Biography of John of Eltham 1st Earl Cornwall 1316-1336

1301 Edward II Created Prince of Wales

1307 Death of Edward I

1308 Marriage of King Edward II and Isabella of France

1327 Abdication of Edward II

1327 Death of Edward II

1328 Marriage of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault

1328 Marriage of King David II of Scotland and Princess Joan

1333 Battle of Halidon Hill

Edward II Created Prince of Wales

On 07 Feb 1301 [his father] King Edward II of England (16) was created Prince of Wales by his father [his grandfather] Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (61); the first English heir to receive the title. He was created Earl Chester 5C 1301 the same day.

Death of Edward I

On 07 Jul 1307 [his grandfather] Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (68) died at Burgh by Sands whilst on his way north to Scotland. His son [his father] King Edward II of England (23) succeeded II King England.
[his grandfather] Edward (68) had gathered around him Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl of Leicester 2nd Earl Lancaster 5th Earl Salisbury 4th Earl Lincoln 1278-1322 (29), Guy Beauchamp 10th Earl Warwick 1272-1315 (35), Aymer Valence 2nd Earl Pembroke 1275-1324 (32) and Robert Clifford 1st Baron Clifford 1274-1314 (33) and charged them with looking after his son in particular ensuring Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall 1284-1312 (23) didn't return from exile.

Marriage of King Edward II and Isabella of France

On 25 Jan 1308 [his father] King Edward II of England (23) and [his mother] Isabella of France Queen Consort England 1295-1358 (13) were married at Boulogne sur Mer. They were second cousins once removed. He a son of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great x 4 granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189.

On 15 Aug 1316 John of Eltham 1st Earl Cornwall 1316-1336 was born to [his father] King Edward II of England (32) and [his mother] Isabella of France Queen Consort England 1295-1358 (21) at Eltham Palace.

Letter XXIII. Isabella Capet Queen Consort England to her nephew John Plantagenet 1st Earl Cornwall. 10 Oct 1316. Letter XXIII. [his mother] Isabella of France Queen Consort England 1295-1358 (21) to her nephew John of Eltham 1st Earl Cornwall 1316-1336.
Most dear and beloved nephew,.
We have well understood what you have sent us word by your letters; and, as to our estate, we give you to know that we are even in great trouble of heart, but, considering the condition we are in, we were in good health of body at the setting forth of these letters, which our Lord ever grant to you. Dearest nephew, we pray you that you will leave off all excuses, and come to the king our son in the best manner you can, and as he commands you more fully by his letters. For you well know, dearest nephew, if you come not, considering the necessity that now exists, it will be greatly talked of, and will be a great dishonour to you. Wherefore make an effort to come at this time as hastily as you can, and you know well, dearest nephew, that we shall ever be ready to counsel you as well as we can in all things that shall be to your honour and profit. Most dear and beloved nephew, our Lord have you in his keeping. Given at Nottingham, the 10th day of October.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 11 How the queen of England besieged the king her husband in the town of Bristow. Oct 1326. AND then this tiding spread about the realm so much, that at the last it came to the knowledge of the lords by whom the [his mother] queen (31) was called again into England. And they apparelled them in all haste to come to [his brother] Edward (13) her son, whom they would have to their sovereign lord. And the first that came and gave them most comfort was Henry earl of Lancaster (45) with the wry neck, called Tort Col, who was brother to Thomas earl of Lancaster (48), beheaded as ye have heard herebefore, who was a good knight and greatly recommended, as ye shall hear after in this history. This earl Henry (45) came to the [his mother] queen (31) with great company of men of war, and after him came from one part and other earls, barons, knights and squires, with so much people that they thought them clean out of perils, and always increased their power as they went forward. Then they took counsel among them that they should ride straight to the town of Bristow, whereas the [his father] king (42) was, and with him the Spencers. The which was a good town and a strong, and well closed, standing on a good port of the sea, and a strong castle, the sea beating round about it. And therein was the [his father] king (42) and Sir Hugh Spencer the elder (65), who was about ninety of age, and Sir Hugh Spencer (40) his son, who was chief governour of the [his father] king (42) and counselled him in all his evil deeds. Also there was the earl of Arundel (20), who had wedded the daughter (14) of sir Hugh Spencer (40), and di at Bristow, and besieged the town round about as near as they might: and the [his father] king (42) and sir Hugh Spencer the younger (40) held them in the castle, and the old sir Hugh Spencer (65) and the earl of Arundel (20) held them in the town. And when the people of the town saw the great power that the [his mother] queen (31) was of (for almost all England was of her accord), and perceived what peril and danger evidently they were in, they took counsel among themselves and determined that they would yield up the town to the [his mother] queen (31), so that their lives and goods might be saved. And so they sent to treat with the queen and her council in this matter; but the queen nor her council would not agree thereto without she might do with sir Hugh Spencer (65) and with the earl of Arundel (20) what it pleased her. When the people of the town saw they could have no peace otherwise, nor save the town nor their goods nor their lives, in that distress they accorded to the [his mother] queen (31) and opened the gates, so that the [his mother] queen (31) and sir John of Hainault (38), and all her barons, knights and squires, entered into the town and took their lodgings within, as many as might, and the residue without. Then sir Hugh Spencer (65) and the earl of Arundel (20) were taken and brought before the [his mother] queen (31), to do her pleasure with them. Then there was brought to the queen her own children, John her son (10) and her two daughters [Note. [his sister] Eleanor of Woodstock Plantagenet 1318-1355 (8) and [his sister] Joan of the Tower Queen Consort Scotland 1321-1362 (5)], the which were found there in the keeping of the said sir Hugh Spencer (65), whereof the queen had great joy, for she had not seen them long 'before. Then the [his father] king (42) might have great sorrow and sir Hugh Spencer the younger (40), who were fast enclosed in the strong castle, and the most part of all the realm turned to the queen's part and to [his brother] Edwar (13) her eldest son.

