Biography of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

1137 Marriage of Prince Louis and Eleanor of Aquitaine

1152 Marriage of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine

1153 Henry II visits his mother in Rouen

1153 Henry II sails to England

1153 Henry II Relieves Wallingford Castle

1153 Treaty of Wallingford aka Winchester aka Westminster

1154 Henry II Holds Easter at Rouen

1154 Death of King Stephen

1154 Henry II Leaves Barfleur

1154 Coronation of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine

1156 Henry II travels to Normandy

1156 Henry II pays homage to Louis VII

1156 Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine Reunited

1161 Henry II and Louis II make Peace

1162 Thomas Becket appointed Archbishop of Canterbury

1164 Constitutions of Clarendon

1164 Trial of Thomas a Becket

1164 Becket's Relatives Banished

1165 Henry II meets Rosamund Clifford

1166 Birth of King John

1170 Murder of Thomas a Becket

1174 Treaty of Falaise

1189 Death of Henry II

1204 Death of Eleanor of Aquitaine

1538 Thomas Becket Shrine destroyed

On 07 Jan 1114 Henry Salian 1081-1125 (32) and [his mother] Empress Matilda Duchess Normandy 1102-1167 (11) were married. She a Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England and 2 x Great Grand Daughter of Robert "Pious" II King France.

After 10 Jun 1128 [his father] Geoffrey Plantagenet Duke Normandy 1113-1151 and [his mother] Empress Matilda Duchess Normandy 1102-1167 were married. She a Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England and 2 x Great Grand Daughter of Robert "Pious" II King France.

On 05 Mar 1133 Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 was born to [his father] Geoffrey Plantagenet Duke Normandy 1113-1151 (19) and [his mother] Empress Matilda Duchess Normandy 1102-1167 (31) at Le Mans.

On 09 Apr 1137 William "Saint" Poitiers X Duke Aquitaine 1099-1137 (38) died. His daughter [his future wife] Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England 1122-1204 (15) succeeded XI Duke Aquitaine.

Marriage of Prince Louis and Eleanor of Aquitaine

On 25 Jul 1137 Louis VII King Franks 1120-1180 (17) and [his future wife] Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England 1122-1204 (15) were married (he was her fourth cousin). Her father William "Saint" Poitiers X Duke Aquitaine 1099-1137 had died some three months previously leaving Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England 1122-1204 (15) as a ward of Louis's father Louis "Fat" VI King France 1081-1137 (55) who quickly married her to his son Louis with a view to the Duchy of Aquitaine becoming joined with the Kingdom of France. A week later Louis "Fat" VI King France 1081-1137 (55) died and his son Louis and Eleanor became King and Queen of France. She a 3 x Great Grand Daughter of Robert "Pious" II King France.

On 07 Sep 1151 [his father] Geoffrey Plantagenet Duke Normandy 1113-1151 (38) died at Château du Loir. He was buried at St Julien's Cathedral.

Around 1152 [his illegitimate son] Geoffrey Plantagenet Archbishop of York 1152-1212 was born illegitimately to Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (18) and Ykenai Unknown.

Marriage of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine

On 18 May 1152 Whit Sunday Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (19) and Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England 1122-1204 (30) were married (he was her half third cousin) at Poitiers Cathedral. They were more closely related than Eleanor and her previous husband Louis VII King Franks 1120-1180 (32). The marriage would bring the Kingdom of England, and the Duchies of Normandy and Aquitaine under the control of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (19). She a 3 x Great Grand Daughter of Robert "Pious" II King France.

Around 05 Jun 1152 Eleanor of Aquitaine (30) visited Fontevraud Abbey, Chinon where she met Abbess Matilda (41) (her husband's Henry's (19) aunt by marriage - Abbess Matilda (41) had married William Adelin brother of his mother [his mother] Empress Matilda (50) who had died in the White Ship Disaster).

Henry II visits his mother in Rouen

Before Jan 1153 Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 visited his mother [his mother] Empress Matilda Duchess Normandy 1102-1167 in Rouen to seek funds for his impending invasion of England.

Henry II sails to England

In Jan 1153 Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (19) sailed from Barfleur, Basse Normandie to England, arriving the next day, with a fleet of twenty-six ships, and an army, to bring Stephen I King England 1094-1154 (59) submit to Henry's authority.

Henry II Relieves Wallingford Castle

In Jul 1153 Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (20) arrived at Wallingford Castle to relieve the siege that Stephen I King England 1094-1154 (59) had commenced in 1152.

