1390-1399 Henry IV Accedes
St George's Day Jousting
On 23 May 1390, St George's Day, a Jousting Tournament was held at London Bridge. David Lindsay 1st Earl Crawford 1360-1407 so easily unhorsed the King's Champion John Welles 5th Baron Welles 1352-1421 as to make the crowd suspect Lindsay of foul play by fastening himself to his saddle. To prove the crowd wrong David Lindsay 1st Earl Crawford 1360-1407 leapt from his horse in full armour, then back again. Realising John Welles 5th Baron Welles 1352-1421 was injured he rushed to his aid. He visited Welles every day until he recovered. The two became firm friends.
Death of Isabella of Castile
On 23 Dec 1392 Isabella of Castile Duchess York 1355-1392 (37) died. She the wife of Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York 1341-1402 (51). Isabella had travelled to England with her sister Constance of Castile Duchess of Lancaster 1354-1394 (38) who had married Edmund's elder brother John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (52). Isabella and Edmund's marriage was not, apparently, a happy one. She is known to have had an affair with John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (40) who may have been the father of Richard York 1st Earl Cambridge 1385-1415 (7) progenitor of the House of York.
Death of Anne of Bohemia
On 07 Jun 1394 Anne of Bohemia Queen Consort England 1366-1394 (28) died of plague (probably) at Sheen Palace. Richard II King England 1367-1400 (27) was so distraught at her death he ordered the destruction of Sheen Palace.
Funeral of Anne of Bohemia
On 03 Aug 1394 Anne of Bohemia Queen Consort England 1366-1394 was buried at Chapel of St Edward the Confessor, Chapels, Westminster Abbey with Thomas Fitzalan Archbishop York and Canterbury 1353-1414 (41) presiding. Richard II King England 1367-1400 (27) attended. Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey, 11th Earl Arundel 1346-1397 (48), brother of the presiding Archbishop, and his wife Philippa Mortimer Countess Pembroke, Countess Arundel, Countess Surrey 1375-1400 (18), arrived late causing Richard, in a rage, to snatch a wand and strike FitzAlan in the face drawing blood.
Richard II Travels to Ireland
In Oct 1394 Richard II King England 1367-1400 (27) travelled to Ireland with William Hankford 1350-1423 (44).
Marriage of John of Gaunt and Katherine Roet
On 13 Jan 1396 John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (55) and Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403 (45) were married at Lincoln Cathedral. Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403 (45) by marriage Duchess Lancaster (2C 1362).
On 25 Sep 1396 at the Battle Nicopolis ...
Henry Bar 1362-1397 (34) was captured.
Philippe Bar 1372-1396 (24) was killed. His brother Edward Bar III Duke Bar 1377-1415 (19) succeeded III Duke Bar.
Philip Artois Count Eu 1357-1397 (39) was captured.
Marriage of Richard II and Isabella of Valois
On 31 Oct 1396 Richard II King England 1367-1400 (29) and Isabella Valois Queen Consort England 1389-1409 (6) were married (he was her half third-cousin). The marriage being one of the terms of a twenty-eight year peace treaty with France. He twenty-nine, she six. The marriage sowed the seeds subsequent rebellion since there was no prospect of an heir to secure the Crown.
Thomas Haxey's Case - Free Speech in Parliament
In Jan 1397 Thomas Haxey presented a bill to Parliament criticising the costs of King Richard II of England's household. Richard II King England 1367-1400 (29) took offence and had Haxby charged with treason and sentenced to be executed. On appeal by the Archbishop of Canterbury (44) Haxey was released into the Archbishop's care.
Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: The protestation of the prelates after the judgment upon Sir Thomas Haxey. 23. Be it remembered that on the Wednesday after Candlemas [7 February 1397], immediately after the judgment rendered against Thomas Haxey, clerk, who was adjudged to death in parliament as a traitor, there came before the king in parliament with great humility the archbishop of Canterbury (44) and all the other prelates, and made full protestation that their whole and full intent was, and always would be, that the royal estate and regality of the king should be be forever saved and kept from blemish; and they humbly prayed of the king that it might please him of his grace to have pity and mercy for the said Thomas, and of his high and royal benignity to remit and release the execution of the said Thomas's death and grant and give him his life.
