Biography of Edward V King England 1470-

1460 Battle of Wakefield

1464 Marriage of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville

1470 Edward V born in Sanctuary

1471 Edward V created Prince of Wales

1475 Creation of Garter Knights

1478 Marriage of Richard Duke of York and Anne Mowbray

1483 Death of Edward IV

1483 Edward V leaves Ludlow

1483 Richard III's Dinner with the Woodvilles

1483 Arrest of the Woodville Affinity

1483 Robert Stillington Claims Edward IV's Marriage to Elizabeth Woodville to be Bigamous

1483 Robert Brackenbury appointed Constable of the Tower of London

1483 Disappearance of the Princes in the Tower

Around 1454 John Grey 1432-1461 (22) and [his mother] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (17) were married. He a great x 5 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.

Battle of Wakefield

On 30 Dec 1460 the Lancastrian army took their revenge for the defeats of the First Battle of St Albans and the Battle of Northampton during the Battle of Wakefield at Sandal Castle. The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (30), Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (24) and Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (39), and included John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 (25) and William Gascoigne 1430-1463 (30), both knighted, and James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40), John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (25), John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1410-1461 (50), Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley 1427-1464 (33), Henry Roos -1504 and Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (20).
The Yorkist army was heavily defeated.
[his grandfather] Richard 3rd Duke York (49) was killed. His son [his father] Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) succeeded 4th Duke York 1C 1385, 9th Earl Ulster, 3rd Earl Cambridge 3C 1414.
Thomas Neville 1430-1460 (30), Thomas Harrington 1400-1460 (60), William Bonville 6th Baron Harington 1442-1460 (18) and Edward Bourchier -1460 were killed.
Thomas Parr 1407-1464 (53) fought in the Yorkist army.
Following the battle Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (60) was beheaded by Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland -1460. William Bonville 1420-1460 (40) was executed.
[his uncle] Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland 1443-1460 (17) was executed on Wakefield Bridge by John "Butcher" Clifford (25) by which he gained his sobriquet "Butcher".

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Marriage of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville

On 01 May 1464 [his father] Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (22) and [his mother] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (27) were married at Grafton Regis. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. [his grandmother] Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford 1415-1472 (49), Elizabeth's mother, being the only witness.

In Oct 1466 [his half-brother] Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (11) and Anne Holland 1461-1474 (5) were married at Greenwich. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England.

Edward V born in Sanctuary

On 02 Nov 1470 the future Edward V was born to [his father] Edward IV (28) and [his mother] Elizabeth Woodville (33) in Sanctuary Westminster Abbey. His father was abroad in Flanders. His Godparents included the Abbot and Prior of Westminster, and Elizabeth St John Baroness Scrope Bolton Baroness Zouche Harringworth -1494.

On 02 Nov 1470 Edward V King England 1470- was appointed Duke Cornwall.

Edward V created Prince of Wales

On 26 Jun 1471 Edward, the future Edward V was created Prince of Wales. Thomas Vaughan Master 1410-1483 (61) was knighted.

On 17 Aug 1473 [his brother] Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- was born to [his father] Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (31) and [his mother] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (36) at Westminster Palace. [his brother] He was created 1st Duke York 2C 1474 by his father on the same day.

1876. John Everett Millais Painter Baronet 1829-1896. "The Two Princes". An imagined portrait of the Princes in the Tower Edward V King England 1470- and Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473-.

On 05 Sep 1474 [his half-brother] Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (19) and Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset 1460-1529 (14) were married. They were half second cousins once removed. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England.

1475 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1475 [his father] Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (32) created his two sons as Garter Knights:
Edward V King England 1470- (4) was appointed 214th.
[his brother] Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- (1) was appointed 215th.

In 1475 [his half-brother] Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (20) was created 1st Marquess Dorset 3C 1475. Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset 1460-1529 (14) by marriage Marchioness Dorset.

On 12 Jun 1476 [his brother] Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- (2) was created 1st Earl Nottingham 3C 1476 by his father [his father] Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (34).