Treaty of Wallingford aka Winchester aka Westminster

Around Aug 1153 Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (20) and Stephen I King England 1094-1154 (59) agreed the Treaty of Wallingford aka Winchester aka Westminster by which Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (20) would inherit the throne on the death of Stephen I King England 1094-1154 (59). The Treaty was ratified by Theobald of Bec Archbishop of Canterbury 1090-1161 (63) at Westminster in Christmas 1153.

On 17 Aug 1153 [his son] William Plantagenet IX Count Poitiers 1153-1156 was born to Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (20) and [his wife] Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England 1122-1204 (31) at Poitiers.

Henry II Holds Easter at Rouen

Around Mar 1154 Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (20) returned to Rouen and met with his mother [his mother] Empress Matilda Duchess Normandy 1102-1167 (52), and his brothers. [his wife] Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England 1122-1204 (32) joined them to celebrate Easter with their first son [his son] William Plantagenet IX Count Poitiers 1153-1156 who met his father for the first time aged around eight months.

Death of King Stephen

On 25 Oct 1154 Stephen I King England 1094-1154 (60) died at Priory of St Martin Dover. His first cousin once removed Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (21) succeeded II King England.

Henry II Leaves Barfleur

On 07 Dec 1154 Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (21), the seven months pregnant [his wife] Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England 1122-1204 (32) and their son [his son] William Plantagenet IX Count Poitiers 1153-1156 (1) left Barfleur, Basse Normandie for England. On 08 Dec 1154 Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (21) and his party landed near Southampton.

Coronation of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine

On 19 Dec 1154 Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (21) was crowned II King England. [his wife] Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England 1122-1204 (32) was crowned Queen Consort England. Theobald of Bec Archbishop of Canterbury 1090-1161 (64) presided.

On 28 Feb 1155 [his son] Henry the Young King 1155-1183 was born to Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (21) and [his wife] Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England 1122-1204 (33) at Bermondsey.

In Jul 1155 Roger Fitzmiles 2nd Earl Hereford 1124-1155 (30) and Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (22) were in Bridgnorth.

In Aug 1155 Roger Fitzmiles 2nd Earl Hereford 1124-1155 (30) and Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (22) were in Salisbury.

In 1156 Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (22) besieged Chinon Castle, Chinon.

On 06 Jan 1156 [his daughter] Matilda Plantagenet Duchess Saxony 1156-1189 was born to Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (22) and [his wife] Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England 1122-1204 (34) at Windsor Castle (probably) and named after her paternal grandmother [his mother] Empress Matilda Duchess Normandy 1102-1167 (53).

Henry II travels to Normandy

On 10 Jan 1156 Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (22) crossed from Dover to Wissant. Richard "The Loyal" Lucy 1089-1179 (67) was appointed Regent in Henry's absence. [his wife] Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England 1122-1204 (34) was placed in the care of Theobald of Bec Archbishop of Canterbury 1090-1161 (66) and John of Salisbury Bishop Chartres 1118-1180 (38). Her party included her sister [his sister-in-law] Petronilla Poitiers 1125-1193 (31).

Henry II pays homage to Louis VII

On 05 Feb 1156 Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (22) paid homage to Louis VII King Franks 1120-1180 (36) for his lands in Normandy, Anjou and Aquitaine.

In Apr 1156 [his son] William Plantagenet IX Count Poitiers 1153-1156 (2) died at Wallingford Castle. He was buried at Reading Abbey at the feet of his great-grandfather King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine Reunited

Before 29 Aug 1156 Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 and [his wife] Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England 1122-1204 were reunited in Saumur.

In Dec 1156 Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (23) and [his wife] Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England 1122-1204 (34) held Christmas in Bordeaux.

Around 30 May 1157 Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (24) and [his wife] Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England 1122-1204 (35) spent Whitsun at Bury St Edmunds for a ceremonial crown wearing.

On 08 Sep 1157 [his son] Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 was born to Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (24) and [his wife] Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England 1122-1204 (35) at Beaumont Palace Oxford.

In Dec 1157 Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (24) and [his wife] Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England 1122-1204 (35) held Christmas Court at Cherbourg.

In Dec 1157 Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (24) and [his wife] Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England 1122-1204 (35) held Christmas Court at Lincoln.

On 26 Jul 1158 [his brother] Geoffrey Plantagenet Count Nantes 1134-1158 (24) died at Nantes.