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Abdication of Edward II

On 25 Jan 1327 [his father] King Edward II of England (42) abdicated II King England. His son [his brother] King Edward III England (14) succeeded III King England.

Death of Edward II

On 21 Sep 1327 [his father] King Edward II of England (43) was murdered at Berkeley Castle. There is speculation as to the manner of his death, and as to whether he died at all. Some believe he may have lived the rest of his life in Europe.

Marriage of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault

On 24 Jan 1328 [his brother] King Edward III England (15) and Philippa of Hainault (13) were married at York Minster. They were second cousins. He a son of King Edward II of England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of Stephen I King England 1094-1154. She by marriage Queen Consort England.

Roger Mortimer created Earl of March

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 20 How king Robert of Scotland died. Mar 1328. And also they delivered to them again the black cross of Scotland, the which the good king Edward conquered and brought it out of the abbey of Scone, the which was a precious relic; and all rights and interests that every baron had in Scotland was then clean forgiven. And many other things were done at that parliament to the great hurt and prejudice of the realm of England, and in manner against the wills of all the nobles of the realm, save only of [his mother] Isabel (33) the old queen and the bishop of Ely and the lord Mortimer (40): they ruled the realm in such wise, that every man was miscontent. So that the earl Henry of Lancaster (47) and sir [his uncle] Thomas Brotherton (27), earl marshal, and sir [his uncle] Edmund of Woodstock (26), the king's uncle, and divers other lords and commons were agreed together to amend these faults, if they might. And in that meantime the [his mother] queen Isabel (33) and sir Roger Mortimer (40) caused another parliament to be holden at Salisbury, at the which parliament sir Roger Mortimer (40) was made earl of March against all the barons' wills of England, in prejudice of king and his realm, and sir John of Eltham (11) the king's brother was made earl of Cornwall. To the which parliament the earl Henry of Lancaster (47) would not come, wherefore the king was brought in belief that he would have destroyed his person; for the which they assembled a great host and went toward Bedford, whereas the earl Henry (47) was with his company.

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Marriage of King David II of Scotland and Princess Joan

On 17 Jul 1328 David II King Scotland 1324-1371 (4) and [his sister] Joan of the Tower Queen Consort Scotland 1321-1362 (7) were married at Berwick on Tweed. She a daughter of King Edward II of England.