On 07 Feb 1477 [his brother] Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- (3) was created 1st Duke Norfolk 2C 1481 by his father [his father] Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (34).

In 1478 [his brother] George York 1st Duke Bedford 1477-1479 was created 1st Duke Bedford 4C 1478 by his father [his father] Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (35).

Marriage of Richard Duke of York and Anne Mowbray

On 15 Jan 1478 Edward IV's youngest son [his brother] Richard of Shrewsbury (4) and Anne Mowbray (5) were married at St Stephen's Chapel in Westminster. They were second cousins once removed. He a son of Edward IV King England 1442-1483. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England.. She had recently inherited the vast Mowbray inheritance when her father John Mowbray 4th Duke Norfolk 1444-1476 (33) died in 1476. The ceremony was attended by Edward's daughters [his sister] Elizabeth (11), [his sister] Mary (10) and [his sister] Cecily (8). The day before Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (35) was knighted. In 1483 Parliament changed the succession so [his brother] Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- (4) would continue to enjoy her inheritance (she died in 1481) effectively dis-inheriting William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley 1426-1492 (52) (who was subsequently created Earl and Marquess) and John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (53) (who would become an ardent supporter of Richard III following Edward's death).

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Around 1675 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500.

In 1479 [his half-brother] Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (24) was created 1st Earl Huntingdon 6C 1479. Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset 1460-1529 (18) by marriage Countess Huntingdon.

In Mar 1479 [his brother] George York 1st Duke Bedford 1477-1479 (2) died of plague at Windsor Castle. Duke Bedford 4C 1478 extinct.

Before 1483 Richard Haute -1487 was tutor to Edward V King England 1470-.

Death of Edward IV

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. As soon as the [his father] King (40) was departed, that noble Prince (12) his son drew toward London, who at the time of his father's death kept household at Ludlow in Wales. Such country, being far off from the law and recourse to justice, was begun to be far out of good will and had grown up wild with robbers and thieves walking at liberty uncorrected. And for this reason the Prince (12) was, in the life of his father, sent thither, to the end that the authority of his presence should restrain evilly disposed persons from the boldness of their former outrages. To the governance and ordering of this young Prince (12), at his sending thither, was there appointed [his uncle] Sir Anthony Woodville, Lord Rivers (43) and brother unto the [his mother] Queen (46), a right honorable man, as valiant of hand as politic in counsel. Adjoined were there unto him others of the same party, and, in effect, every one as he was nearest of kin unto the [his mother] Queen (46) was so planted next about the Prince (12).

After 1483 [his nephew] Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset 1477-1530 and Eleanor St John Marchioness Dorset were married. They were half third cousins. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward III England.

On 23 Jan 1483 Elizabeth Ferrers 6th Baroness Ferrers Groby 1419-1483 (64) died. Her grandson [his half-brother] Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (28) succeeded 7th Baron Ferrers Groby. Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset 1460-1529 (22) by marriage Baroness Ferrers Groby.

Death of Edward IV

On 09 Apr 1483 [his father] Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (40) died at Westminster. His son Edward V King England 1470- (12) succeeded V King England. Those present included [his mother] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (46), William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52) and [his half-brother] Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (28).

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. [his father] King Edward of that name the Fourth (40), after he had lived fifty and three years, seven months, and six days, and thereof reigned two and twenty years, one month, and eight days, died at Westminster the ninth day of April, the year of our redemption, a thousand four hundred four score and three, leaving much fair issue, that is, Edward the Prince (12), thirteen years of age; [his brother] Richard Duke of York (9), two years younger; [his sister] Elizabeth (17), whose fortune and grace was after to be queen, wife unto King Henry the Seventh (26), and mother unto the [his nephew] Eighth; [his sister] Cecily (14) not so fortunate as fair; [his sister] Brigette (2), who, representing the virtue of her whose name she bore, professed and observed a religious life in Dertford, a house of cloistered Nuns; [his sister] Anne (7), who was after honorably married unto Thomas (10), then Lord Howard and after Earl of Surrey; and [his sister] Katherine (3), who long time tossed in either fortune—sometime in wealth, often in adversity—at the last, if this be the last, for yet she lives, is by the goodness of her nephew, [his nephew] King Henry the Eighth, in very prosperous state, and worthy her birth and virtue.

