Biography of George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478

1460 Battle of Wakefield

1461 Creation of Garter Knights by Edward IV

1461 Edward IV marries Eleanor Talbot possibly

1461 Coronation of Edward IV

1464 Marriage of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville

1467 Tournament Bastard of Burgundy

1469 Marriage of George Duke of Clarence and Isabel Neville

1469 Capture of Edward IV

1470 Welles' Rebellion and Battle of Losecoat Field aka Empingham

1470 Marriage of Edward of Westminster to Anne Neville

1471 Battle of Barnet

1471 Edward V created Prince of Wales

1472 Marriage of Richard Duke of Gloucester and Anne Neville

1474 Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead

1476 Reburial of Richard and Edmund of York

1477 Trial and Execution of Ankarette Twynyho

1477 Execution of Burdett and Stacy

1478 Execution of George Duke of Clarence

1478 Marriage of Richard Duke of York and Anne Mowbray

1478 Attainder of George Duke of Clarence

1499 Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick

In Oct 1429 [his father] Richard 3rd Duke York (18) and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (14) were married. They were second cousins. He a great grandson of King Edward III England. She a great granddaughter of King Edward III England. She by marriage Countess Cambridge Earl Ulster. She was the youngest sister of Richard's brother-in-arms Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (29).

In 1447 Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (16) and [his sister] Anne York Duchess Exeter 1439-1476 (7) were married. They were half second cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England.

On 21 Oct 1449 George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 was born to [his father] Richard 3rd Duke York (38) and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (34) at Dublin Castle, Dublin He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England.

Before Feb 1458 John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 and [his sister] Elizabeth York Duchess Suffolk 1444-1503 were married. They were half third cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his sister] She by marriage Marchioness Suffolk 1C.

Battle of Wakefield

On 30 Dec 1460 the Lancastrian army took their revenge for the defeats of the First Battle of St Albans and the Battle of Northampton during the Battle of Wakefield at Sandal Castle. The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (30), Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (24) and Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (39), and included John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 (25) and William Gascoigne 1430-1463 (30), both knighted, and James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40), John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (25), John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1410-1461 (50), Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley 1427-1464 (33), Henry Roos -1504 and Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (20).

The Yorkist army was heavily defeated.

[his father] Richard 3rd Duke York (49) was killed. King Edward IV (18) succeeded 4th Duke York 1C 1385, 9th Earl Ulster, 3rd Earl Cambridge 3C 1414.

Thomas Neville 1430-1460 (30), Thomas Harrington 1400-1460 (60), William Bonville 6th Baron Harington 1442-1460 (18) and Edward Bourchier -1460 were killed.

Thomas Parr 1407-1464 (53) fought in the Yorkist army.

Following the battle [his uncle] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (60) was beheaded by Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland -1460. William Bonville 1420-1460 (40) was executed.

[his brother] Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland 1443-1460 (17) was executed on Wakefield Bridge by John "Butcher" Clifford (25) by which he gained his sobriquet "Butcher".

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1461 Creation of Garter Knights by Edward IV

In Apr 1461 [his brother] King Edward IV (18) appointed new Garter Knights:

185th (his brother) George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (11).

186th William Chamberlaine -1462.

Coronation of Edward IV

Around Jun 1461, the time of his coronation, [his brother] King Edward IV (19) created his two brothers as Dukes ...

George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (11) was created 1st Duke Clarence 3C 1461.

[his brother] Richard III King England 1452-1485 (8) was created 1st Duke Gloucester 3C 1461.

Edward IV marries Eleanor Talbot possibly

Around Jun 1461, the record is very vague, [his brother] King Edward IV (19) and Eleanor Talbot 1436-1468 (25) were possibly secretly married by Robert Stillington Bishop of Bath and Wells 1420-1491 (41). The marriage came to light after Edward's death. Robert Stillington Bishop of Bath and Wells 1420-1491 (41) provided the information to the future Richard III King England 1452-1485 (8) in 1483; Richard used the information to justify his succeeding to be King since [his brother] Edward IV's (19) children with Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (24) were, therefore, illegitimate as a result of their marriage being bigamous and George Duke of Clarence's (11) children were barred from the throne as a consequence of their father's attainder.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1463. 23 Jun 1463. Inspeximus and confirmation to the mayor, bailiffs and burgesses of Clyfton, Dertmuth and Hardenesse of (1) letters patent dated 14 December, 2 Richard II. inspecting and confirming a charter dated at the Tower of London, 14 April, 15 Edward III. [Charter Roll, 15 Edward III. No. 18,] and (2) a charter dated at Westminster, 5 November, 17 Richard II. [Charter Noll, 15-17 Richard II. No. 10]; and grant that the adjoining township of Southtouudertemouth shall henceforth be annexed to the said borough of Cliftondertemouth Hardenasse, in consideration of the fact that the burgesses keep watches against invaders on the confines of the township and beyond at a place called 'Galions Boure' but the inhabitants of the township contribute nothing because they do not enjoy the liberties of the borough. Th« mayor and bailiffs shall have return of writs and execu- tion thereof within the said township and the liberty of the borough, saving always the right of the lord of the fee of the township, and all pleas real and personal and attachments and fines and amercements, and also view of frauk-pledge and all that peitains to it. And they may acquire, in mortmain, after inquisition, lands, tenements, rents and other possessions, not held in chief, to the value of 201. yearly. Witnesses: Th. archbishop of Canterbury (45), W. archbishop of York (75), G. bishop of Exeter (31), the chancellor, J. bishop of Carlisle, the king's brothers George, duke of Clarence (13), and [his brother] Richard, duke of Gloucester (10), the king's kinsmen Richard, earl of Warwick (34), and John, earl of Worcester (36), treasurer of England, Robert Styllyngton (43), king's clerk, keeper of the privy seal, and William Hastynges of Hastynges (32), the king's chamberlain, and John Wenlok of Wenlok (63), knights.

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Marriage of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville

On 01 May 1464 [his brother] King Edward IV (22) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (27) were married at Grafton Regis. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford 1415-1472 (49), Elizabeth's mother, being the only witness. The date not certain.

After 1466 Thomas Burdett of Arrow in Warwickshire 1425-1477 was in the service of John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp Powick 1409-1475, Ralph Boteler 6th Baron Sudeley 1389-1473 and George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478.

Tournament Bastard of Burgundy

On 30 May 1467 George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (17) and John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 (40) visited Antoine "Bastard of Burgundy" 1421-1504 (46) at his lodgings in Chelsea.

In 1468 Thomas Fitzgerald 7th Earl Desmond -1468 and Thomas Fitzgerald 7th Earl Kildare 1421-1478 (47) attended Parliament in Drogheda to answer charges of treason. Both were found guilty and attain. Thomas Fitzgerald 7th Earl Desmond -1468 sought sanctuary in Drogheda Priory where he was captured by John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 (40). On 14 Feb 1468 Thomas Fitzgerald 7th Earl Desmond -1468 was summarily beheaded. He was buried initially in St Peter's Church Drogheda then Christ Church Cathedral Dublin. Some accounts claim John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 (40) also murdered two of his young sons. Thomas Fitzgerald 7th Earl Kildare 1421-1478 (47) escaped and was subsequently pardoned and attainder reversed when [his brother] King Edward IV (25) found Ireland was ungovernable without him. In 1470 Thomas Fitzgerald 7th Earl Kildare 1421-1478 (49) was appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland under George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (28) which position he held until the Duke's death in 1478.

