Biography of Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York 1341-1402

1327 Abdication of Edward II

1328 Marriage of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault

1359 Double Royal Wedding

1361 Creation of Garter Knights

1361 Marriage of Edward "The Black Prince" and Joan "The Fair Maid of Kent"

1362 Edward III Creates two sons as Dukes

1376 Death of the Black Prince

1377 Death of Edward III

1382 Marriage of Richard II and Anne of Bohemia and her Coronation

1385 Richard II Creates his Two Uncles as Dukes

1388 Merciless Parliament

1392 Death of Isabella of Castile

1396 Marriage of John of Gaunt and Katherine Roet

1396 Marriage of Richard II and Isabella of Valois

1397 John Beaufort created Earl Somerset

1396 Battle of Nicopolis

1397 Murder of Thomas of Woodstock

1397 Richard II Rewards his Supporters

1399 Death of John of Gaunt

1399 Henry IV lands at Ravenspur

1399 Epiphany Rising

1400 Death of Richard II

1401 Parliament Henry IV 2: 31 The Names of the Lords Present

Abdication of Edward II

On 25 Jan 1327 [his grandfather] King Edward II of England (42) abdicated II King England. His son [his father] King Edward III England (14) succeeded III King England.

Marriage of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault

On 24 Jan 1328 [his father] King Edward III England (15) and [his mother] Philippa of Hainault (13) were married at York Minster. They were second cousins. He a son of King Edward II of England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of Stephen I King England 1094-1154. [his mother] She by marriage Queen Consort England.

On 05 Jun 1341 Edmund of Langley was born to [his father] King Edward III England (28) and [his mother] Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 (26) at King's Langley.

In 1342 [his brother] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (1) was created 1st Earl Richmond 5C 1342. It isn't clear whether his older brothers [his brother] Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (11) and [his brother] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (3) had been created Earls before this time.

On 12 May 1343 [his brother] Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (12) was created Prince of Wales.

In 1352 [his brother] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (13) and Elizabeth Burgh Duchess of Clarence 1332-1363 (19) were married. They were half second cousins once removed. He a son of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272. [his brother] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (13) by marriage 4th Earl Ulster. She was the sole heir of her father and brought the de Burgh inheritance of the lands of Ulster to the marriage. As a consequence of their earlier betrothal he had been called Earl Ulster since 1347.

Double Royal Wedding

On 19 May 1359 , or thereabouts, a double-royal wedding celebration took place at Reading Abbey whereby two children of [his father] King Edward III England (46) were married:
[his brother] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (19) and Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (14) were married. They were half second cousins once removed. He a son of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She by marriage Countess Richmond.
John Hastings 2nd Earl Pembroke 1347-1375 (11) and [his sister] Margaret Plantagenet Countess of Pembroke 1346-1361 (12) were married. They were half fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216. She a daughter of King Edward III England.. At the time John Hastings 2nd Earl Pembroke 1347-1375 (11) was a ward of [his father] King Edward III England (55) who would enjoy the benefit of the substantial revenue of the Earldom of Pembroke until John came of age nine years later on 12 Sep 1368. She died two or so years later probably of plague.

Read More ...

1361 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1361 [his father] King Edward III England (48) created three of his sons as Garter Knights ...
[his brother] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (22) was appointed 35th.
[his brother] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (20) was appointed 36th.
Edmund of Langley (19) was appointed 37th.
Edward Despencer 1st Baron Despencer 3rd Baron Burghesh 1335-1375 (25) was appointed 38th.

Marriage of Edward "The Black Prince" and Joan "The Fair Maid of Kent"

On 10 Oct 1361 [his brother] Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (31) and Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales 1328-1385 (33) were married at Windsor Castle. They were half first cousins once removed. He a son of King Edward III England. She a granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She by marriage Princess of Wales. His first wife, her second (or third depending on how you count them) husband. She had four children already. They had known each other since childhood. Thirty-one and thirty-three respectively. A curious choice for the heir to the throne; foreign princesses were usual. They were married nearly fifteen years and had two children.

In 1362 Edmund of Langley (20) was created 1st Earl Cambridge 2C 1362.

Edward III Creates two sons as Dukes

On 13 Nov 1362, his fiftieth birthday, [his father] King Edward III England (50) created two sons as Dukes ...
[his brother] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (23) was created 1st Duke Clarence 1C 1362. Elizabeth Burgh Duchess of Clarence 1332-1363 (30) by marriage Duchess Clarence.
[his brother] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (22) was created 1st Duke Lancaster 2C 1362. Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (17) by marriage Duchess Lancaster.

On 27 Jul 1365 Enguerrand de Coucy 1st Earl Bedford 1st Count Soissons 1340-1397 (25) and [his sister] Isabella Plantagenet Countess Bedford and Soissons 1332-1382 (33) were married at Windsor Castle. She a daughter of King Edward III England.

In Jun 1368 [his brother] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (29) and Violante Visconti 1354-1386 (14) were married in the Church of Santa Maria Maggiore Milan. He a son of King Edward III England.. The wedding festivities were lavish and ostentatious. The banquet, held outside, included 30 courses of meat and fish presented fully gilded. Between the courses the guests were given gifts such as suits of armor, bolts of cloth, war horses, arms, and hunting dogs. Among the guests were Geoffrey Chaucer Poet Author 1343-1400 (25), Petrarch, Jean Froissart and John Hawkwood.

On 07 Oct 1368 [his brother] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (29) died from poisoning at Alba. Duke Clarence 1C 1362 extinct. There was strong speculation he had been poisoned by his wife's (14) father (48). He was buried at Clare Priory Clare. His daughter [his niece] Philippa Plantagenet Countess March 5th Countess Ulster 1355-1382 (13) succeeded 5th Earl Ulster.