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Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525 is believed to have painted the portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.

Edward V leaves Ludlow

On 23 Apr 1483 Edward V King England 1470- (12) left Ludlow with his uncle [his uncle] Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (43).

Richard III's Dinner with the Woodvilles

On 30 Apr 1483 [his uncle] Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) met [his half-brother] Richard Grey 1457-1483 (26) and [his uncle] Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (43) at Stony Stratford who were accompanying Edward V King England 1470- (12) to from Ludlow to London. All three had dinner together.

Arrest of the Woodville Affinity

On 01 May 1483 [his uncle] Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) arrested [his half-brother] Richard Grey 1457-1483 (26), [his uncle] Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (43) and Thomas Vaughan Master 1410-1483 (73) at Stony Stratford. Edward V King England 1470- (12) was taken under his uncle Richard's Protection to London.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. 01 May 1483. And as soon as they came in his presence, they alighted down with all their company about them. To whom the Duke of Buckingham said, "Go before, gentlemen and yeomen, keep your rooms." And thus in a goodly array, they came to the King (12) and, on their knees in very humble fashion, assuaged his Grace, who received them in very joyous and amiable manner, nothing earthly knowing nor mistrusting as yet. But even by and by, in his presence, they picked a quarrel with the [his half-brother] Lord Richard Grey (26), the King's other brother by his mother, saying that he, with the [his half-brother] Lord Marquis (28) his brother and the [his uncle] Lord Rivers (43) his uncle, had planned to rule the King and the realm, and to set variance among the lords, and to subdue and destroy the noble blood of the realm. Toward the accomplishing whereof, they said that the [his half-brother] Lord Marquis (28) had entered into the Tower of London, and thence taken out the King's treasure, and sent men to the sea. All of which things, these dukes knew well, were done for good purposes and necessary ones by the whole council at London, except that they must say something.
Unto which words, the King (12) answered, "What my brother [his half-brother] marquis (28) has done I cannot say. But in good faith I dare well answer for mine uncle [his uncle] Rivers (43) and my [his half-brother] brother (26) here, that they be innocent of any such matters.".
"Yea, my Liege," said the Duke of Buckingham, "they have kept their dealing in these matters far from the knowledge of your good Grace.".
And forthwith they arrested the [his half-brother] Lord Richard (26) and Sir Thomas Vaughan (73), knight, in the King's (12) presence, and brought the King (12) and all back unto Northampton, where they took again further counsel. And there they sent away from the King (12) whomever it pleased them, and set new servants about him, such as liked them better than him. At which dealing he wept and was nothing content, but it remedied not. And at dinner the [his uncle] Duke of Gloucester (30) sent a dish from his own table to the [his uncle] Lord Rivers (43), praying him to be of good cheer, all should be well enough. And he thanked the [his uncle] Duke (30), and prayed the messenger to bear it to his nephew, the [his half-brother] Lord Richard (26), with the same message for his comfort, who he thought had more need of comfort, as one to whom such adversity was foreign. But for himself, he had been all his days used to a life therewith, and therefore could bear it the better. But for all this comfortable courtesy of the [his uncle] Duke of Gloucester (30), he sent the [his uncle] Lord Rivers (43) and the [his half-brother] Lord Richard (26) with Sir Thomas Vaughan (73) into the north country to different places to prison and, afterwards, all to Pomfrait, where they were, in conclusion, beheaded.

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Around 1675 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 wearing his Garter Collar.