Marriage of George Duke of Clarence and Isabel Neville

On 11 Jul 1469 George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (19) and [his wife] Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence 1451-1476 (17) were married by George Neville Archbishop of York 1432-1476 (37) at the Église Notre-Dame de Calais witnessed by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (40). They were first cousins once removed. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his wife] She by marriage Duchess Clarence.

Capture of Edward IV

After 26 Jul 1469 [his brother] King Edward IV was captured by his brother George at Olney after the Battle of Edgecote Moor.

Welles' Rebellion and Battle of Losecoat Field aka Empingham

On 12 Mar 1470 [his brother] King Edward IV (27) commanded at the Battle of Losecoat Field (Empingham). The battle apparently didn't take place since the army of Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 8th Baron Welles -1470 fled in the face of the Royal army. The name 'Losecoat' not contemporary; Battle of Empingham may be. Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 8th Baron Welles -1470 was captured with documents describing the fomenting of rebellion by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (41) and George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (20).

Around 14 Apr 1470 [his daughter] Anne York 1470-1470 was born to George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (20) and Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence 1451-1476 (18). She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England. Coefficient of inbreeding 5.33%.

Marriage of Edward of Westminster to Anne Neville

On 13 Dec 1470 Edward of Westinster Prince of Wales 1453-1471 (17) and [his sister-in-law] Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (14) were married at Angers Cathedral. They were half third cousins. He a son of King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his sister-in-law] Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (14) by marriages Princess of Wales.

Battle of Barnet

On 14 Apr 1471 [his brother] Edward IV (28) commanded at the Battle of Barnet supported by his brothers George (21) and Richard (18), John Babington 1423-1485 (48), Wiliam Hastings (40) (commanded), Ralph Hastings -1495, William Norreys 1441-1507 (30), William Parr KG 1434-1483 (37), John Savage 1422-1495 (49), Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (31), John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley of Heighley 3rd Baron Tuchet 1426-1490 (45), Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh 1431-1496 (40), John Scott Comptroller 1423-1485 (48) and Thomas Strickland -1494.

The Yorkists William Blount 1442-1471 (29), Humphrey Bourchier 1431-1471 (40), Humphrey Bourchier 1435-1471 (36), Henry Stafford 1425-1471 (46) and Thomas Parr -1471 were killed.

The Lancastrians [his father-in-law] Warwick the Kingmaker (42), !John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (40) and William Tyrrell -1471 were killed.

William Fiennes 2nd Baron Saye and Sele 1428-1471 (43) was killed. Henry Fiennes 3rd Baron Saye and Sele 1446-1476 (25) succeeded 3rd Baron Saye and Sele. Anne Harcourt Baroness Saye and Sele by marriage Baroness Saye and Sele.

Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (40) commanded the left flank, was badly wounded and left for dead, Henry Stafford 1425-1471 (46) and John Paston 1444-1504 (27) were wounded, John Vere 13th Earl Oxford 1442-1513 (28) commanded, and John Paston 1442-1479 (29) and William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (33) fought.

Robert Harleston 1435-1471 (36) was killed.

Thomas Hen Salusbury 1409-1471 (62) was killed.

Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 (51) escaped but was subsequently captured and executed on 06 May 1471.

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Edward V created Prince of Wales

On 26 Jun 1471 [his nephew] Edward, the future Edward V was created Prince of Wales. Thomas Vaughan Master 1410-1483 (61) was knighted.

1876. John Everett Millais Painter Baronet 1829-1896.

In 1472 George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (22) was created 1st Earl Salisbury 3C 1472.

Marriage of Richard Duke of Gloucester and Anne Neville

On 12 Jul 1472 [his brother] Richard Duke of Gloucester (19) and Anne Neville (16) were married at St Stephen's Chapel. They were first cousins once removed. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England. She by marriage Duchess Gloucester.

On 14 Aug 1473 [his daughter] Margaret York Countess Salisbury 1473-1541 was born to George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (23) and Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence 1451-1476 (21) at Farleigh Hungerford Castle. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England. Coefficient of inbreeding 5.33%.

Around 1535 Unknown Painter. Portrait of unknown woman thought to be Margaret York Countess Salisbury 1473-1541. She holding a wine butt on a thread between her fingers which may refer to her father's death.

On 17 Aug 1473 [his nephew] Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- was born to King Edward IV (31) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (36) at Westminster Palace. [his nephew] He was created 1st Duke York 2C 1474 by his father on the same day.

1876. John Everett Millais Painter Baronet 1829-1896.

Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead

In 1474 Parliament declared [his mother-in-law] Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick 1426-1492 (47) legally dead (she lived until 1492) so that Edward IV's (31) two younger brothers George (24) and the Richard (21), who had married [his mother-in-law] Anne Beauchamp's (47) daughters, Isabel (22) and Anne (17) respectively, could enjoy the significant Beauchamp inheritance after her husband [his father-in-law] Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (45) had been killed at the Battle of Barnet in 1471.

Some of the inhertance should have been given to George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (13) but he was only thirteen at the time; his father John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (43), younger brother of [his father-in-law] Warwick the Kingmaker (45), had also been killed at the Battle of Barnet. He, George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (13), died in 1483 aged twenty-one somewhat conveniently after the death of King Edward IV (31) and before Richard III King England 1452-1485 (21) acceded to the throne. Curiously the Act of Parliament described Richard III King England 1452-1485 (21) enjoying the inheritance as long as there were Neville living heirs male. Upon the death of George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (13) the Neville heir male was Richard Neville 2nd Baron Latimer of Snape 1468-1530 (6) born 1468 whose wardship was held by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (56).

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In 1474 Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (34) and [his sister] Anne York Duchess Exeter 1439-1476 (34) were married. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England.

Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead

Parliament Rolls.Edward IV Oct 1472.Second Roll. 06 Jun 1474. Westminster Palace. Exemplification at the request of [his brother] Richard Duke of Gloucester (21), of the tenour of an act (English) in the Parliament summoned at Westminster, 6 October, 12 Edward IV, and continued to 9 May, 14 Edward IV, ordaining that George Duke Clarence (24), and Isabel (22) his wife and Richard Duke of Gloucester, and Anne (17) his wife, daughters and heirs to Richard Nevyle (45), late Earl of Warwick, and daughters and heirs apparent to Anne Beauchamp (47), his wife should possess and enjoy as in the right of the said wives all possessions belonging to the said Countess as though she were naturally dead and that she should be barred and excluded therefrom, that they should make partition of the premises and the same partition should be good in law, that the said Dukes should enjoy for life all the possessions of their wives if they should outlive the latter, that the said George (24) and Isabel (22) should not make any alienation, grant, fine or recovery of any of the premises to the hurt of the said [his brother] Richard (21) and Anne (17) or the latter to the hurt of the former, that if the said Richard and Anne be divorced and afterwards married this Act should hold good, that if they be divorced and he do his effectual diligence to be married to her and during her life be not wedded to any other woman he should enjoy as much of the premises as should appertain to her during his life, and that notwithstanding the restraint of alienation or recovery above specified the lordship, manor and wappentake of Chesterfield and Scarvesdale with the appurtenances and all the lands and tenements in Chesterfield and Scarvesdale sometime of Ales (67), late Countess of Salisbury, might be given to the King and his heirs in exchange for other lands and tenements, which shall however be subject of this Act.Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead.