In 1330 John of Eltham 1st Earl Cornwall 1316-1336 (13) was created 1st Earl Cornwall 6C 1330.

In 1330 the marriage of [his sister] Eleanor of Woodstock Plantagenet 1318-1355 (11) and her brother John of Eltham 1st Earl Cornwall 1316-1336 (13) to marry a son and daughter of Philip "Fortunate" VI King France 1293-1350 (36).

In May 1332 Reginald "Black" II Duke Guelders 1295-1343 (37) and [his sister] Eleanor of Woodstock Plantagenet 1318-1355 (13) were married at Nijmegen. They were second cousins once removed. He a great x 4 grandson of Stephen I King England 1094-1154. She a daughter of King Edward II of England. [his sister] She by marriage Duchess Guelders. His second marriage; he had four daughters from his first marriage. He subsequently sent her from court to Deventer Abbey in 1336 under the pretext that she had leprosy. He subsequently tried to annul the marriage but she contested the annulment by proving she wasn't a leper.

Battle of Halidon Hill

On 19 Jul 1333 [his brother] King Edward III England (20) defeated the Scots army at the Battle of Halidon Hill near Berwick on Tweed. John of Eltham 1st Earl Cornwall 1316-1336 (16) commanded.
English archers, just as at the Battle of Dupplin Moor one year previously, had a significant impact on the massed ranks of Scottish schiltrons. Edward's army included: [his uncle] Thomas of Brotherton 1st Earl Norfolk 1300-1338 (33), who commanded the right wing, Hugh Courtenay 9th Earl Devon 1276-1340 (56), Robert Pierrepoint -1334, Hugh Courtenay 10th Earl Devon 1303-1377 (30), Henry Beaumont 4th Earl Buchan 1279-1340 (54) and John Sully 1283-1388 (50). One of the few English casualties was John Neville 1299-1333 (34) who was killed.

The Scottish army included David II King Scotland 1324-1371 (9). Alexander Bruce -1333, Alan Stewart -1333, James Stewart 1276-1333 (57), John Stewart -1333, William Douglas 1st Earl Atholl -1333, Archibald Douglas 1297-1333 (35) and Hugh Ross 4th Earl Ross 1296-1333 (36) who were all killed.
Malcolm Lennox 2nd Earl Lennox -1333 was killed. His son Domhnall Lennox Earl Lennox -1365 succeeded Earl Lennox 1C 12th Century.
Kenneth de Moravia Sutherland 4th Earl Sutherland -1333 was killed. His son William de Moravia Sutherland 5th Earl Sutherland -1370 succeeded 5th Earl Sutherland. Johanna Menteith Countess Sutherland by marriage Countess Sutherland.

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On 30 Sep 1336 John of Eltham 1st Earl Cornwall 1316-1336 (20) died at Perth. He was buried at the east side of the doorway to the Chapel of St Edmund. His monument comprises a head of the statue encircled by a coronet of large and small leaves, remarkable for being the earliest specimen of the kind. The details of plate-armour, surcoat, gorget, coroneted helmet, with other accessories, give great antiquarian interest to this work. It was formerly surmounted by a canopy, of which, however, no traces are now visible.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 4 Here mine author maketh mention of the parent of this good king Edward the third. THIS [his father] king Edward the second, father to the noble [his brother] king Edward the third, had two brethren, the one called [the earl] [his uncle] marshal, who was right wild and diverse of conditions, the other called sir [his uncle] Edmund earl of Kent, right wise, amiable, gentle and well beloved with all people. This [his father] king Edward the second was married to [his mother] Isabel, the daughter of [his grandfather] Philip le Beau king of France, who was one of the fairest ladies of the world. The [his father] king had by her two sons and two daughters. The first son was the noble and hardy [his brother] king Edward the third, of whom this history is begun. The second was named John, and died young. The first of the daughters was called [his sister] Isabel, married to the young king David of Scotland, son to king Robert de Bruce, married in her tender youth by the accord of both realms of England and Scotland for to make perfect peace. The other [his sister] daughter was married to the earl Raynold, who after was called duke of Gueldres, and he had by her two sons, [his nephew] Raynold and [his nephew] Edward, who after reigned in great puissance.

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