1425-1449 Loire Campaign, Joan of Arc and the end of the Hundred Years War

Purge of the Albany Stewarts

On 18 May 1425 Murdoch Stewart 2nd Duke Albany 1362-1425 (63), his two sons Walter Stewart 1394-1425 and Alexander Stewart -1425, and Duncan Lennox 8th Earl Lennox 1345-1425 (80) were tried at Stirling Castle in the presence of James I King Scotland 1394-1437 (30).
An assize of seven earls and fourteen lesser nobles heard the evidence that linked the prisoners to the rebellion in the Lennox—in a trial lasting just one day the four men were found guilty of treason.
The jury which condemned them was composed of 21 knights and Peers, including Albany's half uncle Walter Stewart 1st Earl Atholl 1360-1437 (64), first cousin Alexander Stewart 1st Earl Mar 1375-1435 (50), first cousins once-removed Archibald Douglas 2nd Duke Touraine 1390-1439 (34), and Alexander, Earl of Ross and Lord of the Isles.

On 24 May 1425 Murdoch Stewart 2nd Duke Albany 1362-1425 (63),Walter Stewart 1394-1425,Alexander Stewart -1425 and Duncan Lennox 8th Earl Lennox 1345-1425 (80) were beheaded at Heading Hill, Stirling Castle, Stirling

Parliament Passes a Bill to Prevent Catherine of Valois Marrying

In 1428 Parliament Passes a Bill to Prevent Catherine of Valois Marrying without the consent of the King.The Bill appears to be in response to rumours that Catherine of Valois Queen Consort England 1401-1437 (26) and Edmund Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (21) were having an affair, and were planning to marry.

Siege of Orleans

On 12 Oct 1428 the Siege of Orleans commenced at Orleans.During the course of the siege Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche, 4th Earl Salisbury 1388-1428 (40) and Jean Poton Xaintrailles 1390-1461 (37) were wounded. William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk 1396-1450 (31) commanded the English forces during some of the siege.

Battle of the Herrings

On 12 Feb 1429 John Fastolf 1380-1459 (49) was at Rouvray leading a supply train of some 300 carts of crossbows, cannons, etc and also barrels of herrings to Orleans.A force of 400 strong Scottish cavalry led by Charles Bourbon I Duke Bourbon 1401-1456 (27) and John Stewart of Darnley 1st Count Évreux 1380-1429 (49) attacked the supply train and were destroyed by English archers protected by supply wagons. John Stewart of Darnley 1st Count Évreux 1380-1429 (49) was killed.

Joan of Arc meet Charles VII at Chinon

On 08 Mar 1429 Joan Arc 1412-1431 (17) met with Charles "Victorious" VII King France 1403-1461 (26) at Chinon Castle, Chinon.

Relief of Orleans

In 1429 William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk 1396-1450 (32) commanded at Orleans during the Relief of Orleans

On 08 May 1429 Joan Arc 1412-1431 (17) relieved the Siege of Orleans.

Joan of Arc meet Charles VII at Loches

On 11 May 1429 following her success at Orleans Joan Arc 1412-1431 (17) met Charles "Victorious" VII King France 1403-1461 (26) at the Royal Lodge, Loches where she persuaded him to be crowned at Reims Cathedral, Reims{Reims Cathedral}; a somewhat perilous journey.

Battle of Jargeau

On 11 Jun 1429 Joan Arc 1412-1431 (17) and Jean Poton Xaintrailles 1390-1461 (38) fought at Jargeau, Loiret during the Battle of Jargeau. Alexander Pole -1429 was killed. William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk 1396-1450 (32) surrendered.

Battle of Meung-sur-Loire

On 15 Jun 1429 Joan Arc 1412-1431 (17) and Jean Poton Xaintrailles 1390-1461 (38) fought at Meung-sur-Loire, Loiret during the Battle of Meung-sur-Loire capturing the bridge over the Loire.

Battle of Beaugency

On 17 Jun 1429 Joan Arc 1412-1431 (17) and Jean Poton Xaintrailles 1390-1461 (38) fought at Loiret, Loiret during the Battle of Beaugency.