On 23 Sep 1158 [his son] Geoffrey Plantagenet 2nd Duke Brittany 1158-1186 was born to Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (25) and [his wife] Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England 1122-1204 (36).

Henry II and Louis II make Peace

In Oct 1161 Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (28) and Louis VII King Franks 1120-1180 (41) met at Fréteval and made peace.

On 13 Oct 1161 [his daughter] Eleanor Plantagenet Queen Consort Castile 1161-1214 was born to Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (28) and [his wife] Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England 1122-1204 (39) at Domfront Castle, Domfront named Eleanor after her mother Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England 1122-1204 (39). She was baptised by Cardinal Henry of Pisa with Robert of Torigni as godfather.

Thomas Becket appointed Archbishop of Canterbury

On 23 May 1162 Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury 1119-1170 (42) was elected Archibishop Canterbury by Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (29).

In 1164 Theobald "Good" Blois V Count Blois 1130-1191 (34) and [his step-daughter] Alix Capet Count Blois 1150-1197 (13) were married (he was her fourth cousin). She (13) by marriage Countess Blois. He a Great Grand Son of William "Conqueror" I King England and 3 x Great Grand Son of Robert "Pious" II King France. She a Grand Daughter of Louis "Fat" VI King France.

In 1164 Henry Blois I Count Champagne 1127-1181 (36) and [his step-daughter] Marie Capet Count Champagne 1145-1198 (19) were married (he was her fourth cousin). She (19) by marriage Countess Champagne. He a Great Grand Son of William "Conqueror" I King England and 3 x Great Grand Son of Robert "Pious" II King France. She a Grand Daughter of Louis "Fat" VI King France.

Constitutions of Clarendon

On 25 Jan 1164 Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (30) attempted to constrain ecclesiastical privileges by the sixteen articles of the Constitutions of Clarendon. Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury 1119-1170 (44) rejected the articles.

In Apr 1164 [his illegitimate half-brother] Hamelin Warenne 4th Earl Surrey 1129-1202 (35) and Isabella Warenne Count Boulogne 4th Countess Surrey 1137-1203 (27) were married. Hamelin Warenne 4th Earl Surrey 1129-1202 (35) by marriage 4th Earl Surrey 1C 1088. She a 2 x Great Grand Daughter of Henry I King France.

Trial of Thomas a Becket

In Oct 1164 Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury 1119-1170 (44) was put on trial in Northampton by Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (31) on a charge of contempt. After a week of discussion Becket fled to Flanders with John of Salisbury Bishop Chartres 1118-1180 (46).

In Dec 1164 Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (31) and [his wife] Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England 1122-1204 (42) held Christmas Court at Marlborough.

Becket's Relatives Banished

In 26 Dec 1164 Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (31) banished all of Thomas Becket's (45) relatives from England. Around 400 people were affected. They were stripped of their possessions and shipped to Flanders.

Between 1165  and 1173 Orford Castle Orford was constructed on behalf of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (31)."One of the most remarkable keeps in England", is of a unique design possibly based on Byzantine architecture.

1165. Letter IV. Empress Matilda Duchess Normandy 1102 1167 to Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury 1119 1170. 1165. Letter IV. [his mother] Empress Matilda Duchess Normandy 1102-1167 (62) to Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury 1119-1170 (45).
To Thomas archbishop of Canterbury, Matilda the empress.
My lord pope sent to me, enjoining me, for the remission of my sins, to interfere to renew peace and concord between you and the king, my son (31), and to try to reconcile you to him. You, as you well know, have asked the same thing from me; wherefore, with the more good-will, for the honour of God and the Holy Church, I have begun and carefully treated of that affair. But it seems a very hard thing to the king, as well as to his barons and council, seeing he so loved and honoured you, and appointed you lord of his whole kingdom and of all his lands, and raised you to the highest honours in the land, believing he might trust you rather than any other; and especially so, because he declares that you have, as far as you could, roused his whole kingdom against him; nor was it your fault that you did not disinherit him by main force. Therefore I send you my faithful servant, Archdeacon Laurence, that by him I may know your will in these affairs, and what sort of disposition you entertain towards my son, and how you intend to conduct yourself, if it should happen that he fully grants my petition and prayer on your behalf. One thing I plainly tell you, that you cannot recover the king's favour, except by great humility and most evident moderation. However, what you intend to do in this matter signify to me by my messenger and your letters.

