Biography of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216

1137 Marriage of Prince Louis and Eleanor of Aquitaine

1152 Marriage of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine

1154 Death of King Stephen

1166 Birth of King John

1189 Death of Henry II

1191 Wedding of King Richard I and Berengaria of Navarre

1194 Richard I Released

1199 Death of Richard I

1199 Coronation of King John

1202 Battle of Mirebeau

1204 Death of Eleanor of Aquitaine

1215 Magna Carta

1216 Death of King John

On 09 Apr 1137 [his grandfather] William "Saint" Poitiers X Duke Aquitaine 1099-1137 (38) died. Eleanor of Aquitaine (15) succeeded XI Duke Aquitaine.

Marriage of Prince Louis and Eleanor of Aquitaine

On 25 Jul 1137 [his step-father] Louis VII King Franks 1120-1180 (17) and Eleanor of Aquitaine (15) were married. They were fourth cousins. Her father William "Saint" Poitiers X Duke Aquitaine 1099-1137 (38) had died some three months previously leaving Eleanor of Aquitaine (15) as a ward of Louis's father Louis "Fat" VI King France 1081-1137 (55) who quickly married her to his son Louis with a view to the Duchy of Aquitaine becoming joined with the Kingdom of France. A week later Louis "Fat" VI King France 1081-1137 (55) died and his son Louis and Eleanor became King and Queen of France.

In 1150 [his father] Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (16) was created as Duke Normandy by his fourth cousin Louis VII King Franks 1120-1180 (30).

Marriage of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine

On 18 May 1152 Whit Sunday [his father] Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (19) and Eleanor of Aquitaine (30) were married at Poitiers Cathedral. They were half third cousins. He a grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135. They were more closely related than Eleanor and her previous husband Louis VII King Franks 1120-1180 (32). The marriage would bring the Kingdom of England, and the Duchies of Normandy and Aquitaine under the control of [his father] Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (19).

Death of King Stephen

On 25 Oct 1154 Stephen I King England 1094-1154 (60) died at Priory of St Martin Dover. [his father] Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (21) succeeded II King England.

In Apr 1156 [his brother] William Plantagenet IX Count Poitiers 1153-1156 (2) died at Wallingford Castle. He was buried at Reading Abbey at the feet of his great-grandfather King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135 (88).

In 1164 Henry Blois I Count Champagne 1127-1181 (36) and [his half-sister] Marie Capet Countess Champagne 1145-1198 (19) were married. They were fourth cousins. He a great grandson of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087. [his half-sister] She by marriage Countess Champagne.

In 1164 Theobald "Good" Blois V Count Blois 1130-1191 (34) and [his half-sister] Alix Capet Countess Blois 1150-1197 (13) were married. They were fourth cousins. He a great grandson of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087. [his half-sister] She by marriage Countess Blois.

Birth of King John

On 24 Dec 1166 John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 was born to [his father] Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (33) and Eleanor of Aquitaine (44). He was given the nickname "Sans Terre", aka "without land", or in English "Lackland" as a consequence of his being the youngest son.

Around 1168 John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 (1) was sent to live in Fontevraud Abbey to be trained for the Church.

On 01 Feb 1168 Henry "Lion" Welf XII Duke Saxony III Duke Bavaria 1129-1195 (39) and [his sister] Matilda Plantagenet Duchess Saxony 1156-1189 (12) were married. She a daughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She by marriage Duchess Bavaria, Duke Saxony.

In 1172 Richard Clare 3rd Earl Hertford 1153-1217 (19) and [his future sister-in-law] Amice Fitzrobert Countess Hertford -1220 were married. She a great granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135. [his future sister-in-law] She by marriage Countess Hertford.

Before 17 Sep 1177 Alfonso VIII King Castile 1155-1214 and [his sister] Eleanor Plantagenet Queen Consort Castile 1161-1214 were married. They were half fourth cousins. She a daughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. [his sister] She by marriage Queen Consort Castile.

On 16 Mar 1181 Henry Blois I Count Champagne 1127-1181 (53) died. [his nephew] Henry Blois II Count Champagne 1166-1197 (14) succeeded II Count Champagne.

In Jul 1181 [his brother] Geoffrey Plantagenet 2nd Duke Brittany 1158-1186 (22) and Constance Penthièvre Duchess Brittany 1161-1201 (20) were married. They were half second cousins once removed. He a son of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135. She by marriage Duchess Brittany. [his brother] She by marriage Duke Brittany.

In 1183 William Fitzrobert 2nd Earl Gloucester -1183 died. Isabella Fitzrobert 3rd Countess Gloucester and Essex 1173-1217 (10) succeeded 3rd Earl Gloucester 1C 1121.

In 1186 [his future step-son] William de Valence 1st Earl Pembroke -1296 and Beatrix Courtenay -1245 were married.

On 19 Aug 1186 [his brother] Geoffrey Plantagenet 2nd Duke Brittany 1158-1186 (27) died at Paris.

In 1189 Geoffrey Chateaudun III Count Perche -1202 and [his niece] Matilda Welf Countess Perche 1172-1204 (17) were married at Rouen. They were third cousins once removed. He a great x 2 grandson of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087. She a granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. [his niece] She by marriage Countess Perche.

