Biography of Edward of Westinster Prince of Wales 1453-1471

1447 Death of Humphrey of Lancaster

1453 Birth of Edward of Westminster

1460 Act of Accord 39 Hen VI

1461 Second Battle of St Albans

1461 Battle of Towton

1463 Siege of Norham Castle

1470 Angers Agreement

1470 Marriage of Edward of Westminster to Anne Neville

1471 Battle of Tewkesbury

1472 Marriage of Richard Duke of Gloucester and Anne Neville

1485 Queen Consort Anne Neville Dies

Death of Humphrey of Lancaster

On 20 Feb 1447 Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester 1390-1447 (56) was arrested on a charge of treason by John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont 1409-1460 (37), Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham 1402-1460 (44), Edmund Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (41), Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (47) and Ralph Boteler 6th Baron Sudeley 1389-1473 (58).

On 23 Feb 1447 Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester 1390-1447 (56) died at Bury St Edmunds. He was possibly poisoned although more likely he died from a stroke. He was buried at St Alban's Cathedral. His death left England with no heir to the throne in a direct line. Richard 3rd Duke York (35) became heir presumptive until the birth of Edward of Westinster Prince of Wales 1453-1471 six years later.

Birth of Edward of Westminster

On 13 Oct 1453 Edward of Westinster Prince of Wales 1453-1471 was born to [his father] Henry VI (31) and Margaret of Anjou (23) at Westminster Palace. When [his father] King Henry (31) recovered from his catatonic state in Jan 1455, he greeted the child as a 'miracle'. There is some speculation as the child's actual father since [his father] King Henry (31) and Queen Margaret (23) had been married for eight years before the birth. Edmund Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (47) was suggested at the time.

In 1454 Edward of Westinster Prince of Wales 1453-1471 was created Prince of Wales at Windsor Castle.

Act of Accord 39 Hen VI

On 25 Oct 1460 Parliament enacted the Act of Accord 39 Hen VI by which Richard 3rd Duke York (49) was declared heir to [his father] King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (38) disinheriting Edward of Westminster (7). At the same Parliament on 31 Oct 1460 Richard 3rd Duke York (49) was created Prince of Wales, Earl Chester, Duke Cornwall and Lord Protector.

Second Battle of St Albans

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Ande the xvij day nexte folowynge [his father] Kyng Harry (39) roode to Synt Albonys, and the Duke of Northefolke (45) with hym, the Erle of Warwycke (32), the Erle of Arundelle (43), the Lorde Bouser (30), the Lorde Bonvyle (68), with many grete lordys, knyghtys, and squyers, and commyns of an C [Hundred] Mlmen. And there they hadde a grete batayle whythe the Quene (30), for she come ever on fro the jornaye of Wackefylde tylle sche come to Synt Albonys, with alle the lordys a fore sayde; and hyr mayny and every lorde ys men bare hyr lordys leverey, that every man myghte knowe hys owne feleschippe by hys lyverey. And be-syde alle that, every man and lorde bare the Pryncys (7) levery, that was a bende of crymesyn and blacke with esteryge ys fetherys. The substance that gate that fylde were howseholde men and feyd men. I wene there were not v Mlmen that fought in the Quenys party, for [t]emoste parte of Northeryn men fledde a-way, and sum were take and spoylyd owte of hyr harnysse by the way as they fledde. And sum of them robbyd evyr as they yede, a petyffulle thynge hit ys to hyre hit. But the day before that batayle there was a jornay at Dunstapyl; but the kyngys mayny lackyd good gydyng, for sum were but newe men of warre, for the chevyste captayne was a boucher of the same towne; and there were the kyngys mayny ovyr throughe only by the Northeryn men. And sone aftyr the bocher, for schame of hys sympylle gydynge and loste of the men, the nombyr of viij C, for very sorowe as hyt ys sayde, hynge hym selfe; and sum men sayde that hyt was for loste of hys goode, but dede he ys—God knowythe the trought.

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Battle of Towton

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Ande the xxix day of the same monythe of Marche, that was Palme Sunday, the kyng (18) mette with the lordys of the Northe at Schyrborne. And there was on Harrys party that was kynge—

Prynce Edwarde (7), Kyng Harrys son.

The Duke of Exceter (30).

The Duke of Somersett (25).

The Erle of Northehumberlond (39).

The Erle of Devynschyre (29).

The Lorde Roos.

The Lorde Bemound (33).

The Lorde Clyfforde (25).

The Lorde Nevyle.

The Lorde Wellys (51).

The Lorde Wylby (40).

The Lorde Harry of Bokyngham.

The Lorde Ryvers (56).

The Lorde Schalys.

The Lorde Maule (50).

The Lorde Ferys of Groby (23).