And the king (30) thereupon, at the prayer of the said prelates, of his royal pity and of his special grace, remitted and released the execution of the said Thomas's death and granted him his life. Whereupon the said prelates, thanking the king for his great kindness and mercy he had shown, prayed humbly of the king that it might please him of his most abundant grace, to the reverence of God and for the honour of holy church, to grant them the keeping of the body of the said Thomas, the said prelates protesting thereon that they did not make that request nor prayer, nor demand such great grace of the keeping of his said body, for any right or due which pertained or might pertain to them in the cause, but only of the special grace and will of the king himself. Whereupon the king, only of his special grace and for the honour of holy church, and not as any due or right of the said prelates in this matter, granted and released to them the keeping of the body of the said Thomas: and thereupon he ordered Sir Thomas Percy (54), steward of the king's household, to deliver the body of the said Thomas Haxey to the said archbishop (44), to keep safely, of the king's grace, as was said above.
Legitimation of the Beauforts
Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: Legitimation of Beaufort. 28. Be it remembered that on Tuesday, the fifteenth day of the parliament [4 February 1397], the chancellor (53), by order of the king (30), declared that our holy father the pope, in reverence of the most excellent person of the king (30) and his honourable uncle the duke of Guyenne and of Lancaster (56), and of his blood, has enabled and legitimized my lord John Beaufort (24), his brothers [Note. Cardinal Henry Beaufort 1375-1447 (22) and Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 (20)], and his sister (18). And therefore our lord the king, as sole ruler of his kingdom of England, for the honour of his blood, willed and enabled of his abundant royal power, and legitimized, of his own authority, the said John, his said brothers, and sister. And he also pronounced and published the ability and legitimation, according to the form of the charter of the king made thereon.
Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: Legitimation of Beaufort. 29. Which charter was read in full parliament, and delivered to the said duke, father of the said John, and his said brothers and sister; the tenor of which charter follows:
Richard, by the grace of God, king of England and France and lord of Ireland, to our most beloved kinsmen the noble John, knight, Henry, cleric, Thomas, donzel, and our beloved noblewoman Joan Beaufort, lady-in-waiting, our most beloved cousins born of our uncle that noble man John duke of Lancaster, our lieges, greeting and the goodwill of our royal majesty. While inwardly considering how endlessly and with how many honours of parental and sincere affection of our aforementioned uncle and of his mature counsel we are on all sides blessed, we have judged it appropriate and worthy that in consideration of his merits, and in contemplation of the grace of persons, we should endow you, who are resplendent with probity and virtuous life and conduct, and are born of royal stock and divinely marked with many virtues and gifts, with the protection of grace and favour by special prerogative. Thus it is that, yielding to the prayers of our said uncle, your father, we grant to you who, so it is claimed, have suffered such defect of birth, that, notwithstanding this defect, which, together with its various consequences, we wish to be fully included in these presents, you may nevertheless receive all honours, dignities, preferments, estates, degrees, and public and private offices, both perpetual and temporal, and feudal and noble rights, by whatsoever name they are called, such as duchies, lordships, earldoms, baronies, or whatsoever other fiefs they be, whether they be dependent upon or held of us mediately or intermediately, which may be preferred, promoted, elected, taken up and allowed, and received, retained, performed and exercised prudently, freely and lawfully, as if you were born in wedlock, notwithstanding any statutes or customs of our kingdom of England decreed or observed to the contrary; and we dispense you [from this defect] by the tenor of these presents, by the plenitude of our royal power and with the assent of our parliament; and we restore you and each of you to legitimacy.