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On 25 Feb 1475 [his son] Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick 1475-1499 was born to George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (25) and Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence 1451-1476 (23) at Warwick Castle. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III England. Coefficient of inbreeding 5.33%.

On 14 Jan 1476 [his niece] Anne St Leger Baroness Ros Helmsley 1476-1526 was born to Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (36) and Anne York Duchess Exeter 1439-1476 (36). She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England. Her mother (36) died in childbirth. She was buried at St Leger Chantry St George's Chapel Windsor Castle.

On 12 Jun 1476 [his nephew] Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- (2) was created 1st Earl Nottingham 3C 1476 by his father King Edward IV (34).

Reburial of Richard and Edmund of York

On 29 Jul 1476 Edward I's paternal grand-father Edward of York, his father [his father] Richard of York (64) and and his younger brother Edmund (33) were reburied at St Mary and All Saints in Fotheringhay in a ceremony attended by King Edward IV (34), George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (26), Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (21), William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (45), Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (36).

On 06 Oct 1476 [his son] Richard York 1476-1477 was born to George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (26) and Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence 1451-1476 (25) at Tewkesbury Abbey. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III England. Coefficient of inbreeding 5.33%.

Trial and Execution of Ankarette Twynyho

On 22 Dec 1476 [his wife] Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence 1451-1476 (25) died in childbirth. She was buried in Tewkesbury Abbey. George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (27) believed she had been murdered by Ankarette Twynyho -1477. Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick 1475-1499 (1) succeeded 17th Earl Warwick 1C 1088. See Trial and Execution of Ankarette Twynyho.

On 07 Feb 1477 [his nephew] Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- (3) was created 1st Duke Norfolk 2C 1481 by his father King Edward IV (34).

Execution of Burdett and Stacy

Before 13 Jun 1477 two servants of George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 were hanged at Tyburn for being sorcerers and planning the murder of Richard Beauchamp 2nd Baron Beauchamp Powick 1435-1503.

John Stacy -1477 and Thomas Burdett of Arrow in Warwickshire 1425-1477 (52) were hanged.

Execution of George Duke of Clarence

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. George, Duke of Clarence (28), was a goodly noble prince, and at all points fortunate, if either his own ambition had not set him against his [his brother] brother (35), or the envy of his enemies had not set his brother against him. For were it by the Queen (41) and the lords of her blood, who highly maligned the King's kindred (as women commonly, not of malice but of nature, hate them whom their husbands love), or were it a proud appetite of the Duke (28) himself intending to be king, in any case, heinous treason was there laid to his charge, and, finally, were he faulty or were he faultless, attainted was he by Parliament and judged to the death, and thereupon hastily drowned in a butt of malmesey, whose death, King Edward (although he commanded it), when he knew it was done, piteously bewailed and sorrowfully repented. See Execution of George Duke of Clarence.

In 1478 [his nephew] George York 1st Duke Bedford 1477-1479 was created 1st Duke Bedford 4C 1478 by his father King Edward IV (35).

Marriage of Richard Duke of York and Anne Mowbray

On 15 Jan 1478 Edward IV's youngest son [his nephew] Richard of Shrewsbury (4) and Anne Mowbray (5) were married at St Stephen's Chapel in Westminster. They were second cousins once removed. He a son of King Edward IV of England 1442-1483. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England. She had recently inherited the vast Mowbray inheritance when her father John Mowbray 4th Duke Norfolk 1444-1476 (33) died in 1476. The ceremony was attended by Edward's daughters Elizabeth (11), Mary (10) and Cecily (8). The day before Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (35) was knighted. In 1483 Parliament changed the succession so [his nephew] Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- (4) would continue to enjoy her inheritance (she died in 1481) effectively dis-inheriting William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley 1426-1492 (52) (who was subsequently created Earl and Marquess) and John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (53) (who would become an ardent supporter of Richard III following Edward's death).

Around 1675 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500.

Attainder of George Duke of Clarence

After 16 Jan 1478 and before 07 Feb 1478. The original act doesn't contain a date. Parliament opened on 16 Jan 1478. On 07 Feb 1478 Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 was appointed Steward of England for the purpose of effecting the exection. George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 was attainted by Parliament. The wording of the attainder as follows:

The [his brother] Kyng (35), oure Sovereigne Lorde, hath called to his Remembraunce the manyfold grete Conspiracies, malicious and heynous Ttresons, that hertofore hath be compassed by dyverse persones his unnaturall Subgetts, Rebelles and Traytoures, wherby Commocions and Insurrections have been made within this his Royaulme, for entent and purpose to have destroyed his moost Roiall persone, and with that to have subverted the state, wele publique and politic of all his said Royaulme; ne had so been, that by th’elp of Almyghty God, with the grete laboures and diligences and uttermost explette of his persone by Chevalrye and Werr, he had mightly and graciously repressed the same. Wherthrogh grete nowmbre of the said his Rebelles and Traytours he hath at dyverse tymes punysshed, as well by swerd as other punysshments, in exemple to others to have been ware of suche attempting hereafter. And yet as a benigne and a gracious Prince moeved unto pitie, after his grete Victories sent hym by God, not oonly he hath spared the multitudes in theire feldes and assembles overcomen, but thaym and certeyn other, the grete movers, sturters and executours of suche haynous Tresons, at the reverence of God, he hath taken to his mercy and clerly pardoned, as may not be unknowen to all the Worlde.

This notwithstondyng, it is comen nowe of late to his knowlage, howe that agaynst his mooste Royall persone, and agaynst the persones of the blessed Princesse oure alther soveraigne and Liege Lady the Quene, of my Lorde the Prince theire son and Heire, and of all the other of thaire moost noble issue, and also against the grete parte of the Noble of this Lande, the good rule, politike and wele publique of the same, hath been conspired, compassed and purposed a moch higher, moch more malicious, more unnaturall and lothely Treason than atte eny tyme hertoforn hath been compassed, purposed and conspired, from the Kyng’s first Reigne hiderto; which Treason is, and must be called, so moche and more henyous, unnaturell and lothely, for that not oonly it hath proceded of the moost extreme purpensed malice, incomparably excedyng eny other that hath been aforn, but also for that it hath been contryved, imagined and conspired, by the persone that of all erthely creatures, beside the dutie of ligeaunce, by nature, by benefette, by gratitude, and by yeftes and grauntes of Goodes and Possessions, hath been moost bounden and behalden to have dradde, loved, honoured, and evere thanked the kyng more largely, than evere was eny other bounden or beholden, whom to name it gretely aggruggeth the hert of oure said Sovereigne Lorde, sauf oonly that he is of necessite compelled, for the suertie, wele and tranquillite of hym and all this Royaulme, which were full neer the poynt of perdicion, ne were the help and grace of Almyghty God:

He sheweth you therefore, that all this hath been entended by his Brother, George, the Duke of Clarence (28). Wherein it is to be remembered that the Kynges Highnesse, of tendre youthe unto now of late, hath evere loved and cherysshed hym, as tenderly and as kynderly, as eny creature myght his naturell Brother, as well it may be declared, by that that he beyng right yonge, not borne to have eny lifelode, butt oonly of the Kynges grace he yave hym soo large porcion of Possessions that noo memorie is of, or seldom hath been seen, that eny Kyng of Englande hertoforn within his Royaulme yave soo largely to eny his Brothers. And not oonly that, butt above that, he furnyssed hym plenteously of all manere stuff, that to a right grete Prynce myght well suffice; so that aftre the Kynges, his lifelode and richesse notably exceded any other within his Lande at thatt tyme.

