Biography of King Edward IV of England 1442-1483

1415 Southampton Plot

1459 Parliament of the Devils

1459 Battle of Ludford Bridge

1460 January Raid on Sandwich

1460 June Yorkist Landing at Sandwich

1460 Battle of Northampton

1460 Act of Accord 39 Hen VI

1460 Battle of Wakefield

1461 Battle of Mortimer's Cross

1461 Second Battle of St Albans

1461 Proclamation of Edward IV as King

1461 Battle of Towton

1461 Creation of Garter Knights by Edward IV

1461 Coronation of Edward IV

1461 Edward IV marries Eleanor Talbot possibly

1461 Edward IV Rewards his Followers

1462 Creation of Garter Knights

1462 Vere Plot to Murder Edward IV

1463 Creation of Garter Knights

1464 Battle of Hedgeley Moor

1464 Marriage of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville

1464 Edward IV announces his marriage at Privy Council

1464 Suppressing the Lancastrian Northern Resistance

1465 Coronation of Elizabeth Woodville

1467 Tournament Bastard of Burgundy

1469 Execution of Warwick's Supporters

1469 Marriage of George Duke of Clarence and Isabel Neville

1469 Capture of Edward IV

1469 Execution of the Woodvilles

1469 Execution of the Neville Brothers

1470 Welles' Rebellion and Battle of Losecoat Field aka Empingham

1470 Earldom of Northumberland returned to the Percy Family

1470 Edward IV escapes to Flanders

1470 Edward V born in Sanctuary

1471 Edward IV lands at Ravenspur

1471 Battle of Barnet

1471 Battle of Tewkesbury

1471 Edward V created Prince of Wales

1472 Creation of Garter Knights

1472 Marriage of Richard Duke of Gloucester and Anne Neville

1474 Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead

1474 Creation of Garter Knights

1475 Creation of Garter Knights

1475 Treaty of Picquigny

1476 Reburial of Richard and Edmund of York

1477 Trial and Execution of Ankarette Twynyho

1478 Execution of George Duke of Clarence

1478 Marriage of Richard Duke of York and Anne Mowbray

1478 Attainder of George Duke of Clarence

1483 Death of Edward IV

1483 Mowbray Succession Changed

1483 Funeral of Edward IV

1483 Robert Stillington Claims Edward IV's Marriage to Elizabeth Woodville to be Bigamous

1483 Execution of William Hastings by Richard III

1483 Richard of Shrewsbury Removed from Sanctuary

1483 The Princes of the Tower described as Illegitimate

1483 Richard III Rewards his Supporters

1486 Marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth York

1495 Edward IV's Daughter's Marriages

1503 Death of Elizabeth of York Queen Consort

After 21 Sep 1411 [his grandmother] Anne Mortimer 1390-1411 died from childbirth. Her son Richard 3rd Duke York succeeded Heir to the Throne of England, 8th Earl Ulster.

Southampton Plot

On 05 Aug 1415 two executions of those involved in the Southampton Plot took place at the North Gate aka Bargate:

[his grandfather] Richard of Conisburgh 1st Earl Cambridge 1385-1415 (30) was beheaded. His son Richard 3rd Duke York (3) succeeded 2nd Earl Cambridge 3C 1414.

Henry Scrope 3rd Baron Scrope Masham 1373-1415 (42) was beheaded. His brother John Scrope 4th Baron Scrope Masham 1388-1455 (27) succeeded 4th Baron Scrope Masham.

In Oct 1429 [his father] Richard 3rd Duke York (18) and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (14) were married. They were second cousins. He a great grandson of King Edward III England. She a great granddaughter of King Edward III England. She by marriage Countess Cambridge Earl Ulster. She was the youngest sister of Richard's brother-in-arms Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (29).

On 28 Apr 1442 King Edward IV was born to [his father] Richard 3rd Duke York (30) and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (26) at Rouen. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. He was immediately baptised in a small side chapel at Rouen Cathedral. Some historians suggest the lack of grandeur indicates Edward IV may have been illegitimate whereas others suggest the baptism was typical for a country at war. Some historians also suggest Edward IV was illegitimate since his father [his father] Richard 3rd Duke York (30) was away at the siege of Pontoise at the time of conception. Pontoise is some sixty miles from Rouen. There is straight road, an old Roman road known as the Chaussée Jules César, between the Pontoise and Rouen, now known as the D14. Easy for Richard to return to Rouen as and when he chose to.

In 1446 [his brother] Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland 1443-1460 (2) was created 1st Earl Rutland 2C 1446 by King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (24).

In 1447 Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (16) and [his sister] Anne York Duchess Exeter 1439-1476 (7) were married. They were half second cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England.

In Jun 1449 King Edward IV (7) travelled to Ireland.

