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1050-1099 Norman Invasion

Christmas Court

In 1052 during his Christmas Court Edward "Confessor" King England 1003-1066 (49) ordered the killing of Rhys ap Rhydderch - 1052 in reprisal for his raiding of England. The chronicle of Florence of Worcester recorded a bit more information, stating that Rhys was killed at "Bulendun", which may be Bullen's Bank near Clyro in Radnorshire.

On 05 Jan 1053 the head of Rhys ap Rhydderch - 1052 was brought before Edward "Confessor" King England 1003-1066 (50).

Battle of Lille

In 1054 Lambert Flanders II Count Lens -1054 (38) died at Lille during the Battle of Lille when fighting for Baldwin "The Good" Flanders V Count Flanders 1012-1067 (41).

In 1054 Baldwin "The Good" Flanders V Count Flanders 1012-1067 (41) fought against Henry "Black, Pious" Salian III Holy Roman Emperor 1017-1056 (36) at the Battle of Lille after Baldwin "The Good" Flanders V Count Flanders 1012-1067 (41) had seized Cambrai.

Battle of Varaville

In 1057 at Varaville William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087 (29) defeated the army of Henry I King France 1008-1060 (48) and Geoffrey "Martel aka Hammer" Ingelger II Count Anjou -1060 during the Battle of Varaville. Henry and Geoffrey's army were fording the Dives River when the tide came in; only half of the army had crossed. William seized the opportunity and attacked.

Ealdred Appointed Archbishop of York

On 25 Dec 1060 Ealdred Archbishop of York -1069 was appointed Archbishop of York.

Battle of Graus

08 May 1063. The Battle of Graus was part of the reconquest of the Iberian Peninsular by the Spanish from the Arabs.
Ramiro Sánchez I King Aragon 1007-1063 (56) was killed in battle. His son Sancho Ramírez I King Aragon, V King Pamplona 1042-1094 (21) succeeded I King Aragon.

Consecration of Westminster Abbey

On 28 Dec 1065 the Westminster Abbey that preceded the current building, known as St Peter's Abbey, was consecrated. Edward "Confessor" King England 1003-1066 (62) was too ill to attend (he died eight days later).

Death of Edward the Confessor

On 05 Jan 1066 Edward "Confessor" King England 1003-1066 (63) died. He was buried the same day at Westminster Abbey.

Harold Crowned King

On 06 Jan 1066 Harold II King England 1022-1066 (44) was crowned II King England Wessex probably Westminster Abbey. Harold quick to be crowned the day after the death and burial of Edward the Confessor. He had chosen himself.

Council of Lillebonne

After 05 Jan 1066 William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087 convened the Council of Lillebonne at Lillebonne to raise support for his claim to the English throne. The attendees are not known but likely to have included his companions at the subsequent Battle of Hastings including Roger "The Great" Montgomery 1st Earl Shrewsbury -1094 and Odo Mortain Bishop Bayeux -1097.

Battle of Fulford

On 20 Sep 1066 Harald III King Norway 1015-1066 (51), with Tostig Godwinson Earl Northumbria 1026-1066, defeated the brothers Eadwine Mercia -1071 and Morcar Mercia -1087 at the Battle of Fulford at Fulford, York.

1066 Battle of Stamford Bridge

On 25 Sep 1066 Harold II King England 1022-1066 (44), supported by the brothers Eadwine Mercia -1071 and Morcar Mercia -1087, defeated the Viking army at the Battle of Stamford Bridge at Stamford Bridge, East Riding. Harald III King Norway 1015-1066 (51) and Tostig Godwinson Earl Northumbria 1026-1066 were killed.

Battle of Hastings

After 05 Jan 1066 William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087 convened the Council of Lillebonne at Lillebonne to raise support for his claim to the English throne. The attendees are not known but likely to have included his companions at the subsequent Battle of Hastings including Roger "The Great" Montgomery 1st Earl Shrewsbury -1094 and Odo Mortain Bishop Bayeux -1097.