Robert Stillington Claims Edward IV's Marriage to Elizabeth Woodville to be Bigamous

Around 09 Jun 1483 Robert Stillington Bishop of Bath and Wells 1420-1491 (63) informed a Council meeting that the coronation of Edward V King England 1470- (12) could not proceed since he was illegitimate since his father's marriage to his mother [his mother] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (46) had been bigamous since [his father] Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (41) had previously married Eleanor Talbot 1436-1468 (47) at which Robert Stillington Bishop of Bath and Wells 1420-1491 (63) presided. The only witness being Robert Stillington Bishop of Bath and Wells 1420-1491 (63).

Robert Brackenbury appointed Constable of the Tower of London

On 17 Jul 1483 Robert Brackenbury -1485 was appointed Constable of the Tower of London for life meaning he was in direct care of The Princes in the Tower: Edward V King England 1470- (12) and his brother [his brother] Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- (9).

Disappearance of the Princes in the Tower

Around Aug 1483 Edward V King England 1470- (12) and his brother [his brother] Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- (9) disappeared, presumably killed, from the Tower of London. Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 (5) reports, sometime after the event, that [his uncle] Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) requested Robert Brackenbury -1485 undertake the murder of the children. Upon Brackenbury's refusal [his uncle] Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) instructed Robert Brackenbury -1485 give the keys to the Tower to James Tyrrell 1455-1502 (28) who would then undertake the task.

1527 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 wearing a Lancastrian Esses Collar with Beaufort Portcullis and Tudor Rose Pendant.

1876. John Everett Millais Painter Baronet 1829-1896 (46). "The Two Princes". An imagined portrait of the Princes in the Tower Edward V King England 1470- and [his brother] Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473-.

1876. John Everett Millais Painter Baronet 1829-1896. "The Two Princes". An imagined portrait of the Princes in the Tower Edward V King England 1470- and Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473-.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. With these words and writings and such others, the [his uncle] Duke of Gloucester soon set afire them that were of themselves easy to kindle, and especially two, Duke of Buckingham and Richard Lord Hastings [Note. Mistake for William] (the chamberlain), both men of honor and of great power: the one by long succession from his ancestry, the other by his office and the King's favor. These two, not bearing each to the other so much love as hatred both unto the [his mother] Queen's part, on this point accorded together with the [his uncle] Duke of Gloucester: that they would utterly remove from the King's company all his mother's friends, under the name of their enemies. With this concluded, the [his uncle] Duke of Gloucester, understanding that the lords who were about the King intended to bring him up to his coronation, accompanied with such power of their friends that it should be hard for him to bring his purpose to pass without the gathering and great assembling of people and in manner of open war, the end of which he knew to be dubious, and with the King being on their side, his part should have the face and name of a rebellion, he secretly, therefore, by diverse means caused the [his mother] Queen to be persuaded and brought to believe that it neither were needed and also should be jeopardizing for the King to come up strong. For whereas now every lord loved each other and none other thing studied upon but about the coronation and honor of the King, if the lords of her kindred should assemble in the King's name many people, they should give the very same lords, between whom and them had been sometime debate, fear and suspicion, lest they should gather this people, not for the King's safeguard, whom no man impugned, but for their destruction, having more regard to their old variance than their new atonement. For which cause, they should assemble on the other party many people again for their defense, whose power she knew well far stretched. And thus should all the realm fall into a roar. And of all the hurt that thereof should ensue, which was likely not to be little, and the most harm there like to fall where she least it would, all the world would put her and her kindred in the blame and say that they had unwisely and untruly also, broken the amity and peace that the [his father] King her husband so prudently made between his kin and hers on his death bed and which the other party faithfully observed.