Around 1454 John Grey 1432-1461 (22) and [his future wife] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (17) were married. He a great x 5 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.

Before Feb 1458 John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 and [his sister] Elizabeth York Duchess Suffolk 1444-1503 were married. They were half third cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his sister] She by marriage Marchioness Suffolk 1C.

Parliament of the Devils

On 09 Oct 1459 Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 (39) was elected Speaker of the House of Commons at Coventry. The primary purpose of the Parliament was to attaint the Yorkist leaders:

[his father] Richard 3rd Duke York (48), his sons Edward Earl of March (17),Edmund Earl of Rutland (16) were attainted, as were Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (59) and his sons Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (30) and John Neville 1431-1471 (28).

Battle of Ludford Bridge

On 12 Oct 1459 the Battle of Ludford Bridge nearly took place at Ludlow. In the event a large number of the Calais garrison led by Andrew Trollope -1461 refused to fight against King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (37) who was present.

The Yorkist [his father] Richard 3rd Duke York (48), the future King Edward IV (17), Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland 1443-1460 (16), Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (30), Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (59) left overnight before the battle.

John Dynham 1st Baron Dynham 1433-1501 (26) and Thomas Parr 1407-1464 (52) were present.

The Lancastrian army included Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham 1402-1460 (57) and William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel 1417-1487 (41).

Chronicle of Gregory 1459. 12 Oct 1459. Ande thys same yere there was a grete afray at Lodlowe by twyne the kynge and the [his father] Duke of Yorke (48), the Erle of Salusbury (59), the Erle of Warwyke (30), the Erle of Marche (17). The Duke of Yorke lete make a grete depe dyche and fortefyde it with gonnys, cartys, and stakys, but hys party was ovyr weke, for the kyng was mo thenn xxxM [Note. 3000] of harneysyd men, by-syde nakyd men that were compellyd for to come with the kynge. And thenne the [his father] duke (48) fledde fro place to place in Walys, and breke downe the bryggys aftyr hym that the kyngys mayny schulde not come aftyr hym. And he wente unto Monde. And there he taryd tylle the jornay was endyd at Northehampton. And he made newe grotys of a newe kune in Irlonde; in on syde of the grote was a crowne and in that othyr syde a crosse. And there he made many newe statutys, and hys yong sonys were sende by yende the see unto the Duke of Burgayne, and they were fulle welle ande worschypfully ressayvyd.

Chronicle of Gregory 1459. 12 Oct 1459. The [his uncle] Erle of Saulysbury (59), the Erle of Warwycke (30), the Erle of Marche (17), Syr John Wenlocke (59), alle thes come unto Devynschyre to Syr John Denham, and alle thes by the conveynge of Syr John Denham; and they bought a smalle vesselle in that contray, an they were conveyde unto Garnesey, ande from Garnesaye unto Calys, for fere of dethe that they sayde was ymagenyde by the kyng and hys lordys, and of hyr owne housolde mayny for hyr dystruccyon, the counselle and con of King Harry the VI. Thes lordys departyd owte of Ingelonde on Synt Edwarde ys evyn, Synt Edwarde bothe kynge and confessoure, the xij day of Octobera, and they taryd at Calys xxxvj wekys. But the Erle of Warwycke (30) come unto Sondewyche, and there he toke the Lord Ryvers (54) with hys [his future mother-in-law] ladye (44), the lady and Duchyes of Bedfordeb and brought hem to Calys, for he was commaundyd to have londyd at C[a]]ys by the kynge, but he was brought there sonner then hym lekyd.

a. This is really the date of the breaking up of their camp at Ludlow, not of their leaving England.

b. [his future mother-in-law] Jaquetta (44), widow of the Regent Bedford (70). She was the daughter of Peter of Luxemburg, Count of St. Pol (69), and soon after her first husband's death married Sir Richard Woodville (54), who was created Baron Rivers by Henry VI. in 1448, and Earl Rivers by Edward IV. (who was his son-in law) in 1466.

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1460 January Raid on Sandwich

Patent Rolls Henry VI 1452-1461. Membrane 27d. 30 Oct 1459. Farnham Royal. Commission of array to [his future father-in-law] Richard Wydevyle of Ryvers (54), knight, and the sheriff of Kent in Kent, to resist Richard, duke of York (48), Edward earl of March (17), Richard, earl of Warwick (30), and Richard, earl of Salisbury (59), and their accomplices, leagued in rebellion against the king and crown and allowed by certain persons having the keeping of the town and castle of Calais to enter the same contrary to the king's mandates, and now preparing to arouse congregations and insur rections in the said county; and appointment of the same to arrest all ships and other vessels late of the said earl of Warwick and all the tackling thereof and to keep the same for the king's use. By K.

Around Nov 1459 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (30), [his uncle] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (59) and King Edward IV (17) fled to Calais.

In Dec 1459 King Edward IV (17) was attainted.