On 14 Oct 1066 the Norman army led by William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087 (38) defeated the English army of Harold II King England 1022-1066 (44) at the Battle of Hastings fought at Senlac Hill, Hastings, East Sussex. Aimery Thouars 1024-1094 (42), Ralph de Gael Earl East Anglia 1041-1096 (24), Eustace Flanders II Count Boulogne 1015-1087 (51), William Fitzosbern 1st Earl Hereford 1020-1071, Geoffrey Chateaudun II Count Mortain, III Count Perche -1100, William Warenne 1st Earl Surrey -1088, Raoul Tosny -1102, Robert Beaumont 1st Earl of Leicester, Count Meulan 1040-1118 (26), Hugh Grandesmil 1032-1098 (34), Roger "The Great" Montgomery 1st Earl Shrewsbury -1094 (possibly), Robert Mortain Count Mortain, 1st Earl Cornwall 1031-1090 (35) and Odo Mortain Bishop Bayeux -1097 fought for William.
The brothers Harold II King England 1022-1066 (44), Gyrth Godwinson Earl East Anglia 1032- and Leofwine Godwinson 2nd Earl Kent 1035-, and Engenulphe Aigle 1010-1066 were killed.

Coronation of William "The Conqueror"

In 1052 Stigand Archbishop of Canterbury -1072 was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury which he held jointly with his Bishopric of Worcester making him very wealthy. Five successive Popes excommunicated Stigand for his holding of both Winchester and Canterbury. His excommunication meant he could ot preside at the Coronation of William "The Conqueror".

On 25 Dec 1066 William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087 (38) was crowned I King England: Norman at Westminster Abbey by Ealdred Archbishop of York -1069.

Flower of History by Matthew of Westminster Chapter 1 1066-1087 Coronation of king William the First, the Conqueror. 1067. William, Duke of Normandy (39), proceeded to the city of London, was received with great exultation hy both clergy and people, and was proclaimed king by universal acclamation, and on the day of the birth of our Lord he received the crown of the kingdom of England from Aeldred, archbishop of York. For he refused to accept the office of consecration from Stigand archbishop of Canterbury, although of ancient right that solemn office is known to belong to that see, because he had no legal right to occupy that pre-eminent dignity. Then, haying received homage and the oath of fealty, and hostages likewise, from the nobles, and being confirmed in his kingdom, be became the terror of all those who had aspired to the kingdom. And having arranged his affairs in the different cities and castles, and having placed his own servants in them, he sailed back to Normandy with the English hostages, and with inestimable treasures. And, when he put the hostages in prison, and committed them to the custody of safe keepers, he returned again to England, where he distributed with a liberal hand the estates and possessions of the Epglish among his Norman comrades who had helped him to subdue the country in the battle of Hastings ; expelling all the legitimate owners successively, and becoming a tyrant rather than a king, he burdened the little that remained to them with the yoke of perpetual slavery. And when he saw himself now raised to such a lofty dignity, and confirmed in his proud kingdom, he became rapidly changed into another man ; and, alas ! alas ! trampled under foot the nobles of the land, whom their hereditary blood had elevated from the times of old. And the nobles of the kingdom being indignant at this, fled, some of them to Malcolm, king of Scotland (35), others, preferring to end their unhappy lives rather than to endure a shameful slavery, sought the desert places and woods, and there living the life of wild beasts, and repenting of having made submission to the Normans, and being weighed down as to their inmost hearts with violent grief, though it was now too late, had recourse to the only hope left them, and prepared secret plots and intrigues. But the noble counts, the brothers Edwin and Morcar, and many other nobles, and many also of the bishops and clergy and many others, whom it would take too long to enumerate by name, when they saw that theirs was the weaker side, and as they disdained to become slaves, abandoned England altogether.

Coronation of Queen Matilda

Flower of History by Matthew of Westminster Chapter 1 1066-1087 William's duchess is consecrated queen. 1068. Matilda (37), the wife of king William (40), was consecrated queen on the day of Pentecost, by Aeldred, archbishop of York, on the twenty-second of March. [Note. The date a mistake. Pentecost the fiftieth day after Easter so usually in May. Pentcost known as White Sunday, or Whit-Sunday.] This year also, William had a son born in England, who was called Henry. For his first-born, William Rufus (12), and also Robert (17), were born in Normandy, before their father had conquered England..

On 11 May 1068 Matilda Flanders Queen Consort England 1031-1083 (37) was crowned Queen Consort England at Westminster Abbey.

Murder of Robert de Comines Earl Northumbria

On 28 Jan 1069 Robert de Comines Earl Northumbria -1069 was burned to death in Durham when a rebel army set fire to the house in which he was staying. All his men were killed. In retaliation William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087 (41) commenced the Harrying of the North.