On 15 Aug 1369 [his mother] Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 (55) died at Windsor Castle. She was given a state funeral six months later on 09 Jan 1370 at which she was interred at on the northeast side of the Chapel of St Edward the Confessor at Westminster Abbey. Her alabaster effigy was executed by sculptor Jean de Liège.

On 24 Aug 1369 Edmund Mortimer 3rd Earl March 5th Earl Ulster 1352-1381 (17) and [his niece] Philippa Plantagenet Countess March 5th Countess Ulster 1355-1382 (14) were married at Reading Abbey. They were fourth cousins. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his niece] She by marriage Countess March. Edmund Mortimer 3rd Earl March 5th Earl Ulster 1352-1381 (17) by marriage 5th Earl Ulster.

On 21 Sep 1371 [his brother] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (31) and [his illegitimate sister-in-law] Constance of Castile (17) were married. He a son of King Edward III England. at Roquefort, Landes. [his illegitimate sister-in-law] She by marriage Duchess Lancaster. His younger brother Edmund of Langley (30) married Constance's sister in July 1372.

On 11 Jul 1372 Edmund of Langley (31) and [his wife] Isabella of Castile (17) were married at Wallingford. He a son of King Edward III England. [his wife] She by marriage Countess Cambridge. She being the younger sister of [his illegitimate sister-in-law] Constance of Castile (18) who had married Edmund's older brother [his brother] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (32) a year before.

Around 1373 [his son] Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 was born to Edmund of Langley (31) and [his wife] Isabella of Castile (18) at King's Langley. He a grandson of King Edward III England.

Around 1374 [his daughter] Constance York Countess Gloucester 1374-1416 was born to Edmund of Langley (32) and [his wife] Isabella of Castile (19) at Conisburgh Castle. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England.

In 1374 [his brother] Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (18) and Eleanor Bohun Duchess Albemarle and Gloucester 1366-1399 (8) were married. They were second cousins once removed. He a son of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.

In 1376 [his brother] Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (20) was created 1st Earl Essex 4C 1376. Eleanor Bohun Duchess Albemarle and Gloucester 1366-1399 (10) by marriage Countess Essex.

Death of the Black Prince

On 08 Jun 1376 [his brother] Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (45) died of dysentery at Westminster Palace. He was buried in Canterbury Cathedral. His son His son [his nephew] Richard (9) succeeded King England. His niece [his niece] Philippa Plantagenet Countess March 5th Countess Ulster 1355-1382 (20) succeeded Heir to the Throne of England.

On 05 Oct 1376 Robert Vere 1st Duke Ireland 1362-1392 (14) and [his niece] Philippa Guines Duchess Ireland 1367-1411 (9) were married. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. She by marriage Countess Oxford.

In 1377 [his brother] Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (21) was created 1st Earl Buckingham 3C 1377. Eleanor Bohun Duchess Albemarle and Gloucester 1366-1399 (11) by marriage Countess Buckingham.

Death of Edward III

On 21 Jun 1377 [his father] King Edward III England (64) died of a stroke at Sheen Palace. He was buried in the Chapel of St Edward the Confessor. His grandson [his nephew] Richard II King England 1367-1400 (10) succeeded II King England.

Before 07 Nov 1379 [his son-in-law] Thomas Despencer 1st Earl Gloucester 1373-1400 and [his daughter] Constance York Countess Gloucester 1374-1416 were married. They were third cousins once removed. He a great x 3 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his daughter] She by marriage Countess Gloucester.

On 24 Jun 1380 John Hastings 3rd Earl Pembroke 1372-1389 (7) and [his niece] Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter 1363-1426 (17) were married at Kenilworth Castle. They were half third cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his niece] She by marriage Countess Pembroke.

In 1381 [his son] Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (8) and [his daughter-in-law] Beatrice Burgundy Countess Rutland Countess Cork 1373-1408 (8) were married. They were third cousins once removed. He a grandson of King Edward III England.

On 05 Feb 1381 [his nephew] Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (13) and Mary Bohun 1368-1394 (13) were married at Arundel Castle. They were second cousins. He a grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.

On 05 Jan 1382 [his niece] Philippa Plantagenet Countess March 5th Countess Ulster 1355-1382 (26) died at Cork. She was buried at Wigmore. Her son Roger Mortimer 4th Earl March 6th Earl Ulster 1374-1398 (7) succeeded Heir to the Throne of England, 6th Earl Ulster

Marriage of Richard II and Anne of Bohemia and her Coronation

On 20 Jan 1382 [his nephew] Richard II King England 1367-1400 (15) and Anne of Bohemia Queen Consort England 1366-1394 (15) were married at Westminster Abbey by Robert Braybrooke Bishop of London -1404. They were fourth cousins. He a grandson of King Edward III England. She by marriage Queen Consort England.
It was the first royal wedding that including a Royal Procession from the Tower of London to Westminster Abbey.
Arranged by Michael Pole 1st Earl Suffolk 1330-1389 (52) the marriage not popular since it brought no dowry and little prospect of increased trade since Bohemia not a primary English trade partner.

On 05 Oct 1382 [his sister] Isabella Plantagenet Countess Bedford and Soissons 1332-1382 (50) died.

In Nov 1384 Henry of Bar 1362-1397 (22) and [his niece] Marie de Coucy Countess Soissons 1366-1405 (18) were married. They were third cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England.

Before 1385 John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 was rumoured to be having an affair with [his wife] Isabella of Castile wife of Edmund of Langley.

On 20 Jul 1385 [his son] Richard of Conisburgh 1st Earl Cambridge 1385-1415 was born to Edmund of Langley (44) and [his wife] Isabella of Castile (30) at Conisburgh Castle although there was speculation the father was John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (33) with whom [his wife] Isabella of Castile (30). He a grandson of King Edward III England was suspected of having an affair.