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The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. The [his mother] Queen, being in this way persuaded, such word sent unto her son and unto her [his uncle] brother, being about the King; and besides that, the [his uncle] Duke of Gloucester himself and other chief lords of his company wrote unto the King so reverently and to the [his mother] Queen's friends there so lovingly that they, nothing earthly mistrusting, brought the King up in great haste, not in good speed, with a sober company.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. This plan that the [his mother] Queen not unwisely devised whereby her blood might from the beginning be rooted in the Prince's favor, the [his uncle] Duke of Gloucester turned unto their destruction, and upon that ground set the foundation of all his unhappy building. For whomsoever [his uncle] he perceived either at variance with them or bearing favor to [his uncle] himself, he revealed to them, some by mouth, some by writing and secret messengers, that it was neither reasonable nor in any way to be suffered that the young King, their master and kinsman, should be in the hands and custody of his [his mother] mother's kindred, sequestered from their company and attendance, because everyone owed the Prince service as faithful as they, and because many of them were of a far more honorable part of kin than his [his mother] mother's side. "Their blood," said [his uncle] he, "saving the King's pleasure, was fully unsuitable to be matched with his own, which was now to be removed from the King—and therefore the less noble men to be left about him—is," said [his uncle] he, "neither honorable to his Majesty nor to us, and also to [his uncle] his Grace no surety to have the mightiest of his friends away from him, and unto us no little jeopardy to suffer our well-proved evil willers to grow overgreat in authority with the youthful Prince, who is light of belief and easily persuaded.".

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The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. Now when the King on his way to London had gone from Northampton, then these Dukes of [his uncle] Gloucester and Buckingham came thither. But the [his uncle] Lord Rivers, the King's uncle, remained behind, intending on the morrow to follow the King, and be with him at Stony Stratford, eleven miles thence, early before he departed. So was there made that night much friendly cheer between these dukes and the [his uncle] Lord Rivers a great while. But immediately after that, they openly and with great courtesy departed; and while the [his uncle] Lord Rivers lodged, the dukes secretly, with a few of their most private friends, set themselves down in council, wherein they spent a great part of the night. And at their rising in the dawning of the day, they sent about secretly to their servants, who were in their inns and lodgings about, giving the commandment to make themselves shortly ready, for their lords were ready to ride. Upon which messages, many of their folk were attendant when many of the [his uncle] Lord Rivers' servants were unready. Now had these dukes taken also into their custody the keys of the inn so that none should pass forth without their approval. And besides this, on the highway toward Stony Stratford, where the King lay, they had ordered certain of their folk that they should send back again and compel to return any man who were gotten out of Northampton toward Stony Stratford, till they should give permission, because the dukes themselves intended, for the show of their diligence, to be the first that should that day attend upon the King's Highness out of that town; thus did they deceive the folk at hand.
But when the [his uncle] Lord Rivers understood the gates closed and the ways on every side beset, neither his servants nor himself allowed to go out, perceiving well so great a thing without his knowledge was not begun for nothing, comparing this manner present with this last night's cheer, in so few hours so great a change he marvelously disliked. However, since he could not get away—and keep himself close, he would not do so lest he should seem to hide himself for some secret fear of his own fault, whereof he saw no such fault in himself—he determined, upon the surety of his own conscience, to go boldly to them and inquire what this matter might mean. Whom, as soon as they saw, they began to quarrel with [his uncle] him and say that he intended to set distance between the King and them and to bring them to confusion, but this plan would not lie in his power. And when [his uncle] he began (as he was a very well-spoken man) in goodly manner to excuse himself, they tarried not the end of his answer, but shortly took him and put him under guard, and that done, forthwith went to horseback and took the way to Stony Stratford, where they found the King with his company ready to leap on horseback and depart forward, to leave that lodging for them because it was too small for both companies.

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The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. But as soon as the tidings of this matter came hastily to the [his mother] Queen, a little before the midnight following, and that in the sorest way, that the King her son was taken; her [his uncle] brother, her [his half-brother] son, and her other friends arrested, and sent to no man knew where, to be done with God knows what. With such tidings, the [his mother] Queen, in great fright and heaviness, bewailing her child's ruin, her friends' mischance, and her own misfortune, damning the time that ever she spoke in opposition to the gathering of power about the King, got herself in all haste possible, with her younger [his brother] son and her daughters, out of the Palace of Westminster in which she then lay, and into the Sanctuary, lodging herself and her company there in the Abbot's place.

