1200-1216 Magna Carta
Battle of Mirebeau
On 01 Aug 1202 John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216 (35) defeated the army of his nephew Arthur Plantagenet 3rd Duke Brittany 1187-1203 and Hugh Lusignan X Count Lusignan, V Count La Marche 1183-1249 (19) which was besieging John's mother Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks Queen Consort England 1122-1204 (80) at Mirebeau Castle, Mirebeau. John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216 (35) took Arthur Plantagenet 3rd Duke Brittany 1187-1203 's army by surprise capturing most. Arthur Plantagenet 3rd Duke Brittany 1187-1203 and, probably, his sister Eleanor Plantagenet 1184-1241, both of whom arguably had better claims to the throne than John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216 (35) were captured.
Death of Eleanor of Aquitaine
On 01 Apr 1204 Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks Queen Consort England 1122-1204 (82) died at Fontevraud Abbey, Chinon.
Battle of Damme
On 30 May 1213 William "Longsword" Longespée 3rd Earl Salisbury 1176-1226 (37) accidentally encountered a large French fleet.The French crews were mostly ashore.The English captured around 300 ships at anchor, burning a further 100 ships. The battle resulted in a period of peace in England with France being unable to invade, as well as generating significant wealth for England.
Battle of Bouvines
On 27 Jul 1214 the last battle of the Anglo-French War of 1213-1214. Philip Augustus II King France 1165-1223 (48) 's army defeated the combined forces of England, Flanders and the Holy Roman Empire. Thomas St Valery 1155- fought at Bouvines during the Battle of Bouvines
On 15 Jun 1215 John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216 (48) met with his Baron's at Runnymede, Windsor, Berkshire where he agreed to the terms of the Magna Carta which attempted to reduce the King's authority through political reform. Those who signed as surety included:
Roger Bigod 2nd Earl Norfolk 1144-1221 (71),
his son Hugh Bigod 3rd Earl Norfolk 1182-1225 (33),
Henry Bohun 1st Earl Hereford 1176-1220 (39),
Richard Clare 3rd Earl Hertford 1153-1217 (62),
his son Gilbert Clare 5th Earl Gloucester, 4th Earl Hertford 1180-1230 (35),
William "The Younger" Marshal 2nd Earl Pembroke 1190-1231 (25),
William Mowbray 6th Baron Thirsk, 4th Baron Mowbray 1173-1224 (42),
Saer Quincy 1st Earl Winchester 1170-1219 (45),
Robert Ros 1172-1226, Richard Percy 5th Baron Percy Topcliffe 1170-1244,
Robert Vere 3rd Earl Oxford 1165-1221 (50),
Eustace Vesci 1169-1216 (46),
John Fitzrobert Baron Warkworth 1190-1241 (25),
John Lacy 8th Baron Bowland, 8th Baron Halton, 7th Baron Pontefract 1192-1240 (23),
William Dalbini -1236, Geoffrey Mandeville 2nd Earl Essex 1191-1216 (24),
Robert Fitzwalter -1235,
William Forz 3rd Earl Albermarle aka Aumale -1242,
William Hardell Lord Mayor,
William Huntingfield -1291,
William Llanvallei -1217,
William Malet 1st Baron Curry Mallet 1174-1215,
Roger Montbegon -1226, Richard Montfichet -1267,
Geoffrey Saye 1155-1230 signed as surety the Magna Carta.
Ranulf de Blondeville Gernon 6th Earl Chester, 1st Earl Lincoln 1170-1232 (45) witnessed.
Death of King John
On 19 Oct 1216 John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216 (49) died at Newark Castle, Newark on Trent, Nottinghamshire.
John Monmouth 1182-1248 (34) was present.
On his deathbed, John appointed a council of thirteen executors to help Henry reclaim the kingdom and requested that his son be placed into the guardianship of William Marshal 1st Earl Pembroke 1146-1219 (70).
King John’s will is the earliest English royal will to survive in its original form. The document is quite small, roughly the size of a postcard and the seals of those who were present at the time would have been attached to it.Translation of the will taken from an article by Professor S.D. Church in the English Historical Review, June 2010:
I, John, by the grace of God king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, count of Anjou, hindered by grave infirmity and not being able at this time of my infirmity to itemize all my things so that I may make a testament, commit the arbitration and administration of my testament to the trust and to the legitimate administration of my faithful men whose names are written below, without whose counsel, even in good health, I would have by no means arranged my testament in their presence, so that what they will faithfully arrange and determine concerning my things as much as in making satisfaction to God and to holy Church for damages and injuries done to them as in sending succour to the land of Jerusalem and in providing support to my sons towards obtaining and defending their inheritance and in making reward to those who have served us faithfully and in making distribution to the poor and to religious houses for the salvation of my soul, be right and sure. I ask, furthermore, that whoever shall give them counsel and assistance in the arranging of my testament shall receive the grace and favour of God. Whoever shall infringe their arrangement and disposition, may he incur the curse and indignation of almighty God and the blessed Mary and all the saints.
In the first place, therefore, I desire that my body be buried in the church of St Mary and St Wulfstan at Worcester. I appoint, moreover, the following arbiters and administrators: the lord Guala, by the grace of God, cardinal-priest of the title of St Martin and legate of the apostolic see; the lord Peter bishop of Winchester; the lord Richard bishop of Chichester; the lord Silvester bishop of Worcester; Brother Aimery de St-Maur; William Marshal earl of Pembroke; Ranulf earl of Chester; William earl Ferrers; William Brewer; Walter de Lacy and John of Monmouth; Savaric de Mauléon; Falkes de Bréauté”.
The signatories were:
Guala Bicchieri (ca 1150 – 1227) Papal Legate
Peter des Roches (? – 1238), Bishop of Winchester
Richard le Poer (? – 1237), Bishop of Chichester
Sylvester of Worcester (? – 1218), Bishop of Worcester
Aimery de St-Maur (? - ?1219), Master of the English Templars
William Marshal 1st Earl Pembroke 1146-1219 (70)
Ranulf de Blondeville Gernon 6th Earl Chester, 1st Earl Lincoln 1170-1232 (46)
William Ferrers 4th Earl Derby 1168-1247 (48)
William Brewer (? - 1226), 1st Baron Brewer
Walter de Lacy (ca 1172–1241) Lord of Meath
John: (1182 – 1248) Lord of Monmouth
Savaric de Mauléon (? – 1236) Seneschal of Poitou from 1205
Falkes de Bréauté (? – 1226) Seneschal of Cardiff Castle.