Richard II Creates his Two Uncles as Dukes

On 06 Aug 1385 Edmund of Langley (44) was created 1st Duke York 1C 1385 by his nephew [his nephew] Richard II King England 1367-1400 (18). [his wife] Isabella of Castile (30) by marriage Duchess York.In 1385 [his brother] Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (29) was created 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 1C 1385, and around the same time 1st Duke Gloucester 1C 1385.Eleanor Bohun Duchess Albemarle and Gloucester 1366-1399 (19) by marriage Duchess Albemarle aka Aumale and Duke Gloucester 1C 1385.

On 24 Jun 1386 John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (34) and [his niece] Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter 1363-1426 (23) were married at Plymouth. They were half second cousins once removed. He a great grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England.

On 02 Feb 1387 John "Good Great" I King Portugal 1357-1433 (29) and [his niece] Philippa Lancaster Queen Consort Portugal 1360-1415 (26) were married. They were half fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his niece] She by marriage Queen Consort Portugal.

Merciless Parliament

On 03 Feb 1388 the Merciless Parliament commenced. It ended on 04 Jun 1388. Its primary function was to prosecute members of the Court of [his nephew] Richard II King England 1367-1400 (21). The term "Merciless" is contemporary having been coined by the chronicler Henry Knighton.
Michael Pole 1st Earl Suffolk 1330-1389 (58) was sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered in his absence. He had escaped to France.
Alexander Neville Archbishop of York 1341-1392 (47) was found guilty of treason and it was determined to imprison him for life in Rochester Castle. He fled to Louvain where he became a parish priest for the remainder of his life.
On 19 Feb 1388 Robert Tresilian Chief Justice -1388 was hanged naked and his throat cut.
On 25 Mar 1388 Nicholas Brembre Lord Mayor of London -1388 was hanged. He was buried at Christ Church Greyfriars.
On 05 May 1388 Simon Burley 1340-1388 (48) was executed despite the protestations of his friend Edmund of Langley (46).
On 12 May 1388 John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp 1319-1388 (69) was beheaded at Tower Hill. He was buried at Worcester Cathedral.
Robert Vere 1st Duke Ireland 1362-1392 (26) was attainted.

Read More ...

Before 17 Sep 1388 Henry III King Castile 1379-1406 and [his niece] Catherine of Lancaster were married at Palencia Cathedral. They were half second cousins. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his niece] She by marriage Queen Consort Castile.

On 07 Oct 1388 Roger Mortimer 4th Earl March 6th Earl Ulster 1374-1398 (14) and [his future sister-in-law] Eleanor Holland Countess March Countess Ulster 1370-1405 (17) were married. They were second cousins once removed. He a great grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. [his future sister-in-law] She by marriage Countess March, Earl Ulster.

Around 1390 Thomas Stafford 3rd Earl Stafford 1368-1392 (22) and [his niece] Anne of Gloucester Plantagenet Countess Eu and Stafford 1383-1438 (7) were married. They were third cousins once removed. He a great x 3 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his niece] She by marriage Countess Stafford.

On 25 Feb 1390 [his son] Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (17) was created 1st Earl Rutland 1C 1390. [his daughter-in-law] Beatrice Burgundy Countess Rutland Countess Cork 1373-1408 (17) by marriage Countess Rutland.

In 1391 Robert Ferrers 2nd Baron Ferrers Wem 1373-1393 (18) and [his niece] Joan Beaufort Countess Westmoreland 1379-1440 (12) were married at Beaufort en Vallée. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his niece] She by marriage Baroness Ferrers Wem.

Before 20 Oct 1392 [his future brother-in-law] Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey 1374-1400 and Joan Stafford Countess Kent 1378-1442 were married. They were third cousins once removed. He a great x 2 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great x 3 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.

Death of Isabella of Castile

On 23 Dec 1392 [his wife] Isabella of Castile (37) died. She the wife of Edmund of Langley (51). Isabella had travelled to England with her sister [his illegitimate sister-in-law] Constance of Castile (38) who had married Edmund's elder brother [his brother] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (52). Isabella and Edmund's marriage was not, apparently, a happy one. She is known to have had an affair with John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (40) who may have been the father of [his son] Richard of Conisburgh 1st Earl Cambridge 1385-1415 (7) progenitor of the House of York.

On 04 Nov 1393 Edmund of Langley (52) and [his wife] Joan Holland Duchess York 1380-1434 (13) were married. They were half second cousins once removed. He a son of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. [his wife] She by marriage Duchess York.

In 1394 [his son] Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (21) was created 1st Earl Cork. [his daughter-in-law] Beatrice Burgundy Countess Rutland Countess Cork 1373-1408 (21) by marriage Countess Cork.

On 24 Mar 1394 [his illegitimate sister-in-law] Constance of Castile (40) died at Leicester Castle. She was buried at Church of the Annunciation of our Lady of the Newark.

Marriage of John of Gaunt and Katherine Roet

On 13 Jan 1396 [his brother] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (55) and Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403 (45) were married at Lincoln Cathedral. He a son of King Edward III England. She by marriage Duchess Lancaster.

Marriage of Richard II and Isabella of Valois

On 31 Oct 1396 [his nephew] Richard II King England 1367-1400 (29) and Isabella Valois Queen Consort England 1389-1409 (6) were married. They were half third cousins. He a grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272.. The marriage being one of the terms of a twenty-eight year peace treaty with France. He twenty-nine, she six. The marriage sowed the seeds subsequent rebellion since there was no prospect of an heir to secure the Crown.

