On 22 May 1455 the Wars of the Roses commenced with the First Battle of St Albans. Richard 3rd Duke York (43) commanded with Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (26), Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (55), Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham 1415-1464 (40) and Walter Strickland 1411-1467 (44).
The Lancastrians ...
[his grandfather] Edmund Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (49) was killed. His son [his father] Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (19) succeeded 2nd Duke Somerset 2C 1448. Note his father is frequently incorrectly referred to as the second Duke and Henry as the third Duke. His father's Dukedom, however, was a new creation.
Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland 1393-1455 (62) was killed. His son Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (33) succeeded 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1C 1377, 6th Baron Percy of Alnwick 1C 1299, 14th Baron Percy of Topcliffe. Eleanor Poynings Countess Northumberland 1422-1480 (33) by marriage Countess of Northumberland.
Thomas Clifford 8th Baron Clifford 1414-1455 (41) was killed. His son John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (20) succeeded 9th Baron Clifford, 9th Lord Skipton. Margaret Bromflete Baroness Clifford 1434-1493 (21) by marriage Baroness Clifford.
King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (33), John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 (54) and Edmund Dudley 1425-1483 (30) were captured.
[his father] Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (19) was wounded. James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (34) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (55) fought.
Richard Cotton of Hampstall Ridware 1404-1455 (51) and his son William Cotton of Connington in Huntingdonshire 1428-1455 (27) were killed.
In 1460 Charles Somerset 1st Earl Worcester 1460-1526 was born illegitimately to [his father] Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (23) and Joan Hill 1412-1493 (48). He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III England.
On 15 May 1464 a Yorkist army commanded by John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (33) defeated a Lancastrian army commanded by [his father] Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (28) at Hexham during the Battle of Hexham.
Those fighting for York included John Stafford 1st Earl Wiltshire 1427-1473 (36), John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope of Bolton 1437-1498 (26) and Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (36).
[his father] Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (28) was beheaded following the battle. His brother [his uncle] Edmund Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset 1439-1471 (25) succeeded 4th Duke Somerset 2C 1448. He Edmund is frequently referred as the 4th Duke. His father's (58) Dukedom was, however, a new creation.
On 04 May 1471 King Edward IV (29) was victorious at the Battle of Tewkesbury. His brother Richard (18), Richard Beauchamp 2nd Baron Beauchamp Powick 1435-1503 (36), John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (46), George Neville 4th Baron Bergavenny 1440-1492 (31), John Savage 1422-1495 (49), John Savage 1444-1492 (27), Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (31), John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley of Heighley 3rd Baron Tuchet 1426-1490 (45), Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh 1431-1496 (40) fought. William Brandon 1425-1491 (46), George Browne 1440-1483 (31), Ralph Hastings -1495, Richard Hastings Baron Willoughby de Eresby 1433-1503 (38), James Tyrrell 1455-1502 (16), Roger Kynaston of Myddle and Hordley 1433-1495 (38) were knighted. William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (40) commanded.
Margaret of Anjou (41) was captured. Her son Edward of Westinster Prince of Wales 1453-1471 (17) was killed. He was the last of the Lancastrian line excluding the illegitmate Charles Somerset 1st Earl Worcester 1460-1526 (11) whose line continues to the present.
[his uncle] Edmund Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset 1439-1471 (32) and Hugh Courtenay 1427-1471 (44) were captured.
Henry Roos -1504 fought and escaped to Tewkesbury Abbey where sough sanctuary. He was subsequently pardoned.
On 02 Jun 1492 Charles Somerset 1st Earl Worcester 1460-1526 (32) and [his wife] Elizabeth Herbert 3rd Baroness Herbert Raglan 1476-1507 (16) were married. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III England.
In 1493 [his mother] Joan Hill 1412-1493 (81) died.
Around 1496 [his son] Henry Somerset 2nd Earl Worcester 1496-1549 was born to Charles Somerset 1st Earl Worcester 1460-1526 (36) and Elizabeth Herbert 3rd Baroness Herbert Raglan 1476-1507 (20).
244th John King Denmark Norway and Sweden 1455-1513 (43).
253rd Richard Pole 1462-1504 (37).
In Aug 1507 [his wife] Elizabeth Herbert 3rd Baroness Herbert Raglan 1476-1507 (31) died. She was buried at St George's Chapel Windsor Castle. Henry Somerset 2nd Earl Worcester 1496-1549 (11) was succeeded as 4th Baron Herbert Raglan.
Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII April 1509. Apr 1509. Will of Henry VII (52):
At his manor of Richmond March 24 Hen. VII., the King (52) makes his last will, commending his soul to the Redeemer with the words he has used since his first "years of discretion," Domine Jesu Christe, qui me ex nichilo creasti, fecisti, redemisti et predestinasti ad hoc quod sum, Tu scis quid de me facere vis, fac de me secundum voluntatem Tuam cum misericordia, trusting in the grace of His Blessed Mother in whom, after Him, has been all his (testator's) trust, by whom in all his adversities he has had special comfort, and to whom he now makes his prayer (recited), as also to all the company of Heaven and especially his "accustumed avoures" St. Michael, St. John Baptist, St. John Evangelist, St. George, St. Anthony, St. Edward, St. Vincent, St. Anne, St. Mary Magdalene and St. Barbara, to defend him at the hour of death and be intercessors for the remission of his sins and salvation of his soul.
Desires to be buried at Westminster, where he was crowned, where lie buried many of his progenitors, especially his granddame Katharine wife to Henry V and daughter to Charles of France, and whereto he means shortly to translate the remains of Henry IV in the chapel which he has begun to build (giving full directions for the placing and making of his tomb and finishing of the said chapel according to the plan which he has "in picture delivered" to the prior of St. Bartholomew's beside Smithfield, master of the works for the same); and he has delivered beforehand to the abbot, &c., of Westminster, 5,000l., by indenture dated Richmond, 13 April 23 Hen VII, towards the cost.
His executors shall cause 10,000 masses in honor of the Trinity, the Five Wounds, the Five Joys of Our Lady, the Nine Orders of Angels, the Patriarchs, the Twelve Apostles and All Saints (numbers to each object specified) to be said within one month after his decease, at 6d. each, making in all 250l, and shall distribute 2,000l. in alms; and to ensure payment he has left 2,250l. with the abbot, &c., of West-minster, by indenture dated (blank) day of (blank) in the (blank) year of his reign.
His debts are then to be paid and reparation for wrongs made by his executors at the discretion of the following persons, by whom all complaints shall be tenderly weighed, viz, the abp of Canterbury (59), Richard bp of Winchester (61), the bps of London and Rochester (39), Thomas Earl of Surrey (66), Treasurer General, George Earl of Shrewsbury (41), Steward of the House, Sir Charles Somerset Lord Herbert (49), Chamberlain, the two Chief Justices, Mr. John Yong (44), Master of the Rolls, Sir Thos. Lovell (31), Treasurer of the House, Mr. Thomas Routhall, secretary, Sir Ric Emson (59), Chancellor of the Duchy, Edm. Dudley (47), the King's attorney at the time of his decease, and his confessor, the Provincial of the Friars Observants, and Mr. William Atwater, dean of the Chapel, or at least six of them and three of his executors.
His executors shall see that the officers of the Household and Wardrobe discharge any debts which may be due for charges of the same.
Lands to the yearly value of above 1,000 mks have been "amortised" for fulfilment of certain covenants (described) with the abbey of Westminster.
For the completion of the hospital which he has begun to build at the Savoie place beside Charingcrosse, and towards which 10,000 mks in ready money has been delivered to the dean and chapter of St. Paul's, by indenture dated (blank), his executors shall deliver any more money which may be necessary; and they shall also make (if he has not done it in his lifetime) two similar hospitals in the suburbs of York and Coventry.
Certain cathedrals, abbeys, &c., named in a schedule hereto annexed [not annexed now] have undertaken to make for him orisons, prayers and suffrages "while the world shall endure," in return for which he has made them large confirmations, licences and other grants; and he now wishes 6s. 8d. each to be delivered soon after his decease to the rulers of such cathedrals, &c., 3s. 4d. to every canon and monk, being priest, within the same and 20d. to every canon, monk, vicar and minister not being priest. His executors shall bestow 2,000l. upon the repair of the highways and bridges from Windsor to Richmond manor and thence to St. George's church beside Southwark, and thence to Greenwich manor, and thence to Canterbury.
To divers lords, as well of his blood as other, and also to knights, squires and other subjects, he has, for their good service, made grants of lands, offices and annuities, which he straitly charges his son, the Prince (17), and other heirs to respect; as also the enfeoffments of the Duchy of Lancaster made by Parliaments of 7 and 19 Hen. VII. for the fulfilment of his will.
Bequests for finishing of the church of the New College in Cambridge and the church of Westminster, for the houses of Friars Observants, for the altar within the King's grate (i.e. of his tomb), for the high altar within the King's chapel, for the image of the King to be made and set upon St. Edward's shrine, for the College of Windsor, for the monastery of Westminster, for the image of the King to be set at St. Thomas's shrine at Canterbury, and for chalices and pixes of a certain fashion to be given to all the houses of Friars and every parish church not suitably provided with such.
Bequest of a dote of 50,000l. for the marriage of Lady Mary (13) the King's daughter with Charles Prince of Spain (9), as contracted at Richmond (blank) Dec. 24 Hen. VIII., or (if that fail) her marriage with any prince out of the realm by "consent of our said son the Prince (17), his Council and our said executors.".
