Biography of Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464

1455 First Battle of St Albans

1458 Loveday

1460 January Raid on Sandwich

1460 Battle of Worksop

1460 Battle of Wakefield

1461 Battle of Towton

1464 Suppressing the Lancastrian Northern Resistance

1464 Battle of Hedgeley Moor

1464 Battle of Hexham

Before 09 Sep 1427 Thomas Ros 8th Baron Ros Helmsley 1407-1430 and [his mother] Eleanor Beauchamp Duchess Somerset 1408-1468 were married. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 4 grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She a great x 4 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. [his mother] She by marriage Baroness Ros Helmsley.

In 1435 [his father] Edmund Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (29) and Eleanor Beauchamp Duchess Somerset 1408-1468 (26) were married. They were half fourth cousins. He a great grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.

On 26 Jan 1436 Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 was born to [his father] Edmund Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (30) and Eleanor Beauchamp Duchess Somerset 1408-1468 (27). He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England.

In 1442 [his father] Edmund Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (36) was created 1st Earl Dorset 3C 1438. Eleanor Beauchamp Duchess Somerset 1408-1468 (33) by marriage Countess Dorset.

In 1442 [his father] Edmund Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (36) was created 1st Marquess Dorset 2C 1442, 1st Earl Dorset 3C 1438. Eleanor Beauchamp Duchess Somerset 1408-1468 (33) by marriage Marchioness Dorset.

On 30 May 1444 [his uncle] John Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1403-1444 (41) committed suicide. Suicide not certain but likely. Duke Somerset 1C 1443 extinct. His brother Edmund Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (38) succeeded 4th Earl Somerset 2C 1397. Eleanor Beauchamp Duchess Somerset 1408-1468 (35) by marriage Countess Somerset.

His only child Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 aged one was his heir. King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (22) granted her wardship to William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk 1396-1450 (47) who married her to his son John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 (1).

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525. Portrait of Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 in the Masters Lodge St John's College. Commissioned by John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535. Note the Beaufort Arms on the wall beneath which is the Beafort Portcullis. Repeated in the window. She is wearing widow's clothes, or possibly that of a convent; Gabled Headress with Lappets. On 29 Mar 2019, St John's College, Cambridge, which she founded, announced the portrait was original work by Wewyck.

On 31 Mar 1448 [his father] Edmund Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (42) was created 1st Duke Somerset 2C 1448. He is frequently referred to as the 2nd Duke Somerset since his brother John Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1403-1444 (45) was the 1st Duke Somerset of the first creation. Edmund didn't inherit the Dukedom from his brother; it was a new creation. His did inherit the Earldom.

First Battle of St Albans

On 22 May 1455 the Wars of the Roses commenced with the First Battle of St Albans. Richard 3rd Duke York (43) commanded with Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (26), Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (55), Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham 1415-1464 (40) and Walter Strickland 1411-1467 (44).

The Lancastrians ...

[his father] Edmund Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (49) was killed. His son Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (19) succeeded 2nd Duke Somerset 2C 1448. Note his father is frequently incorrectly referred to as the second Duke and Henry as the third Duke. His father's Dukedom, however, was a new creation.

Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland 1393-1455 (62) was killed. His son Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (33) succeeded 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1C 1377, 6th Baron Percy of Alnwick 1C 1299, 14th Baron Percy of Topcliffe. Eleanor Poynings Countess Northumberland 1422-1480 (33) by marriage Countess of Northumberland.

Thomas Clifford 8th Baron Clifford 1414-1455 (41) was killed. His son John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (20) succeeded 9th Baron Clifford, 9th Lord Skipton. Margaret Bromflete Baroness Clifford 1434-1493 (21) by marriage Baroness Clifford.

William Cotton 1410-1455 (45) and Richard Fortescue 1414-1455 (41) were killed.

Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham 1402-1460 (52) was wounded and captured.

King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (33), John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 (54) and Edmund Dudley 1425-1483 (30) were captured.

Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (19) was wounded. James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (34) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (55) fought.

Richard Cotton of Hampstall Ridware 1404-1455 (51) and his son William Cotton of Connington in Huntingdonshire 1428-1455 (27) were killed.

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In Dec 1456 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (25) attacked by Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (20) at Cheapside.