Before 29 Nov 1396 Ralph Neville 1st Earl Westmoreland 1364-1425 and [his niece] Joan Beaufort Countess Westmoreland 1379-1440 were married. He a great x 5 grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his niece] She by marriage Baroness Neville Raby.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. 1397. The [his nephew] king (29) at this time resided at Eltham, whither he had summoned all his vassals and dependants. He had collected round London, in the counties of Kent and Essex, upwards of ten thousand archers, and had with him his [Note. maternal half-brother] brother sir John Holland (45), the earl marshal (28), the earl of Salisbury (47), with many other great barons and knights. The [his nephew] king (29) sent orders to the citizens of London not to admit the [his brother] duke of Lancaster (56) within their walls; but they replied, they knew of no reason why they should refuse him admittance, and the duke resided there with his son the [his nephew] earl of Derby (29), as did the duke of York (55) with his son the [his son] earl of Rutland (24). The king loved the [his son] earl of Rutland (24) and the earl marshal (28) beyond measure: the first dissembled his opinions concerning the death of the [his brother] duke of Gloucester (41), and would willingly have seen peace restored on both sides. He said, that his [his brother] late uncle (41) had on several occasions treated the [his nephew] king (29) very unbecomingly. The Londoners considered, also, that great mischiefs might befal England from these dissensions between the king, his uncles, and their supporters; that, since the [his brother] duke of Gloucester (41) was now dead, it could not be helped; and that he, in some measure, had been the cause of it, by his too great freedom of speech, and from his attempts to excite the people of England to break the truces that had been signed between France and England. The citizens, therefore, prudently dissembled their thoughts; and, as what was done could not now be undone, they feared, should matters be pushed to extremities, they might suffer very considerably in their commerce from th king of France.

Read More ...

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. 1397. Thus were affairs carried on in England, and daily going from bad to worse, as you will find it related. When the dukes of [his brother] Lancaster (56) and York (55) heard of their [his brother] brother's (41) death at Calais, they instantly suspected the [his nephew] king (29) their nephew was guilty of it. At the time, they were not together, but each at his country-seat, according to the custom in England. They wrote to each other to consult how they should act on the occasion, and hastened to London because they knew the citizens were very angry at the event. On their arrival, they had several meetings, and declared that the putting the [his brother] duke of Gloucester (41) to death for some foolish words ought not to be passed over in silence, nor borne; for, although he had warmly opposed the treaty with France, he had not acted upon it; that there was an essential difference between talking and acting, and that words alone did not deserve the severe punishment he had suffered, and that this matter must be inquired into and amended. The two brothers were in a situation to have thrown England into confusion, for there were enow who would have supported them, more especially all the kindred of the late earl of Arundel (51), which is a powerful family in England, and the family of the earl of Stafford.

Read More ...

John Beaufort created Earl Somerset

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: Of the appointment of the earl of Somerset. 32. The [his nephew] king (30) to his archbishops, bishops, abbots, priors, dukes, earls, barons, justices, sheriffs, reeves, ministers, and other his bailiffs and faithful men, greeting. Know that we, considering the strenuous probity and prudent mind, distinguished conduct and nobility of birth of our beloved and faithful kinsman [his nephew] John Beaufort (24), knight, son of our beloved uncle [his brother] John duke of Aquitaine and Lancaster (56), and willing therefore deservedly to exalt the same John Beaufort with the prerogative of honour, we do appoint and create John Beaufort earl of Somerset in our present parliament, and invest him with the style and name and honour of the aforesaid earl by girding him with the sword, to have to him and his male heirs issuing from his body in perpetuity. And that the same earl and his aforesaid heirs, given such name and honour, may the better and more honourably support the burdens incumbent upon the same, of our special grace in our present parliament we have given and granted, and by this our charter confirmed, to the same earl and his aforesaid heirs twenty pounds to be received each year from the issues of the aforesaid county by the hand of the sheriff of that county for the time being, at the terms of Easter and Michaelmas [29 September] in equal portions, in perpetuity. Witnessed by these, the venerable father Thomas archbishop of Canterbury (44) primate of all England, John of Aquitaine and Lancaster, and Edmund of York (55), dukes; Robert of London, William of Winchester (77), John of Ely, Edmund of Exeter, our chancellor (53), bishops; [his nephew] Henry of Derby (29), [his son] Edward of Rutland (24), Thomas of Nottingham and marshal of England (28), earls; Reginald Grey (35), Ralph Neville (33), John Lovell, knights; Roger Walden dean of York, our treasurer, Thomas Percy (54), steward of our household, Guy Mone, keeper of our privy seal, and others. Given by our hand at Westminster on 10 February in the twentieth year of our reign [10 Feb 1397].

Read More ...

Battle of Nicopolis

On 18 Feb 1397 Enguerrand de Coucy 1st Earl Bedford 1st Count Soissons 1340-1397 (57) died whilst a prisoner following the Battle of Nicopolis without male issue. Earl Bedford 2C 1366 extinct. Count Soissons 1367. His daughter [his niece] Marie de Coucy Countess Soissons 1366-1405 (30) succeeded Count Soissons 1367.

On 25 Apr 1397 [his father-in-law] Thomas Holland 2nd Earl Kent 1350-1397 (47) died. He was buried in Bourne Abbey aka Church of St Peter and St Paul Bourne. His son [his brother-in-law] Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey 1374-1400 (23) succeeded 3rd Earl Kent 6C 1360, 4th Baron Holland. Joan Stafford Countess Kent 1378-1442 (19) by marriage Countess Kent.

Murder of Thomas of Woodstock

Around 08 Sep 1397 [his brother] Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (42) was murdered in Calais for his role as leader of the Lords Appellant. Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 1C 1385 extinct. His son [his nephew] Humphrey Plantagenet 2nd Earl Buckingham 1381-1399 (16) succeeded 2nd Earl Buckingham 3C 1377.
Walter Clopton Chief Justice -1400 was part of the inquiry into his death the outcome of which is not known. A John Hall was executed for the murder.

