1454-1464 First War of the Wars of the Roses

Neville - Percy Battle

On 31 Oct 1454 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (23) and Thomas Neville 1430-1460 captured Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460 and Richard Percy 1426-1461 at Stamford Bridge, East Riding, Yorkshire.

Battle of Arkinholm

On 01 May 1455 the Douglas rebellion was brought to an end at the Battle of Arkinholm near Langholm. Archibald Douglas 8th Earl Moray 1426-1455 was killed. Hugh Douglas 1st Earl Ormonde -1455 was executed. John Douglas 1433-1463 escaped.

First Battle of St Albans

On 22 May 1455 the Wars of the Roses commenced with the First Battle of St Albans. Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (43) commanded with Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (27), Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (55), Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham 1415-1464 (40) and Walter Strickland 1411-1467 (44).
The Lancastrians Edmund Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (49), Henry Percy 2nd Earl Northumberland 1393-1455, William Cotton 1410-1455 (45), Thomas Clifford 8th Baron Clifford 1414-1455 and Richard Fortescue 1414-1455 were killed. Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke Buckingham 1402-1460 (52) was wounded and captured. Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (33), John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 and Edmund Dudley 1425-1483 were captured. Henry Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (19) was wounded. James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire, 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (34) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (55) both fought.

Battle of Clyst Heath

On 15 Dec 1455 the Courtenay family, Earls of Devon since 1355, and Bonville family resolved their differences at the Battle of Clyst Heath. Thomas Courtenay 13th Earl Devon 1414-1458 (41) defeated William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville 1392-1461 (63).

John Neville married Isabel Ingaldsthorpe

On 25 Apr 1457 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (26) and Isabel Ingaldsthorpe 1441-1476 (16) were married by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (38) at Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent during the John Neville married Isabel Ingaldsthorpe

Loveday

On 24 Mar 1458 Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (39) presided at Westminster Abbey at a ceremony known as the "Loveday". John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461, Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (58), Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (30), Henry Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (22), Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (46), Henry Percy 3rd Earl Northumberland 1421-1461, Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460 and Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England 1430-1482 attended in an attempt to reconcile the Lancastrian and Yorkist factions.

Battle of Blore Heath

On 23 Sep 1459 John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 attempted to ambush John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (28) whilst he was travelling to Ludlow to join up with the main Yorkist army; the Battle of Blore Heath. Forewarned by scouts he arranged his troops into battle order. The Yorkist army included John Conyers -1490, Thomas Harrington 1400-1460, James Harrington 1430-1485, Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (59), William Stanley Lord Chamberlain 1435-1495, Roger Kynaston 1433-1495 (26), John Savile, Walter Strickland 1411-1467 (48) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (59). The Lancastrian army included brothers John Dutton -1459, Thomas Dutton 1421-1459 and Peter Dutton -1459 who were killed. James Tuchet 5th Baron Audley Heighley 1398-1459 was killed by Roger Kynaston 1433-1495 (26). John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 and Edmund Dudley 1425-1483 were captured. Lionel Welles 6th Baron Welles 1406-1461 fought.
Richard Molyneux of Sefton 1420-1459 (39) was killed.
John Egerton 1404-1459 was killed.
Adam Bostock 1413-1475 (46) was killed.
After the battle James Harrington 1430-1485, John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (28) and Thomas Neville 1430-1460 were captured at Acton Bridge, Tarporley, Cheshire and imprisoned at Chester Castle, Chester, Cheshire having been detached from the main Yorkist force.
William Troutbeck 1436-1459 (23) was killed

Battle of Ludford Bridge

On 12 Oct 1459 the Battle of Ludford Bridge nearly took place at Ludford Bridge, Ludlow, Shropshire. In the event a large number of the Calais garrison refused to fight against Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (37) who was present. The Yorkist leaders left overnight: Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (48), the future Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (17), Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland 1443-1460 (16), Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (31), Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (59) and John Dinham 1st Baron Dinham 1433-1501 (26). Thomas Parr 1407-1464 was present. The Lancastrian army included Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke Buckingham 1402-1460 (57) and William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel 1417-1487 (41).

