Diary of Samuel Pepys 10 January 1660. 10 Jan 1660. Tuesday. Went out early, and in my way met with Greatorex (35), and at an alehouse he showed me the first sphere of wire that ever he made, and indeed it was very pleasant; thence to Mr. Crew's (62), and borrowed £10, and so to my office, and was able to pay my money. Thence into the Hall, and meeting the Quarter Master, Jenings, and Captain Rider, we four went to a cook's to dinner. Thence Jenings and I into London (it being through heat of the sun a great thaw and dirty) to show our bills of return, and coming back drank a pint of wine at the Star Tavern in Cheapside. So to Westminster, overtaking Captain Okeshott in his silk cloak, whose sword got hold of many people in walking. Thence to the Coffee-house, where were a great confluence of gentlemen; viz. Mr. Harrington (49), Poultny (35), chairman, Gold, Dr. Petty (36); &c., where admirable discourse till at night. Thence with Doling to Mother Lams, who told me how this day Scott was made Intelligencer, and that the rest of the members that were objected against last night, their business was to be heard this day se'nnight. Thence I went home and wrote a letter, and went to Harper's, and staid there till Tom carried it to the postboy at Whitehall. So home to bed.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 January 1660. 14 Jan 1660. Saturday. Nothing to do at our office. Thence into the Hall, and just as I was going to dinner from Westminster Hall with Mr. Moore (with whom I had been in the lobby to hear news, and had spoke with Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper (38) about my Lord's (34) lodgings) to his house, I met with Captain Holland, who told me that he hath brought his wife to my house, so I posted home and got a dish of meat for them. They staid with me all the afternoon, and went hence in the evening. Then I went with my wife, and left her at market, and went myself to the Coffee-house, and heard exceeding good argument against Mr. Harrington's (49) assertion, that overbalance of propriety [i.e., property] was the foundation of government. Home, and wrote to Hinchinbroke, and sent that and my other letter that missed of going on Thursday last. So to bed.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 January 1660. 17 Jan 1660. Tuesday. Early I went to Mr. Crew's (62), and having given Mr. Edward (12) money to give the servants, I took him into the coach that waited for us and carried him to my house, where the coach waited for me while I and the child went to Westminster Hall, and bought him some pictures. In the Hall I met Mr. Woodfine, and took him to Will's and drank with him. Thence the child and I to the coach, where my wife was ready, and so we went towards Twickenham. In our way, at Kensington we understood how that my Lord Chesterfield (26) had killed another gentleman about half an hour before, and was fled.
NOTE. Philip Stanhope, second Earl of Chesterfield (26), ob. 1713, act. suae 80. We learn, from the memoir prefixed to his "Printed Correspondence", that he fought three duels, disarming and wounding his first and second antagonists, and killing the third. The name of the unfortunate gentleman who fell on this occasion was Woolly. Lord Chesterfield (26), absconding, went to Breda, where he obtained the royal pardon from Charles II (29). He acted a busy part in the eventful times in which he lived, and was remarkable for his steady adherence to the Stuarts. Lord Chesterfield's letter to Charles II, and the King's (29) answer granting the royal pardon, occur in the Correspondence published by General Sir John Murray, in 1829: "Jan. 17th, 1659. The Earl of Chesterfield and Dr. Woolly's son of Hammersmith, had a quarrel about a mare of eighteen pounds price; the quarrel would not be reconciled, insomuch that a challenge passed between them. They fought a duel on the backside of Mr. Colby's house at Kensington, where the Earl and he had several passes. The Earl wounded him in two places, and would fain have then ended, but the stubbornness and pride of heart of Mr. Woolly would not give over, and the next pass [he] was killed on the spot. The Earl fled to Chelsea, and there took water and escaped. The jury found it chance-medley".—Rugge's "Diurnal", Addit MSS.,British Museum. B.].
We went forward and came about one of the clock to Mr. Fuller's (52), but he was out of town, so we had a dinner there, and I gave the child 40s. to give to the two ushers. After that we parted and went homewards, it being market day at Brainford. I set my wife down and went with the coach to Mr. Crew's (62), thinking to have spoke with Mr. Moore and Mrs. Jane, he having told me the reason of his melancholy was some unkindness from her after so great expressions of love, and how he had spoke to her friends and had their consent, and that he would desire me to take an occasion of speaking with her, but by no means not to heighten her discontent or distaste whatever it be, but to make it up if I can.