Richard II Rewards his Supporters

On 29 Sep 1397 [his nephew] King Richard II (30) rewarded his relations with Dukedoms possibly for their part in the arrest, trial and execution of Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel 1346-1397 (51) ...
His older half-brother John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (45) was created 1st Duke Exeter 1C 1397. [his niece] Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter 1363-1426 (34) by marriage Duchess Exeter.
His nephew [his brother-in-law] Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey 1374-1400 (23) was created 1st Duke Surrey.
His second cousin once removed Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke Norfolk 1368-1399 (29) was created 1st Duke Norfolk 1C 1397 probably for arranging the murder of [his brother] Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (42). Elizabeth Fitzalan Duchess Norfolk 1366-1425 (31) by marriage Duchess Norfolk.
His first cousin [his son] Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (24) was created 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2C 1397. [his daughter-in-law] Beatrice Burgundy Countess Rutland Countess Cork 1373-1408 (24) by marriage Duchess Albemarle aka Aumale.
His illegitimate first cousin [his nephew] John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset Dorset 1373-1410 (24) was created 1st Marquess Somerset 2C 1397, 1st Marquess Dorset 1C 1397. [his sister-in-law] Margaret Holland Duchess Clarence 1385-1439 (12) by marriage Marchioness Somerset.
His Ralph Neville 1st Earl Westmoreland 1364-1425 (33) was created 1st Earl Westmoreland 1C 1397. [his niece] Joan Beaufort Countess Westmoreland 1379-1440 (18) by marriage Countess Westmoreland.

Read More ...

On 27 Nov 1397 [his nephew] John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset Dorset 1373-1410 (24) and [his sister-in-law] Margaret Holland Duchess Clarence 1385-1439 (12) were married. They were half third cousins. He a grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. [his sister-in-law] She by marriage Countess Somerset.

On 28 Jun 1398 Edmund Stafford 5th Earl Stafford 1378-1403 (20) and [his niece] Anne of Gloucester Plantagenet Countess Eu and Stafford 1383-1438 (15) were married. They were third cousins once removed. He a great x 3 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his niece] She by marriage Countess Stafford.

Before 07 Oct 1398 [his son] Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 and [his daughter-in-law] Philippa Mohun Duchess Albemarle aka Aumale Duchess York 1367-1431 were married. He a grandson of King Edward III England.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. The [his nephew] king (31) had it proclaimed that he would hold a solemn feast at his palace at Eltham on Palm Sunday, and sent particular invitations to the dukes of [his brother] Lancaster (58) and York (57) and their children, who, not suspecting any mischief, came thither. When the day of the feast was arrived, and all the lords had retired after dinner with the king to his council-chamher, the earl marshal (30), having settled in his own mind how to act and what to say, cast himself on his knees before the [his nephew] king (31), and thus addressed him "Very dear and renowned lord, I am of your kindred, your liege man and marshal of England; and I have heside sworn on my loyalty, my hand within yours, that I would never conceal from you anything I might hear or see to your prejudice, on pain of being accounted a disloyal traitor. This I am resolved never to be, but to acquit myself before you and all the world." The king, fixing his eyes on him, asked, " Earl marshal (30), what is your meaning in saying thus? We will know it." "Very dear lord," replied the earl, " as I have declared, I will not keep any secret from you: order the [his nephew] earl of Derby (31) to come to your presence, and I will speak out." The [his nephew] earl of Derby (31) was called for, and the king made the earl marshal (30) rise, for he addressed him on his knees. On the [his nephew] earl of Derby's (31) arrival, who thought no harm, the earl marshal (30) spoke as follows: "[his nephew] Earl of Derby (31), I charge you with having thought and spoken disrespectfully against your natural lord the king of England, when you said he was unworthy to hold his crown: that without law or justice, or consulting his council, he disturbed the realm; and that, without any shadow of reason, he banished those valiant men from his kingdom who ought to be its defenders, for all of which I present my glove, and shall prove, my body against yours, that you are a false and wicked traitor."

Read More ...

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. The [his nephew] earl of Derby (31) was confounded at this address, and retired a few paces, without demanding from the [his brother] duke his father (58), or any of his friends, how he should act. Having mused a while, he advanced, with his hood in his hand, towards the [his nephew] king (31), and said, " Earl marshal (30), I say that thou art a false and wicked traitor, which I will bodily prove on thee, and here is my glove." The earl marshal (30), seeing his challenge was accepted, showed a good desire for the combat, by taking up the glove and saying, — "I refer your answer to the good pleasure of the [his nephew] king (31) and the lords now present. I will prove that what you have said is false, and that my words are true." Each of these lords then withdrew with his friends, and the time for serving wine and spices was passed by; for the [his nephew] king (31) showed he was sore displeased, and retired to his chamber and shut himself within it. His two uncles [Note. [his brother] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (58) and Edmund of Langley (57)] remained without with their children, as did the earls of Salisbury (48) and Huntingdon (46), the king's brother [Note. John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (46) was the King's maternal half-brother].

Read More ...

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. Soon afterward, the [his nephew] king (31) called to him his uncles [Note. [his brother] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (58) and Edmund of Langley (57)], and demanded from them how he was to act on this occasion. " Sire, order your constable hither, and we will tell you." The [his son] earl of Rutland (25), constable of England, being sent for, came, and he was told, — " Constable go to the [his nephew] earl of Derby (31) and the earl marshal (30), and oblige them to promise not to quit the kingdom without the king's permission." The constable obeyed the order, and returned to the king's apartment. You may believe the whole court was greatly troubled by this event, and many barons and knights were much displeased, who blamed the earl marshal for his conduct; but what he had said he could not now retract, and he showed by his manners that he made light of it, so arrogant and swollen with pride was his heart. The lords now separated, each for his own home. The [his brother] duke of Lancaster (58), in spite of appearances, was much vexed at what had passed, and his opinion was, that the king should not have listened to such a charge, but instantly have annihilated it; and in this he was joined by the more sensible barons of the country.

Read More ...