Parliament of the Devils

On 09 Oct 1459 Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 (39) was appointed as Speaker of the House of Commons at Coventry, Warwickshire during the Parliament of the Devils. John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (28) was attainted.

Battle of Sandwich

On 15 Jan 1460 Yorkist forces commanded by John Dinham 1st Baron Dinham 1433-1501 (26) and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (32) raided Sandwich capturing a number of Lancastrian ships. In addition, the Woodville family: Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers 1405-1469 (55), his wife Jacquetta Luxembourg Duchess Bedford 1415-1472 and their son Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (20) were captured.

In 1460 John Dinham 1st Baron Dinham 1433-1501 (27) captured Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers 1405-1469 (55) at Sandwich, Kent.

Yorkist Landing at Sandwich

On 26 Jun 1460 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (32) landed at Sandwich, Kent.

Battle of Northampton 1460

On 10 Jul 1460 the Yorkist army led by the future Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) and including Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (32), George Neville Archbishop York 1432-1476 (27), William Neville 1st Earl Kent 1405-1463 (55), Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent 1416-1490 (43), Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham 1415-1464 (45) and John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope Bolton 1437-1498 defeated the Lancastrian army at the Battle of Northampton 1460.
Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (38) was captured.
Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke Buckingham 1402-1460 (57), John Talbot 2nd Earl Shrewsbury, 2nd Earl Waterford 1417-1460 (42), Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460 and John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont 1409-1460 were killed.
Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 (40) fought.
William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 and William Norreys 1441-1507 were knighted.
Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland -1460 was executed following the battle.

Battle of Roxburgh

On 03 Aug 1460 William Douglas 3rd Lord Drumlanrig 1440-1464 fought at Roxburgh Castle, Roxburgh during the Battle of Roxburgh

Richard of York claims the Kingdom of England

On 10 Oct 1460 Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (49) claimed the Kingdom of England in Westminster Hall witnessed by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (42).

Act of Accord (39 Hen VI)

On 25 Oct 1460 Parliament enacted the Act of Accord (39 Hen VI) by which Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (49) was declared heir to Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (38) disinheriting Edward Lancaster Prince Wales 1453-1471[Edward of Westminster at the same Parliament on 31 Oct 1460 Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (49) was appointed as Prince Wales, Earl Chester, Duke Cornwall and Lord Protector.

Battle of Wakefield

On 30 Dec 1460 the Lancastrian army took their revenge for the defeats of the First Battle of St Albans and the Battle of Northampton during the Battle of Wakefield at Sandal Castle, Wakefield, Yorkshire. The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 and Henry Percy 3rd Earl Northumberland 1421-1461, and included John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 (25) and William Gascoigne 1430-1463, both knighted, and James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire, 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40), John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461, John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1410-1461, Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley 1427-1464 and Thomas St Leger 1440-1483.
The Yorkist army was heavily defeated. Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (49), Thomas Neville 1430-1460, Thomas Harrington 1400-1460, William Bonville 6th Baron Harington 1442-1460 (18) and Edward Bourchier -1460 were killed. Following the battle Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (60) was beheaded by Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland -1460. William Bonville 1420-1460 (40) was executed. Thomas Parr 1407-1464 fought in the Yorkist army.
Following the battle Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland 1443-1460 (17) was executed by John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 by which he gained his sobriquet "Butcher".

Battle of Mortimer's Cross

On 02 Feb 1461 at the Battle of Mortimer's Cross at Wigmore, Herefordshire the future Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) commanded the Yorkist forces including William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483, John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (61), John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley Heighley, 3rd Baron Tuchet 1426-1490, John Savage 1444-1544 and Roger Vaughan 1410-1471 (51). In the Lancastrian army Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (61) (captured by Roger Vaughan 1410-1471 (51) ) and his son Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (29) fought as well as James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire, 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40). Gruffydd ap Nicholas Deheubarth 1393-1461 was killed.
Following the battle Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (61) was beheaded in the Market Place, Hereford, Herefordshire. He was buried thereafter in Greyfriars Church, Hereford, Herefordshire in a tomb paid for by his son David Owen 1459-1535 (2)

