
Great x 3 GrandFather: Pons Rouerge Margrave Provence 991-1061
Great x 3 GrandMother: Almodis La Marche Margrave Provence 1020-1071
Great x 2 GrandMother: Emma Mortain Duchess Narbonne
Great x 3 GrandFather: Robert Mortain Count Mortain, 1st Earl Cornwall 1031-1090
Great x 3 GrandMother: Matilda or Maud Montgomery -1085
GrandMother: Aenor Chatellerault Duchess Aquitaine 1103-1130
Great GrandFather: Aimery Chatellerault Viscount Châtellerault
Great GrandMother: Dangereuse Ile-Bouchard Viscountess Chatellerault 1079-1151
Great x 2 GrandFather: Bartholomew Île-Bouchard