John Beaufort created Earl Somerset
Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: Of the appointment of the earl of Somerset. 32. The king (30) to his archbishops, bishops, abbots, priors, dukes, earls, barons, justices, sheriffs, reeves, ministers, and other his bailiffs and faithful men, greeting. Know that we, considering the strenuous probity and prudent mind, distinguished conduct and nobility of birth of our beloved and faithful kinsman John Beaufort (24), knight, son of our beloved uncle John duke of Aquitaine and Lancaster (56), and willing therefore deservedly to exalt the same John Beaufort with the prerogative of honour, we do appoint and create John Beaufort earl of Somerset in our present parliament, and invest him with the style and name and honour of the aforesaid earl by girding him with the sword, to have to him and his male heirs issuing from his body in perpetuity. And that the same earl and his aforesaid heirs, given such name and honour, may the better and more honourably support the burdens incumbent upon the same, of our special grace in our present parliament we have given and granted, and by this our charter confirmed, to the same earl and his aforesaid heirs twenty pounds to be received each year from the issues of the aforesaid county by the hand of the sheriff of that county for the time being, at the terms of Easter and Michaelmas [29 September] in equal portions, in perpetuity. Witnessed by these, the venerable father Thomas archbishop of Canterbury (44) primate of all England, John of Aquitaine and Lancaster, and Edmund of York (55), dukes; Robert of London, William of Winchester (77), John of Ely, Edmund of Exeter, our chancellor (53), bishops; Henry of Derby (29), Edward of Rutland (24), Thomas of Nottingham and marshal of England (28), earls; Reginald Grey (35), Ralph Neville (33), John Lovell, knights; Roger Walden dean of York, our treasurer, Thomas Percy (54), steward of our household, Guy Mone, keeper of our privy seal, and others. Given by our hand at Westminster on 10 February in the twentieth year of our reign [10 Feb 1397].
Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: Legitimation of Beaufort. 30. Also, on the Saturday [10 February 1397], the chancellor (53) announced by the king's (30) command that reason willed that one should honour and enhance the estate of worthy and virtuous persons. Wherefore the king (30) - considering the nobility and virtue of his cousin Sir John Beaufort (24), son of his uncle of Guyenne and Lancaster (56), and the great honour he had done his person on various expeditions and labours in many kingdoms and lands overseas, to the great honour of the king and kingdom; and also to encourage him and others to do such honour; and also to strengthen the royal sceptre which could best be supported in honour by worthy and valiant persons - had, of his royal dignity and special grace, made and created the said John an earl, and given him the name and honour of the earl of Somerset, to have to him and his male heirs lawfully engendered of his body, with twenty pounds a year to be taken from the issues and profits of the county of Somerset for his title and the name of earl.
Note. On 10 Feb 1397 John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset, Dorset 1373-1410 (24) was created 1st Earl Somerset (2C 1397).
Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: Legitimation of Beaufort. 31. Whereupon the said Sir John was brought before the king in parliament between two earls, namely Huntingdon and the marshal, dressed in a cloth as a dress of honour, and his sword carried before him, the hilt uppermost. And then the king's charter of the said creation was read aloud before the king, lords, and commons in parliament. And afterwards the king himself girded the said earl with his sword and took his homage, and caused him to sit in his place in parliament, that is to say, between the earls marshal and Warwick. The tenor of which charter follows:
Arrest and Execution of Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey, 11th Earl Arundel
On 12 Jul 1397 Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey, 11th Earl Arundel 1346-1397 (51) was arrested for his opposition to Richard II King England 1367-1400 (30).
On 21 Sep 1397 Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey, 11th Earl Arundel 1346-1397 (51) was tried at Westminster.
He (51) was beheaded at Tower Hill immediately thereafter. His son Thomas Fitzalan 10th Earl Surrey, 12th Earl Arundel 1381-1415 (15) succeeded 10th Earl Surrey (1C 1088), 12th Earl Arundel (Sussex).
Murder of Thomas os Woodstock
Around 08 Sep 1397 Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale, 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (42) was murdered in Calais for his role as leader of the Lords Appellant. His son Humphrey Plantagenet 2nd Earl Buckingham 1381-1399 (16) succeeded 2nd Earl Buckingham (3C 1377). Walter Clopton Chief Justice -1400 was part of the inquiry into his death the outcome of which is not known. A John Hall was executed for the murder.
Richard II Rewards his Supporters
On 29 Sep 1397 King Richard II (30) awarded his older maternal half-brothers Dukedoms for their part in the arrest, trial and execution of Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey, 11th Earl Arundel 1346-1397.