Second Battle of St Albans

On 18 Feb 1461 the Lancastrian army defeated the Yorkist army at Second Battle of St Albans and rescued Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (39). The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 and included Henry Percy 3rd Earl Northumberland 1421-1461, John Mowbray 3rd Duke Norfolk 1415-1461 (45), Henry Grey 7th Baron Grey Codnor 1435-1496 and Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby Eresby, 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470. Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley 1427-1464, William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme 1415-1464 (46), John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury, 3rd Earl Waterford 1448-1473 (12) and Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 (41) were knighted.
The Yorkist army included Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (33), William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel 1417-1487 (43), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (61) and Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu, 1st Earl Essex 1404-1483 (56). John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (30) was captured. Robert Poynings 1419-1461 and James Luttrell Baron Dunster 1427-1461 (34) were killed.
John Grey 1432-1461 was killed fighting for Lancaster. A death that was to have far reaching consequences; his widow Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (23) subsequently married Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18).
After the battle William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville 1392-1461 (68) and Thomas Kyriell 1396-1461 (64) were beheaded after having protected Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (39) during the battle against all decent laws of battle. Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England 1430-1482 reneged on their immunity and tried them in front of her seven year old son Prince Edward who ordered them to be beheaded.

Proclamation of Edward IV as King

On 04 Mar 1461 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) declared himself King of England. William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 was present.

Battles of Ferrybridge

On 27 Mar 1461 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (33) fought at Ferrybridge, West Yorkshire, Yorkshire at the with John Radclyffe 1426-1461 capturing the bridge.
On 28 Mar 1461 a further skirmish occurred near Ferrybridge, West Yorkshire, Yorkshire. Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (33) fought. John Radclyffe 1426-1461 was killed. For Lancaster John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 and John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1410-1461.
On 28 Mar 1461 John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 was killed at Dintingdale, West Yorkshire, Yorkshire during a skirmish. William Neville 1st Earl Kent 1405-1463 (56) fought for York.

Battle of Towton

On 29 Mar 1461 the Battle of Towton was a decisive victory for Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) bringing to an end the first war of the Wars of the Roses. Said to be the bloodiest battle on English soil 28000 were killed mainly during the rout that followed the battle.
The Yorkist army was commanded by Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) with John Mowbray 3rd Duke Norfolk 1415-1461 (45), Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475, William Neville 1st Earl Kent 1405-1463 (56), William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (knighted), Walter Blount 1st Baron Mountjoy 1416-1474, Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu, 1st Earl Essex 1404-1483 (56), John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope Bolton 1437-1498 and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (61).
The Lancastrian army suffered significant casualties including Henry Percy 3rd Earl Northumberland 1421-1461, Richard Percy 1426-1461, Ralph Bigod 1410-1461, John Bigod -1461, Robert Cromwell 1390-1461, Ralph Dacre 1st Baron Dacre Gilsland 1412-1461, Ralph Eure 1412-1461, John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1410-1461, Lionel Welles 6th Baron Welles 1406-1461, John Beaumont 1428-1461, Thomas Dethick 1400-1461 (61), Everard Simon Digby -1461, William Plumpton -1461 and William Welles 1410-1461 who were killed.
Those who fought for the Lancaster included William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme 1415-1464 (46), John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487, William Norreys 1441-1507, Thomas Grey 1st Baron Grey Richemont 1418-1461, Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford 1431-1464, John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury, 3rd Earl Waterford 1448-1473 (12), Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby Eresby, 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470, Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers 1405-1469 (56), James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire, 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40), John Butler 6th Earl Ormonde 1448-1476 (12), William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 and Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 (41). Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (41) were captured.
On 03 Apr 1461 Thomas Courtenay 14th Earl Devon 1432-1461 (28) was beheaded at York, Yorkshire.
Robert Dethick 1375-1461 (86) was killed.
John Heron of Ford Castle Northumberland 1416-1461 (44) was killed.
Thomas Grey 1st Baron Grey Richemont 1418-1461 was executed

Edward IV marries Eleanor Talbot (possibly)

Around Jun 1461 , the record is very vague, Edward IV King England 1442-1483 and Eleanor Talbot 1436-1468 were possibly secretly married by Robert Stillington Bishop Bath and Wells 1420-1491 (41). The marriage came to light after Edward's death. Robert Stillington Bishop Bath and Wells 1420-1491 (41) provided the information to the future Richard III King England 1452-1485 (8) in 1483; Richard used the information to justify his succeeding to be King since Edward IV's (19) children with Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (24) were, therefore, illegitimate as a result of their marriage being bigamous and George Duke of Clarence's (11) children were barred from the throne as a consequence of their father's attainder.