Loveday

Chronicle of Gregory 1458. 24 Mar 1458. Ande thys same yere at Covyntre there was made a pesse [Note. peace] by-twyne the Duke of Somersett Harry (22), and the Earl of Saulysbury (58), and the Erle of Warwycke (29), for the dethe of hys fadyr [his father] Duke of Somersette (52), that the Duke of Yorke (46) put to dethe at Synt Albonys. And thys tretys was made at Covyntre, in the holy tyme of Lentyn, by the mene of Kyng Harry the VI. And alle that holy tyme of Lentyn there myght noo mane man that shulde preche by-fore the kynge, but that he shulde shewe hys sarmon in wrytyng, were he docter or other, in so moche the lordys woldys A B C wolde assygne what he schulde say, as for any thynge that longyd unto the comyn wele, and yf he passyd hyr commaundement he schulde lese hys costys, and goo as he come, withowte mete and drynge. But a becheler of holy devynyte come to that cytte, and whenn he come to preche byfore the kyng, as Maystyr Wylliam Saye, Dene of Poulys and Dene of the kyngys chapylle, hadde desyryd and asygnyd, ABC axyd hys name, and hys name was Mayster Wylliam Ive, at that tyme beyng at Wynchester in Wycham ys college. And ABC sayde that they moste nedys se hys sarmon and hys purposse, that he was a vysyd to say by-fore the kynge the Sonday nexte comynge. And he fulle goodly toke them hys papyr; and they seyng and redynge hys papyr, commaundyd to leve owte and put a way many troughtys. But that same Mayster Wylliam Ive sayde but lytylle, but whenn he come to pulpyt he sparyd not to sayd the troughthe, and reportyd by-fore the kyng that ABC made the sarmonys that were sayde fore, and not thoo that prechyd, and that causyd that ]?e men that prechyd hadde but sympylle sarmons, for hyr purposse was alle turnyde upsodowne 3 and that they hadde made love days as Judas made whythe a cosse b with Cryste for they cyste ovyr the mane. The grete rewarde that he hadde for hys labyr was the rydyng of viij xx myle yn and owte for hys travayle, and alle hys frendys fulle sory for hym. But qui veritatem dicit caput fractum kabebit, &c. And that same yere alle thes lordys departyd from the Parlyment, but they come nevyr alle togedyr after that tyme to noo Parlyment nor conselle, but yf hyt were in fylde with spere and schylde.

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On 24 Mar 1458 Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (40) presided at Westminster Abbey at a ceremony known as the "Loveday". John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (22), Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (58), Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (29), Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (22), Richard 3rd Duke York (46), Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (36), Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460 (35) and Margaret of Anjou (28) attended in an attempt to reconcile the Lancastrian and Yorkist factions.

Around Apr 1458 James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (37) and [his sister] Eleanor Beaufort Countess Ormonde 1432-1501 (26) were married. They were third cousins. He a great x 4 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his sister] She by marriage Countess Ormonde.

After Nov 1459 Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 was appointed Captain Calais.

In 1460 [his illegitimate son] Charles Somerset 1st Earl Worcester 1460-1526 was born illegitimately to Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (23) and Joan Hill 1412-1493 (48). He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III England.

1460 January Raid on Sandwich

Patent Rolls Henry VI 1452-1461. Membrane 13d. 23 May 1460. Commission to Osbert Mountford and John Baker, esquires, ordered, Coventry, by advice of the council, to bring 200 men at arms and archers to Henry, duke of Somerset (24), for the safe keeping and defence of the castle and town of Guysnes and to resist the king's rebels and enemies, appointing them to arrest ships and vessels necessary herein and masters and mariners therefor.

Commission to Thomas Thorp, Thomas Kiriell (64), knight, John Cheyne, knight, Thomas Broun, knight, Henry Lowes, esquire, John Scot and Robert Home, to take the muster of the said Osbert Mountfort and John Baker and the said men at arms, and to certify the king thereof in Chancery.