On 28 Jun 1189 [his sister] Matilda Plantagenet Duchess Saxony 1156-1189 (33) died at Brunswick. She was buried at Brunswick Cathedral, Brunswick.

Death of Henry II

On 06 Jul 1189 [his father] Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (56) died at Chinon Castle. William Mandeville 3rd Earl Essex Count Aumale -1189 was present. He was buried at Fontevraud Abbey. His heart was buried at Rouen Cathedral, Rouen. Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (31) succeeded I King England.

On 29 Aug 1189 John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 (22) and [his wife] Isabella Fitzrobert 3rd Countess Gloucester and Essex 1173-1217 (16) were married at Marlborough Castle. They were half second cousins. He a son of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She a great granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135. She by marriage Earl Gloucester 1C 1121.

Around 1190 [his illegitimate son] Richard Fitzroy 1190-1246 was born illegitimately to John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 (23) and Adela Plantagenet in Chilham Castle Chilham. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.38%.

Around 1191 [his illegitimate daughter] Joan Plantagenet 1191-1237 was born illegitimately to John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 (24) and Adela Plantagenet. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.38%.

On 20 Jan 1191 Theobald "Good" Blois V Count Blois 1130-1191 (61) died. [his nephew] Louis Blois I Count Blois 1172-1205 (19) succeeded I Count Blois.

Wedding of King Richard I and Berengaria of Navarre

On 12 May 1191 [his brother] Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (33) and Berengaria of Navarre Queen Consort England 1165-1230 (26) were married at Chapel of St George at Limassol Castle. They were half fourth cousins. He a son of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She was crowned Queen Consort England.

Richard's sister [his sister] Joan Plantagenet Queen Consort Sicily 1165-1199 (25) was present.

1192 Letter VI Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England 1122 1204 to Pope Celestine. 1192. Letter VI. [his mother] Eleanor of Aquitaine (70) to Pope Celestine.

To the reverend father and lord Celestine, by God's grace highest pontiff, Eleanora the miserable, and I would I could add the commiserated, queen of England, duchess of Normandy, countess of Anjou, entreating him to shew himself a father of mercy to a miserable mother.

I am prevented, O holiest pope, by the great distance which parts us, from addressing you personally$1 yet I must bewail my grief a little, and who shall assist me to write my words?.

I am all anxiety, internally and externally, whence my very words are full of grief. Without are fears, within contentions; nor have I a moment wherein to breathe freely from the tribulation of evils, and the grief occasioned by the troubles which ever find me out. I am all defiled with grief, and my bones cleave to my skin, for my flesh is wasted away. My years pass away in groanings, and 1 would they were altogether passed away. O that the whole blood of my body would now die, that the brain of my head and the marrow of my bones were so dissolved into tears that I might melt away in weeping ! My very bowels are torn away from me; I have lost the light of my eyes, the staff of my old age: and, would God accede to my wishes, he would condemn me to perpetual blindness, that my wretched eyes might no longer behold the woes of my people. Who will grant me the boon of dying for thee, my son? O mother of mercy ! look upon a mother so wretched; or if thy Son, the inexhausted fount of mercy, is avenging the sins of the mother on the son, let him exact vengeance from her who has alone sinned: let him punish me, the wicked one, and not amuse himself with the punishment of an innocent person. Let him who hath begun the task, who now bruises me, take away his hand and slay me; and this shall be my consolation, that, afflicting me with grief, he spares me not. O wretched me, yet pitied by none! why have I, the mistress of two kingdoms, the mother of two kings, reached the ignominy of a detested old age?.

My bowels are torn away, my very race is destroyed and passing away from me. The [his brother] young king (36) and the Earl of Bretagne (33) sleep in the dust, and their most unhappy mother is compelled to live that she may be ever tortured with the memory of the dead. Two sons yet survived to my solace, who now survive only to distress me, a miserable and condemned creature: [his brother] King Richard (34) is detained in bonds, and John (25), his brother, depopulates the captive's kingdom with the sword, and lays it waste with fire. In all things the Lord is become cruel towards me, and opposes me with a heavy hand. Truly his anger fights against me, when my very sons fight against each other, if, indeed, that can be called a fight in which one party languishes in bonds, and the other, adding grief to grief, tries, by cruel tyranny to usurp the exile's kingdom to himself.

O good Jesus! who will grant me thy protection, and hide me in hell itself till thy fury passes away, and till thy arrows whiqh are in me, by whose vehemence my very spirit is drunk up, shall cease? I long for death, I am weary of life; and though I thus die incessantly, I yet desire to die more fally; I am reluctantly compelled to live, that my life may be the food of death and a means of torture. O happy ye who pass away by a fortunate abortion, without experiencing the waywardness of this life and the unexpected events of an uncertain condition ! What do I? why do I remain? why do I wretched, delay? why do I not go, that I may see him whom my soul loves, bound in beggary and irons? as though, at such a time, a mother could forget the son of her womb ! Affection to their young softens tigers, nay, even the fiercer sorceresses.

Yet I fluctuate in doubt: for, if I go away, deserting my son's kingdom, which is laid waste on all sides with fierce hostility, it will in my absence be destitute of all counsel and solace; again, if I stay, I shall not see the face of my son, that face which I so long for. There will be none who will study to procure the liberation of my son, and, what 1 fear still more, the most [his brother] delicate youth (34) will be tormented for an impossible quantity of money, and, impatient of so much affliction, will easily be brought to the agonies of death. Oh, impious, cruel, and dreadful tyrant ! who hast not feared to lay sacrilegious hands on the anointed of the Lord ! nor has the royal unction, nor the reverence due to a holy life, nor the fear of God, restrained thee from such inhumanity!