John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (45) was created 1st Duke Exeter (1C 1397). Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter 1363-1426 (34) by marriage Duchess Exeter (1C 1397).
Thomas Holland (23) was created 1st Duke Surrey. .
Richard also rewarded his key supporters:
Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke Norfolk 1368-1399 (29) was created 1st Duke Norfolk (1C 1397) probably for arranging the murder of Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale, 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397. Elizabeth Fitzalan Duchess Norfolk 1366-1425 (31) by marriage Duchess Norfolk (1C 1397).
John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset, Dorset 1373-1410 (24) was created 1st Marquess Somerset (2C 1397), 1st Marquess Dorset (1C 1397). Margaret Holland Duchess Clarence 1385-1439 (12) by marriage Marchioness Somerset (2C 1397).
Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale, 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (24) was created 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale (2C 1397). Beatrice Burgundy Countess Rutland, Countess Cork 1373-1408 (24) by marriage Duchess Albemarle aka Aumale (2C 1397)
Ralph Neville 1st Earl Westmoreland 1364-1425 (33) was created 1st Earl Westmoreland (1C 1397). Joan Beaufort Countess Westmoreland 1379-1440 (18) by marriage Countess Westmoreland (1C 1397).
Thomas Mowbray Duel
Before 16 Sep 1398 the future Henry IV reported to King Richard II that Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke Norfolk 1368-1399 had made a treasonous remark regarding Richard's rule. Richard II proposed a duel of honour at Gosford Green, Caludon, Coventry, neat Mowbray's home Caludon Castle.
On 16 Sep 1398 the future Henry IV (31) spent the night at Baginton Castle,Bagington, the home of his friend William Bagot. Thomas Mowbray (30) spent the night at his home Caludon Castle, Caludon, Coventry.
On 17 Sep 1398 King Richard II (31), the nobility and thousands of spectators assembled at Gosford Green to witness the duel between the future Henry IV (31) and Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke Norfolk 1368-1399 (30). the future Henry IV (31) had had new armour constructed. Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale, 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (25) and Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey 1374-1400 (24) managed the proceedings. Just as the duel was to commence King Richard II (31) stopped it. After two hours of deliberation King Richard II (31) had his decision announced; both men were to be exiled. the future Henry IV (31) for ten years,Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke Norfolk 1368-1399 (30) forever.
On 19 Oct 1398 Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke Norfolk 1368-1399 (30) left England never to return.
Richard II's Second Trip to Ireland
Death of John of Gaunt
On 03 Feb 1399 John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (58) died at Leicester Castle, Leicester. Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403 (48) was by his side. He was buried at Old St Paul's Cathedral.
He was buried in the Choir, Old St Paul's Cathedral with his first wife Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368.
Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (31) succeeded 2nd Duke Lancaster (2C 1362), 7th Earl of Leicester (2C 1265). Mary Bohun Duchess Lancaster 1368-1394 by marriage Duchess Lancaster (2C 1362).
Richard II King England 1367-1400 (32) witheld the future Henry IV's (31) inheritance from him giving Henry (31) reason to return to England to claim his lands and titles.
Richard II's Last Will
On 16 Apr 1399 Richard II King England 1367-1400 (32) wrote his Last Will from which the following extracts are taken … Also we bequeath to our beloved nephew Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey 1374-1400 (25) ten thousand marks and to our beloved brother Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale, 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (26) two thousand marks and to our beloved brother John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (47) three thousand marks and to our faithful and beloved William Scrope 1st Earl Wiltshire 1350-1399 (49) two thousand marks ... we ordain and set aside for the fulfilment of all and singular the premises the sum of ninety-one thousand marks, of which sixty-five thousand marks are in the keeping of Sir John Ikelyngton and twenty-four thousand marks in the hands and keeping of our dear nephew Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey 1374-1400 (25).