Disappearance of the Princes in the Tower

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. Now fell their mischief thick. And as the thing evilly got is never well kept, through all the time of his reign there never ceased cruel death and slaughter, till his own destruction ended it. But as he finished his time with the best death and the most righteous, that is to say, his own, so began he with the most piteous and wicked: I mean the lamentable murder of his innocent nephews—the young King and his tender brother, whose death and final misfortune has nevertheless so far come in question that some remain yet in doubt whether they were in his days destroyed or not. Not only because Perkin Warbeck—by many folk's malice, and more folk's folly, so long a time spoiling the world—was reputed and taken for the younger of those two, among princes as well as among the poorer people, but also because all things were in late days so covertly managed, one thing pretended and another meant, that there was nothing so plain and openly proved; but yet for the common custom of close and covert conduct, men ever inwardly had suspected the murders, just as many well-counterfeited jewels make the true ones mistrusted. However, concerning that opinion, with the occasions moving either party, we shall have place more at large to treat, if we hereafter happen to write the history of the late noble prince of famous memory, King Henry the Seventh, or perchance that history of Perkin in any compendious account by itself.
But in the meantime, for this present matter, I shall rehearse you the sorrowful end of those babes, not after every way that I have heard, but after that way I have so heard by such men, and by such means, as I think it were hard but it should be true.
[his uncle] King Richard, after his coronation, taking his way to Gloucester to visit in his new honor the town of which he bore the name of his old, devised, as he rode, to fulfill that thing which he before had intended. And forasmuch as his mind misgave him that, his nephews living, men would not reckon he could have right to the realm, he thought, therefore, without delay to be rid of them, as though the killing of his kinsmen could amend his cause and make him a kindly king.
Whereupon he sent one John Green, whom he specially trusted, unto Sir Robert Brakenbery, Constable of the Tower, with a letter and credentials also, that the same Sir Robert should in any way put the two children to death. This John Green did his errand unto Brakenbery, kneeling before a statue of Our Lady in the Tower, who plainly answered that he would never put them to death, even if he had to die, with which answer John Green, returning, recounted the same to [his uncle] King Richard at Warwick, still on his way.
Wherewith he took such displeasure and thought, that the same night, he said unto a secret page of his: "Ah, whom shall a man trust? Those that I have brought up myself, those that I had thought would most surely serve me, even those fail me and at my commandment will do nothing for me."
"Sir," said his page, "there lies one outside in your bedchambers who, I dare well say, to do your Grace pleasure, the thing were right hard that he would refuse," meaning by this Sir James Tyrell, who was a man of right goodly personage and for nature's gifts, worthy to have served a much better prince, if he had well served God and by grace obtained as much truth and good will as he had strength and wit.
The man had a high heart and sore longed upward, not rising yet so fast as he had hoped, being hindered and kept under by the means of Sir Richard Radcliff and Sir William Catesby, who, longing for no more partners of the Prince's favor, and namely, none for him, whose pride they knew would bear no peer, kept him by secret plans out of all secret trust. Which thing this page well had marked and known. Because this occasion offered very special friendship with the King, the page took this time to put him forward and, by such a way, do him such good that all the enemies he had, except the devil, could never have done him so much harm.
For upon this page's words [his uncle] King Richard arose (for this communication had he sitting on the stool, an appropriate court for such a council) and came out into the bedchambers, where he found in bed Sir James and Sir Thomas Tyrell, of person alike and brethren of blood, but nothing of kin in qualities. Then said the King merrily to them: "What, sirs, be you in bed so soon?" and calling up Sir James, revealed to him secretly his mind in this mischievous matter, in which he found him nothing unfriendly.