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. The [his nephew] earl of Derby (31) resided in London, for he had his house there, and kept up his state. The [his brother] duke of Lancaster (58), the duke of York (57), the earl of Northumberland (56), and many other great lords, for he was much beloved, were his securities to appear and answer the challenge. The earl marshal (30) was sent to the Tower of London, where he lived with his household. These two lords made ample provision of all things necessary for the combat; and the [his nephew] earl of Derby (31) sent off messengers to Lombardy to have armour from sir Galeas, duke of Alilan. The duke complied with joy, and gave the knight, called sir Francis, who had brought the message, the choice of all his armour for the [his nephew] earl of Derby (31). When he had selected what he wished for in plated and mail armour, the lord of Milan, out of his abundant love to the earl, ordered four of the best armourers in Milan to accompany the knight to England, that the [his nephew] earl of Derby (31) might be more completely armed. The earl marshal (30), on the other hand, sent into Germany, whence he thought he should be ably assisted by his friends. Each provided himself most magnificently, to outshine the other; but the greater splendour was shown by the earl of Derby, for I must say that, when the earl marshal undertook this business, he expected to have been better supported than he was by the king. It was hinted to the king, by those near his person, — "Sire, you have no occasion to interfere further in this matter: dissemble your thoughts, and leave them to themselves: they are fully capable of managing it. The earl of Derby is wondrous popular in the kingdom, but more especially in London; and, should the citizens perceive that you take part with the earl marshal against the earl of Derby, you will irrecoverably lose their affection."

Read More ...

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 95. Before 19 Oct 1398. Not long after this, the [his nephew] king of England (31) summoned a large council of the great nobles and prelates at Eltham. On their arrival, he placed his two uncles of [his brother] Lancaster (58) and York (57) beside him, with the earls of Northumberland (56), Salisbury (48) and Huntingdon (46). The [his nephew] earl of Derby (31) and the earl marshal (30) were sent for, and put into separate chambers, for it had been ordered they were not to meet. The [his nephew] king (31) showed he wished to mediate between them, notwithstanding their words had been very displeasing to him, and ought not to be lightly pardoned. He required therefore that they should submit themselves to his decision; and to this end sent the constable of England, with four great barons, to oblige them to promise punctually to obey it. The constable and the lords waited on the two earls, and explained the king's intentions They both bound themselves, in their presence, to abide by whatever sentence the king should give. They having reported this, the king said,— " Well then, I order that the earl marshal (30), for having caused trouble in this kingdom, by uttering words which he could not prove otherwise than by common report, be banished the realm: he may seek any other land he pleases to dwell in, but he must give over all hope of returning hither, as I banish him for life. I also order, that the [his nephew] earl of Derby (31), our cousin, for having angered us, and because he has been, in some measure, the cause of the earl marshal's (30) crime and punishment, prepare to leave the kingdom within fifteen days, and be banished hence for the term of ten years, without daring to return unless recalled by us; but we shall reserve to ourself the power of abridging this term in part or altogether." The sentence was satisfactory to the lords present, who said: "The [his nephew] earl of Derby (31) may readily go two or three years and amuse himself in foreign parts, for he is young enough; and, although he has already travelled to Prussia, the Holy Sepulchre, Cairo and Saint Catherine's,1 he will find other places to visit. He has two sisters, queens of [his niece] Castillo (25) and of [his niece] Portugal (38), and may cheerfully pass his time with them. The lords, knights and squires of those countries, will make him welcome, for at this moment all warfare is at an end. On his arrival in Castille, as he is very active, he may put them in motion, and lead them against the infidels of Granada, which will employ his time better than remaining idle in England. Or he may go to Hainault, where his cousin, and brother in arms, the count d'Ostrevant, will be hapi)y to see him, and gladly entertain him, that he may assist him in his war against the Frieslanders. If he go to Hainault, lie can have frequent intelligence from his own country and children. He therefore cannot fail of doing well, whithersoever he goes; and the [his nephew] king (31) may speedily recall him, through means of the good friends he will leave behind, for he is the finest feather in his cap; and he must not therefore suffer him to be too long absent, if he wish to gain the love of his subjects. The earl marshal (30) has had hard treatment, for he is banished without liope of ever being recalled; but, to say the truth, he has deserved it, for all this mischief has been caused by Isim and his foolish talking: he must therefore pay for it." Thus conversed many English knights with each other, the day the king passed sentence on the [his nephew] earl of Derby (31) and the earl marshal (30).
Note 1. The monastery on Mount Sinai. — Ed.

Read More ...

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 96. After 19 Oct 1398. When the day of his exile drew near, he went to Eltham where the [his nephew] king (31) resided. He found there his [his brother] father (58), the duke of York (57) his uncle, and with them the earl of Northumberland (56), sir Henry Percy (34) his son, and a great many barons and knights of England, vexed that his ill fortune should force him out of England. The greater part of them accompanied him to the presence of the [his nephew] king (31), to learn his ultimate pleasure as to this banishment. The [his nephew] king (31) pretended that he was very happy to see these lords: he entertained them well, and there was a full court on the occasion. The earl of Salisbury (48), and the earl of Huntingdon (46), who had married the [his brother] duke of Lancaster's (58) [his niece] daughter (35), were present, and kept near to the [his nephew] earl of Derby (31), whether through dissimulation or not I am ignorant. When the time for the [his nephew] earl of Derby's (31) taking leave arrived, the [his nephew] king (31) addressed his cousin with great apparent humility, and said, "that as God might help him, the words which had passed between him and the lord marshal had much vexed him; and that he had judged the matter between them to the best of his understanding, and to satisfy the people, who had murmured greatly at this quarrel. Wherefore, cousin," he added, " to relieve you somewhat of your pain, I now remit four years of the term of your banishment, and reduce it to six years instead often. Make your preparations, and provide accordingly." "My lord," replied the earl, "I humbly thank you; and, when it shall be your good pleasure, you will extend your mercy." The lords present were satisfied with the answer, and for this time were well pleased with the [his nephew] king's (31) behaviour, for he received them kindly. Some of them returned with the [his nephew] earl of Derby (31) to London. The earl's baggage had been sent forward to Dover, and he was advised by his father, on his arrival at Calais, to go straight to Paris, and wait on the king of France (29) and his cousins the princes of France, for by their means he would be the sooner enabled to shorten his exile than by any other. Had not the duke of Lancaster earnestly pressed this matter, like a father anxious to console his son, he would have taken the direct road to the count d'Ostrevant in Hainault.