And yet the kyng, not herewith content, butt beyng ryght desirous to make hym of myght and puissance excedyng others, caused the greate parte of all the Nobles of this Lande to be assured unto hym next his Highnesse; trustyng that not oonly by the bond of nature, butt also by the bondes of soo grete benefitt, he shulde be more than others loving, helping, assisting and obeissaunt to all the Kyngs good pleasures and commaundments, and to all that myght be to the politik wele of his Lande.

All this notwithstondyng, it is to remember, the large grace and foryevnesse that he yave hym uppon, and for that at dyverse tyme sith he gretely offended the Kyng, as in jupartyng the Kyngs Royall estate, persone and life, in straite warde, puttyng hym thereby from all his libertie, aftre procuryng grete Commocions, and sith the voydaunce oute of his Royaulme, assistyng yevyng to his enemies mortall, the usurpers, laboryng also by Parlement to exclude hym and all his from the Regalie, and enabling hymself to the same, and by dyverse weyes otherwyse attemptyng; which all the Kyng, by nature and love moeved, utterly foryave, entendyng to have putte all in perpetuell oblivion.

The said Duke, nathelesse for all this, noo love encreasyng, but growyng daily in more and more malice, hath not left to consedre and conspire newe Treasons, more haynous and lothely than ever aforn, how that the said Duke falsly and traitrously entended, and puposed fermely, th’extreme distruction and disherityng of the Kyng and his Issue, and to subverte all the polityk rule of this Royaulme, by myght to be goten as well outewarde as inward, which false purpose the rather to brynge aboute, he cast and compassed the moyans to enduce the Kynges naturell Subgetts to withdrawe theire herts, loves and affections from the Kyng, theire naturell Sovereigne Lorde, by many subtill, contryved weyes, as in causyng dyverse his Servauntes, suche as he coude imagyne moste apte to sowe sedicion and aggrugge amonge the People, to goo into diverse parties of this Royaulme, and to laboure to enforme the People largely in every place where they shulde come, that Thomas Burdett (53), his Servaunte, which was lawefully and truly atteynted of Treason, was wrongefully putte to Deth; to some his Servauntes of suche like disposicion, he yave large Money, Veneson, therewith to assemble the Kynges Subgects to Feste theym and chere theym, and by theire policies and resonyng, enduce hem to beleve that the said Burdett (53) was wrongfully executed, and so to putte it in noyse and herts of the People;

he saide and laboured also to be noysed by such his Servauntez apte for that werk, that the Kyng, oure Sovereigne Lorde, wroght by Nygromancye, and used Crafte to poyson his Subgettes, suche as hym pleased; to th’entent to desclaundre the Kyng in the moost haynous wyse he couth in the sight and conceipt of his Subgetts, and thefore to encorage theym to hate, despice and aggrugge theire herts agaynst hym, thynkyng that he ne lived ne dealid with his Subgettes as a Christien Prynce.

And overe this, the said duke beyng in full purpose to exalte hymself and his Heires to the Regallye and Corone of Englande, and clerely in opinion to putte aside from the same for ever the said Corone from the Kyng and his Heirez, uppon oon the falsest and moost unnaturall coloured pretense that man myght imagine, falsely and untruely noysed, published and saide, that the Kyng oure Sovereigne Lorde was a Bastard, and not begottone to reigne uppon us; and to contynue and procede ferther in this his moost malicious and traytorous purpose, after this lothely, false and sedicious langage shewed and declared amonge the People, he enduced dyverse of the Kynges naturall Subgetts to be sworne uppon the blessed Sacrament to be true to hym and his heires, noon exception reserved of theire liegeaunce; and after the same Othe soo made, he shewed to many other, and to certayn persones, that suche Othe had made, that the Kyng had taken his lifelode from hym and his men, and disheryed theym, and he wolde utterly endevoire hym to gete hem theire enheritaunce as he wolde doo for his owen.

He shewed also that the Kyng entended to consume hym in like wyse as a Candell consumeth in brennyng, wherof he wolde in brief tyme quyte hym. And overe this, the said Duke continuyng ín his false purpose, opteyned and gate an exemplificacion undre the Grete Seall of Herry the Sexte, late in dede and not in right Kyng of this Lande, wherin were conteyned alle suche appoyntements as late was made betwene the said Duke and Margaret, callyng herself Quene of this Lande, and other; amonges whiche it was conteyned, that if the said Herry, and Edward, his first begoton Son, died withoute Issue Male of theire Bodye, that the seid Duke and his Heires shulde be Kyng of this Lande; which exemplificacion the said Duke hath kepyd with hymself secrete, not doyng the Kyng to have eny knowlegge therof, therby to have abused the Kynges true Subgetts for the rather execucion of his said false purpose.

And also, the same Duke purposyng to accomplisse his said false and untrue entent, and to inquiete and trouble the Kynge, oure said Sovereigne Lorde, his Leige People and this his Royaulme, nowe of late willed and desired the Abbot of Tweybury, Mayster John Tapton, Clerk, and Roger Harewell Esquier, to cause a straunge childe to have be brought into his Castell of Warwyk, and there to have beputte and kept in likelinesse of his Sonne and Heire, and that they shulde have conveyed and sent his said Sonne and Heire into Ireland, or into Flaundres, oute of this Lande, whereby he myght have goten hym assistaunce and favoure agaynst oure said Sovereigne Lorde; and for the execucion of the same, sent oon John Taylour, his Servaunte, to have had delyveraunce of his said Sonne and Heire, for to have conveyed hym; the whiche Mayster John Tapton and Roger Harewell denyed the delyveraunce of the said Childe, and soo by Goddes grace his said false and untrue entent was lette and undoon.

And also, the same Duke purposyng to accomplisse his said false and untrue entent, and to inquiete and trouble the Kynge, oure said Sovereigne Lorde, his Leige People and this his Royaulme, nowe of late willed and desired the Abbot of Tweybury, Mayster John Tapton, Clerk, and Roger Harewell Esquier, to cause a straunge childe to have be brought into his Castell of Warwyk, and there to have beputte and kept in likelinesse of his Sonne and Heire, and that they shulde have conveyed and sent his said Sonne and Heire into Ireland, or into Flaundres, oute of this Lande, whereby he myght have goten hym assistaunce and favoure agaynst oure said Sovereigne Lorde; and for the execucion of the same, sent oon John Taylour, his Servaunte, to have had delyveraunce of his said Sonne and Heire, for to have conveyed hym; the whiche Mayster John Tapton and Roger Harewell denyed the delyveraunce of the said Childe, and soo by Goddes grace his said false and untrue entent was lette and undoon.