Yet the prince of the apostles still rules and reigns in the apostolic seat, and his judicial rigour is set up as a means of resort: this one thing remains, that you, O father, draw against these evildoers the sword of Peter, which for this purpose is set over people and kingdoms. The cross of Christ excels the eagles of Ceasar, the sword of Peter the sword of Constantine, and the apostolic seat is placed above the imperial power. Is your power of God or of men? Has not the God of gods spoken to you by the Apostle Peter, that whatsoever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatsoever you loose on earth shall be loosed also in heaven? Wherefore, then, do you so long negligently, nay, cruelly, delay to free my [his brother] son (34), or rather do not dare to do it? You will, perhaps, say that this power is given to you over souls, not over bodies: be it so; it will certainly suffice me if you will bind their souls who hold my son bound in prison. It is your province to loose my son, unless the fear of God has given way to human fear. Restore my son to me, then, O man of God, if indeed thou art a man of God and not a man of blood; for know that, if thou art sluggish in the liberation of my son, from thy hand will the Most High require his blood. Alas, alas for us, when the chief shepherd has become a mercenary, when he flies from the face of the wolf, when he leaves the little sheep committed to him, or rather the elect ram, the leader of the Lord's flock, in the jaws of the bloody beast of prey! The good Shepherd instructs and informs other shepherds not to fly when they see the wolf coming, but to lay down their lives for the sheep. Save, therefore, I entreat thee, thine own soul, whilst, by urgent embassies, by salutary advice, by the thunders of excommunication, by general interdicts, by terrible sentences, thou endeavourest to procure the liberation, I will not say of thy sheep merely, but of thy son. Though late, you ought to give your life for him, for whom, as yet, you have refused to write or speak a single word. The Son of God, as testifies the prophet, came down from heaven that he might bring up them that were bound from the pit in which was no water. Now, would not that which was fitting for God to do become the servant of God? My son is tormented in bonds, yet you go not down to him, nor send, nor are moved by the sorrow of Joseph. Christ sees this and is silent; yet at the last there shall be fearful retribution for those who do the work of God negligently. Ambassadors have been promised to us three times, but never sent; so that« to speak the truth, they are bound rather than sent. If my son were in prosperity, they would eagerly hasten at his lightest call, because they would expect rich handfuls for their embassy from his great munificence and the public profit of the kingdom. But what profit could be more glorious to them than to liberate a captive king, to restore peace to the people, quiet to the religious, and joy to all? Now, truly, the sons of Ephraim, who bent and sent forth the bow, have turned round in the day of battle; and in the time of distress when the wolf comes upon the prey, they are dumb dogs who either cannot or will not bark. Is this the promise you made me at the castle of Ralph with such protestations of favour and good faith? What availed it to give words only to my simplicity, and to illude by a fond trust the wishes of the innocent? So, in olden time, was King Ahab forbidden to make alliance with Ben-hadad, and we have heard the fatal issue of their mutual love.*^ A heavenly providence prospered the wars of Judas, John, and Simon, the Maccabsean brothers, under happy auspices; but when they sent an embassy to secure the friendship of the Romans, they lost the help of God, and, not once alone, but often was their venal intimacy cause of bitter regret.* You alone, who were my hope after God, and the trust of my people, force me to despair. Cursed be he who trusteth in man. Where is now my refuge?.

Thou, O Lord my God. To thee, O Lord, who considerest my distress, are the eyes of thine handmaid lifted up. Thou, O King of kings and Lord of lords, look upon the face of thine Anointed, give empire to thy Son, and save the son of thine handmaid, nor visit upon him the crimes of his father or the wickedness of his mother!

We know by certain and public relation that the emperor, after the death of the Bishop of Liege (26) (whom he is said to have slain with a fiital sword, though wielded by a remote hand (42)), miserably imprisoned the Bishop of Ostia and four other provincials, the Bishop of Salerno, and the Archbishop of Treves; and the apostolic authority cannot deny that, to the perpetual prejudice of the Roman church, he has, in spite of embassies, supplications, and threats of the apostolic seat, taken possession of Sicily, which from the times of Constantine has been the patrimony of St. Peter. Yet with all this his fury is not yet turned away, but yet is his hand stretched forth. Fearful things he has already done, but worse are still certainly to be expected; for those who ought to be the Pillars of the church are swayed with reed-like lightness by every wind. Oh, would they but remember that it was through the negligence of Eli, the priest ministering in Shiloh, that the glory of the Lord passed away from Israel I. Nor is that a mere parable of the past, but of the present. For the Lord drove from Shiloh the tabernacle, his tabernacle, where he had dwelt amongst men, and gave their strength into captivity and, their beauty into the hands of the enemy.