Read More ...

Death of John of Gaunt

On 03 Feb 1399 [his brother] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (58) died at Leicester Castle. Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403 (48) was by his side. He was buried at Old St Paul's Cathedral.
He was buried in the Choir of Old St Paul's Cathedral with his first wife Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (53).
[his nephew] Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (31) succeeded 2nd Duke Lancaster 2C 1362, 7th Earl of Leicester 2C 1265.
[his nephew] Richard II King England 1367-1400 (32) witheld [his nephew] the future Henry IV's (31) inheritance from him giving [his nephew] Henry (31) reason to return to England to claim his lands and titles.

Read More ...

Before 19 Jun 1399 Edward Charleton 5th Baron Cherleton 1370-1421 and [his sister-in-law] Eleanor Holland Countess March Countess Ulster 1370-1405 were married. They were half third cousins once removed. He a great x 3 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.

Henry IV lands at Ravenspur

On 07 Jul 1399 Edmund of Langley (58) appointed William Scrope 1st Earl Wiltshire 1350-1399 (49), Henry Green 1347-1399 (52) and John Bussy Speaker of the House of Commons -1399 to protect Kent against invasion by [his nephew] Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (32).
After 07 Jul 1399 [his nephew] Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (32) landed at Ravenspur with Thomas Rempston -1406.

On 02 Sep 1399 [his nephew] Humphrey Plantagenet 2nd Earl Buckingham 1381-1399 (18) died. He was buried at Walden Abbey.

In 1400 John Cornwall 1st Baron Fanhope 1st Baron Milbroke 1364-1443 (36) and [his niece] Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter 1363-1426 (36) were married. He a great x 3 grandson of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England.

Epiphany Rising

On 07 Jan 1400 at Cirencester Ralph Lumley 1st Baron Lumley 1360-1400 (40) was beheaded by the townspeople following an unsuccessful attempt to seize the town. Baron Lumley 1C 1384 forfeit.
[his brother-in-law] Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey 1374-1400 (26) was beheaded. His brother [his brother-in-law] Edmund Holland 4th Earl Kent 1384-1408 (16) succeeded 4th Earl Kent 6C 1360, 5th Baron Holland.
John Montagu 3rd Earl Salisbury 1350-1400 (50) was captured, tried and beheaded.
Bernard Brocas 1354-1400 (46) was captured.

Death of Richard II

On 14 Feb 1400 (exact date not known) [his nephew] King Richard II (33) died at Pontefract Castle, possibly murdered, possibly starved to death, as a consequence of the Epiphany Rising. His first cousin [his niece] Philippa Plantagenet Countess March 5th Countess Ulster 1355-1382 (44) de jure Heir to the Throne of England.
On 17 Feb 1400 [his nephew] Richard's (33) corpse was displayed at Old St Paul's Cathedral.
On 06 Mar 1400 [his nephew] Richard's (33) remains were buried at King's Langley Priory.

Parliament Henry IV 2: 31 The Names of the Lords Present

After 07 Jan 1401. The names of the lords who were present at the said declaration are as follows:
Henry, prince of Wales.
Edmund, duke of York.
[his son] Edward, earl of Rutland.
Thomas, earl of Arundel.
[his nephew] John, earl of Somerset.
Edmund, earl of Stafford.
Henry, earl of Northumberland.
Ralph, earl of Westmorland.
Thomas, earl of Worcester.
Michael, earl of Suffolk.
Richard, Lord Grey of Codnor.
Thomas, Lord Berkeley.
John, Lord Charlton.
Reginald, Lord Grey of Ruthin.
Thomas, Lord Camoys.
Thomas, Lord Furnivall.
Robert, Lord Scales.
John, Lord Beaumont.
William, Lord Willoughby.
Hugh, Lord Burnell.
William, Lord Ferrers of Groby.
William, Lord Bergavenny.
John, Lord Lovell.
Robert, Lord Harrington.
Richard Lescrope.

Read More ...

On 01 Aug 1402 Edmund of Langley (61) died at King's Langley. His son [his son] Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (29) succeeded 2nd Duke York 1C 1385, 2nd Earl Cambridge 2C 1362. [his daughter-in-law] Philippa Mohun Duchess Albemarle aka Aumale Duchess York 1367-1431 (35) by marriage Duchess York.

Before 09 Aug 1404 William Willoughby 5th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 1370-1409 and [his wife] Joan Holland Duchess York 1380-1434 were married. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. [his wife] She by marriage Baroness Willoughby de Eresby.

After 06 Sep 1410 Henry Scrope 3rd Baron Scrope Masham 1373-1415 and [his wife] Joan Holland Duchess York 1380-1434 were married. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. [his wife] She by marriage Baroness Scrope Masham.

Before 27 Apr 1416 Henry Bromflete 1st Baron Vesci 1407-1469 and [his wife] Joan Holland Duchess York 1380-1434 were married. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.. There appears to be a twenty-seven year age gap here which may suggest the marriage ewas a reward to him since she, having being married three times before, including to Edmund of Langley, would be a wealthy widow.

On 12 Apr 1434 [his wife] Joan Holland Duchess York 1380-1434 (54) died.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. You may suppose, that when news was carried to Pleshy of the [his brother] duke of Gloucester's arrest, the duchess and her children were greatly dismayed, and, since such a bold measure had been taken, were much afraid of the consequences. Suspecting the [his brother] duke's life was in great danger, they consulted sir John Laquingay what would be best for them now to do. The knight advised them to send instantly to the dukes of [his brother] Lancaster and York, the duke's brothers; for by their mediation, perhaps, the [his nephew] king's choler would be appeased. He saw no other means, as the [his nephew] king would not choose to make them his enemies. The duchess of Gloucester followed this advice of the knight, and instantly despatched messengers to both, for they resided at a distance from each other. They were much enraged at hearing their [his brother] brother was arrested, and returned answers to the duchess, not to be too much distressed at what had happened, for the [his nephew] king would not dare to treat him otherwise than by fair and legal measures, for it would not be suffered. This answer comforted the duchess and her children.