Between Nov 1069 and Mar 1070 the Harrying of the North was the near destruction of Lancashire, Yorkshire, County Durham, Northumberland, Westmoreland and Cumberland by William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087 (41) in response to a rebel army having killed his man Murder of Robert de Comines Earl Northumbria. Somewhat difficult to estimate its effect historians believe around 100,000 people were killed and sixty percent of property destroyed. William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087 (41) then replaced the nobilty with his own men to ensure future compliance.

Sveyn II's Raid on England

Flower of History by Matthew of Westminster Chapter 1 1066-1087 Two sons of Sweyn came into England to subdue it. 1069. Between the time of the two festivals of the blessed Virgin Mary, in the autumn, the two sons of Sweyn came with three hundred ships from Denmark into England, in order to subdue it in a hostile manner, and to take king William prisoner (41), or else expel him from England. But when their arrival was noised abroad, the counts, and barons, and nobles of the land went forth to meet them, being oppressed by the intolerable arrogance of the Normans ; and they made a treaty with them, and so joined the army of the Danes, in order to overthrow king William (41). But William (41), that most prudent king, when he saw the danger that threatened him, humbled himself to them, and checked the insolence of the Normans ; and having in this way recalled many of the English nobles to their allegiance, and having sagaciously made a treaty with them all, he took the city of York by storm, which was a great rendezvous of the Danes, and made himself master of every thing in it, and slew many thousand men there.

In 1069 Sweyn II King Denmark 1019-1076 (50) sent an army to England to attack William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087 (41) in support of Edgar "Ætheling" II King England 1051-1126 (18). Sveyn's (50) army captured York and were then bought off.

Harrying of the North

On 28 Jan 1069 Robert de Comines Earl Northumbria -1069 was burned to death in Durham when a rebel army set fire to the house in which he was staying. All his men were killed. In retaliation William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087 (41) commenced the Harrying of the North.

Between Nov 1069 and Mar 1070 the Harrying of the North was the near destruction of Lancashire, Yorkshire, County Durham, Northumberland, Westmoreland and Cumberland by William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087 (41) in response to a rebel army having killed his man Murder of Robert de Comines Earl Northumbria. Somewhat difficult to estimate its effect historians believe around 100,000 people were killed and sixty percent of property destroyed. William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087 (41) then replaced the nobilty with his own men to ensure future compliance.

Battle of Mechain

In 1069 at the Battle of Mechain fought in Radnorshire, Welsh March the brothers Maredudd Cadelling -1069 and Idwal Cadelling -1069 attempted to regain control of Radnorshire, Welsh March from brothers Bleddyn ap Cynfyn King Gwynedd, King Powys -1073 and Rhiwallon ap Cynfyn Mathrafal -1069. Rhiwallon ap Cynfyn Mathrafal -1069 and Idwal Cadelling -1069 were killed. Maredudd Cadelling -1069 died of exposure following the battle.

Battle of Cassel

On 22 Feb 1071 Baldwin Flanders II Count Hainault 1056-1102 (15) succeeded II Count Hainault.

On 22 Feb 1071 Roger de Breteuil Fitzosbern 2nd Earl Hereford -1087 succeeded 2nd Earl Hereford (1C 1043).

On 22 Feb 1071 Robert "The Frisian" Flanders I Count Flanders 1033-1093 (38) was appointed I Count Flanders.

On 22 Feb 1071 Battle of Cassel was fought between uncle Robert "The Frisian" Flanders I Count Flanders 1033-1093 (38) and nephew Arnulf Flanders III Count Flanders 1055-1071 (16), supported by his mother Richilde Countess Hainault Count Flanders, Count Hainault and Philip "Amorous" I King France 1052-1108 (18), over the succession of Flanders. Arnulf Flanders III Count Flanders 1055-1071 (16) and William Fitzosbern 1st Earl Hereford 1020-1071 were killed. Eustace Flanders II Count Boulogne 1015-1087 (56), his son Eustace Flanders III Count Boulogne -1125, and Godfrey Flanders Lord Bouillon 1060-1100 (10) fought for Robert. During the battle Robert "The Frisian" Flanders I Count Flanders 1033-1093 (38) and Richilde Countess Hainault Count Flanders, Count Hainault were captured, and subsequently exchanged for each other.