Chronicle of Gregory 1460. Then the Quene (30) havynge knowelechynge of thys praty whyle sche sende unto the Duke of Somersett (24), at that tyme beynge in Dorset schyre at the Castelle of Corffe, and for the Erle of Devyschyre (28), and for Elysaundyr Hody, and prayde hem to com to hyr as hastely as they myght, with hyr tenantys as stronge in hyr harnys as men of warre, for the [his half-brother] Lorde Rosse (33), the Lorde Clyfforde (25), the Baron of Grestocke (46), the Lorde Nevyle (50), the Lorde Latymer (53), were waytyng a-pon the Duke of Excete[r] (30) to mete with hyr at Hulle. And thys mater was not taryd but fulle prevely i-wrought; and she sende letters unto alle hyr ehyffe offycers that they wold doo the same, and that they shulde warne alle the servantys that lovyd hyr or purposyd to kepe and rejoyse hyr ofYysce, to wayte a-pon hyr at Hulle by that day as hit a-poyntyd by hyr. Alle thes pepylle were gaderyd and conveyde so prevely that they wer hole in nombyr of xvM [Note. 15000] or any man wolde be-leve hyt; in so moche yf any man sayde, or tolde, or talkyd of suche gaderyng, he shulde be schende, and sum were in grete donger, for the comyn pepylle sayde by thoo that tolde the, troughthe, "Ye talke ryght ye wolde hit were," and gave noo credens of hyr sayynge. But the laste the lordys purposyd to knowe the troughthe. And the ix day of December nexte folowyng the Duke of Yorke (49), the Erle of Salysbury (60), the Erle Rutlond (17) (he was the Duke of Yorke ys secunde sone, one the beste dysposyd lorde in thys londe), and Syr Thomas Haryngdon (60), whythe many mo knyghtys and quyers and grete pepylle with hem, and soo departyd owte of London towarde Yorke, &c.

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Battle of Worksop

On 16 Dec 1460 a Lancastrian force ambushed the forces of the Richard 3rd Duke York (49) near Worksop. Andrew Trollope -1461 fought for the Lancastrians. The only source for the battle is William of Worcester's book Annales rerum Anglicarum: "In December Parliament adjourned. And the Duke of York, with the Earl of Salisbury and many thousand armed men, were going from London to York, in December 1460, when a portion of his men, the van, as is supposed, or perhaps the scouts were cut off by the people of the Duke of Somerset (24) at Worsop"".

Battle of Wakefield

On 30 Dec 1460 the Lancastrian army took their revenge for the defeats of the First Battle of St Albans and the Battle of Northampton during the Battle of Wakefield at Sandal Castle. The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (30), Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (24) and Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (39), and included John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 (25) and William Gascoigne XIII 1430-1463 (30), both knighted, and James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40), John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (25), John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1410-1461 (50), [his half-brother] Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley 1427-1464 (33), Henry Roos -1504 and Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (20).

The Yorkist army was heavily defeated.

Richard 3rd Duke York (49) was killed. His son King Edward IV (18) succeeded 4th Duke York 1C 1385, 9th Earl Ulster, 3rd Earl Cambridge 3C 1414.

Thomas Neville 1430-1460 (30), Thomas Harrington 1400-1460 (60), William Bonville 6th Baron Harington 1442-1460 (18) and Edward Bourchier -1460 were killed.

Thomas Parr 1407-1464 (53) fought in the Yorkist army.

Following the battle Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (60) was beheaded by Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland -1460. William Bonville 1420-1460 (40) was executed.

Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland 1443-1460 (17) was executed on Wakefield Bridge by John "Butcher" Clifford (25) by which he gained his sobriquet "Butcher".

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Chronicle of Gregory 1460. 30 Dec 1460. Ande the same yere, the xxx day of December, the Duke of Exceter (30), the Duke of Somersett (24), the Erle of Northehomberlond (39), the [his half-brother] Lorde Roos (33), the Lorde Nevyle (50), the Lorde ClyfForde (25), with many mo lordys, knyghtys, squyers, and gentyllys, and the commyns of the Quenys party, met with the Duke of Yorke (49) at Wakefylde, and there they made a grete jorney a-pon the Lorde and Duke of Yorke, and toke hym and the Erle of Saulysbury (60), the Erle of Rutlond (17), and the Lorde Haryngdon (18), and Syr Thomas Nevyle (30), and Syr Thomas Haryngdon (60), and many mo knyghtys were take a slayne by syde alle the comyns. But thys good Duke of Yorke with hys lordys a-fore sayde loste hyr heddys; God have marcy on there soulys, for they loste in that jorneys the nombyr of xxvc men. And in the Quenys party were slay but iic men, &c.

Battle of Towton

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Ande the xxix day of the same monythe of Marche, that was Palme Sunday, the kyng (18) mette with the lordys of the Northe at Schyrborne. And there was on Harrys party that was kynge—

Prynce Edwarde (7), Kyng Harrys son.

The Duke of Exceter (30).

The Duke of Somersett (25).

The Erle of Northehumberlond (39).

The Erle of Devynschyre (29).

The Lorde Roos.

The Lorde Bemound (33).

The Lorde Clyfforde (25).