It is imputed to your pusillanimity that the church is trampled upon, the faith perilled, liberty oppressed, deceit encouraged by patience, iniquity by impunity. Where is the promise of God when be said to his church, 'Thou shalt suck the milk of the Gentiles, and shalt suck the breasts of kings? I will make thee the pride of ages, and a joy from generation to generation. Once the church, by its own strength, trod upon the necks of the proud and the lofty, and the laws of emperors obeyed the' sacred canons. But things are changed, and not only the canons, but the very formers of the canons, are restrained by base laws and execrable customs. The detestable crimes of the powerful are borne with. None dare murmur, and canonical rigour falls on the sins of the poor alone. Therefore, not without reason did Anachar^is the philosopher compare laws and canons to spiders' webs, which reti^in weaker animals but let the stronger go. ^* The kings of the earth have set themselves, and the rulers have taken counsel together/*^ against my son, the anointed of the Lord. One binds him in chains, another devastates his lands with cruel hostility, or, to use a vulgar phrase. One clips and another plunders; one holds the foot and another skins it. The highest pontiff sees these things, and yet bids the sword of Peter slumber in its scabbard; so he adds boldness to the sinner, his silence being presumed to indicate consent. He who corrects^ not when he can and ought seems even to consent, and his dissimulating patience shall not want the scruple of hidden companionship.'* The time of dissension predicted by the apostle draws on, when the son of perdition shall be revealed; dangerous times are at hand, when the seamless garment of Christ is cut, the net of Peter is broken, and the solidity of Catholic unity dissolved. These are the beginnings of sorrows. We feel bad things; we fear worse. I am no prophetess, nor the daughter of a prophet, but grief has suggested many things about future disturbances; yet it steals away the very words which it suggests. A sob intercepts my breath, and absorbing grief shutS' up by its anxieties the vocal passages of my soul. Farewell.

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Richard I Released

On 04 Feb 1194 [his brother] Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (36) was released from his captivity; his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine (72) having brought the ransom of 100,000 pounds of silver. On release King Philip II of France 1165-1223 (28) is said to have sent a message to the future King John (27) "Look to yourself; the devil is loose".

In 1196 [his illegitimate half-brother] William "Longsword" Longespee 3rd Earl Salisbury 1176-1226 (20) and Ela Longespee 3rd Countess Salisbury 1187-1261 (9) were married. He a son of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. [his illegitimate half-brother] She by marriage 3rd Earl Salisbury 1C 1149.

In Oct 1196 Raymond Rouerge Marquess Provence 1156-1222 (39) and [his sister] Joan Plantagenet Queen Consort Sicily 1165-1199 (31) were married at Rouen. They were third cousins once removed. She a daughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. [his sister] She by marriage Countess Toulose.

In 1197 Alfonso IX King Leon 1171-1230 (25) and [his niece] Berengaria Ivrea I Queen Castile 1179-1246 (18) were married. They were first cousins once removed. She a granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. [his niece] She by marriage Queen Consort Leon.

In 1197 [his half-sister] Alix Capet Countess Blois 1150-1197 (46) died.

In 1197 [his nephew] Henry Blois II Count Champagne 1166-1197 (30) died.

On 11 Mar 1198 [his half-sister] Marie Capet Countess Champagne 1145-1198 (53) died.

Death of Richard I

On 06 Apr 1199 [his brother] Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (41) was besieging Châlus-Chabrol Castle, Domfront. During the course of the evening [his brother] Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (41) was shot by a crossbow. The wound quickly became gangrenous; Richard died in the arms of his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine (77). John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 (32) succeeded I King England.

There was a brother between Richard and John named [his brother] Geoffrey Duke of Brittany (40) who had a son [his nephew] Arthur (12), who was around twelve, and a daughter [his niece] Eleanor (15), who was around fifteen, whose mother was Constance Penthièvre Duchess Brittany 1161-1201 (38).

King Philip II of France 1165-1223 (33) had planned for [his niece] Eleanor "Fair Maid of Britanny" Plantagenet 1184-1241 (15) to marry his son, probably to bring Brittany into the French Royal family, possibly to pursue a claim on England.

King Philip II of France 1165-1223 (33), and Brittany, supported [his nephew] Arthur's (12) claim to the English throne. In the resulting war [his nephew] Arhur (12) was captured, imprisoned and never seen again. [his niece] Eleanor (15) was captured, probably around the same time as Arthur, and imprisoned, more or less, for the remainder of her life, even after King John's death through the reign of King Henry III since she represented a threat to Henry's succession.

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Before 06 Apr 1199 John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 had his marriage to [his wife] Isabella Fitzrobert 3rd Countess Gloucester and Essex 1173-1217 annulled due to consanuinity but more likely because John's new status as heir to the English throne mean't he had better prospects. He may have already decided to marry Isabella of Angoulême Queen Consort England 1188-1246 who he married on 24 Aug 1200.

Coronation of King John

On 27 May 1199 John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 (32) was crowned I King England by Hubert Walter Archbishop of Canterbury 1160-1205 (39) at Westminster Abbey.

On 04 Sep 1199 [his sister] Joan Plantagenet Queen Consort Sicily 1165-1199 (33) died at Rouen. She was buried at Fontevraud Abbey.

23 May 1200 Louis "Lion" VIII King France 1187-1226 (12) and [his niece] Blanche Ivrea Queen Consort France 1188-1252 (12) were married. They were third cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087. She a granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189.

On 24 Aug 1200 John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 (33) and [his wife] Isabella of Angoulême Queen Consort England 1188-1246 (12) were married at Angoulême. He a son of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She had been engaged to Hugh Lusignan IX Count Lusignan 1163-1219 (37) who subsequently appealed to King Philip II of France 1165-1223 (35), their feudal overlord, who used the position to justify a war against John.