But he being out of doors, I went away and went to see Mrs Jane, who was now very well again, and after a game or two at cards, I left her. So I went to the Coffee Club, and heard very good discourse; it was in answer to Mr. Harrington's (49) answer, who said that the state of the Roman government was not a settled government, and so it was no wonder that the balance of propriety [i.e., property] was in one hand, and the command in another, it being therefore always in a posture of war; but it was carried by ballot, that it was a steady government, though it is true by the voices it had been carried before that it was an unsteady government; so to-morrow it is to be proved by the opponents that the balance lay in one hand, and the government in another.
Thence I went to Westminster, and met Shaw and Washington, who told me how this day Sydenham (44) was voted out of the House for sitting any more this Parliament, and that Salloway was voted out likewise and sent to the Tower, during the pleasure of the House. Home and wrote by the Post, and carried to Whitehall, and coming back turned in at Harper's, where Jack Price was, and I drank with him and he told me, among other, things, how much the Protector (33) is altered, though he would seem to bear out his trouble very well, yet he is scarce able to talk sense with a man; and how he will say that "Who should a man trust, if he may not trust to a brother and an uncle;" and "how much those men have to answer before God Almighty, for their playing the knave with him as they did". He told me also, that there was; £100,000 offered, and would have been taken for his restitution, had not the Parliament come in as they did again; and that he do believe that the Protector will live to give a testimony of his valour and revenge yet before he dies, and that the Protector will say so himself sometimes. Thence I went home, it being late and my wife in bed.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 February 1660. 20 Feb 1660. Monday. In the morning at my lute. Then to my office, where my partner and I made even our balance. Took him home to dinner with me, where my brother John (19) came to dine with me. After dinner I took him to my study at home and at my Lord's, and gave him some books and other things against his going to Cambridge. After he was gone I went forth to Westminster Hall, where I met with Chetwind, Simons, and Gregory. And with them to Marsh's at Whitehall to drink, and staid there a pretty while reading a pamphlet1 well writ and directed to General Monk (51), in praise of the form of monarchy which was settled here before the wars. They told me how the Speaker Lenthall (68) do refuse to sign the writs for choice of new members in the place of the excluded; and by that means the writs could not go out to-day. In the evening Simons and I to the Coffee Club, where nothing to do only I heard Mr. Harrington (49), and my Lord of Dorset (37) and another Lord, talking of getting another place as the Cockpit, and they did believe it would come to something. After a small debate upon the question whether learned or unlearned subjects are the best the Club broke up very poorly, and I do not think they will meet any more. Hence with Vines, &c. to Will's, and after a pot or two home, and so to bed.
Note 1. This pamphlet is among the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts (British Museum), and dated in MS. this same day, February 20th— "A Plea for Limited Monarchy as it was established in this Nation before the late War. In an Humble Address to his Excellency General Monck. By a Zealot for the good old Laws of his Country, before any Faction or Caprice, with additions". "An Eccho to the Plea for Limited Monarchy, &c"., was published soon afterwards.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 11 December 1663. 11 Dec 1663. Up and abroad toward the Wardrobe, and going out Mr. Clerke (40) met me to tell me that Field has a writ against me in this last business of £30 10s., and that he believes he will get an execution against me this morning, and though he told me it could not be well before noon, and that he would stop it at the Sheriff's, yet it is hard to believe with what fear I did walk and how I did doubt at every man I saw and do start at the hearing of one man cough behind my neck. I to, the Wardrobe and there missed Mr. Moore.
So to Mr. Holden's and evened all reckonings there for hats, and then walked to Paul's Churchyard and after a little at my bookseller's and bought at a shop Cardinall Mazarin's (61) Will in French.
I to the Coffeehouse and there among others had good discourse with an Iron Merchant, who tells me the great evil of discouraging our natural manufacture of England in that commodity by suffering the Swede to bring in three times more than ever they did and our owne Ironworks be lost, as almost half of them, he says, are already.