Henry II meets Rosamund Clifford

Around Aug 1165 Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (32) commenced his affair with Rosamund Clifford 1136-1176 (29) who he may have first met when staying at her father Walter Clifford's (52) house in Bredelais (assumed to be in Herefordshire).

In Oct 1165 [his daughter] Joan Plantagenet Queen Consort Sicily 1165-1199 was born to Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (32) and [his wife] Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England 1122-1204 (43) at Chateau de Angers, Angers.

On 16 Mar 1166 Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (33) travelled from St Andrew's Church Owlesbury to Falaise, Calvados, Basse Normandie.

Birth of King John

On 24 Dec 1166 [his son] John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 was born to Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (33) and [his wife] Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England 1122-1204 (44). He was given the nickname "Sans Terre", aka "without land", or in English "Lackland" as a consequence of his being the youngest son.

On 10 Sep 1167 [his mother] Empress Matilda Duchess Normandy 1102-1167 (65) died. She was buried under the high alter at Bec Abbey during a service performed by Rotrou Newburgh Archbishop Rouen -1183. Her tomb's epitaph reads 'Great by birth, greater by marriage, greatest in her offspring: here lies Matilda, the daughter, wife, and mother of Henry'.

1168. Letter V. Marie Blois I Count Boulogne 1136 1182 to Louis VII King Franks 1120 1180. 1168. Letter V. Marie Blois I Count Boulogne 1136-1182 (32) to Louis VII King Franks 1120-1180 (48).
Let it be known to your highness that Henry, king of England (34) has sent his ambassadors to the emperor. It is certain that he has for the most part, succeeded in obtaining what he wished; for the emperor shews himself kindly disposed to the king, and his (the king's) ambassadors being on their return, he has not hesitated to send his own with them to him, which he thought the best course, lest the aforesaid king should doubt whether he was sincere in his assistance against you. The returning ambassadors passed through my territories, and I spoke with them, and well I perceived from their words that the English king ceases not, day nor night, to devise mischief against you. Wherefore I thought it fitting to send to your grace, and to give you the necessary forewarning, that you may take counsel with your wise men, and act as is most fitting, lest the impetuous presumption of the fraudulent king should inflict violent injury upon you. Fare you well.

On 01 Feb 1168 Henry "Lion" Welf XII Duke Saxony III Duke Bavaria 1129-1195 (39) and [his daughter] Matilda Plantagenet Duchess Saxony 1156-1189 (12) were married. She  by marriage Duchess Bavaria, Duke Saxony. She a Daughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England and 4 x Great Grand Daughter of Robert "Pious" II King France.

In Jan 1169 [his son] Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (11) and Alys Capet Count Ponthieu 1160-1220 (8) were engaged to be married as part of a peace treaty. Alys Capet Count Ponthieu 1160-1220 (8) was sent to England to be a ward of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (35).

Murder of Thomas a Becket

On 29 Dec 1170 Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury 1119-1170 (51) was murdered at Canterbury Cathedral by four knights on behalf of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (37).

Treaty of Falaise

In Dec 1174 William "Lion" I King Scotland 1143-1214 (31), imprisoned at Falaise Castle, signed the Treaty of Falaise by which he agreed Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (41) was overlord of Scotland. He also agreed to marry a bride of Henry's (41) choosing. He married Ermengarde Beaumont Sarthe Queen Consort Scotland 1170-1234 (4) twelve years later.

Around 1176 [his illegitimate son] William "Longsword" Longespee 3rd Earl Salisbury 1176-1226 was born illegitimately to Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (42) and Ida Tosny Countess Norfolk 1156-1226 (20).

In 1177 Cardinal Peter of Saint Chrysogonus, on behalf of the Pope, threatened to place England's continental possessions under an interdict if Henry did not proceed with the marriage. [his son] Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (19) was somewhat reluctant given the rumours that Alys Capet Count Ponthieu 1160-1220 (16) had become the mistress of his father Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (43) and, possibly, had a child by him.

Before 17 Sep 1177 Alfonso VIII King Castile 1155-1214 and [his daughter] Eleanor Plantagenet Queen Consort Castile 1161-1214 were married (he was her half fourth cousin). She  by marriage Queen Consort Castile. She a Daughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England and 4 x Great Grand Daughter of Robert "Pious" II King France.

