1580-1599 Babington Plot and Execution of Mary Queen of Scots

Battle of Glenmalure

On 25 Aug 1580 the Irish forces ambushed the forces of Arthur Grey 14th Baron Grey Wilton 1536-1593 at the Battle of Glenmalure fought at Glenmalure, County Wicklow.Around 800 English soldiers, including, Peter Carew -1580 were killed.


Siege of Smerwick

In Nov 1580 Edward Denny 1547-1600 led a company at Smerwick, County Kerry during the Siege of Smerwick.Walter Raleigh 1554-1618 (26) was present at Smerwick during the Siege of Smerwick.Arthur Grey 14th Baron Grey Wilton 1536-1593 laid siege to the Smerwick garrison at Smerwick, County Kerry during the Siege of Smerwick


Exeter Black Assizes 1586

On #01 Apr 1586 Robert Carey 1515-1586 died of gaol fever.


On #02 Apr 1586 Arthur Bassett 1541-1586 died of gaol fever.


In Mar 1586 a virulent outbreak of gaol fever occurred during the Assizes in Exeter, Devon. The cause according to modern medical opinion was typhus transmitted by the human body-louse. Among the dead victims were eight judges, eleven of the twelve jurors, several constables, and the surrounding population which was ravaged by the disease for several months.
Edward Flowerdew -1586 died of gaol fever.


On 28 Mar 1586 Thomas Carew of Haccombe 1516-1586 (70) died of gaol fever.


On 31 Mar 1586 John Chichester -1586 died of gaol fever.


On 10 Apr 1586 Bernard Drake 1528-1586 (58) died of gaol fever


Babington Plot

On 06 Jul 1586 Anthony Babington 1561-1586 wrote to Mary "Queen of Scots" Stewart I Queen Scotland 1542-1587 (43), telling her that he and a group of friends were planning to assassinate Elizabeth Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1533-1603 (52).


On 04 Aug 1586 John Ballard -1586 was arrested and, under torture, he conFessd and implicated Anthony Babington 1561-1586.


After 04 Aug 1586 Christopher Wray 1524-1592 (62) passed sentence of death on those implicated.


On 20 Sep 1586 Anthony Babington 1561-1586, John Ballard -1586, Henry Donn -1586, Thomas Salusbury 1564-1586 and Chideock Tichbourne 1562-1586 (24) were hanged at St Giles' Field, Holborn, Middlesex for their involvement


On 21 Sep 1586 Robert Gage -1586 was executed for his involvement in the Babington Plot.


Battle of Zutphen

On 22 Sep 1586 Robert Sidney 1st Earl Leicester 1563-1626 (22) fought at the Battle of Zutphen.William Russell 1st Baron Russel Thornhaugh 1560-1613 (26) distinguished himself being noted for maintaining an effective fighting force in difficult circumstances.


On 17 Oct 1586 Philip Sidney 1554-1586 died from wounds received at the Battle of Zutphen


Trial of Mary Queen of Scots

On 14 Oct 1586 Henry Compton 1st Baron Compton 1544-1589, Lewis Mordaunt 3rd Baron Mordaunt 1538-1601, Henry Wentworth 3rd Baron Wentworth 1558-1593, Christopher Wray 1524-1592 (62), John Stourton 9th Baron Stourton 1553-1588 and Edward Zouche 11th Baron Zouche Harringworth 1556-1625 sat in judgement on Mary Queen of Scots (43) in the Presence Chamber, Fotheringay Castle, Fotheringhay, Northamptonshire.
Anthony Browne 1st Viscount Montague 1528-1592 (57), George Clifford 3rd Earl Cumberland 1558-1605 (28), Henry Clinton 2nd Earl Lincoln 1539-1616 (47), Henry Grey 6th Earl Kent 1541-1615 (45), Edward Manners 3rd Earl Rutland 1549-1587 (37), Henry Stanley 4th Earl Derby 1531-1593 (55), Ambrose Dudley 3rd Earl Warwick 1530-1590 (56), George Talbot 6th Earl Shrewsbury, 6th Earl Waterford 1528-1590 (58), Edward Vere 17th Earl Oxford 1550-1604 (36), William Somerset 3rd Earl Worcester 1526-1589 (60), William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598 (66), Henry Herbert 2nd Earl Pembroke 1538-1601 (48) and Thomas Bromley Lord Chancellor 1530-1587 (56) were present on the side of the Presence Chamber, Fotheringay Castle, Fotheringhay, Northamptonshire.
John St John 2nd Baron St John Bletso -1596 was present on the left side of the Presence Chamber, Fotheringay Castle, Fotheringhay, Northamptonshire.
John Stourton 9th Baron Stourton 1553-1588 was a juror.