Battle of Patay

In 1429 Bernard Armagnac -1462 fought at Battle of Patay

On 18 Jun 1429 the Battle of Patay was the final engagement of the Loire Campaign of the Hundred Years War.The French forces commanded by Joan Arc 1412-1431 (17), Étienne Vignolles -1443 and Jean Poton Xaintrailles 1390-1461 (38) defeated an English force of 5000.The English lost around 2000 men with Thomas Scales 7th Baron Scales 1397-1460 (32), Thomas Rempston 1389-1458 (40), and John "Old Talbot" Talbot 1st Earl Shrewsbury, 1st Earl Waterford 1383-1453 (46) being captured. John Fastolf 1380-1459 (49) fought.

Coronation of Charles VII

On 08 Mar 1429 Charles "Victorious" VII King France 1403-1461 (26) was crowned at Reims Cathedral, Reims with Joan Arc 1412-1431 (17) present.

English Coronation of Henry VI

On 06 Nov 1429 Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (7) was crowned VI King England: Plantagenet Lancaster by Cardinal Henry Beaufort 1375-1447 (54) at Westminster Abbey. Henry Beauchamp 1st Duke Warwick 1425-1446 (4) carried the child King. John Mowbray 3rd Duke Norfolk 1415-1461 (14) attended. John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont 1409-1460 was knighted.

Siege of Compiègne

On 23 May 1430 Joan Arc 1412-1431 (18) was captured during the Siege of Compiègne. John Luxembourg II Count Ligny 1392-1441 (38) commanded the rear-guard. Philip "Good" Valois-Burgundy III Duke Burgundy 1396-1467 (33) fought.

Birth of Edmund Tudor

On 11 Jun 1430 Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond 1430-1456 was born to Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (30) and Catherine of Valois Queen Consort England 1401-1437 (28) at Much Hadham Palace, Much Hadham, Hertfordshire (which belonged to the Bishops of London).There is speculation that the biological father was Edmund Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (24) with whom Catherine of Valois Queen Consort England 1401-1437 (28) was rumoured to have had an affair. Interesting, perhaps, that he was named Edmund rather than Owen.Interesting that he took the Royal Arms of England differenced.Also interesting that his younger brother was named Jasper; a Persian name meaning 'Keeper of the Treasure.'

Trial of Joan of Arc

On 09 Jan 1431 Joan Arc 1412-1431 (19) was tried at Rouen Castle, Rouen. John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford 1389-1435 (41) and Henry Beauchamp 1st Duke Warwick 1425-1446 (5) were present.

Execution of Joan of Arc

On 30 May 1431 Joan Arc 1412-1431 (19) was burned at the stake witnessed by Cardinal Henry Beaufort 1375-1447 (56) at Old Market Place, Rouen.

Siege of Louviers

On 03 Oct 1431 Thomas Beaufort Count Perche 1405-1431 (26) was killed at Louviers, Eure, Haute Normandie during the Siege of Louviers.

French Coronation of Henry VI

On 16 Dec 1431 Henry VI (10) was crowned II King France: Lancaster at Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral. A somewhat futile exercise; the last gasps of the Hundred Years War.Walter Hungerford 1st Baron Hungerford 1378-1449 was appointed Carver. Thomas Harrington 1400-1460, Hugh Courtenay 12th Earl Devon 1389-1422 and his son Thomas (17) attended.

John Duke of Bedford marries Jacquetta Luxembourg

Battle of Gerberoy

On 09 May 1435 a French force commanded by Étienne Vignolles -1443 heavily defeated an English force commanded by John Fitzalan 14th Earl Arundel 1408-1435 (27) at the Battle of Gerberoy.
John Fitzalan 14th Earl Arundel 1408-1435 (27) was killed.
Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers 1405-1469 (30) fought.

Congress and Treaty of Arras

Douglas Black Dinner

On 24 Nov 1440 William Crichton -1454 arranged a dinner of reconciliation at the Great Hall, Edinburgh Castle.During the course of the dinner the young brothers William Douglas 3rd Duke Touraine 1424-1440 (16) and David Douglas 1430-1440 (10) was beheaded in front of the young James II King Scotland 1430-1460 (10).