Accord of Winchester

In 1072 the Accord of Winchester established the primacy of the Archbishop of Canterbury over the Archbishop of York. It was signed by ...
William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087 (44) and Matilda Flanders Queen Consort England 1031-1083 (41)
Stigand Archbishop of Canterbury -1072
Ealdred Archbishop of York -1069 who signed "I concede" whereas other signatories signed "I subscribe"
Wulfstan Bishop of Worcester 1008-1095 (64)
Herfast Bishop Chancellor -1084.

Sancho "Strong" Crowned King Leon

On 12 Jan 1072 Sancho "Strong" II King Leon, II King Castile 1037-1072 (35) was crowned II King Leon.

Revolt of the Earls

In 1075 Ralph de Gael Earl East Anglia 1041-1096 (33) forfeit his Earldom and his lands.

In 1075 three Earls joined in rebellion against William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087 (47). The three Earls were: Roger de Breteuil Fitzosbern 2nd Earl Hereford -1087, Ralph de Gael Earl East Anglia 1041-1096 (33) and Waltheof Northumbria 1st Earl of Northampton, 1st Earl Huntingdon -1076. The ostensible cause of their rebellion was William's (47) refusal to allows the marriage of Emma Fitzosbern Countess East Anglia, daughter of William Fitzosbern 1st Earl Hereford 1020-1071 and Ralph de Gael Earl East Anglia 1041-1096 (33). The marriage went ahead without William's permission.
Roger de Breteuil Fitzosbern 2nd Earl Hereford -1087 forfeit his Earldom and was sentenced to life imprisonment.

On 31 May 1076 Waltheof Northumbria 1st Earl of Northampton, 1st Earl Huntingdon -1076 was beheaded at St Gile's Hill, Winchester. His daughter Maud Northumbria 3rd Countess Huntingdon and Northampton Queen Consort Scotland 1074-1131 (2) succeeded 3rd Earl Huntingdon (1C 1065).

Christening of Edith (Matilda) of Scotland

Around 1080 Edith aka Matilda Dunkeld Queen Consort England 1080-1118 was christened at Dunfermline. Robert Curthose Normandy III Duke Normandy 1051-1134 (29) was godfather, Matilda Flanders Queen Consort England 1031-1083 (49) godmother. .

Battle of Mynydd Carn

In 1081 the Battle of Mynydd Carn was fought between the armies of Gruffudd ap Cynan King Gwynedd 1055-1137 (26) and Rhys ap Tewdwr King Deheubarth 1064-1093 (16), and the army of Caradog ap Gruffydd Prince of Gwent -1081 and Trahaearn ap Caradog 1035-1081 as part of a dynastic struggle for control of the Welsh kingdoms of Gwynedd and Deheubarth. The result of the battle had a radical effect on the history of Wales.
Caradog ap Gruffydd Prince of Gwent -1081, Meilir ap Rhiwallon 1035-1081 and Trahaearn ap Caradog 1035-1081 were killed.

In 1081 Gruffudd ap Cynan King Gwynedd 1055-1137 (26) and Rhys ap Tewdwr King Deheubarth 1064-1093 (16) met at St David's at which they agreed to combine forces.

King William "The Conqueror" Dies King William II Succeeds

On 09 Sep 1087 William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087 (59) died at the Priory of St Gervaise, Rouen. He was buried at Abbaye-aux-Hommes, Caen, Calvados, Basse Normandie at a ceremony presided over by Gilbert Arques Bishop Evreux. King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (19) attended. His son William "Rufus" II King England 1056-1100 (31) succeeded II King England: Norman. His son Robert Curthose Normandy III Duke Normandy 1051-1134 (36) succeeded III Duke Normandy. Marguerite Maine Countess Essex 1045-1063 by marriage Countess Essex (1C 1139).

Battle of Brecon

On Apr 1093 Rhys ap Tewdwr King Deheubarth 1064-1093 (28) was killed by Bernard de NeufMaré at Brecon during the Battle of Brecon.

Battle of Alnwick

On 13 Nov 1093 the Battle of Alnwick was fought at Alnwick between the forces of Malcolm III King Scotland 1031-1093 (62) and Robert de Mobray Earl Northumbria -1125.
Malcolm III King Scotland 1031-1093 (62) and his son Edward Dunkeld -1093 were killed. Duncan II King Scotland 1060-1094 (33) succeeded II King Scotland: Dunkeld. He died a year minus day later.

First Crusade

In 1096 Ivo Grandesmil 1086-1102 (9) joined during the First Crusade.