On 25 Oct 1586 Mary "Queen of Scots" Stewart I Queen Scotland 1542-1587 (43) was convicted and sentenced to death. Only Edward Zouche 11th Baron Zouche Harringworth 1556-1625 offered any dissent against the judgement.


Execution of Mary Queen of Scots

On 01 Feb 1587 Queen Elizabeth I (53) signed Mary Queen of Scot's (44) death warrant. Elizabeth gave orders of Mary's jailor Amyas Poulett 1457-1538 to complete the task. He refused.


On 07 Feb 1587 Mary Queen of Scots (44) was informed she was to be executed the following day. During the course of the night she wrote to her former brother-in-law Henry III King France 1551-1589 (35) ...
08 February 1587
To the most Christian king, my brother and old ally,
Royal brother, having by God’s will, for my sins I think, thrown myself into the power of the Queen my cousin, at whose hands I have suffered much for almost twenty years, I have finally been condemned to death by her and her Estates. I have asked for my papers, which they have taken away, in order that I might make my will, but I have been unable to recover anything of use to me, or even get leave either to make my will freely or to have my body conveyed after my death, as I would wish, to your kingdom where I had the honor to be queen, your sister and old ally.
Tonight, after dinner, I have been advised of my sentence: I am to be executed like a criminal at eight in the morning. I have not had time to give you a full account of everything that has happened, but if you will listen to my doctor and my other unfortunate servants, you will learn the truth, and how, thanks be to God, I scorn death and vow that I meet it innocent of any crime, even if I were their subject. The Catholic faith and the assertion of my God-given right to the English crown are the two issues on which I am condemned, and yet I am not allowed to say that it is for the Catholic religion that I die, but for fear of interference with theirs. The proof of this is that they have taken away my chaplain, and although he is in the building, I have not been able to get permission for him to come and hear my confession and give me the Last Sacrament, while they have been most insistent that I receive the consolation and instruction of their minister, brought here for that purpose. The bearer of this letter and his companions, most of them your subjects, will testify to my conduct at my last hour. It remains for me to beg Your Most Christian Majesty, my brother-in-law and old ally, who have always protested your love for me, to give proof now of your goodness on all these points: firstly by charity, in paying my unfortunate servants the wages due them – this is a burden on my conscience that only you can relieve: further, by having prayers offered to God for a queen who has borne the title Most Christian, and who dies a Catholic, stripped of all her possessions. As for my son, I commend him to you in so far as he deserves, for I cannot answer for him. I have taken the liberty of sending you two precious stones, talismans against illness, trusting that you will enjoy good health and a long and happy life. Accept them from your loving sister-in-law, who, as she dies, bears witness of her warm feeling for you. Again I commend my servants to you. Give instructions, if it please you, that for my soul’s sake part of what you owe me should be paid, and that for the sake of Jesus Christ, to whom I shall pray for you tomorrow as I die, I be left enough to found a memorial mass and give the customary alms.
Wednesday, at two in the morning
Your most loving and most true sister
Mary R


On 08 Feb 1587 Mary Queen of Scots (44) was beheaded in the Great Hall in Fortheringhay Castle. Around eight am Mary entered the hall. She removed her black dress to reveal a red petticoat that symbolised Catholic martyrdom.
George Talbot 6th Earl Shrewsbury, 6th Earl Waterford 1528-1590 (59), Henry Grey 6th Earl Kent 1541-1615 (46), Richard Knightley 1532-1615 and Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl Southampton 1573-1624 (13) witnessed her execution.


Singeing the King of Spain's Beard

On 12 Apr 1587 an English fleet commanded by Francis Drake 1540-1596 (47) left Plymouth, Devon.