Then I went and sat by Mr. Harrington, and some East country merchants, and talking of the country about Quinsborough, and thereabouts, he told us himself that for fish, none there, the poorest body, will buy a dead fish, but must be alive, unless it be in winter; and then they told us the manner of putting their nets into the water. Through holes made in the thick ice, they will spread a net of half a mile long; and he hath known a hundred and thirty and a hundred and seventy barrels of fish taken at one draught. And then the people come with sledges upon the ice, with snow at the bottome, and lay the fish in and cover them with snow, and so carry them to market. And he hath seen when the said fish have been frozen in the sledge, so as that he hath taken a fish and broke a-pieces, so hard it hath been; and yet the same fishes taken out of the snow, and brought into a hot room, will be alive and leap up and down. Swallows are often brought up in their nets out of the mudd from under water, hanging together to some twigg or other, dead in ropes, and brought to the fire will come to life. Fowl killed in December. (Alderman Barker said) he did buy, and putting into the box under his sledge, did forget to take them out to eate till Aprill next, and they then were found there, and were through the frost as sweet and fresh and eat as well as at first killed. Young beares are there; their flesh sold in market as ordinarily as beef here, and is excellent sweet meat. They tell us that beares there do never hurt any body, but fly away from you, unless you pursue and set upon them; but wolves do much mischief. Mr. Harrington (52) told us how they do to get so much honey as they send abroad. They make hollow a great fir-tree, leaving only a small slitt down straight in one place, and this they close up again, only leave a little hole, and there the bees go in and fill the bodys of those trees as full of wax and honey as they can hold; and the inhabitants at times go and open the slit, and take what they please without killing the bees, and so let them live there still and make more. Fir trees are always planted close together, because of keeping one another from the violence of the windes; and when a fell is made, they leave here and there a grown tree to preserve the young ones coming up. The great entertainment and sport of the Duke of Corland, and the princes thereabouts, is hunting; which is not with dogs as we, but he appoints such a day, and summons all the country-people as to a campagnia; and by several companies gives every one their circuit, and they agree upon a place where the toyle is to be set; and so making fires every company as they go, they drive all the wild beasts, whether bears, wolves, foxes, swine, and stags, and roes, into the toyle; and there the great men have their stands in such and such places, and shoot at what they have a mind to, and that is their hunting. They are not very populous there, by reason that people marry women seldom till they are towards or above thirty; and men thirty or forty years old, or more oftentimes. Against a publique hunting the Duke sends that no wolves be killed by the people; and whatever harm they do, the Duke makes it good to the person that suffers it: as Mr. Harrington (52) instanced in a house where he lodged, where a wolfe broke into a hog-stye, and bit three or four great pieces off the back of the hog, before the house could come to helpe it (it calling, and that did give notice to the people of the house); and the man of the house told him that there were three or four wolves thereabouts that did them great hurt; but it was no matter, for the Duke was to make it good to him, otherwise he would kill them.
Hence home and upstairs, my wife keeping her bed, and had a very good dinner, and after dinner to my office, and there till late busy. Among other things Captain Taylor came to me about his bill for freight, and besides that I found him contented that I have the £30 I got, he do offer me to give me £6 to take the getting of the bill paid upon me, which I am ready to do, but I am loath to have it said that I ever did it. However, I will do him the service to get it paid if I can and stand to his courtesy what he will give me.
Late to supper home, and to my great joy I have by my wife's good advice almost brought myself by going often and leisurely to the stool that I am come almost to have my natural course of stool as well as ever, which I pray God continue to me.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 02 September 1667. 02 Sep 1667. This day is kept in the City as a publick fast for the fire this day twelve months: but I was not at church, being commanded, with the rest, to attend the Duke of York (33); and, therefore, with Sir J. Minnes (68) to St. James's, where we had much business before the Duke of York (33), and observed all things to be very kind between the Duke of York (33) and W. Coventry (39), which did mightily joy me. When we had done, Sir W. Coventry (39) called me down with him to his chamber, and there told me that he is leaving the Duke of York's (33) service, which I was amazed at. But he tells me that it is not with the least unkindness on the Duke of York's (33) side, though he expects, and I told him he was in the right, it will be interpreted otherwise, because done just at this time; "but", says he, "I did desire it a good while since, and the Duke of York (33) did, with much entreaty, grant it, desiring that I would say nothing of it, that he might have time and liberty to choose his successor, without being importuned for others whom he should not like:" and that he hath chosen Mr. Wren, which I am glad of, he being a very ingenious man; and so Sir W. Coventry (39) says of him, though he knows him little; but particularly commends him for the book he writ in answer to "Harrington's (56) Oceana", which, for that reason, I intend to buy. He tells me the true reason is, that he, being a man not willing to undertake more business than he can go through, and being desirous to have his whole time to spend upon the business of the Treasury, and a little for his