Coronation of Edward IV

On 28 Jun 1461 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (19) was crowned IV King England: Plantagenet York by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (43) who was assisted by William Booth Archbishop York 1388-1464 at Westminster Abbey, Westminster during the Coronation of Edward IV

Edward IV Rewards his Followers

On 26 Jul 1461 William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 was created 1st Baron Hastings (2C 1430) for supporting Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (19) in his claim to the throne.
Robert Ogle 1st Baron Ogle 1406-1469 (55) was created 1st Baron Ogle by Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (19) for having been the principal Northumbrian gentleman to support the Yorkist cause.

On 28 Jul 1461 Robert Stillington Bishop Bath and Wells 1420-1491 (41) was appointed as Keeper of the Privy Seal.

Vere Plot to Murder Edward IV

Before 20 Feb 1462 John Vere 12th Earl Oxford 1408-1462 (53), his son Aubrey Vere -1462 and Thomas Tuddenham 1401-1462 (60) were arrested for treason against King Edward IV (19). They were subsequently tried by John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 (34).
On 20 Feb 1462 Aubrey Vere -1462 was executed at Tower Hill.
On 23 Feb 1462 William Tyrrell 1408-1462, John Montgomery -1462 and Thomas Tuddenham 1401-1462 (60) were beheaded at Tower Hill.
On 26 Feb 1462 John Vere 12th Earl Oxford 1408-1462 (53) was hanged at Tower Hill.

Siege of Alnwick

In Jul 1462 William Douglas 3rd Lord Drumlanrig 1440-1464 fought at Alnwick Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland during the Siege of Alnwick

Battle of Piltown

Around Jul 1462 the Yorkist army of Thomas Fitzgerald 7th Earl Desmond -1468 defeated the Lancastrian army of John Butler 6th Earl Ormonde 1448-1476 (13) at Piltown, Kilkenny, County Kilkenny. The Lancastrian army suffered around 1000 killed.

Suppressing the Lancastrian Northern Resistance

Battle of Hedgeley Moor

On 25 Apr 1464 a Yorkist army commanded by John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (33) defeated a Lancastrian army commanded by Henry Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (28) at Hedgeley Moor, Glanton, Northumberland during the Battle of Hedgeley Moor. Lancastrians Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley 1427-1464 and Ralph Percy 1425-1464 were killed.

Battle of Hexham

On 15 May 1464 a Yorkist army commanded by John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (33) defeated a Lancastrian army commanded by Henry Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (28) at Hexham, Northumberland during the Battle of Hexham.
Those fighting for York included John Stafford 1st Earl Wiltshire 1427-1473 (36), John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope Bolton 1437-1498 and Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby Eresby, 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470.
Of the Lancastrian army William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme 1415-1464 (49) fought. Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford 1431-1464 and Philip Wentworth 4th Baron Despencer 1424-1464 were both captured.
Henry Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (28) was beheaded following the battle.
On 18 May 1464 Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford 1431-1464 was executed at Newcastle on Tyne, Northumberland. Philip Wentworth 4th Baron Despencer 1424-1464 was executed at Middleham, Yorkshire.

Marriage of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville

Around May 1464 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (22) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (27) were married at Grafton Regis, Northamptonshire. Jacquetta Luxembourg Duchess Bedford 1415-1472, Elizabeth's mother, being the only witness.

Edward IV announces his marriage at Privy Council

On Sep 1464 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (22) announced his recent marriage at Privy Council to the astonishment of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (36) who had until recently been actively seeking a French Princess as Edward's future wife.