The Lorde Foschewe. [Possibly John Fortescue 1394-1479 (67)]

The Lorde Lovelle (28).

Syr Thomas Hammys, captayne of alle the fote men.

Syr Androwe Thorlloppe.

Syr Thomas Tressam (41).

Syr Robert Whytyngham (32).

Syr John Dawne.

And the yonge Lorde of Schrouysbury (12), and many moo othyr, bothe lordys, knyghtys, and squyers.

Here ben the namys of the lordys that were slayne in the felde in [his father] Kynge Harrys (39) party.

The Erle of Northehumberlond (39),

The Lorde Clyfforde (25),

The Lorde Nevyle,

The Lorde Wellys (51),

The Lorde Maules (50),

And many moo then I can reherse; but whythe [t]es and othyr that were slayne in the fylde ys a grete nombyr, by syde xlij knyghtys that were slayne aftyr; the hoole nombyr ys xxxv Mlof comeners. Jhesu be [t]ou marcyfulle unto hyr soulys. Amen.

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1463 Siege of Norham Castle

Around Jun 1463 a Scottish and Lancastrian force, including King James III of Scotland 1451-1488 (11), his mother Mary of Guelders Queen Consort Scotland 1434-1463 (29), [his father] King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (41) and his wife Margaret of Anjou (33), laid siege to Norham Castle. They held Norham for eighteen days until a force led by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (34) and his brother John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (32) advanced to Norham Castle at which time the Scottish and Lancastrian force fled in panic pursued by the Yorkist army. Margaret of Anjou (33) and her son Edward of Westinster Prince of Wales 1453-1471 (9) escaped to Berwick on Tweed and then to the continent. [his father] King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (41) remained in Scotland - he and his wife never saw each other again.

Angers Agreement

On 22 Jul 1470 [his future father-in-law] Warwick the Kingmaker (41), King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (48) and Margaret of Anjou (40) signed the Angers Agreement at Angers Cathedral. The agreement had been brokered by King Louis XI of France (47). Edward of Westinster Prince of Wales 1453-1471 (16) and Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (14) were betrothed as part of the Agreement.

Marriage of Edward of Westminster to Anne Neville

On 13 Dec 1470 Edward of Westinster Prince of Wales 1453-1471 (17) and [his wife] Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (14) were married at Angers Cathedral. They were half third cousins. He a son of King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his wife] Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (14) by marriages Princess of Wales.

Letter XXXIX Anne Countess of Warwick to the House of Commons. 1471. Letter XXXVIII. [his wife] Anne Countess of Warwick (14) to the House of Commons.

To the right worshipful and discreet Commons of this present Parliament.

Sheweth unto your wisdoms and discretions the king's true liege woman, Anne countess of Warwick, which never offended his most redoubted highness; for she, immediately after the death of her lord and husband (17) — on whose soul God have mercy — for none offence by her done, but dreading only trouble, being that time within this realm, entered into the sanctuary of Beaulieu for surety of her person, to dispose for the weal and health of the soul of her said lord and husband, as right and conscience required her so to do; making within five days, or near thereabouts, after her entry into the said sanctuary, her labours, suits, and means to the king's highness for her safeguard, to be had as diligently and effectually as her power would extend. She not ceasing, but after her power continiling in such labours, suits, and means, insomuch that, in absence of clerks, she hath written letters in that behalf to the king's highness with her own hand, and not only making such labours, suits, and means to the king's highness, soothly also to the queen's (34) good grace, to my right redoubted lady the king's mother, to my lady the king's eldest daughter, to my lords the king's brethren, to my ladies the king's sisters, to my lady of Bedford (56), mother to the queen, and to other ladies noble of this realm; in which labours, suits, and means, she hath continued hitherto, and so will continue, as she owes to do, till it may please the king, of his most good and noble grace, to have consideration that, during the life of her said lord and husband, she was covert baron, which point she remits to your great wisdoms, and that after his decease, all the time of her being in the said sainctuary, she hath duly kept her fidelity and liegeance, and obeyed the king's commandments. Howbeity it hath pleased the king's highness, by some sinister information to his said highness made, to direct his most dread letters to the abbot of the monastery of Beaulieu, with right sharp commandment that such persons as his highness sent to the said monastery should have guard and strait keeping of her person, which was and is to her great heart's grievance, she specially fearing that the privileges and liberties of the church, by such keeping of her person, might be interrupted and violated, where the privileges of the said sanctuary were never so largely attempted unto this time, as is said; yet the said Anne and Countess, under protestations by her made, hath suffered strait keeping of her person and yet doth, that her fidelity and liegeance to the king's highness the better might be understood, hoping she might the rather have had largess to make suits to the king's highness in her own person for her livelihood and rightful inheritance, which livelihood and inheritance, with all revenues and profits thereto pertaining, with her jointure also, and dower of the earldom of Salisbury, fully and wholly hath been restrained from her, from the time of the death of her said lord and husband unto this day. And forasmuch as our sovereign lord the king of his great grace hath set and assembled his high court of Parliament for reformations, right, and equity to all his subjects and liege people duly to be ministered, the said Anne and Countess humbly beseecheth your great wisdom to ponder and weigh in your consciences her right and true title of her inheritance, as the earldom of Warwick and Spencer's lands, to which she is rightfully born by lineal succession, and also her jointure and dower of the earldom of Salisbury aforesaid. And to shew her your benevolence, that by the king's good grace and authority of this his noble Parliament she may to her foresaid livelihood and rightful inheritance duly be restored and it enjoy, as the laws of Almighty God and of this noble realm, right, also, and conscience doth require; beseeching heartily your great goodnesses, in the reverence of Almighty God and of his most blessed mother, will of grace to consider the poor estate she stands in, how in her own person she may not solicit the premises as she would, an she might, nor is of power any sufficient solicitor in this behalf to make; and though she might, as (she; may not, there is none that dare take it upon him; to have also this poor bill in your tender remembrance, that your perfect charity and good will may solicit the eflFect of the same, which to do, her power at this time may not extend. And shall pray and do pray to God for you.