The Kyng, remembryng over, that to side the neernesse of Blode, howe be nature he myght be kynde to his Brother; the tendre love also, whiche of youthe he bare unto hym, couthe have founden in his hert, uppon due submission, to have yet foryeven hym estsones, ne were, furst that his said Brother by his former dedes, and nowe by this conspiracye, sheweth hymself to be incorrigible, and in noo wyse reducible to that by bonde of nature, and of the grete benefices aforn reherced, he were moost soveraynly beholden of all Creature: Secondly, ne were the grete juparty of effusion of Christien blode, which most likkely shulde therof ensue: And thridenly and principally, the bond of his Conscience, wherby and by solempne Othe, he is bounden anenst God, uppon the peryll of everlastyng dampnacion, to provyde and defende, first the suertie of hymself and his moste Royall Issue, secondly, the tranquilite of Goddes Churche within this, his Royaulme, and after that, the wele publique, peas and tranquilite of all his Lordez, Noblemen, Comens and others of every degree and condicion, whiche all shulde necessarily stande in extreme jupartie, yf Justice and due punyshement of soo lothely offencez shulde be pardoned; in pernicious example to all mysdoers, theves, traytours, rebelles and all other suche as lightly wolde therby bee encoraged and enbolded to spare noo manner of wikkednesse.

Wherfore thof all [sic]11 the Kynges Highnesse be right sory to determyne hymself to the contrarie, yet consideryng that Justice is a vertue excellently pleasyng Almyghty God, wherby Reaulmes stande, Kynges and Pryncez reign and governe, all goode rule, polyce and publique wele is mayteigned; and that this vertue standeth not oonly in retribucion and rewarde for goode dedes, butt also in correccion and punysshement of evil doers, after the qualitees of theire mysdoyngs. For whiche premissez and causez the Kyng, by the avyse and assent of his Lordes Speretuell and Temporell, and by the Commons, in this present parliament assembled, and by the auctorite of the same, ordeyneth, enacteth and establith that the said George, Duke of Clarence, be convicte and atteyntit of Heigh Treason commyttet and doon agaynst the Kynges moost Royall persone; and that the same Duke, by the said auctorite, forfett from hym and his heyres for ever the Honoure, Estate, Dignite and name of Duke1. And also that the same Duke, by the said auctorite, forfett from hym and his heyres for ever, all Castelles, Honoures, Maners, Landes, Tenements, Rents, Advousons, Hereditaments and Possessions that the same Duke nowe hath by eny of the Kynges Lettrez Patents to his owen use, or that any other persone nowe hath to the use of the same Duke by eny of the Kynges Letterez Patents, or that passed to hym fro the Kyng by the same: And that all Lettrez Patents made by the kyng to the said Duke bee from henseforthe utterly voyde and of noon effecte.

And that it be also ordeigned by the same auctorite that noo Castelles, Honoures, Maners, Landez, Tenementz, Rents, Advousons, Hereditaments or Possessions that the same duke nowe hath joyntly with other, or sole to hymself, to the use of eny other persone, be forfett, nor conteyned by or in this present Acte; but that by the said auctoritee, every other persone to whose use the said Duke is sole seised in eny Castelles, Honoures, Maners, Landez, Tenements, Rents, Advousons, Hereditaments and Possessions, otherwyse than by the Kyngs Lettres Patents, have power and auctorite by this present Acte lawefully to entre into theym, and theym to have and holde after the entent and trust that the said Duke nowe hath theryn. And also where the same Duke is joyntly seased with any other persone in any Castells, Maners, Landez, Tenementz, Rents, Hereditaments or Possessions to the use of eny other persone, otherwyse than by the Kyngs Lettrez Patents: that by the said auctorite, the said joynt feffez stonde and be feoffez to the same use and entent as they nowe arre and be; and that suche right, interest and title as the same Duke nowe hath with theym in the same premyssez, by the said auctorite, be in his cofeffez to the same entent as the same Duke nowe ys: Savyng to every of the Kynges Liege people, other than the said Duke and his Heyrez, and all other persone and persones that clayme or have eny tytell of interest in eny of the premyssez by the same Duke, suche right, tytle and interest as they owe or shulde have in eny of the premyssez, as if this Acte had never been made.

A cest Bille les Comunez sont assentuz.

Le Roy le voet.

Note 1. It is interesting that he forfeits the title of Duke rather than the usual attainted in the blood which may have debarred his children from inheriting the crown.

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Patent Rolls Edward IV 07 Feb 1478. 07 Feb 1478. Appointment of the king's kinsman Henry, duke of Buckingham (23), to the Parliament office of steward of England for the execution of the judgment on George, duke of Clarence (28), attainted of high treason by authority of Parliament. By K.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 14 Feb 1478. 14 Feb 1478. Appointment of Thomas Vaughan, knight, treasurer of the king's Westminster, chamber and chamberlain of the king's son the prince, John Say, knight, under treasurer of England, John Elryngton, knight, treasurer of the household, Robert Wyngfeld, Wyngfeld, knight, controller of the household, and Henry Boteler, recorder of Coventry, to examine the accounts of John Hewyke, one of the auditors of a parcel of the lands of George, late duke of Clarence (28), and Peter Beaupe, one of the clerks of the green cloth, to whom the king ordered the said John to deliver the books and accounts, and of other auditors, receivers or bailiffs concerning the lands and possessions of the said duke and to certify thereon to the king.

On 15 Feb 1478 [his nephew] Edward York Prince of Wales 1473-1484 (4) was created 1st Earl Salisbury 4C 1478.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 17 Feb 1478. 17 Feb 1478. Grant for life to Richard Ferrers of the off of steward of lordship Westminster, of Fawnhope, co. Hereford, in the king's hands by reason of the minority of [his son] Edward (2) son of George, late duke of Clarence (28), with the accustomed fees. By p.s.

Note. The date here somewhat confusing since George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (28) wasn't executed until a day later on 18 Feb 1478.

Execution of George Duke of Clarence

On 18 Feb 1478 George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (28) was drowned in a butt of wine (Malmsey) wine in the Bowyer Tower in the Tower of London. Duke Clarence 3C 1461 extinct. "in a butt of Malmsey wine" may refer to 1 a butt full of Malmsey wine or 2 a butt that once contained Malmsey wine that was subsequently re-used for another purpose such as washing or bathing.

William Hussey 1443-1495 (35) conducted the impeachment of the Duke of Clarence for treason.

The only other person known to have been executed, or ritually killed, by drowning in a butt of wine is Muirchertach mac Muiredaig High King of Ireland -534 (as reported by the Annals of Ulster) in his case at Newgrange Passage Tomb.