Read More ...

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: By the king in parliament. 33. Also, on the same Saturday [10 February 1397], a charter of the [his nephew] king made to the earl marshal touching his office of marshal of England, and the gold staff adorned with the emblem of the king's arms which he will carry in his office, was read and delivered to the said earl. The tenor of which charter follows:
The king to the same, greeting. Know that whereas recently by our letters patent of our special grace we granted to our beloved kinsman Thomas, earl of Nottingham, the office of marshal of England, together with the name and honour of earl marshal, to have to him and his male heirs issuing from his body, with all the fees, profits, and appurtenances whatsoever pertaining in any way to the said office, in perpetuity; as is fully contained in the same letters. We, mindful of the gracious and laudable services often performed by the aforementioned earl, on either side of the sea, for the benefit and honour of us and our kingdom, at no small effort, cost, and charge to him; and wishing therefore to provide for the estate and honour of that earl, of our special grace have granted in our present parliament for us and our heirs to the same earl the said office, and the name, title, and honour of earl marshal of England, to have to him and his male heirs issuing from his body, together with all offices, commodities, profits and other appurtenances whatsoever, both in our courts and elsewhere, relating or pertaining in any way to the same office, in the same manner and as fully, freely, wholly, and peacefully as Thomas Brotherton, lately earl of Norfolk and marshal of England, father of our beloved kinswoman Margaret countess of Norfolk, [widow] of the aforesaid late earl, or Roger Bigod sometime earl of Norfolk and marshal of England, or any other after the death of the same former earl, or the same present earl, had or held the said office of marshal of England in their time.
Willing further and granting for us and our heirs, that the office of marshal of our Bench before us, which John Wicks holds for the term of his life by our grant, and the office of marshal in our treasury which Richard Gascoigne holds for his life by grant of our beloved brother Thomas earl of Kent, lately marshal of England, by our confirmation; and also the office of herald of the marshal before the steward and marshal of our household, which Guy Allesley holds for his life by grant of the lord Edward [III], late king of England, our grandfather, and by our confirmation; which offices after the death of the aforesaid John, Richard and Guy should revert to us and our heirs, after the death of the same John, Richard, and Guy shall remain to the aforementioned earl marshal, to have to him and his male heirs in perpetuity. And that the same offices, and all other offices in any of our courts and elsewhere, which pertained, and used to pertain to the said office of marshal of England in times past, shall be fully restored, annexed, and reunited to the said office of marshal of England in perpetuity. And that the same earl and his male heirs may give, grant, or confer those offices on any suitable persons freely and without hindrance as soon as they shall have fallen vacant by death, demise, resignation, surrender, or in any other way, notwithstanding any of our letters patent made to the contrary.
Considering also the vigour and nobility of that earl, and that he may in future the more fittingly and honourably perform and exercise the aforesaid office, we have granted for us and our heirs to the same present earl that he and his said male heirs, marshals of England, by virtue of their aforesaid office should have, carry, and bear, as well in the presence as in the absence of us and our heirs, a certain gold staff, with both ends enamelled in black, and with the emblem of our arms decorating the top of the said staff, and with the emblem of the arms of that earl decorating the bottom of the said staff; notwithstanding that the same present earl in his time, or the aforementioned former earls, or any other who had the said office of marshal of England before this time, used to carry or bear a wooden staff. Witnessed by these, the venerable fathers Thomas archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England, Robert of London, William of Winchester, John of Ely, Edmund of Exeter, our chancellor, bishops; [his brother] John of Aquitaine and Lancaster, Edmund of York, dukes, our beloved uncles; [his nephew] Henry of Derby, [his son] Edward of Rutland, Henry of Northumberland, earls; Reginald Grey of Ruthin, Ralph Neville, John Lovell, knights; Roger Walden, dean of York, our treasurer, Thomas Percy, steward of our household, and others. Given by our hand at Westminster on 10 February 1397.

Read More ...

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: The Opening of Parliament. 6. The following are assigned to be triers of petitions from Gascony and from other lands and countries overseas, and from the Channel Islands:
The archbishop of York.
The duke of York.
The bishop of Ely.
The bishop of Chester.
The abbot of Waltham.
[his son] The earl of Rutland.
The earl marshal.
The earl of Northumberland.
Lord Despenser.
Lord Grey of Ruthin.
John Hull.
Hugh Huls.
John Markham.
- to act all together, or six of the aforesaid prelates and lords; consulting with the chancellor, treasurer, steward, and chamberlain, and also the king's serjeants when necessary. And they shall hold their session in the Marcolf Chamber.
And those who wish to submit petitions should hand them in between now and next Friday evening [26 January 1397].

Read More ...

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. The [his nephew] king of England left the Tower of London at a very early hour, and rode to Eltham, where he remained. The same day, towards evening, the earls of Arundel and Warwick were brought to the Tower by the king's officers, and there confined, to the great surprise of the citizens. Their imprisonment caused many to murmur, but they were afraid to act, or do anything against the king's pleasure, lest they might suffer for it. It was the common conversation of the knights, squires, and citizens of London, and in other towns, — "It is useless for us to say more on this matter, for the dukes of [his brother] Lancaster and of York, brothers to the [his brother] duke of Gloucester, can provide a remedy for all this whenever they please: they assuredly would have prevented it from happening, if they had suspected the [his nephew] king had so much courage, or that he would have arrested their [his brother] brother; but they will repent of their indolence: and, if they are not instantly active, it will end badly."

Read More ...