Trial and Punishment of Eleanor Cobham

In 1441 Eleanor Cobham 1400-1452, wife of the heir presumptive Humphrey 1st Duke Gloucester (50), brother of the deceased Henry V King England 1386-1422, uncle of Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (19), was tried for predicting the future of the King; in reality a veiled attack on her husband who had over-reached himself. She had consulted two astrologers Thomas Southwell and Roger Bolingbroke.All three were arrested, tried and found guilty. Eleanor denied most of the charges but confessed to obtaining potions from Margery Jourdemayne, 'the Witch of Eye'.Thomas Southwell died whilst in the Tower of London, Tower Hill, City of London.
Margery Jourdemayne was burned at the stake.Eleanor was sentenced to do public penance, divorce her husband and remain confined for the remainder of her life.
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Treaty of Tours

On 28 May 1444 the Treaty of Tours was concluded. The terms included the marriage of Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (22) and Margaret of Anjou (14) in return for which England ceded the strategically important French County of Maine to France; she brought no dowry. The Treaty was negotiated by William de la Pole Duke of Suffolk (47). The cessation of Maine subsequently came as something of surprise to Edmund Beaufort Earl Somerset (38) who was its Governor. He, Somerset (38), was offered the Governorship of Normandy instead leading to a further rift between Somerset (38) and Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460{Richard Duke of York} who had already been offered Normandy. These seeds of the Wars of the Roses were falling on fertile ground.

Battle of Arbroath

On 24 Jan 1445 the Battle of Arbroath was fought between Clan Lindsay and Clans Ogilvy, Gordon, Oliphant, Seton and Forbes. David Lindsay 3rd Earl Crawford 1405-1445 (40) was killed when attempting to prevent the battle by riding between the two armies in an attempt to call a truce.Unfortunately a member of the Clan Ogilvy, thinking the Earl was attacked threw his spear at the Earl, hitting him in the mouth, killing him instantly. Clan Lindsay victorious.

Richard of York meets Margaret of Anjou

On 18 Mar 1445 Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (33) met Margaret of Anjou (14) at Pontoise on his mission to bring her back to Endland for her marriage to Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (23).

Marriage of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou

On 23 Apr 1445 Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (23) and Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England 1430-1482 (15) were married at Titchfield Abbey, Fareham, Hampshire.

Richard of York returns to England

On 20 Oct 1445 Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (34) returned to England at the end of his five-year appointment in France.

Death of Humphrey of Lancaster

On 23 Feb 1447 Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester 1390-1447 (56) died.He was possibly poisoned although more likely he died from a stroke at Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk.He had been arrested three days previously on a charge of treason.

Richard York appointed Lieutenant of Ireland

On 30 Jul 1447 Richard Duke of York (35) was appointed Lieutenant Ireland. An attempt by the Council to isolate Richard 3rd Duke York Prince Wales 1411-1460{Richard}..

Warwick Succeeds

On 03 Jan 1448 Anne Beauchamp 15th Countess Warwick 1443-1448 (4) died at Ewelme, Oxfordshire aged four whilst in the care of Alice Chaucer Duchess Suffolk 1404-1475 (43).After a prolonged legal dispute between her three half-aunts, and her full aunt, the courts decided her full aunt Anne Beauchamp (21) should succeed; Anne Beauchamp (21) succeeded as 16th Countess Warwick.Her husband Richard Neville (20) became jure uxoris 16th Earl Warwick (1C 1088); the first step on his journey to becoming Kingmaker. The decision of the court was not subscribed to by Edmund Beaufort Earl Somerset (41) who was married to Anne's (21) half-sister Eleanor (39); he wanted his share of the considerable Beauchamp inheritance.

Battle of Sark

On 23 Oct 1448 Hugh Douglas 1st Earl Ormonde -1455 commanded at during the Battle of Sark inflicting a heavy defeat on the English forces. Henry Percy 3rd Earl Northumberland 1421-1461 and Thomas Harrington 1400-1460 were captured. Henry Percy 2nd Earl Northumberland 1393-1455 escaped.