Of this our royal testament we nominate make and depute executors the venerable fathers in Christ Richard Mitford Bishop -1407, Edmund Stafford Bishop of Exeter 1344-1419 (55), Robert Tideman of Winchcombe Bishop -1401, Thomas Merke Bishop Carlisle -1409 and Guy Mone Aka Mohun Bishop of St David's -1407 ; our beloved brother Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale, 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (26), our nephew Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey 1374-1400 (25), our brother John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (47) and William Scrope 1st Earl Wiltshire 1350-1399 (49) to each of whom we bequeath a gold cup of the value of twenty pounds and our beloved and faithful clerks Master Richard Boteville Bishop of Bath and Wells, Bishop of Worcester, Bishop of London -1421 Keeper of our Privy Seal, Master Richard Maudeleyn, Master William Fereby and Master John Painter Ikelyngton clerks and John Lufwyk and William Serle laymen, to each of whom we will shall be paid their expenses and necessary costs while it shall happen that they or any of them are employed about the execution of our present last will, but according to the discretion of their said co-executors ...
Whom all and singular we have charged and charge that they shall do as much as in them is for the due execution and fulfilment of this our last will as they shall wish to answer before God. We create ordain depute and make overseers of this our will the reverend fathers in Christ Roger Walden Archbishop of Canterbury -1406 and Richard Scrope Archbishop of York 1350-1405 (49), William bishop of Winchester and William abbot of the monastery of Westminster Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale, 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (26) our uncle and Henry Percy 1st Earl of Northumberland 1341-1408 (57) our cousin.
Richard II's Third Trip to Ireland
Henry IV lands at Ravenspur
On 07 Jul 1399 Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York 1341-1402 (58) appointed William Scrope 1st Earl Wiltshire 1350-1399 (49), Henry Green 1347-1399 (52) and John Bussy Speaker of the House of Commons -1399 to protect Kent against invasion by Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (32).
After 07 Jul 1399 Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (32) landed at Ravenspur, East Riding with Thomas Rempston -1406.
Execution of Richard II's Favourites
Richard II Abdication
On 12 Aug 1399 Richard II King England 1367-1400 (32) negotiated with Henry Percy 1st Earl of Northumberland 1341-1408 (57) at Conwy Castle.
On 29 Sep 1399 Richard II King England 1367-1400 (32) abdicated II King England: Plantagenet Angevin at Tower of London. Thomas Grey 1359-1400 (40), William Willoughby 5th Baron Willoughby Eresby 1370-1409 (29), Hugh Burnell 2nd Baron Burnell 1347-1420 (52) and Thomas Rempston -1406 were present.
On 30 Sep 1399 Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (32) became IV King England: Plantagenet Lancaster. He had usurped his cousin Richard II (32) and Richard's heir the seven year old Edmund Mortimer 5th Earl of March (7) who was descended from Edward III's second son Lionel of Antwerp Duke of Clarence. This second usurption was to have far reaching consequences since it subsequently became the descent by which the House of York claimed precedence over the House of Lancaster being one of the causes of the Wars of the Roses.
Coronation of Henry IV
On 13 Oct 1399 Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (32) was crowned IV King England: Plantagenet Lancaster at Westminster Abbey by Thomas Fitzalan Archbishop York and Canterbury 1353-1414 (46).
Robert Braybrooke Bishop of London -1404 carried the sacraments and said mass.
The future Henry V King England 1386-1422 (13) carried the Sword Curtana. Thomas Beauchamp 12th Earl Warwick 1338-1401 (61) and/or John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset, Dorset 1373-1410 (26) carried a sword wrapped in red and bound with golden straps symbolising two-fold mercy. Henry Percy 1st Earl of Northumberland 1341-1408 (57) carried the Lancaster Sword.
Thomas Percy 1st Earl Worcester 1343-1403 (56) carried the Steward's baton. Thomas Erpingham 1355-1428 (44) carried a Sword.
Edmund Stafford 5th Earl Stafford 1378-1403 (21) was appointed Knight of the Bath. John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford 1389-1435 (10), John Arundell 1366-1435 (33) and Richard Beauchamp 13th Earl Warwick 1382-1439 (17) were knighted.
Richard Scrope Archbishop of York 1350-1405 (49) attended.