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Battle of Tewkesbury

On 04 May 1471 King Edward IV (29) was victorious at the Battle of Tewkesbury. His brother Richard (18), Richard Beauchamp 2nd Baron Beauchamp Powick 1435-1503 (36), John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (46), George Neville 4th Baron Bergavenny 1440-1492 (31), John Savage 1422-1495 (49), John Savage 1444-1492 (27), Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (31), John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley of Heighley 3rd Baron Tuchet 1426-1490 (45), Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh 1431-1496 (40) fought. William Brandon 1425-1491 (46), George Browne 1440-1483 (31), Ralph Hastings -1495, Richard Hastings Baron Willoughby de Eresby 1433-1503 (38), James Tyrrell 1455-1502 (16), Roger Kynaston of Myddle and Hordley 1433-1495 (38) were knighted. William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (40) commanded.

[his mother] Margaret of Anjou (41) was captured. Her son Edward of Westinster Prince of Wales 1453-1471 (17) was killed. He was the last of the Lancastrian line excluding the illegitmate Charles Somerset 1st Earl Worcester 1460-1526 (11) whose line continues to the present.

John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 (36), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (71), Humphrey Tuchet 1434-1471 (37) and John Beaufort 1441-1471 (30) were killed.

Edmund Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset 1439-1471 (32) and Hugh Courtenay 1427-1471 (44) were captured.

William Vaux of Harrowden 1436-1471 (35) and Robert Whittingham 1429-1471 (42) were killed.

Henry Roos -1504 fought and escaped to Tewkesbury Abbey where sough sanctuary. He was subsequently pardoned.

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After 04 May 1471 Edward of Westinster Prince of Wales 1453-1471 was buried at Tewkesbury Abbey. Brass floor marker of the grave of Edward of Westinster Prince Wales 1453-1471.

Marriage of Richard Duke of Gloucester and Anne Neville

On 12 Jul 1472 Richard Duke of Gloucester (19) and [his wife] Anne Neville (16) were married at St Stephen's Chapel. They were first cousins once removed. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his wife] She by marriage Duchess Gloucester.

Queen Consort Anne Neville Dies

On 16 Mar 1485 [his wife] Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (28) died at Westminster Palace. Probably of tuberculosis. The day she died there was an Eclipse of the Sun; a bad omen to some. There were rumours of foul play.

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Ande at the nyght aftyr the batayle the [his father] kynge blessyd hys sone the Prynce, and Doctor Morton brought forthe a boke that was fulle of orysons, and there the boke was oppenyd, and blessyd that yong chylde cum pinguedine terre et cum rore celi [Note. "with the richness of the earth and with the dew of heaven"], and made hym knyght. And the yong knyght weryd a payre of bregant yerys i-coveryd with purpylle velvyt i-bete with golde-smythe ys worke. And the Prynce made many knyghtys. The fryste that he made was Androwe Trolloppe, for he was hurte and myght not goo for a calletrappe in hys fote; and he sayde, "My lorde, I have not deservyd hit for I slowe but xv men, for I stode stylle in oo place and they come unto me, but they bode stylle with me." And then come Whytyngam, Tresham, and many moo othyr, and were made knyghtys that same tyme.