The Lorde Nevyle.

The Lorde Wellys (51).

The Lorde Wylby (40).

The Lorde Harry of Bokyngham.

The Lorde Ryvers (56).

The Lorde Schalys.

The Lorde Maule (50).

The Lorde Ferys of Groby (23).

The Lorde Foschewe. [Possibly John Fortescue 1394-1479 (67)]

The Lorde Lovelle (28).

Syr Thomas Hammys, captayne of alle the fote men.

Syr Androwe Thorlloppe.

Syr Thomas Tressam (41).

Syr Robert Whytyngham (32).

Syr John Dawne.

And the yonge Lorde of Schrouysbury (12), and many moo othyr, bothe lordys, knyghtys, and squyers.

Here ben the namys of the lordys that were slayne in the felde in Kynge Harrys (39) party.

The Erle of Northehumberlond (39),

The Lorde Clyfforde (25),

The Lorde Nevyle,

The Lorde Wellys (51),

The Lorde Maules (50),

And many moo then I can reherse; but whythe [t]es and othyr that were slayne in the fylde ys a grete nombyr, by syde xlij knyghtys that were slayne aftyr; the hoole nombyr ys xxxv Mlof comeners. Jhesu be [t]ou marcyfulle unto hyr soulys. Amen.

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Chronicle of Gregory 1463. Dec 1463. Ande thys same yere a-boute Crystysmas that fals Duke of Somersett (27), with owte any leve of the kyng, stale owte of Walys with a prevy mayny towarde the Newecastelle, for he and hys men were confeteryde for to have be-trayde the sayde Newecastelle. And in [t]ewey thedyrwarde he was aspyde, and lyke to have ben takyn be syde Dereham in hys bedde. Notwithstondynge he a schapyde a-way in hys schyrt and barefote, and ij of hys men were take. And they toke with hem that fals dukys caskette and hys harneys. And whenn that hys men knewe that he was aschapyd, and hys fals treson aspyde, hys men stale from the Newecastelle as very fals traytourys, and sum of hem were take and loste hyr heddys for hyr labur, &c.

Chronicle of Gregory 1463. Dec 1463. Ande thenn the kynge, owre soverayne lorde Edward the iiij, hadde knowleche of hys fals dysposyscyon of thys fals Duke Harry of Somersett (27). The kynge sende a grete feleschippe of hys housolde men to kepe the towne of Newecastelle, and made the Lorde Scrope of Bolton (26) captayne of the towne; and soo they kepte hyt surely alle that wyntyr. Ande a-boute Ester nexte aftyr the Schottys sewyd unto oure soverayne lorde the kynge for pes. And the kynge ordaynyde Commyssourys to mete whythe [t]e Schottys. The names of the Commyssyonourys be wretyn here aftyr folowyng: The Chaunceler of Ingelond (31), the Lorde Montegewe (32), the Erle of Warwycke (35), and many othyr for the Englysche partye, to brynge hyt to a conclusyon.

Battle of Hedgeley Moor

Chronicle of Gregory 1464. Before 25 Apr 1464. The poyntement was that they Schottys and [t]ey shulde mete at Yorke. And thenn was my Lorde of Mountegewe (33) assygnyd to fecche yn the Schottys pesseabylly, for he was Wardon of the Marchys. And then my Lorde of Mountegewe (33) toke hys jornaye towarde the Newe Castelle. And by the waye was fulle falsely i-purvyde that fals Duke Harry of Somersett (28) and Percy (39), with hyr feleschyppe assocyat unto them, that there was layde by the waye, a lytylle from the Newecastel, in a woode, that fals traytoure Syr Umfray Nevyle (25), with iiij schore [Note. 80] sperys, and the bowys there too. And they shulde have falle on the Lorde Mountegeue (33) sodenly, and slayne hym sodenly, but, God be thonkyd, hyr fals treson was aspyde and knowe. And thenne the Lorde Montegewe (33) toke a nothyr waye, and made to be gaderyd a grete feleschippe, and went to the Newecastelle, and soo toke hys jornaye unto Norham warde. Ande in the wey thedyrwarde there met with hym that fals Duke of Somersette (28), Syr Raffe Percy (39), the Lorde Hungerforde (33), and the [his half-brother] Lorde Roos (36), whythe alle hyr company, to the nombyr of vM [Note. 5000] men of armys. And thys metynge was a pon Synte Markys day; and that same day was Syr Raffe Percy (39) slayne. And whenn that he was dede alle the party was schomfytyd and put to rebuke. Ande every man avoydyd and toke hys way with fulle sory hertys. And thenn my Lorde of Mountegeue (33) toke hys hors and roode to Norham, and fecchyd yn the Schottys, and brought hem unto the Lordys Commyssyonourys. And there was concludyd a pes [Note. peace] for xv yere with the Schottys. And the Schottys ben trewe hyt moste nedys contynu so longe, but hit ys harde for to tryste unto hem, for they byn evyr founde fulle of gyle and dyssayte.