New Chronicles of England and France by Robert Fabyan 1478. THis yere, that is to meane ye xviii. daye of February, the duke of Clarence (28) and .... 2brother to the kynge, thanne beyng prysoner in ye Tower, was secretely put to deth & drowned in a barell of maluesye within the sayd Tower. And this mayer this yere pursued also the reparacyon of the wallys, but nat so dylygently as his predccessour dyd, wherfore it was nat spedde as it myght haue been, and also he was a syke and a feble man, and hadde not so sharpe and quycke mynde as that other hadde. And one other cause was, whiche ensuythe of a generaltie, that for the more partie one mayer wyll nat fynesshe that thynge whiche that other begynneth, for then they thynke, be the dede neuer so good and profitable, that the honoure therof shalbe ascribed to y begynner, and nat to the fynyssher, whiche lacke of charytie and desyre of veyngiory causeth many good actes and dedys to dye and growe out of minde, to the great decaye of the cōmon weale of the cytie.

Note 2. second brother. edit. 1542. 1559.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 21 Feb 1478. 21 Feb 1478. Grant for life to Robert Pemberton (34), one of the ushers of the king's Westminster chamber, of the office of steward of the lordship of Neuport Paynell, in the king's hands by the forfeiture of George, late duke of Clarence (28), receiving the accustomed fees from the issues of the lordship, with all other profits. By K.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 02 Mar 1478. 02 Mar 1478. Grant for life to the king's counsellor John Audeley, lord Audeley (52), of the office of steward of all lordships, manors and lands in the county of Dorset late of George, late duke of Clarence (28), and in the king's hands by his forfeiture, with 20 marks yearly from the issues of the lordship of Halisbere, co. Dorset; grant to him, during minority, of the office of steward of all lordships, manors and lands in the said county in the king's hands by reason of the minority of [his son] Edward (3), son of the said George (28), with 10 marks yearly from the issues of the premises; and grant to him for life of the office of constable and the custody of the castle of Warden and the office of constable and the custody of the castle of Corffe, with the accustomed fees from the issues of the king's lordships there and all other profits. By p.s.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 03 Mar 1478. 03 Mar 1478. Grant to the king's servant Thomas Patyngeham, one of the yeomen of the king's chamber, of the offices of bailiff of the king's lordships of Walsale, Perybarre and Patyngeham and the custody of the park of Walsale in the counties of Stafford and Warwick during the minority of [his son] Edward (3), son and heir of George, late duke of Clarence (28), with the accustomed fees from the issues of the lordships and all other profits. By p.s.

Before 06 Mar 1478 Robert Stillington Bishop of Bath and Wells 1420-1491 was imprisoned as a result of an unknown association with George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 but speculated to be about Edward IV King England 1442-1483's pre-contract with Eleanor Butler. See Stonor Letters 06 Mar 1478.

Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VII. 1499. This yeare, in June, deceased the third sonne of the Kinge named Duke of Somersett and was buried at Westminster. Perkin Werbeck (25) putt to death at Tybume Note. 22 Nov 1499; and the [his son] Earle of Warwyke (23), Sonne to the Duke of Clarence (49), who had bene kept in the Tower from the age of 11 years unto the end of 14 yeares, was beheaded at the Tower Hill Note. See Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick. A great pestilence throughout all England.

Execution of George Duke of Clarence

Croyland Chronicle 1478. The circumstances that happened in the ensuing Parliament my mind quite shudders to enlarge upon, for then was to be witnessed a sad strife carried on before these two brethren of such high estate.29 For not a single person uttered a word against the duke, except the [his brother] king; not one individual made answer to the king except the duke. Some parties were introduced, however, as to whom it was greatly doubted by many, whether they filled the office of accusers rather, or of witnesses: these two offices not being exactly suited to the same person in the same cause. The duke met all the charges made against him with a denial, and ofered, if he could only obtain a hearing, to defend his cause with his own hand. But why delay in using many words? Parliament, being of opinion that the informations which they had heard were established, passed sentence upon him of condemnation, the same being pronounced by the mouth of Henry, duke of Buckingham, who was appointed Seneschal of England for the occasion. After this, execution was delayed for a considerable time; until the Speaker of the Commons, coming to the upper house with his fellows, made a fresh request that the matter might be brought to a conclusion. In consequence of this, in a few days after, the execution, whatever its nature may have been, took place, (and would that it had ended these troubles!) in the Tower of London, it being the year of our Lord, 1478, and the eighteenth of the reign of king Edward.

Note 29. One would think that "tantae himanitatis," can hardly mean "of such humanity," when applied to such persons as Edward the Fourth and iua brother Clarence.

Execution of Burdett and Stacy

Croyland Chronicle 1478. The indignation of the duke was probably still further increased by this; and now each began to look upon the other with no very fraternal eyes. You might then have seen, (as such men are generally to be found in the courts of all princes), flatterers running to and fro, from the one side to the other, and carrying backwards and forwards the words which had fallen from the two brothers, even if they had happened to be spoken in the most secret closet. The arrest of the duke for the purpose of compelling him to answer the charges brought against him, happened under the following circumstances. One Master John Stacy, a person who was called an astronomer, when in reality he was rather a great sorcerer, formed a plot in conjunction with one Burdet, an esquire, and one of the said duke's household; upon which, he was accused, among numerous other charges, of having made leaden images and other things to procure thereby the death of Richard, lord Beauchamp, at the request of his adulterous wife1. Upon being questioned in a very severe examination as to his practice of damnable arts of this nature, he made confession of many matters, which told both against himself and the said Thomas Burdet. The consequence was, that Thomas was arrested as well; and at last judgment of death was pronounced upon them both, at Westminster, from the Bench of our lord the king, the judges being there seated, together with nearly all the lords temporal of the kingdom. Being drawn to the gallows at Tyburn, they were permitted briefly to say what they thought fit before being put to death; upon which, they protested their innocence, Stacy indeed but faintly; while, on the other hand, Burdet spoke at great length, and with much spirit, and, as his last words, exclaimed with Susanna,28 'Behold! I must die; whereas I never did such things as these."

Note 28. Hist. Susanna, v. 43.

Note 1. This is somewhat confusing since Elizabeth Stafford 1435-, wife of Richard Beauchamp 2nd Baron Beauchamp Powick 1435-1503 died on 27 Jan 1466? It may be a reference to his mother Margaret Ferrers Baroness Beauchamp Powick 1413-1487 whose husband John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp Powick 1409-1475 died in 1475.