On 29 Apr 1587 the English fleet entered the Bay of Cádiz, Spain in the evening to discover sixty Spanish and twenty French ships.The Spanish ships, under the command of Pedro de Acuña, sailed out to meet the English fleet but were forced to retire back to Cadiz before the superiority of the English. Gun positions on the shore opened fire, shelling the English fleet from the coast with little effect. During the night of the 29th and all the following day and night the battle raged in the bay. At dawn on 1 May, the English withdrew having destroyed around thirty-two Spanish ships, with a combined capacity of 10,000 tons, and captured four other ships, laden with provisions.


On 08 Jun 1587 the English fleet sighted a Portuguese carrack, the São Filipe, twenty leagues from the Island of São Miguel, returning from the Indies laden with treasure. After a brief exchange of fire it was captured, the first ship to be so on the return run from the Indies. Its enormous fortune of gold, spices, and silk was valued at £108,000 (of which 10% was to go to Drake); the fleet returned to England, arriving on 6 July.The expedition led by Francis Drake was a resounding military success: over one hundred Spanish vessels of different tonnages were destroyed or captured during the expedition.Economic and material losses caused to the Spanish fleet by the English attack ensured that Spanish plans for the invasion of England had to be postponed for over a year. It was not until August 1588 that the Armada was ready to leave for the British Isles.


Trial of Philip Earl of Arundel

On 14 Apr 1589 Philip Howard 20th Earl Arundel 1557-1595 (31) was condemned to death. Elizbeth I never signed the death warrant; Howard was never told.Henry Stanley 4th Earl Derby 1531-1593 (57) was present.


On 18 Apr 1589 Christopher Wray 1524-1592 (65) acted as judge during the Trial of Philip Earl of Arundel


King Henry IV of France invested in the Order of the Garter

In 1596 William Segar 1554-1663 accompanied Gilbert Talbot 7th Earl Shrewsbury, 7th Earl Waterford 1552-1616 (43) on his trip to invest Henry IV King France 1553-1610 (42) with the Order of the Garter.


Elizabeth's Royal Progress 1591

On 02 Aug 1591 Elizabeth Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1533-1603 (57) left at Nonsuch Palace, Nonsuch Park, Cheam, Surrey to commence her Royal Progress.She travelled south to Mansion House, Leatherhead, Surrey ; the home of Edmund Tilney 1536-1610 (55).


After 02 Aug 1591 Elizabeth Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1533-1603 (57) arrived at East Horsley, Surrey where she stayed with Thomas Cornwallis 1518-1604.


On 15 Aug 1591 Elizabeth Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1533-1603 (57) arrived at Cowdray House, Cowdray, Midhurst, Sussex the home of Anthony Browne 1st Viscount Montague 1528-1592 (62) and Magdalen Dacre Viscountess Montague 1538-1608.She was welcomed by a breakfast for some 300 guests. George Browne -1615 was knighted. Henry Browne organised the hunting.Elizabeth stayed until the 21 Aug 1591.


On 22 Aug 1591 Elizabeth Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1533-1603 (57) arrived in Chichester, West Sussex, Sussex as a guest of John Lumley 1st Baron Lumley 1533-1609.She is believed to haved stayed at The Punch House, The Cross, West Sussex, Sussex.


On 22 Aug 1591 Elizabeth Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1533-1603 (57) arrived in Chichester, West Sussex, Sussex as a guest of John Lumley 1st Baron Lumley 1533-1609.She is believed to haved stayed at The Punch House, The Cross, West Sussex, Sussex.


After 22 Aug 1591 Elizabeth Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1533-1603 (57) arrived in Titchfield, Hampshire as a guest of Henry Wriothesley 2nd Earl Southampton 1545-1581.


On 22 Oct 1591 Elizabeth Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1533-1603 (58) arrived in Elvetham Hall, Harley Wintney, Hampshire where she was entertained in magnificent style by Edward Seymour 1st Earl Hertford 1539-1621 (52).


On 26 Oct 1591 Elizabeth Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1533-1603 (58) arrived in Oatlands Palace, Weybridge, Surrey.


Battle of Flores

On 10 Sep 1591 Richard Grenville 1542-1591 (49) died from wounds received at the Battle of Flores.


Spanish Armada

On 25 Jul 1588 Thomas Howard 1st Earl Suffolk 1561-1626 (26) was captain of the Golden Lion in the attack on the Spanish Armada.