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On 25 Apr 1464 a Yorkist army commanded by John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (33) defeated a Lancastrian army commanded by Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (28) at Hedgeley Moor during the Battle of Hedgeley Moor.

Of the Lancastrians ...

[his half-brother] Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley 1427-1464 (36) was killed. His son Edmund Ros 10th Baron Ros Helmsley 1455-1508 (9) succeeded 10th Baron Ros Helmsley. Thomas' lands however, including Belvoir Castle was given by King Edward IV (21) to William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (33).

Ralph Percy 1425-1464 (39) was killed.

Battle of Hexham

Chronicle of Gregory 1464. 14 May 1464. Ande the xiiij daye of May nexte aftyr, my Lorde of Mountegeue (33) toke hys jornaye toward Hexham from the Newecastelle. And there he toke that fals Duke Harry Beuford of Somersett (28), the [his half-brother] Lord Roos (36), the Lorde Hungerforde (33), Syr Pylyppe Wenteworthe (40), Syr Thomas Fyndorne, whythe many o[t]yr; loo, soo manly a man ys thys good Erle Mountegewe, for he sparyd not hyr malysse, nor hyr falssenysse, nor gyle, nor treson, and toke meny of men and slowe many one in that jornaye.

On 15 May 1464 a Yorkist army commanded by John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (33) defeated a Lancastrian army commanded by Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (28) at Hexham during the Battle of Hexham.

Those fighting for York included John Stafford 1st Earl Wiltshire 1427-1473 (36), John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope of Bolton 1437-1498 (26) and Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (36).

Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (28) was beheaded following the battle. His brother [his brother] Edmund Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset 1439-1471 (25) succeeded 4th Duke Somerset 2C 1448. He Edmund is frequently referred as the 4th Duke. His father's (58) Dukedom was, however, a new creation.

Philip Wentworth 1424-1464 (40) was executed at Middleham.

Chronicle of Gregory 1464. 15 May 1464. The xv day of May folowynge thys good Lorde Mountegewe (33) let to be smete of the heddys of thes men, the whyche that hyr namys here folowyn in wrytyng: Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (28), Edmon Fysche, knyght, Edmon Bradschawe, Water Hunte, Blacke Jakys.

Chronicle of Gregory 1462. Ande thenn the for sayde Raffe Percys retornyde a-gayne in to Northehumberlond, and hadde the kepynge of the sayde ij castellys accordynge unto the poyntment. And the sayde Syr Harry Beuforde a-bode stylle whithe the kynge, and roode with hym to Lundon. And the Kynge made fulle moche of hym; in soo moche that he loggyd whythe the kynge in hys owne bedde many nyghtys, and sum tyme rode a huntynge be hynde the kynge, the kynge havynge a boute hym not passynge vj hors at the moste, and yet iij were of the Dukys men of Somersett. The kyng lovyd hym welle, but the duke thought treson undyr fayre chere and wordys, as hyt apperyd. And for a grete love the kyng made a grete justys at Westemyster, that he shuld se sum maner sporte of chevalry aftyr hys grete labur and hevynys. And with grete instans the kynge made hym to take harnys uppon hym, and rode in the place, but he wolde nevyr cope whithe no man and no man myght not cope whythe hym, tylle the kynge prayd hym to be mery and sende hym a tokyn, and thenn he ranne fulle justely and merely, and hys helme was a sory hatte of strawe. And thenn every man markyd hym welle.