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The Huntingdon Peerage Chapter IX: Ferdinando Sixth Earl of Huntingdon. The loss of two sons, it may be conceived, was sufficiently distressing to a parent's feelings, but a still severer trial was reserved for them. Little more than two years after, on the 24th of June, 1649, Lord Henry, the eldest son, just in the flower of youth, and the love and admiration of all who knew him, was also cut off. He died of the small-pox, in his twentieth year, under the additional grief to his parents of his being then an only son, and, for a climax of affliction, on the very eve of his nuptials. The premature death of is amiable young nobleman, who, to the sweetest disposition and the most polished manners, added great proficiency in literature and a promise of uncommon talents, was a subject of universal lamentation and sympathy. Several of the most distinguished characters of that period, whether for worth, abilities, or elevated rank, joined the homage of their regrets, and paid "the meed of a melodious tear" to his Lordship's memory. Nearly an hundred elegiac poems were composed on the melancholy occasion, and afterwards published under the title of "Lachrymae Musarum; the Tears of the Muses; expressed in Elegies written by divers Persona of Nobility and Worth, upon the Death of the most hopeful Henry, Lord Hastings, only Son of the Right Honourable Ferdinando Earl of Huntingdon, Heir-general to the high-born Prince George, Duke of Clarence, Brother to King Edward the Fourth: collected and set forth by R. B. 1649". Among the eminent names, contributors to this collection, we find Lord Falkland, Dryden, Marvel, Herrick, Denham, the Honourable Ralph Montagu, and many others who emulated each other in celebrating the virtues of the deceased, and enshrining his character in immortal verse. A few select flowers, transplanted from this funereal garland of the Muses, cannot be deemed exotics here.

The following epitaphs were proposed:

Here lies the age's paramount, the store Of Albion's shame, because it mourns no more, And since the fate is so, if for his fall We cannot weep enough, our children shall. J. Rossz.

Tread off, profaner feet! forbear To press this hallowed mould, where lies Firm virtue's and high honour's heir, The darling of the courteous skies, Who, by rare parts, the flight of fame In life outwent; in death his name. Thomas Bancroft.

Three royal Henries, sprung from Huntingdon, We saw alive: the first and last are gone Bright saints to heaven, above all fancy'd spheres. To meet their sovereign in that House of Peers. The third God's hand by wonder hath preserved. In whom their honour trebly is reserved. So Sybil's books consumed, the last contains Their precious truths, and treble value gains. Howe'er we sadly mourn, his nephew's fate Makes widowed England still more desolate. Oh, never such a son to parent's mind! Oh, never subject loyaller inclined! Oh, none more pious, none more man, so soon Ripe for his set, ere raised to half his noon. That mightier hand that stopped the mighty sun. Canst thou his circle sooner make him run? A varied fever had surprised his head. And death ensued when royal blood he bled; Bodies live not when head and heart decays. Where all their veins are right Basilicas; The fountain dried, how should the channel run? Good night to stars when darkened is the sun. Thus royal, loyal, leam'd, lov'd Hastings lies, All good men's loss, to saints a glorious prize." Thomas Pestellus, filius.

Upon the Death of Lord Hastings, by Dryden. Must noble Hastings immaturely die, The honour of his ancient family. Beauty and learning thus together meet. To bring a winding for a wedding sheet? Must virtue prove death's harbinger? must she. With him expiring, feel mortality? Is death, sin's wages, grace's now? shall art Make us more learned, only to depart? If merit be disease; if virtue death; To be good, not to be; who'd then bequeath Himself to discipline? who'd not esteem Labour a crime? study self-murther deem?Our noble ypu|h.now have pretence to be Dunces securely, ignorant heathily. Rare linguist whose worth speaks itself whose praise Though not his own, all tongues besides do raise: Than whom great Alexander miay seem less; Who conquer'd mens but not their languages. In his mouth nations spake; his tongue might be Interpreter to Greece, France, Italy. His native soil Was the four parts o' the earth; All Europe was too narrow for his birth. A young apostle; and, with reverence may I speak't inspir'd with gift of tongues, as they. Nature gave him, a child, what men in vain Oft strive, by art though furthered, to obtain. His body was an orb, his sublime soul Did move on virtue's and on learning's pole: Whose regular motions better to our view. Than Archimedes' sphere, the heavens did shew. Graces and virtues, languages and arts. Beauty and learning, fill'd up all the parts. Heaven's gifts, which do like falling stars appear Scatter'd in others; all, as in their sphere. Were fix'd, conglobate in his soul: and thence Shone through his body, with sweet influence; Letting their glories so on each limb fall. The whole frame rendered was celestial. Come, learned Ptolemy, and trial make. If thou this hero's altitude cans't take: But that transcends thy skill; thrice happy all. Could we but prove thus astronomical. Liv'd Tycho now, struck with this ray, which shone More bright i' the morn', than others beam at noon, He'd take his astrolabe, and seek out here What new star 'twas did gild our hemisphere. Replenish'd then with such rare gifts as these. Where was room left for such a foul disease? The nation's sin hath drawn that veil, which shrouds Our day-spring in so sad benighting clouds. Heaven would no longer trust its pledge; but thus Recall'd it; rapt its Ganymede from us. Was there no milder way but the small-pox, The very filthiness of Pandora's box? So many spots, like næves on Venus* soil. One jewel set off with so many a foil; Blisters with pride swell'd, which through's flesh did sprout Like rose-buds, stuck i' the lilly skin about. Each little pimple had a tear in it, To wail the fault its rising did commit: Which, rebel like, with its own lord at strife, Thus made an insurrection 'gainst his life. Or were these gems sent to adorn his skin. The cabinet of a richer soul within? No comet need foretel his change drew on. Whose corpse might seem a constellation. O! had he died of old, how great a strife Had been, who from his death should draw their life? Who should, by one rich draught, become whate'er Seneca, Cato, Numa, Csesar, were? Learn'd, virtuous, pious, great; and have by this An universal metempsychosis. Must all these aged sires in one funeral Expire? all die in one so young, so small? Who, had he liv'd his life out, his great fame Had swol'n 'bove any Greek or Roman name. But hasty winter, with one blast, hath brought The hopes of autumn, summer, spring, to nought Thus fades the oak i' the sprig, i' the blade the corn. Thus without young, this Phoenix dies, new bom. Must then old three-legg'd grey-beards with their gout, Catarrhs, rheums, aches, live three ages out? Time's offals, only fit for the hospital! Or to hang antiquaries' rooms withal! Must drunkards, lechers, spent with sinning, live With such helps as broths, possets, physic give? None live, but such as should die? shall we meet With none but ghostly fathers in the street? Grief makes me rail; sorrow will force its way; And show'rs of tears tempestuous sighs best lay. The tongue may fail; but overflowing eyes Will weep out lasting streams of elegies.

But thou, O virgin-widow, left alone Now thy belov'd, heaven-ravish'd spouse is gone, Whose skilful sire in vain strove to apply Med'cines, when thy balm was no remedy. With greater than Platonic love, O wed His soul, though not his body, to thy bed: Let that make thee a mother; bring thou forth The ideas of his virtue, knowledge, worth; Transcribe the original in new copies; give Hastings o' the better part: so shall he live In's nobler half; and the great grandsire be Of an heroic divine progeny: An issue, which to eternity shall last, Yet but the irradiations which he cast. Erect no mausoleums: for his best Monument is his spouse's marble breast.

Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of John Dryden 1631-1700. Around 1693. Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of John Dryden 1631-1700. Around 1697. Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of John Dryden 1631-1700. Around 1665 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of John Dryden 1631-1700.