On 05 Sep 1201 Constance Penthièvre Duchess Brittany 1161-1201 (40) died. [his nephew] Arthur Plantagenet 3rd Duke Brittany 1187-1203 (14) succeeded 3rd Duke Brittany.

Battle of Mirebeau

On 01 Aug 1202 John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 (35) defeated the army of his nephew [his nephew] Arthur Plantagenet 3rd Duke Brittany 1187-1203 (15) and Hugh Lusignan X Count Lusignan V Count La Marche 1183-1249 (19) which was besieging John's mother Eleanor of Aquitaine (80) at Mirebeau Castle, Mirebeau. John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 (35) took Arthur Plantagenet 3rd Duke Brittany 1187-1203's army by surprise capturing most. [his nephew] Arthur Plantagenet 3rd Duke Brittany 1187-1203 (15) and, probably, his sister Eleanor "Fair Maid of Britanny" Plantagenet 1184-1241 (18), both of whom arguably had better claims to the throne than John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 (35) were captured.

In 1203 [his nephew] Arthur Plantagenet 3rd Duke Brittany 1187-1203 (16) was murdered at Rouen.

In 1204 Enguerrand Coucy III Lord Coucy 1182-1242 (22) and [his niece] Matilda Welf Countess Perche 1172-1204 (32) were married. She a granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. [his niece] She by marriage Lord Coucy.

In 1204 [his niece] Marie Blois Countess Flanders -1204 died.

In 1204 [his niece] Matilda Welf Countess Perche 1172-1204 (32) died.

Death of Eleanor of Aquitaine

On 01 Apr 1204 [his mother] Eleanor of Aquitaine (82) died at Fontevraud Abbey.

In 1205 [his son-in-law] Llewellyn "The Great" Aberffraw 1172-1240 (33) and Joan Plantagenet 1191-1237 (14) were married. She a daughter of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216.

Before 14 Apr 1205 [his nephew] Louis Blois I Count Blois 1172-1205 and Catherine Countess Blois and Clermont en Beauvais -1212 were married. He a great x 2 grandson of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087. She by marriage Countess Blois.

On 14 Apr 1205 [his nephew] Louis Blois I Count Blois 1172-1205 (33) died. Theobald Blois VI Count Blois -1218 succeeded VI Count Blois.

In 1206 Alfonso "Fat" II King Portugal 1185-1223 (20) and [his niece] Urraca Ivrea Queen Consort Portugal 1187-1220 (18) were married. They were second cousins once removed. She a granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189.

On 01 Oct 1207 [his son] Henry III King England 1207-1272 was born to John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 (40) and Isabella of Angoulême Queen Consort England 1188-1246 (19) at Winchester Castle.

In 1208 Gwenwynwyn ap Owain Mathrafal Prince Powys Wenwynwyn 1176-1216 (31) arrested by John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 (41).

27 May 1208 Letter VII. Eleanor "Fair Maid of Britanny" Plantagenet 1184 1241 to her subjects in Brittany. 27 May 1208. Letter VII. [his niece] Eleanor "Fair Maid of Britanny" Plantagenet 1184-1241 (24) to her subjects in Brittany.

Eleanora, duchess of Bretagne and countess of Richmond, to her dear and faithful lords the bishops of Nantes, Vannes, and Cornwall, and to Eudo de Poule, and Geoffry Espine, and Oliver de Rugy, and Pagan de Mal-Estrail, and all other her barons and faithful subjects of Bretagne, greeting.

We give you manifold thanks concerning the things of which you have informed us, and earnestly entreat you that you, the above-named, come to England to my lord and uncle the king of England (41); and know you, certainly, that your advent will, God willing, tend to your and our great honour and convenience, and, by God's grace, to our liberation.

We have spoken with our said uncle (41) about affording you a safe-conduct, and he is glad of your coming, and sends you his letters patent of safe-conduct; and you may all come safely by means of those letters — or as many of you as can, if all cannot come.

Witness myself, at Sarum, the 27th day of May.

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In 1209 William "Lion" I King Scotland 1143-1214 (66) sent his two daughters Margaret Dunkeld Countess Kent 1193-1259 (16) and Isabella Dunkeld Countess Norfolk 1195-1253 (14) to John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 (42) as hostages to keep the peace. They, Margaret and Isabella, were imprisoned with [his niece] Eleanor Fair Maid of Brittany (25) at Corfe Castle.

On 05 Jan 1209 [his son] Richard Cornwall 1st Earl Cornwall 1209-1272 was born to John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 (42) and Isabella of Angoulême Queen Consort England 1188-1246 (21).

On 22 Jul 1210 [his daughter] Joan Plantagenet Queen of Scotland 1210-1238 was born to John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 (43) and Isabella of Angoulême Queen Consort England 1188-1246 (22).

In Mar 1211 [his nephew] Raymond Rouerge VII Count Toulose 1197-1249 (13) and Sancha Barcelona Countess Toulose were married. They were third cousins. He a grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189.

Before 1212 Henry Welf VI Count Palatine of the Rhine 1197-1214 was raised at the court of his great-uncle John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216. Henry's paternal grand-mother was John's sister [his sister] Matilda Plantagenet Duchess Saxony 1156-1189.