own ease, he did desire this of the Duke of York (33). He assures me that the kindness with which he goes away from the Duke of York (33) is one of the greatest joys that ever he had in the world. I used some freedom with him, telling him how the world hath discoursed of his having offended the Duke of York (33), about the late business of the Chancellor (58). He do not deny it, but says that perhaps the Duke of York (33) might have some reason for it, he opposing him in a thing wherein he was so earnest but tells me, that, notwithstanding all that, the Duke of York (33) does not now, nor can blame him; for he tells me that he was the man that did propose the removal of the Chancellor (58); and that he did still persist in it, and at this day publickly owns it, and is glad of it; but that the Duke of York (33) knows that he did first speak of it to the Duke of York (33), before he spoke to any mortal creature besides, which was fair dealing: and the Duke of York (33) was then of the same mind with him, and did speak of it to the King (37); though since, for reasons best known to himself, he was afterwards altered. I did then desire to know what was the great matter that grounded his desire of the Chancellor's (58) removal? He told me many things not fit to be spoken, and yet not any thing of his being unfaithful to the King (37); but, 'instar omnium', he told me, that while he was so great at the Council-board, and in the administration of matters, there was no room for any body to propose any remedy to what was amiss, or to compass any thing, though never so good for the Kingdom, unless approved of by the Chancellor (58), he managing all things with that greatness which now will be removed, that the King (37) may have the benefit of others' advice. I then told him that the world hath an opinion that he hath joined himself with my Baroness Castlemayne's (26) faction in this business; he told me, he cannot help it, but says they are in an errour: but for first he will never, while he lives, truckle under any body or any faction, but do just as his own reason and judgment directs; and, when he cannot use that freedom, he will have nothing to do in public affairs but then he added, that he never was the man that ever had any discourse with my Baroness Castlemayne (26), or with others from her, about this or any public business, or ever made her a visit, or at least not this twelvemonth, or been in her lodgings but when called on any business to attend the King (37) there, nor hath had any thing to do in knowing her mind in this business. He ended all with telling me that he knows that he that serves a Prince must expect, and be contented to stand, all fortunes, and be provided to retreat, and that that he is most willing to do whenever the King (37) shall please. And so we parted, he setting me down out of his coach at Charing Cross, and desired me to tell Sir W. Pen (46) what he had told me of his leaving the Duke of York's (33) service, that his friends might not be the last that know it.
I took a coach and went homewards; but then turned again, and to White Hall, where I met with many people; and, among other things, do learn that there is some fear that Mr. Bruncker is got into the King's favour, and will be cherished there; which will breed ill will between the King (37) and Duke of York (33), he lodging at this time in White Hall since he was put away from the Duke of York (33): and he is great with Bab. May (39), my Baroness Castlemayne (26), and that wicked crew. But I find this denied by Sir G. Carteret (57), who tells me that he is sure he hath no kindness from the King (37); that the King (37) at first, indeed, did endeavour to persuade the Duke of York (33) from putting him away; but when, besides this business of his ill words concerning his Majesty in the business of the Chancellor (58), he told him that he hath had, a long time, a mind to put him away for his ill offices, done between him and his wife, the King (37) held his peace, and said no more, but wished him to do what he pleased with him; which was very noble.
I met with Fenn; and he tells me, as I do hear from some others, that the business of the Chancellor's (58) had proceeded from something of a mistake, for the Duke of York (33) did first tell the King (37) that the Chancellor (58) had a desire to be eased of his great trouble; and that the King (37), when the Chancellor (58) come to him, did wonder to hear him deny it, and the Duke of York (33) was forced to deny to the King (37) that ever he did tell him so in those terms: but the King (37) did answer that he was sure that he did say some such thing to him; but, however, since it had gone so far, did desire him to be contented with it, as a thing very convenient for him as well as for himself (the King (37)), and so matters proceeded, as we find. Now it is likely the Chancellor (58) might, some time or other, in a compliment or vanity, say to the Duke of York (33), that he was weary of this burden, and I know not what; and this comes of it. Some people, and myself among them, are of good hope from this change that things are reforming; but there are others that do think but that it is a hit of chance, as all other our greatest matters are, and that there is no general plot or contrivance in any number of people what to do next, though, I believe, Sir W. Coventry (39) may in himself have further designs; and so that, though other changes may come, yet they shall be accidental and laid upon [not] good principles of doing good. Mr. May shewed me the King's new buildings, in order to their having of some old sails for the closing of the windows this winter. I dined with Sir G. Carteret (57), with whom dined Mr. Jack Ashburnham and Dr. Creeton, who I observe to be a most good man and scholar. In discourse at dinner concerning the change of men's humours and fashions touching meats, Mr. Ashburnham (63) told us, that he remembers since the only fruit in request, and eaten by the King (37) and Queen (28) at table as the best fruit, was the Katharine payre, though they knew at the time other fruits of France and our own country.