Battle of Formigny

On 15 Apr 1450 Charles Bourbon I Duke Bourbon 1401-1456 (49) and Arthur Montfort III Duke Brittany 1393-1458 (56) commanded at the Battle of Formigny at Formigny, Calvados, Basse Normandie at which Thomas Kyriell 1396-1461 (53) was captured.

Murder of William de la Pole

Before 01 May 1450 William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk 1396-1450 (53) exiled for five years for having lost the English possessions in Northern France including Anjou and Maine which were part of Margaret of Anjou's wedding settlement.

On 01 May 1450 William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk 1396-1450 (53) was beheaded at sea whilst travelling into exile his ship having been intercepted by the Nicholas of the Tower.

Jack Cade's Rebellion

On 04 Jul 1450 James Fiennes 1st Baron Saye and Sele 1395-1450 and his son in law William Cromer 1416-1450 (33) were beheaded at Standard, Cheapside, City of London. Humphrey Stafford 1400-1467 was killed at Sevenoaks, Kent. William Tresham -1450 was indicted for treason. Robert Poynings 1419-1461 joined the rebellion.

Battle of Brechin

On 18 May 1452 the Battle of Brechin was fought between supporters of James II King Scotland 1430-1460 (21) and his rellious nobility including the Black Douglases. Alexander Gordon 1st Earl Huntley -1470 defeated the rebels led by Tiger Earl 4th Earl Crawford 1423-1453 (29) on behalf on the King. John Lindsay 1423-1452 (29),and the brothers William Gordon -1452 and Henry Gordon -1452, were killed.

Warwick becomes Kingmaker

On 28 Jul 1450 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (22) succeeded his mother as 6th Earl Salisbury (2C 1337), 8th Baron Montagu, 7th Baron Monthermer adding to the earldom of Warwick he had already acquired through his wife some two years previously.The combined earldoms of Warwick and Salisbury made Warwick the second most powerful man in the Kingdom making him Kingmaker.

Knighting at Greenwich

On 05 Jan 1453 brothers John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (22) and Thomas Neville 1430-1460, William "Black William" Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke 1423-1469, brothers Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond 1430-1456 (22) and Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (21) and Roger Lewkenor were knighted by King Henry VI (31) at Greenwich, Kent

Battle of Heworth Moor

On 24 May 1453 Thomas Neville 1430-1460 and Maud Stanhope 4th Baroness Cromwell, Baroness Willoughby Eresby -1497 were married. Maud Stanhope 4th Baroness Cromwell, Baroness Willoughby Eresby -1497 was the niece and heiress of Ralph Cromwell 3rd Baron Cromwell 1403-1456 meaning traditional Percy lands would become Neville lands. The Percy's, being the older family, especially Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460, took umbrage.
John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (22) was ambushed at Heworth Moor, York, Yorkshire by Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460 leading a force of 700 or more men when returning with his brother's wedding party from Tattershall Castle, Tattershall, Lincolnshire to Sheriff Hutton, Yorkshire.

Battle of Castillon

On 07 Jul 1453 the Battle of Castillon, the last battle of the Hundred Years War, was fought at Castillon. John "Old Talbot" Talbot 1st Earl Shrewsbury, 1st Earl Waterford 1383-1453 (70) and John Talbot 1st Viscount Lisle 1426-1453 were killed. Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford 1431-1464 and John Foix Earl Kendal 1410-1485 (43) were captured.

Henry VI's first Illness

In Aug 1453 Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (31) suffered his first bout of illness; a mental breakdown. He was unresponsive for a year. His paternal grand-father #Charles "Beloved, Mad" VI King France 1368-1422{Charles VI of France} suffered a similar illness; his sobriquet "Mad".

Birth of Edward of Westminster

On 13 Oct 1453 Edward Lancaster Prince Wales 1453-1471 was born to Henry VI (31) and Margaret of Anjou (23) at Westminster Palace. When King Henry (31) recovered from his catatonic state, he greeted the child as a 'miracle'. There is some speculation as the child's actual father since Kingn Henry (31) and Queen Margaret (23) had been married for eight years before the child was born. Edmund Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (47) was suggested at the time..