Wherefore on the morrow, he sent him to Brakenbury with a letter, by which he was commanded to deliver Sir James all the keys of the Tower for one night, to the end he might there accomplish the King's pleasure in such thing as he had given him commandment. After which letter was delivered and the keys received, Sir James appointed the next night to destroy them, devising before and preparing the means.
The Prince, as soon as the [his uncle] Protector had left that name and took himself as King, had it showed unto him he should not reign, but his [his uncle] uncle should have the crown. At which word the Prince, sore abashed, began to sigh and said: "Alas, I would my [his uncle] uncle would let me have my life yet, though I lose my kingdom." Then he that told him the tale, spoke to him with good words and put him in the best comfort he could. But forthwith were the Prince and his [his brother] brother both shut up, and all others removed from them, only one, called Black Will or William Slaughter, set to serve them and see them safe. After which time the Prince never tied his laces, nor took care of himself, but with that young babe, his [his brother] brother, lingered in thought and heaviness till this traitorous death delivered them of that wretchedness.
For Sir James Tyrell devised that they should be murdered in their beds. To the execution whereof, he appointed Miles Forest, one of the four that kept them, a fellow hardened in murder before that time. To him he joined one John Dighton, his own housekeeper, a big, broad, square strong knave. Then all the others being removed from them, this Miles Forest and John Dighton about midnight (the innocent children lying in their beds) came into the chamber, and suddenly lapped them up among the bedclothes—so bewrapped them and entangled them, keeping down by force the featherbed and pillows hard unto their mouths, that within a while, smothered and stifled, their breath failing, they gave up to God their innocent souls into the joys of heaven, leaving to the tormentors their bodies dead in the bed.
Which after that the wretches perceived, first by the struggling with the pains of death, and after long lying still, to be thoroughly dead, they laid their bodies naked out upon the bed, and fetched Sir James to see them. Who, upon the sight of them, caused those murderers to bury them at the stair-foot, suitably deep in the ground, under a great heap of stones.
Then rode Sir James in great haste to [his uncle] King Richard and showed him all the manner of the murder, who gave him great thanks and, as some say, there made him knight. But he allowed not, as I have heard, the burying in so vile a corner, saying that he would have them buried in a better place because they were a king's sons. Lo, the honorable nature of a king! Whereupon they say that a priest of Sir Robert Brakenbury took up the bodies again and secretly buried them in a place that only he knew and that, by the occasion of his death, could never since come to light.
Very truth is it, and well known, that at such time as Sir James Tyrell was in the Tower—for treason committed against the most famous prince, King Henry the Seventh—both Dighton and he were examined and confessed the murder in manner above written, but to where the bodies were removed, they could nothing tell. And thus, as I have learned of them that much knew and little cause had to lie, were these two noble princes—these innocent, tender children, born of most royal blood, brought up in great wealth, likely long to live, to reign, and rule in the realm—by traitorous tyranny taken, deprived of their estate, swiftly shut up in prison, and privately slain and murdered, their bodies cast God knows where by the cruel ambition of their unnatural uncle and his merciless tormentors.
Such things on every part well pondered, God never gave this world a more notable example, either in what insecurity stands this worldly state, or what mischief works the proud enterprise of a high heart, or finally, what wretched end ensues from such pitiless cruelty. For, first, to begin with the ministers: Miles Forest at Saint Martin's piecemeal rotted away; Dighton, indeed, walks on alive in good possibility to be hanged before he die; but Sir James Tyrell died at Tower Hill, beheaded for treason. King Richard himself, as you shall hereafter hear, slain in the field, hacked and hewed of his enemies' hands, dragged on horseback dead, his hair spitefully torn and tugged like a cur dog. And this mischief he received within less than three years of the mischief that he did.