On 12 Dec 1212 [his illegitimate half-brother] Geoffrey Plantagenet Archbishop of York 1152-1212 (60) died at Normandy. He was buried at Notre Dame du Parc, Rouen.

In 1213 Robert Fitzroger 2nd Baron Warkworth 1160-1214 (52) hosted John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 (46) at Warkworth Castle.

In 1214 [his daughter] Isabella Plantagenet Holy Roman Empress 1214-1241 was born to John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 (47) and Isabella of Angoulême Queen Consort England 1188-1246 (26).

On 20 Jan 1214 Geoffrey Mandeville 2nd Earl Essex 1191-1216 (23) and [his wife] Isabella Fitzrobert 3rd Countess Gloucester and Essex 1173-1217 (41) were married. She a great granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135. [his wife] She by marriage Countess Essex, Earl Gloucester 1C 1121.

Before 11 May 1214 [his illegitimate son] Richard Fitzroy 1190-1246 and Rohese de Dover 1186-1261 were married. He a son of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216.

On 05 Oct 1214 Alfonso VIII King Castile 1155-1214 (58) died. He was buried at Abbey of Santa Maria la Real de Huelgas. [his nephew] Henry I King Castile 1204-1217 (10) succeeded I King Castile.

On 31 Oct 1214 [his sister] Eleanor Plantagenet Queen Consort Castile 1161-1214 (53) died at Burgos. She was buried at Abbey of Santa Maria la Real de Huelgas.

In 1215 [his daughter] Eleanor Plantagenet Countess Pembroke Countess Leicester 1215-1275 was born to John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 (48) and Isabella of Angoulême Queen Consort England 1188-1246 (27) at Gloucester.

In 1215 [his nephew] Henry I King Castile 1204-1217 (10) and Mafalda Burgundy Queen Consort Castile 1196-1256 (19) were married. They were second cousins once removed. He a grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She by marriage Queen Consort Castile.

Magna Carta

On 15 Jun 1215 John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 (48) met with his Baron's at Runnymede where he agreed to the terms of the Magna Carta which attempted to reduce the King's authority through political reform. Those who signed as surety included:

Roger Bigod 2nd Earl Norfolk 1144-1221 (71),.

his son Hugh Bigod 3rd Earl Norfolk 1182-1225 (33),.

Henry Bohun 1st Earl Hereford 1176-1220 (39),.

Richard Clare 3rd Earl Hertford 1153-1217 (62),.

his son Gilbert Clare 5th Earl Gloucester 4th Earl Hertford 1180-1230 (35),.

[his future son-in-law] William "The Younger" Marshal 2nd Earl Pembroke 1190-1231 (25),.

William Mowbray 6th Baron Thirsk 4th Baron Mowbray 1173-1224 (42),.

Saer Quincy 1st Earl Winchester 1170-1219 (45),.

Robert Ros 1172-1226 (43), Richard Percy 5th Baron Percy Topcliffe 1170-1244 (45),.

Robert Vere 3rd Earl Oxford 1165-1221 (50),.

Eustace Vesci 1169-1216 (46),.

John Fitzrobert 3rd Baron Warkworth 1190-1241 (25),.

John Lacy 2nd Earl Lincoln 1192-1240 (23),.

William D'Aubigny 1151-1236 (64), Geoffrey Mandeville 2nd Earl Essex 1191-1216 (24),.

Robert Clare Fitzwalter -1235,.

William Forz 3rd Earl Albermarle aka Aumale -1242,.

William Hardell Lord Mayor,.

William Huntingfield -1291,.

William Llanvallei -1217,.

William Malet 1st Baron Curry Mallet 1174-1215 (40),.

Roger Montbegon -1226, Richard Montfichet -1267,.

Geoffrey Saye 1155-1230 (60) signed as surety the Magna Carta.

Ranulf de Blondeville Gernon 6th Earl Chester 1st Earl Lincoln 1170-1232 (45) witnessed.

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On 13 Sep 1215 Henry de Loundres Archbishop of Dublin -1228 was appointed Dean of St Michael's Church Penkridge by John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 (48). From that time until the recently the Archbishop of Dublin has always been Dean of St Michael's Church Penkridge.

In 1216 [his nephew] Henry I King Castile 1204-1217 (11) and Sancha Ivrea Queen Consort Castile 1191-1242 (25) were married. They were second cousins. He a grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She by marriage Queen Consort Castile.

In 1216 Orford Castle was captured by Prince Louis of France (28) who had invaded England in 1216 at the invitation of the English barons who were disillusioned with King John (49).

Death of King John

On 19 Oct 1216 John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 (49) died at Newark Castle. [his son] Henry III King England 1207-1272 (9) succeeded III King England.

John Monmouth 1182-1248 (34) was present.

On his deathbed, John appointed a council of thirteen executors to help Henry reclaim the kingdom and requested that his son be placed into the guardianship of William Marshal 1st Earl Pembroke 1146-1219 (70).