On 26 Jul 1588 Roger Townshend 1544-1590 was knighted.


Battle of Glenlivet

On 03 Oct 1594 Archibald Campbell 7th Earl Argyll 1575-1638 (19) commanded during the Battle of Glenlivet.


Sack of Cadiz

Robert Radclyffe 5th Earl Sussex 1573-1629 was knighted by Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 for the taking of Cadiz.


On 13 Jun 1596 Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (30) departed from Plymouth, Devon with a fleet of 150 English and Dutch ships divided into four squads with 6,360 private soldiers, 1,000 English volunteers, and 6,772 sailors.
Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham 1536-1624 (60) was admiral in command.Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (30) commanded the land forces.Edward Conway 1st Viscount Conway 1564-1631 (32) commanded a foot Regiment.
Thomas Howard 1st Earl Suffolk 1561-1626 (34),Walter Raleigh 1554-1618 (42),Francis Vere 1561-1609 each commanded a squadron.
Anthony Ashley 1st Baronet St Giles Wimborne St Giles 1561-1628 (35) represented Queen Elizabeth (62).


On 29 Jun 1596 the fleet arrived in Cádiz, Spain.In the Bay of Cádiz some 40 Spanish ships, ranging from galleys to galleons, as well as 16 other vessels from the Spanish convoy, which were disarmed and ready to depart for the West Indies. These unarmed vessels immediately fled to Puerto Real for refuge.


On 30 Jun 1596 at two in the morning the Anglo-Dutch fleet could be seen from Cádiz, Spain, but it could not enter the bay due to bad weather. At five o'clock in the morning, both sides commenced an intense artillery barrage. After two hours, the Spanish fleet, outnumbered by the English, had to retreat to the interior of the bay. In the fray, the Spanish galleons San Andrés and San Mateo were captured, while the San Felipe and Santo Tomás sank, set fire by their captains in the face of possible capture by the Anglo-Dutch forces. They entered the bay at eight o'clock in the morning.


On 14 Jul 1596 the English burned Cádiz and the next day they left the bay, taking the hostages with them since the Spanish authorities had not been able to pay the ransom.The sacking of Cádiz in 1596 was one of the worst Spanish defeats in the course of the war, together with the attack on Cádiz of 1587 and the loss of the Armada in 1588. The economic losses produced by the Earl of Essex's expedition against the city and the anchored fleet in the port, estimated at 5 million ducats,contributed to the bankruptcy of the royal treasury that same year.The city of Cádiz remained devastated; in addition to the churches and hospitals, 290 out of a total of 1,303 houses burned.


Death of Henry Carey 1st Baron Hunsdon

On 23 Jul 1596 Henry Carey 1st Baron Hunsdon 1526-1596 (70) died at Somerset House, Strand, Westminster. Elizabeth Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1533-1603 (62) was present. She, apparently, proposed he be made Earl Wiltshire. He refused saying ... "Madam, as you did not count me worthy of this honour in life, then I shall account myself not worthy of it in death".


Battle of Carrickfergus

On Nov 1597 John Chichester -1597 was beheaded by Randal "Arranach" Macdonnell 1st Earl Antrim -1636 at Carrickfergus, County Antrim.


Robert Devereux Earl Essex loses the Plot

On 24 Sep 1599 Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (33) sailed from Ireland reaching London four days later.


On 28 Sep 1599 Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (33) presented himself to Elizabeth (66) in her bedchamber at Nonsuch Palace, Nonsuch Park, Cheam, Surrey "where he found the queen newly up, the hair about her face”. Elizabeth had just a simple robe over her nightdress, her wrinkled skin was free of cosmetics and, without her wig, Essex saw her bald head with just wisps of thinning grey hair 'hanging about her ears'". The Queen confined the Earl to his rooms with the comment that "an unruly beast must be stopped of his provender."


On 29 Sep 1599 Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (33) was compelled to stand before the Council during a five-hour interrogation. The Council, which included his uncle William Knollys 1st Earl Banbury 1544-1632 (55), took a quarter of an hour to compile a report, which declared that his truce with O'Neill was indefensible and his flight from Ireland tantamount to a desertion of duty. He was committed to the custody of Sir Richard Berkeley 1531-1605 in his own York House, Strand, Westminster on 1 October.