After dinner comes in Mr. Townsend; and there I was witness of a horrid rateing, which Mr. Ashburnham (63), as one of the Grooms of the King's Bedchamber, did give him for want of linen for the King's person; which he swore was not to be endured, and that the King (37) would not endure it, and that the King (37) his father, would have hanged his Wardrobe-man should he have been served so the King (37) having at this day no handkerchers, and but three bands to his neck, he swore. Mr. Townsend answered want of money, and the owing of the linen-draper £5000; and that he hath of late got many rich things made—beds, and sheets, and saddles, and all without money, and he can go no further but still this old man, indeed, like an old loving servant, did cry out for the King's person to be neglected. But, when he was gone, Townsend told me that it is the grooms taking away the King's linen at the quarter's end, as their fees, which makes this great want: for, whether the King (37) can get it or no, they will run away at the quarter's end with what he hath had, let the King (37) get more as he can. All the company gone, Sir G. Carteret (57) and I to talk: and it is pretty to observe how already he says that he did always look upon the Chancellor (58) indeed as his friend, though he never did do him any service at all, nor ever got any thing by him, nor was he a man apt, and that, I think, is true, to do any man any kindness of his own nature; though I do know that he was believed by all the world to be the greatest support of Sir G. Carteret (57) with the King (37) of any man in England: but so little is now made of it! He observes that my Lord Sandwich (42) will lose a great friend in him; and I think so too, my Lord Hinchingbrooke (19) being about a match calculated purely out of respect to my Chancellor's (58) family.
By and by Sir G. Carteret (57), and Townsend, and I, to consider of an answer to the Commissioners of the Treasury about my Lord Sandwich's (42) profits in the Wardrobe; which seem, as we make them, to be very small, not £1000 a-year; but only the difference in measure at which he buys and delivers out to the King (37), and then 6d. in the pound from the tradesmen for what money he receives for him; but this, it is believed, these Commissioners will endeavour to take away. From him I went to see a great match at tennis, between Prince Rupert (47) and one Captain Cooke (51), against Bab. May (39) and the elder Chichly (53); where the King (37) was, and Court; and it seems are the best players at tennis in the nation. But this puts me in mind of what I observed in the morning, that the King (37), playing at tennis, had a steele-yard carried to him, and I was told it was to weigh him after he had done playing; and at noon Mr. Ashburnham (63) told me that it is only the King's curiosity, which he usually hath of weighing himself before and after his play, to see how much he loses in weight by playing: and this day he lost 4 lbs.
Thence home and took my wife out to Mile End Green, and there I drank, and so home, having a very fine evening. Then home, and I to Sir W. Batten (66) and Sir W. Pen (46), and there discoursed of Sir W. Coventry's (39) leaving the Duke of York (33), and Mr. Wren's succeeding him. They told me both seriously, that they had long cut me out for Secretary to the Duke of York (33), if ever Sir W. Coventry (39) left him; which, agreeing with what I have heard from other hands heretofore, do make me not only think that something of that kind hath been thought on, but do comfort me to see that the world hath such an esteem of my qualities as to think me fit for any such thing. Though I am glad, with all my heart, that I am not so; for it would never please me to be forced to the attendance that that would require, and leave my wife and family to themselves, as I must do in such a case; thinking myself now in the best place that ever man was in to please his own mind in, and, therefore, I will take care to preserve it.
So to bed, my cold remaining though not so much upon me. This day Nell, an old tall maid, come to live with us, a cook maid recommended by Mr. Batelier.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 26 December 1667. 26 Dec 1667. Up and to Westminster, and there to the Swan, and by chance met Mr. Spicer and another 'Chequer clerk, and there made them drink, and there talked of the credit the 'Chequer is now come to and will in a little time, and so away homeward, and called at my bookseller's, and there bought Mr. Harrington's (56) works, "Oceana", &c., and two other books, which cost me £4, and so home, and there eat a bit, and then with my wife to the King's playhouse, and there saw "The Surprizall"; which did not please me to-day, the actors not pleasing me; and especially Nell's (17) acting of a serious part, which she spoils. Here met with Sir W. Pen (46), and sat by him, and home by coach with him, and there to my office a while, and then home to supper and to bed. I hear this day that Mrs. Stewart (20) do at this day keep a great court at Somerset House, with her husband the Duke of Richmond (28), she being visited for her beauty's sake by people, as the Queen (29) is, at nights; and they say also that she is likely to go to Court again, and there put my Baroness Castlemayne's (27) nose out of joynt. God knows that would make a great turn. This day I was invited to have gone to my cozen Mary Pepys' burial, my uncle Thomas' (72) daughter, but could not.
On 11 Sep 1677 James Harrington Author 1611-1677 (66) died.