King John's will is the earliest English royal will to survive in its original form. The document is quite small, roughly the size of a postcard and the seals of those who were present at the time would have been attached to it. Translation of the will taken from an article by Professor S.D. Church in the English Historical Review, June 2010:

I, John, by the grace of God king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, count of Anjou, hindered by grave infirmity and not being able at this time of my infirmity to itemize all my things so that I may make a testament, commit the arbitration and administration of my testament to the trust and to the legitimate administration of my faithful men whose names are written below, without whose counsel, even in good health, I would have by no means arranged my testament in their presence, so that what they will faithfully arrange and determine concerning my things as much as in making satisfaction to God and to holy Church for damages and injuries done to them as in sending succour to the land of Jerusalem and in providing support to my sons towards obtaining and defending their inheritance and in making reward to those who have served us faithfully and in making distribution to the poor and to religious houses for the salvation of my soul, be right and sure. I ask, furthermore, that whoever shall give them counsel and assistance in the arranging of my testament shall receive the grace and favour of God. Whoever shall infringe their arrangement and disposition, may he incur the curse and indignation of almighty God and the blessed Mary and all the saints.

In the first place, therefore, I desire that my body be buried in the church of St Mary and St Wulfstan at Worcester. I appoint, moreover, the following arbiters and administrators: the lord Guala, by the grace of God, cardinal-priest of the title of St Martin and legate of the apostolic see; the lord Peter bishop of Winchester; the lord Richard bishop of Chichester; the lord Silvester bishop of Worcester; Brother Aimery de St-Maur; William Marshal earl of Pembroke; Ranulf earl of Chester; William earl Ferrers; William Brewer; Walter de Lacy and John of Monmouth; Savaric de Mauléon; Falkes de Bréauté.

The signatories were:

Guala Bicchieri (ca 1150 – 1227) Papal Legate.

Bishop Peter de Roches -1238, Bishop of Winchester.

Richard le Poer (? – 1237), Bishop of Chichester.

Sylvester of Worcester, Bishop of Worcester.

Aimery de St-Maur (? -?1219), Master of the English Templars.

William Marshal 1st Earl Pembroke 1146-1219 (70).

Ranulf de Blondeville Gernon 6th Earl Chester 1st Earl Lincoln 1170-1232 (46).

William Ferrers 4th Earl Derby 1168-1247 (48).

William Brewer (? - 1226), 1st Baron Brewer.

Walter de Lacy (ca 1172–1241) Lord of Meath.

John: (1182 – 1248) Lord of Monmouth.

Savaric de Mauléon (? – 1236) Seneschal of Poitou from 1205.

Falkes de Bréauté (? – 1226) Seneschal of Cardiff Castle.

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After 19 Oct 1216 John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 was buried in the Chancel of Worcester_Cathedral. His monument in the place of honour in the Choir in front of the High Altar. Sides decorated with the Three Lions of England. The Purbeck Marble effigy is the earliest of a King in England. Unusually carved to be life-like. Unsheathed sword at his side; his sword was found in the tomb when it was opened in 1529. His head supported by St Oswald and St Wulfstan, the two patron saints of Worcester. The base constructed in the 16th Century. The tomb was opened again on Monday 17 Jul 1797 at the instigation of Valentine Green (1739–1813). Inside the tomb chest, a stone coffin was discovered, containing the royal remains.

In Sep 1217 Hubert Burgh Count Mortain 1st Earl Kent 1170-1243 (47) and [his wife] Isabella Fitzrobert 3rd Countess Gloucester and Essex 1173-1217 (44) were married. She a great granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135.

On 14 Oct 1217 [his wife] Isabella Fitzrobert 3rd Countess Gloucester and Essex 1173-1217 (44) died.

1220 Letter IX. Berengaria of Navarre Queen Consort England 1165 1230 to Bishop Peter de Roches 1238. 1220. Letter IX. Berengaria of Navarre Queen Consort England 1165-1230 (55) to Bishop Peter de Roches -1238.

To her venerable father in Christ and most cordial friend Peter, by God's grace bishop of Winchester, Berengaria, by the same grace formerly the humble queen of England, wishes health and every good thing.

We send to you our well-beloved Friar Walter, of the Cistercian order, the bearer of these presents, beseeching you humbly and devotedly, with all the humility that we can, that, in reference as well to this present feast of All Saints as to other terms now past, you will cause us to be satisfied about the money due to us according to the composition of our dower, which, by your mediation, we made with our brother John (53) of happy memory, formerly king of England. Fare you well.

On 10 May 1220 Hugh Lusignan X Count Lusignan V Count La Marche 1183-1249 (37) and [his wife] Isabella of Angoulême Queen Consort England 1188-1246 (32) were married. [his wife] She by marriage Countess Lusignan, Count La Marche.

Chronica Majora 1236 The complaint of the king of Scotland. Sep 1236. In the same year, the king, by the advice of his nobles, proceeded to York to consult vith them and make arrangements for settling the dispute between him and [his son-in-law] Alexander (38), king of Scotland, and which had now grown into hatred. For to wise men, who weighed future events in the scale of reason, it seemed foolish that the kingdom of England, surrounded on all sides by enemies on the continent, should secretly generate internal hatred. The origin of this discord was (it is said) as follows: —The king of Scotland had constantly demanded the county of Northumberland, which King John (69) had given him as a marriage portion with his daughter Johanna (45), and for which he declared that he held a charter and had the evidence of a great many bishops and clergy of rank, as well as earls and barons; and he declared that it was an unworthy and execrable action to revoke what proceeded from the lips of kings, and to annul a compact made between persons of such noble station. He also added, that unless the English king would peaceably give him what plain reason proved to be his right, he would seek it at the sword's point. He was inspired with confidence by the secret, although suspected, friendship of Llewellyn, and by his alliance and affinity with Gilbert Marshal (39), who had married his sister Margaret (36), a most handsome lady. The hostility of his continental states, too, was always in conspiracy against him, and moreover, his cause was just, as was proved by the muniments of former kings. After much discussion on both sides, the king of England, for the sake of peace, and for the protection of his kingdom, as far as lay in his power offered the king of Scots a revenue of eighty marks from some other part of England, in order that the boundaries of his kingdom might not be broken in upon in the northern parts. But whilst he waited until the affair should be settled to the satisfaction of both parties, the conference ended, and all for the moment remained at peace.