In Jul 1181 [his son] Geoffrey Plantagenet 2nd Duke Brittany 1158-1186 (22) and Constance Penthièvre Duchess Brittany 1161-1201 (20) were married (he was her half second cousin once removed). She (20) by marriage Duchess Brittany. Geoffrey Plantagenet 2nd Duke Brittany 1158-1186 (22) by marriage Duke Brittany. He a Son of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England and 4 x Great Grand Son of Robert "Pious" II King France. She a 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England. She a 3 x Great Grand Daughter of Henry I King France.

On 11 May 1183 Walter de Coutances -1207 was elected Bishop of Lincoln being selected by Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (50) over three other candidates.

On 19 Aug 1186 [his son] Geoffrey Plantagenet 2nd Duke Brittany 1158-1186 (27) died at Paris.

Treaty of Falaise

On 05 Sep 1186 William "Lion" I King Scotland 1143-1214 (43) and Ermengarde Beaumont Sarthe Queen Consort Scotland 1170-1234 (16) were married at Woodstock Palace Woodstock by Baldwin Avigo Archbishop of Canterbury 1125-1190 (61). She (16) by marriage Queen Consort Scotland at Woodstock Palace Woodstock. His bride had been chosen by Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (53) as part of the Treaty of Falaise. William received Edinburgh Castle as a wedding gift from Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (53). She a Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England and 4 x Great Grand Daughter of Robert "Pious" II King France.

On 28 Jun 1189 [his daughter] Matilda Plantagenet Duchess Saxony 1156-1189 (33) died at Brunswick. She was buried at Brunswick Cathedral, Brunswick.

Death of Henry II

On 06 Jul 1189 Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (56) died at Chinon Castle, Chinon. William Mandeville 2nd Earl Essex Count Aumale -1189 was present. He was buried at Fontevraud Abbey, Chinon. His heart was buried at Rouen Cathedral, Rouen. His son Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (31) succeeded I King England.

After 06 Jul 1189 Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 was buried at Fontevraud Abbey, Chinon.

Death of Eleanor of Aquitaine

On 01 Apr 1204 [his wife] Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England 1122-1204 (82) died at Fontevraud Abbey, Chinon.

Thomas Becket Shrine destroyed

On 16 Nov 1538 Henry VIII (47) attacked Thomas of Becket's reputation, removing his canonisation at the same time.
Henry enacted legislation as follows:
ITEM, for as moche as it appereth now clerely, that Thomas Becket, sometyme Archbyshop of Canterburie, stubburnly to withstand the holsome lawes establyshed agaynste the enormities of the clergie, by the kynges highness mooste noble progenitour, kynge HENRY the Seconde, for the common welthe, reste, and tranquillitie of this realme, of his frowarde mynde fledde the realme into Fraunce, and to the bishop of Rome, mayntenour of those enormities, to procure the abrogation of the sayd lawes, whereby arose moch trouble in this said realme, and that his dethe, which they untruely called martyrdome, happened upon a reskewe by him made, and that, as it is written, he gave opprobrious wordes to the gentyllmen, whiche than counsayled hym to leave his stubbernesse, and to avoyde the commocion of the people, rysen up for that rescue. And he not only callyd the one of them bawde, but also toke Tracy by the bosome, and violently shoke and plucked hym in suche maner, that he had almoste overthrowen hym to the pavement of the Churche; so that upon this fray one of their company, perceivynge the same, strake hym, and so in the thronge Becket was slayne. And further that his canonization was made onely by the bysshop of Rome, bycause he had ben a champion of maynteyne his usurped auctoritie, and a bearer of the iniquitie of the clergie, for these and for other great and urgent causes, longe to recyte, the Kynge's Maiestie, by the advyse of his counsayle, hath thought expedient to declare to his lovynge subjectes, that notwithstandynge the sayde canonization, there appereth nothynge in his lyfe and exteriour conversation, wherby he shuld be callyd a sainct, but rather estemed to have ben a rebell and traytour to his prynce. Therefore his Grace strayghtly chargeth and commandeth that from henseforth the sayde Thomas Becket shall not be estemed, named, reputed, nor called a sayncte, but bysshop Becket; and that his ymages and pictures, through the hole realme, shall be putte downe, and avoyded out of all churches, chapelles, and other places; and that from henseforthe, the dayes used to be festivall in his name shall not be observed, nor the service, office, antiphoners, colletes, and prayers, in his name redde, but rased and put out of all the bokes.

1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.

Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 was created as Duke Normandy.