1464 Suppressing the Lancastrian Northern Resistance

Chronicle of Gregory 1462. Thys yere Quene Margarete com owt of Frauns with lij schyppys, with Freynysche men and sum Engelysche men in the schyppys. And they londyd in Northe Humberlonde, hyt was vij dayes be-fore Alle Halwyn tyde. And there sche toke the castelle of Anwyke and put hyt fulle of Fraynyschemen. And thenn she retornyd in to Schotlonde by water. And there rosse suche a tempaste uppon hyr that she for soke hyr schippe, and a schapyd with the bote of [t]e schyppe. And the schyppe was drownyd with moche of hyr stuffe and iij grete schippys moo. And iiij c and vj Fraynysche men were take in the chyrche of Hooly Ylond. Thenn Kyng Edward hyrde telle of thys, and made hym redy towarde the Northe with many lordys, gentellys, and comyns with hym. And there he layde a sege to Anwyke Castelle, and to the castelle of Bamborowe, and to Dunsterborowe. Bamborowe and Dunsterborowe was kepte by Syr Raffe Persy and Syr Harry Bewforde, late Duke of Somersett, and the castelle of Anwyke with the Lorde Hungerforde. And Bamborowe and Dunsterborowe were yoldyn be Syr Raffe Percy and Syr Harry Beuford, late Duke of Somersett, to the Kyngys wylle, whythe the condyscyons that the sayde Raffe Percy schulde have the kepynge of the ij castellys, Bamborowe and Dunstarborowe. The sayde Syr Raffe Percy and Syr Harry Beuforde, late Duke of Somersett, were sworne to be trewe and faythefulle as trewe lege men unto owre kynge and soverayne lorde Edwarde the iiijthe. And they com to Derham, and there they were sworne byfore owre kynge. And the kynge gaffe hem hys levery and grete rewardys. See 1464 Suppressing the Lancastrian Northern Resistance.

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Chronicle of Gregory 1459. Ande Duke Harry of Somerset was i-commaundyd to goo to Gyon, and soo he dyd, and fulle manly made sautys to Calys, ande ranne byfore Calys almoste dayly, and many a men were hurte by hym and hys men.

Chronicle of Gregory 1459. Also alle that seson the Erle of Warwyke with sowdyers of Calysse were comynge unto the Duke of Yorke, and he come ovyr-wharte Colsylle be-syde Covyntre, and the Duke of Somerset whythe hys men rode a-longe thoroughe the towne, and yet non of hem mette whythe othyr as hyt happyd, or by lyckely hode they wold have made a newe fraye. Ande the same day Androwe Throllope consayvyd [Note. conceived] that the Erle of Warwyke was goyng unto the Duke of Yorke and not unto the kynge, and utterly forsoke hym and come unto the kynge and was pardonyd; and that made the duke fulle sore a-frayde when he wyste that sum olde soudyers went from hym unto the kynge, &c.

Chronicle of Gregory 1462. Alle so the kynge sone aftyr dysposyd hym, and was purposyd to ryde into Yorke schyre and to the contray a boute, to see and understonde the dysposyscyon of the pepylle of the Northe. And toke with hym the Duke of Somersett, and ij C of hys men welle horsyd and welle i-harnaysyd. Ande the sayde Duke, Harry of Somersett, ande his men were made the Kyngys garde, for the Kyng hadde that duke in moche favyr and trustyd hym welle. But [t]e garde of hym was as men shulde put a lombe a monge wolvysse of malyscyus bestys; but Alle myghty God was the scheparde. And whenn the kynge departyd from London he toke hys way to Northehampton, and thedyr the kynge com a Syn Jamys day the Apostylle, ande that fals duke with hym. And the comyns of the towne of Northehampton and of the schyre a-boute sawe that the fals duke and traytoure was so nyghe the Kyngys presens and was made hys garde. The comyns a rosse uppon that fals traytur thee Duke of Somersett, and wolde have slayne hym with yn the kyngys palys. And thenn the kynge with fayre speche and grete defeculte savyde hys lyffe for that tyme, and that was pytte, for the savynge of hys lyffe at that tyme causyd mony mannys dethys son aftyr, as ye shalle heyre. And then the Duke sende that fals Duke of Somersett in to a castelle of hys owne fulle secretly, for save garde of hys the dukys lyffe, and the dukys men unto Newe Castelle, to kepe the towne, and gave hem goode wages fulle treuly payde. And the Kyng fulle lovyngly gave the comyns of Northehampton a tonne of wyne that they shulde drynke and make mery. And [t]e wyne was drunkyn merely in the market place, for they hadde many fayre pecys of sylvyr. I darsay ther ys no taverne that hathe not so moche of stuffe as they occupyde in hys hyr tavernys. For sum fette wyne in basynnys, and sum in caudryns, and sum in bollys, and sum in pannys and sum in dyschys. Loo, the grete tresoure that they scheuyd that tyme.