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Death of Edward IV

Mémoires de Philippe de Commynes Chapter 6 Section 8. Dès l'heure que le roy Edouard fut mort, le Roy nostre maistre en fut adverty, et n'en feit nulle joye quant il le sceut:
From the hour that [his father] King Edward IV died, the King our master was made aware, and took no joy in it [Note. Not clear what il le sceut means!]
et peu de jours après receut lettres du duc de Clocestre, qui s'estoit faict roy d'Angleterre1, et se signoit Richard, lequel avoit faict mourir les deux filz du roy Edouard son frère.
And few days after he received letters from the [his uncle] Duke of Gloucester, who had become the King of England, and signed Richard, who had caused the death of the two sons [Note. The Princes in the Tower Edward V King England 1470- and [his brother] Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473-] of [his father] King Edward his brother.
Lequel roy Richard requeroit l'amytié du Roy, et croy qu'il eust bien voulu ravoir reste pension;
[his uncle] King Richard wanted the friendship of the King, and belived he would continue to receive the pension;
mais le Roy ne voulut respondre à ses lettres, ne ouyr le messagier, et l'estima très cruel et mauvais:
but the King didn't want to respond to the letters, nor hear the messanger, and considered [his uncle] him very cruel and bad:
car, après le trespas dudict roy Edouard, ledict duc de Clocestre avoit faict hommaige à son nepveu, comme à son roy et souverain seigneur, et incontinent après commit ce cas.
since, after the [Note. didict? Possibly dudit ie said] crime against King Edward, the [his uncle] Duke of Gloucester gave homage to his nephew, as his King and sovereign lord, and [Note. incontinent?] after commited this case.
Et, en plain parlement d'Angleterre, feit desgrader deux filles dudict roy Edouard et desclarer bastardes, soubz couleur3 qu'il prouva par ung evesque de Bas4 en Angleterre
And, in the parliament of England, had degraded the two daughters of the said [his father] King of England and declared them bastards, on the pretext of the evidence of a Bishop of Bath in England
(qui aultresfois avoit eu grant credit avec ledict roy Edouard, et puis le desappoincta, et le tint en prison, et puis le ranconna d'une somme d'argent):
(who formerley had great credit with the King Edward then disappointed him, and held him in prison, and then ransomed himself with a sum of money)
lequel evesque disoit que ledict roy Edouard avoit promis foy de mariaige à une dame d'Angleterre (qu'il nommoit)5 pour ce qu'il en estoit amoureux, pour en avoir son plaisir;
which Bishop said that [his father] King Edward had promised [Note. foy? ] marriage to an English lady [who he named] who he was in love with, to have his pleasure; [See Edward IV marries Eleanor Talbot possibly].
et en avoit faict la promesse en la main dudict evesque, et, sur ceste promesse, coucha avec elle: et ne le faisoit que pour la tromper.
and had made this promise in the presence of the Bishop, and, on this promise, slept with her: and did this to deceive her. See The Princes of the Tower described as Illegitimate.
Toutesfois telz jeux sont bien dangereux, tesmoing ces enseignes. J'ay veu beaucoup de gens de court qui, une bonne adventure qui leur eust pleu en tel cas, ilz ne l'eussent point perdue par faulte de promettre.
Nevertheless such games are very dangerous, [Note. tesmoing?] these signs. I saw alot of courtiers who, having the opportunity of such an adventure, would not have lost it for the sake of a promise.
Et ce mauvais evesque garda ceste vengeance en son cueur, par adventure vingt ans; mais il luy en meschut:
And this bad Bishop guarded revenge in his heart, for twenty years; but he is in [Note. meshut?]:
car il avoit ung filz, qu'il aymoit fort, à qui ledict roy [his uncle] Richard vouloit faire de grans biens et luy faire espouser l'une de ces deux filles, desgradees de leur dignité, laquelle de présent est royne d'Angleterre et a deux beaux enfans.
because he had a son, who he loved very much, whom [his uncle] King Richard wished to do great things and to marry one of the two daughters, beneath their dignity, one of whom is now the present [his sister] Queen of England and has two beautiful children [Note. [his nephew] Arthur Tudor Prince of Wales 1486-1502 and [his niece] Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541].

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Around 1500. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Arthur Tudor Prince of Wales 1486-1502.Around 1525 Unknown Painter. French. Portrait of an Unknown Woman formerly known as Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541.