About that time, the knight, Philip Daubeney (65), a noble devoted to God, and brave in battle, after fighting for the Lord during several pilgrimages to the Holy Land, at length closed his life by a praiseworthy death there, and obtained a holy burial in the Holy Land, which he had long desired when living.

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On 04 Jun 1246 [his wife] Isabella of Angoulême Queen Consort England 1188-1246 (58) died at Fontevraud Abbey.

Around 1250. Newbridge is a 13th Century bridge over the River Thames one of three bridges built on the orders of King John (83) to facilitate the wool trade; the other two being St John's Bridge Lechlade and Radcot Bridge.

1260. In the year of grace 1260.[his son] Henry King of England (52), son of King John (93), etc.

Original Latin Text:

Anno gratiae MCCLX. [his son] Henricus rex Angliae (52), filius regis Johannis (93), pace firmata cum rege Franciae, ibidem per longum tempus moram traxit; nec in Angliam redire curavit, donec episcopi et magnates Angliae ei literatorie mandaverunt quod reverti in Angliam properaret; quod si non faceret, ad placitum suum in Anglia non rediret. Quo audito, rex in se reversus, in Angliam rediit; sed quidam malitiosi falsis rumoribus inter patrem et filium suum Edwardum discordiam seminavervmt, asserentes quod dictus Edwardus et consiliarii sui guerram domino regi movere procurarunt; propter quod dominus rex supra modum iratus, multos milites de partibus transmarinis usque Londoniam secum adduxit; et eis ultra pontem dimissis in partibus Sureiae, ipse civitatem Londonise ingressus est, et ibi aliquandiu moram fecit, portis civitatis firmatis et seratis, apposuit custodes, ut nullus nisi ab eo licentiatus ingrederetur.

Comes vero Gloverni, et Johannes Maunsel, et quidam alii qui de concilio regis fuerunt, ad placitum suum ingressum et egressum habuerunt.

Rex vero proliibuit, ne filius suus Edwardus, nec aliquis qui de consilio suo extiterat, coram ipso venirent, dicens, "Coram me non appareat filius mens Edwardus, quia si eum videro, quin ipsum osculer me non cohibebo.".

Tandem, amore paterno commotus, et magnatum precibus devictus, ipsum ad osculum pacis recepit, et regina mater sua similiter, quae, ut dicebatur, causa totius malitis extiterat.

Dum ista aguntur, quantos honores et quantas expensas, omnibus qui interesse voluerint, dominus Edwardus fecerit, lingua vix potest explicare.

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James I King Aragon 1208-1276 and [his niece] Eleanor Ivrea Queen Consort Aragon -1244 were married. They were half second cousins. She a granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. [his niece] She by marriage Queen Consort Aragon.

1220 Letter VIII. Isabella of Angoulême Queen Consort England 1188 1246 to her son Henry III King England 1207 1272. To her dearest son Henry, by the grace of God king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, earl of Anjou, Isabella, by the same grace queen of England, lady of Ireland, duchess of Normandy and Aquitaine, countess of Anjou and Angoulême, sends health and her maternal benediction.

We hereby signify to you that when the Earls of March and Eu departed this life, the lord Hugh de Lusignan remained alone and without heirs in Poitou, and his friends would not permit that our daughter should be united to him in marriage, because her age is so tender, but counselled him to take a wife from whom he might speedily hope for an heir; and it was proposed that he should take a wife in France, which if he had done, all your land in Poitou and Gascony would be lost. We, therefore, seeing the great peril that might accrue if that marriage should take place, when our counsellors could give us no advice, ourselves married the said Hugh earl of March; and God knows that we did this rather for your benefit than our own. Wherefore we entreat you, as our dear son, that this thing may be pleasing to you, seeing it conduces greatly to the profit of you and yours; and we earnestly pray you that you will restore to him his lawful right, that is Niort, the castles of Exeter and Rockingham, and 3500 marks, which your father, our former husband, bequeathed to us; and so, if it please you, deal with him, who is so powerful, that he may not remain against you, since he can serve you well — for he is wdl-disposed to serve you faithfully with all his power; and we are certain and undertake that he shall serve you well if you will restore to him his rights, and, therefore, we advise that you take opportune counsel on these matters; and, when it shall please you, you may send for our daughter, your sister, by a trusty messenger and your letters patent, and we will send her to you.

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Baldwin IX Count Flanders VI Count Hainault 1171-1205 and [his niece] Marie Blois Countess Flanders -1204 were married. They were fourth cousins. She a great x 2 granddaughter of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087. [his niece] She by marriage Countess Flanders, Count Flanders.