In 1513 Charles Somerset 1st Earl Worcester 1460-1526 (53) and [his wife] Elizabeth West 1487-1526 (26) were married. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III England. The date most likely incorrect since their daughter was born in 1497; unless of course the daughter's mother is mis-attributed. The after 1507 date is derived from the death of his first wife in Aug 1507.
Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII January 1513. 22 Jan 1513. ORDNANCE. Bill made 24 Dec. 4 Hen. VIII., witnessing payment by Sir John Cutte of 4s. each to 37 persons (named but not described) by virtue of a warrant signed by George earl of Shrewsbury (45), Charles Somersett lord Herbert (53) and Sir Thomas Lovell (35), dated 23 Dec. Three payments of later date, to 22 Jan. ao 4, are added. Entries signed by the recipients, John Lymster, Th. Dollyng, &c.
On 01 Feb 1514 King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547 (22) created and re-created two peerages ....
Charles Somerset 1st Earl Worcester 1460-1526 (54) was created 1st Earl Worcester 5C 1514.
Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (71) was restored 2nd Duke Norfolk 3C 1483. Some documentation describes this as a creation rather than restoration although he is always referred to as 2nd. Agnes Tilney Duchess Norfolk 1477-1545 (37) by marriage Duchess Norfolk probably for having secured victory at the Battle of Flodden after which his arms were augmented with an inescutcheon bearing the lion of Scotland pierced through the mouth with an arrow.
On 15 Jun 1514 [his son] Henry Somerset 2nd Earl Worcester 1496-1549 (18) and Margaret Courtenay Countess Worcester 1499-1525 (15) were married. They were second cousins. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward III England. She a granddaughter of King Edward IV of England 1442-1483. She by marriage Countess Worcester.
In 1515 Charles Somerset 1st Earl Worcester 1460-1526 (55) and [his wife] Eleanor Dudley Countess Somerset 1487-1526 (28) were married. They were third cousins once removed. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III England. [his wife] She by marriage Countess Worcester.
Before 1526 [his son] Henry Somerset 2nd Earl Worcester 1496-1549 and Elizabeth Browne Countess Worcester 1502-1565 were married. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Edward III England. She by marriage Countess Worcester.
In 1526 [his wife] Elizabeth West 1487-1526 (39) died.
On 15 Mar 1526 Charles Somerset 1st Earl Worcester 1460-1526 (66) died. He was buried at St George's Chapel Windsor Castle. His son [his son] Henry Somerset 2nd Earl Worcester 1496-1549 (30) succeeded 2nd Earl Worcester 5C 1514.
After 15 Mar 1526 (some sources say before 1549) [his former wife] Eleanor Dudley Countess Somerset 1487-1526 died.
After 15 Mar 1526 Leonard Grey 1st Viscount Grane 1479-1541 and [his former wife] Eleanor Dudley Countess Somerset 1487-1526 were married. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward III England. [his former wife] She by marriage Viscountess Grane.
[his daughter] Elizabeth Somerset -1545 was born to Charles Somerset 1st Earl Worcester 1460-1526 and Elizabeth Herbert 3rd Baroness Herbert Raglan 1476-1507.
The Antiquarian Repertory Volume 4 Funeral Ceremonies of Queen Elizabeth. REMEMBRANCE for the enterment of the right high right excelent and most Christen Princese Elizabeth Queene of England and of France Lady of Ireland and the Eldest daughter of king Edward the fourth wife to the most hygh most puyssant and most victorious king Henry the viith our most dread Souveraigne Lord the which deceased in childbed in The Tower of London the xith day of Februarye which was upon Saturday and the xviiith yeare of the reigne of our said Soveraigne Lord the king her most dearest husband whose departing was as heveye and dolorous to the kings hcighuess as hath been sene or heard of. And also in likeyse to all the Estates of this Realme as well Citizens as Comnyns for she was one of the most gracious and best, beloved princesses in the world in her tyme beinge.
Then the king of his wisdom ordeyned certaine of his Counsell for the ordering of her buryall to be at Westminster. That is to say The Erle of Surry Treasurer of England and Sr Richard Guilford Comptrowler of his noble household And himselfe tooke with him certain of his secretest and prevely departed to a solitary place to passe his sorrows and would no man should resort to him but such his grace appointed untill such tyme it should please him to showe his pleasure and over yt every Officer to give their Attendance upon the said Councellours And over yt in his Departing ordeyned Incontinent the next day following for vi Hundredth and xxxvi hole masses said in London and by Sr Charles Somerset and Sr Richard Guilford sent the best comfort to all the Queens servants that hath bene sene of a soveraigne Lord with as good words.
Also then were ronngen the bells of London everye one and after that through out the Realme with solomne Dyrgies and Masses of Requiems and everye Religious place collegs and Churches.