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Execution of George Duke of Clarence

History of England by Polydore Vergil 1478. Book 24. Chapter 26. King Edward, who in the meane time desyryd to know of his ambassadors proceedinges with the duke, and therfor thowght the tyme very long till he might heare tlierof, when he understoode that they had bene so nighe the very poynt of conveyghing erle Henry prysoner to him into England as nothing could be more nere and escape, was very sory that the matter had not succedyd. But hearing that therle showed be safely kept his mynde was easyd, and from thencefoorth thowght best to have more regard how to encrease his owne welth, which was very sclender, than of any thing els; and so for a while gave himself to seke busyly his owne profyt; whereby when he had fyllyd his coffers with gold and silver suffycyently, remembring then what appertanyd to honor, he shewyd himself furthwith a lyberall, bowntyfull, and profytable prince to the commonwelth: but eaven loe sudaynly he fell into a fact most horryble, commandyng rashly and uppon the suddane his brother George duke of Clarence to be apprehendyd and put to death, who was drowned (as they say) in a butte of malmesey; the woorst example that ever man cowld committed remember. And as touching the cause of his death, thowgh I Tower, have enqueryd of many, who wer not of leest authorytie emongest The maner the kinges cownsaylle at that time, yeat have I no certaintie therof to leave in memory. A report was eaven then spred rences emongest the common people, that the king was afeard, by reason of a soothsayers prophecy, and so became incensyd agaynst his broother George, which prophecy was, that, after king Edward, showld raigne soome one the first letter of whose name should be G. And because the devels ar wont in that sort to envegle the mynds of them who conceave pleasures in suche illusions, with ther crafty conceytes and subtylties, menn sayd afterwardes that the same prophecy tooke effect, whan after Edward the duke of Glocester usurpyd the kingdom. Others lay an other cause of his death, which ys in this sort. That abowt the same time thold hatryd renewing betwixt the two brothers, then the which nothing ys more vehement, the duke, being a wydower, requyryd, by meane of his sister Margaret, to have in maryage Mary, thonely dowghter of Charles duke of Burgoigne, and that king Edward, envying his brothers prosperytie, hinderyd that afFynytie. Theruppon pryvy grudge further growing, a certane servant of the dukes was the very same time also convict of sorcery and executyd, against which dede whan the duke could not hold him content, but vehemently speake and cry owt, the king muche movyd with this exclamation commyttyd the duke to warde, and not long after, being condemnyd, by right or wrong, put him to death. But yt ys very lykly that king Edward right soone repentyd that dede; for (as men say) whan so ever any sewyd for saving a mans lyfe, he was woont to cry owt in a rage, " O infortunate broother, for ■whose lyfe no man in this world wold once make request; affirming in that manyfestly, that he was cast away by envy of the nobylytie. The duke left behind him two chyldren, Margaret, who after maryed to Rycherd Pole, and Edward, whom the king made erle of Warwicke. These thinges were doone that yere which was of mans salvation M.cccc.lxxxtie and the xixten yere of king Edwardes raigne. And thus being delyveryd from all care of warres and cyvill seditions, which before that time might have happenyd, the king began to marke more severely thofFences of noblemen, and to be more covetous in gathering of money, by reason wherof many were persw^adyd in ther opynyons that he wold from thencefurth proove an hard and severe prince; for after the death of his brother, as he perceavyd that every man fearyd him, so now he fearyd nobody. But that matter was preventyd by brevytie of his lyfe. And thus may we se that as well prosperytie ys soometyme cause of evell unto them who enjoy yt, as adversytie profytable to them who ar patient.

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The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. [his father] Richard, Duke of York, a noble man and a mighty, had begun not by war but by law to challenge the crown, putting his claim into the Parliament. There his cause was either for right or favor so far forth advanced that King Henry (although he had a goodly prince utterly rejected his own blood; the crown was by authority of Parliament entailed unto the [his father] Duke of York, and his male issue in remainder, immediately after the death of King Henry. But the Duke, not enduring so long to tarry, but intending under pretext of dissension and debate arising in the realm, to reign before his time and to take upon him the rule in King Henry's life, was with many nobles of the realm at Wakefield slain, leaving three sons — [his brother] Edward, George, and Richard.

All three, as they were great states of birth, so were they great and stately of stomach, greedy and ambitious of authority, and impatient of partners. [his brother] Edward, revenging his [his father] father's death, deprived King Henry and attained the crown.

Croyland Chronicle 1478. On the following day, the duke of Clarence came to the council-chamber at Westminster, bringing with him a famous Doctor of the order of Minorites, Master William Goddard by name, in order that he might read the confession and declaration of innocence above-mentioned before the lords in the said council assembled; which he accordingly did, and then withdrew. The [his brother] king was then at Windsor, but when he was informed of this circumstance, he was greatly displeased thereat, and recalling to mind the information formerly laid against his brother, and which he had long kept treasured up in his breast, he summoned the duke to appear on a certain day in the royal palace of Westminster: upon which, in presence of the Mayor and aldermen of the city of London, the king began, with his own lips, amongst other matters, to inveigh against the conduct of the before-named duke, as being derogatory to the laws of the realm, and most dangerous to judges and jurors throughout the kingdom. But why enlarge? The duke was placed in custody, and from that day up to the time of his death never was known to have regained his liberty.

Croyland Chronicle 1478. After the perpetration of this deed, many persons left king Edward, fully persuaded that he would be able to lord it over the whole kingdom at his will and pleasure, all those idols being now removed, towards the faces of whom the eyes of the multitude, ever desirous of change, had been in the habit of turning in times past. They regarded as idols of this description, the earl of Warwick, the duke of Clarence, and any other great person there might then happen to be in the kingdom, who had withdrawn himself from the king's intimacy. The king however, although, as I reaUy believe, he inwardly repented very often of this act, after this period, performed the duties of his office with such a high hand, that he appeared to be dreaded by all his subjects, while he himself stood in fear of no one. For, as he had taken care to distribute the most trustworthy of his servants throughout all parts of the kingdom, as keepers of castles, manors, forests, and parks, no attempt whatever could be made in any part of the kingdom by any person, however shrewd he might be, but what he was immediately charged with the same to his face.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. Some wise men also think that [his brother] his plan—covertly conveyed—lacked not in helping his brother Clarence to his death, which he resisted openly, although somewhat (as men judged) more faintly than one who was heartily concerned for his welfare. And they who thus judged, they think he for a long time during King Edward's life forethought to be king in case the King his brother (whose life he looked to, so that evil diet should shorten it) should happen to die (as indeed he did) while his children were young. And they judged that for this reason: he was glad of his brother's death, that Duke of Clarence, whose life must needs have hindered his plans, whether the same Duke of Clarence had kept himself true to his nephew the young King, or enterprised to be king himself. But of all this point, is there no certainty, and whosoever divines upon conjectures may as well shoot too far as too short. However, this have I by credible information learned, that the same night in which King Edward died, one Mistlebrook, long before morning, came in great haste to the house of one Potter, dwelling in Redcross Street without Cripplegate, and when he was with hasty rapping quickly let in, he revealed unto Potter that King Edward was departed. "By my truth man," said Potter, "then will my master the [his brother] Duke of Gloucester be king." What cause he had so to think it is hard to say: whether he, being well disposed toward him, knew anything about such a thing the Duke had purposed, or otherwise he had any inkling thereof, for he was not ever likely to speak of it.