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. And the lordys before wretyn fledde, the substance in to Schotlond with the [his father] Kynge Harry and Quene Margarete, and sone the Prynce with hym, fulle of sorowe and hevynys, no wondyr. God knowythe, but every man deme the beste tylle the trought be tryde owte. For many a lady lost hyr beste be lovyd in that batayle.

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. And in the myddys of the batayle [his father] Kynge Harry wente unto hys Quene and for-soke alle hys lordys, ande truste better to hyr party thenne unto hys owne lordys. And thenn thoroughe grete labur the Duke of Northefolke and the Erle of Warwycke a schapyd a-waye; the Byschoppe of Exceter, that tyme Chaunceler of Ingelond, and brother unto the Erle of Warwycke, the Lorde Bouser, whythe many othyr knyghtys, squyers, and comyns fledde, and many men slayne in bothe partys. And the Lorde Bonevyle was be-heddyd, the comyn sayynge that hys longage causyd hym to dye. The Prynce was jugge ys owne sylfe. Ande ther was slayne that manly knyght Syr Thomas Keryel. The nomber of ded men was xxxv C an moo [t]at were slayne. The lordys in [his father] Kyng Harrys party pycchyd a fylde and fortefyd hyt fulle stronge, and lyke unwyse men brake hyr raye and fyld and toke a-nothyr, and or that they were alle sette a buskyd to batayle, the Quenys parte was at hond whythe hem in towne of Synt Albonys, and then alle [t]yng was to seke and owte of ordyr, for hyr pryckyers come not home to bryng no tydyng howe ny that the Quene was, save one come and sayd that she was ix myle of. And ar the goners and borgeners couthe levylle hyr gonnys they were besely fyghtyng, and many a gynne of wer was ordaynyd that stode in lytylle a-vayle or nought; for the burgeners hadde suche instrumentys that wolde schute bothe pellettys of ledde and arowys of an elle of lenghthe with vj fetherys, iij in myddys and iij at the othyr ende, with a grete myghty hedde of yryn at the othyr ende, and wylde fyre with alle. Alle thes iij thyngys they myght schute welle and esely at onys, but in tyme of nede they couthe not schut not one of thes, but the fyre turnyd backe a-pon them that wold schute thys iij thyngys. Also they hadde nettys made of grete cordys of iiij fethem of lengthe and of iiij fote brode, lyke unto an haye, and at every ij knott there was an nayl stondyng uppe ryght, that there couthe no man passe ovyr hyt by lyckely hode but he shulde be hurte. Alle so they hadde pavysse bore as a dore i-made with a staffe foldynge uppe and downe to sette the pavys where the lykyd, and loupys with schyttyng wyndowys to schute owte at, they stondyng by hynde [t]e pavys, and the pavys as fulle of iijdnayle aftyr ordyr as they myght stonde. And whenn hyr schotte was spende and done they caste the pavysse by-fore hem, thenn there myght noo man come unto them ovyr the pavysse for the naylys that stode up-ryghte, but yf he wolde myschyffe hym sylfe. Alle so they hadde a thynge made lyke unto a latysse fulle of naylys as the net was, but hit wolde be mevyd as a man wolde; a man myght bryse hyt to-gedyr that the lengythe wolde be more then ij yerdys long, and yf he wolde he myght hale hyt a brode, thenn hit wolde be iiij square. And that servyd to lye at gappys there at horsemen wolde entyr yn, and many a caltrappe. And as the substaunce of men of worschyppe that wylle not glose nor cory favyl for no parcyallyte, they cowthe not undyrstond that alle thys ordenaunce dyd any goode or harme but yf hyt were a mong us in owre parte with [his father] Kyng Harry. There fore hyt ys moche lefte, and men take hem to mallys of ledde, bowys, swyrdys, gleyvys, and axys. As for speremen they ben good to ryde be-fore the foote men and ete and drynke uppe hyr vetayle, and many moo suche prety thyngys they doo, holde me excusyd thoughe I say the beste, for in the fote men ys alle the tryste.

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The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. Richard, Duke of York, a noble man and a mighty, had begun not by war but by law to challenge the crown, putting his claim into the Parliament. There his cause was either for right or favor so far forth advanced that [his father] King Henry (although he had a goodly prince utterly rejected his own blood; the crown was by authority of Parliament entailed unto the Duke of York, and his male issue in remainder, immediately after the death of [his father] King Henry. But the Duke, not enduring so long to tarry, but intending under pretext of dissension and debate arising in the realm, to reign before his time and to take upon him the rule in King Henry's life, was with many nobles of the realm at Wakefield slain, leaving three sons — Edward, George, and Richard.

All three, as they were great states of birth, so were they great and stately of stomach, greedy and ambitious of authority, and impatient of partners. Edward, revenging his father's death, deprived [his father] King Henry and attained the crown.