1460 June Yorkist Landing at Sandwich

On 26 Jun 1460 King Edward IV (18) and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (31) landed at Sandwich.

1460 Battle of Northampton

On 10 Jul 1460 the Yorkist army led by the future King Edward IV (18) and including Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (31), George Neville Archbishop of York 1432-1476 (28), [his uncle] William Neville 1st Earl Kent 1405-1463 (55), Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent 1416-1490 (43), Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham 1415-1464 (45) and John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope of Bolton 1437-1498 (22) defeated the Lancastrian army at the 1460 Battle of Northampton.

King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (38) was captured.

Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham 1402-1460 (57) was killed. His grandson Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (5) succeeded 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1C 1444, 7th Earl Stafford 1C 1351, 8th Baron Stafford 1C 1299.

John Talbot 2nd Earl Shrewsbury 2nd Earl Waterford 1417-1460 (42) was killed. His son John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury 3rd Earl Waterford 1448-1473 (11) succeeded 3rd Earl Shrewsbury 2C 1442, 3rd Earl Waterford, 8th Baron Furnivall 1C 1295, 12th Baron Strange Blackmere 1C 1309, 9th Baron Talbot 1C 1331.

Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460 (37) was killed.

John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont 1409-1460 (50) was killed. His son William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (22) succeeded 2nd Viscount Beaumont, 7th Baron Beaumont.

William Lucy Sheriff 1404-1460 (56) was killed apparently by a member of the Stafford family who wanted his wife Margaret Fitzlewis 1439-1466 (21).

Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 (40) fought.

William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (22) and William Norreys 1441-1507 (19) were knighted.

Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland -1460 was executed following the battle.

The battle was fought south of the Northampton River Nene in the grounds of Delapré Abbey.

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Act of Accord 39 Hen VI

On 25 Oct 1460 Parliament enacted the Act of Accord 39 Hen VI by which [his father] Richard 3rd Duke York (49) was declared heir to King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (38) disinheriting Edward of Westminster (7). At the same Parliament on 31 Oct 1460 [his father] Richard 3rd Duke York (49) was created Prince of Wales, Earl Chester, Duke Cornwall and Lord Protector.

Battle of Wakefield

On 30 Dec 1460 the Lancastrian army took their revenge for the defeats of the First Battle of St Albans and the Battle of Northampton during the Battle of Wakefield at Sandal Castle. The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (30), Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (24) and Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (39), and included John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 (25) and William Gascoigne XIII 1430-1463 (30), both knighted, and James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40), John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (25), John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1410-1461 (50), Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley 1427-1464 (33), Henry Roos -1504 and Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (20).

The Yorkist army was heavily defeated.

[his father] Richard 3rd Duke York (49) was killed. His son King Edward IV (18) succeeded 4th Duke York 1C 1385, 9th Earl Ulster, 3rd Earl Cambridge 3C 1414.

Thomas Neville 1430-1460 (30), Thomas Harrington 1400-1460 (60), William Bonville 6th Baron Harington 1442-1460 (18) and Edward Bourchier -1460 were killed.

Thomas Parr 1407-1464 (53) fought in the Yorkist army.

Following the battle [his uncle] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (60) was beheaded by Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland -1460. William Bonville 1420-1460 (40) was executed.

[his brother] Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland 1443-1460 (17) was executed on Wakefield Bridge by John "Butcher" Clifford (25) by which he gained his sobriquet "Butcher".

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In 1461 Thomas Witham's (41) appointment as Chancellor of the Exchequer was confirmed by King Edward IV (18).

Battle of Mortimer's Cross

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. 02 Feb 1461. Alle so Edwarde Erle of Marche (18), the [his father] Duke of Yorke (49) ys sone and heyre, hadde a gre jornaye at Mortymer ys Crosse in Walys the secunde day of Februar nexte soo folowynge, and there he put to flyght the Erle of Penbroke (29), the Erle of Wylteschyre (40). And there he toke and slowe of knyghtys and squyers, and of the,a to the nomber of iij M1 [3000] ., &c.

a. So in MS.

On 02 Feb 1461 at the Battle of Mortimer's Cross at Mortimer's Cross Wigmore the future King Edward IV (18) commanded the Yorkist forces including William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (30), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (61), John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley of Heighley 3rd Baron Tuchet 1426-1490 (35), John Savage 1444-1492 (17) and Roger Vaughan 1410-1471 (51).

In the Lancastrian army Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (61) (captured by Roger Vaughan 1410-1471 (51)) and his son Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (29) fought as well as James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40) and Henry Roos -1504. Gruffydd ap Nicholas Deheubarth 1393-1461 (68) was killed. Watkin Vaughan 1395-1469 (66) and Henry Wogan 1402-1469 (59) were killed.

Monument to the Battle of Mortimer's Cross at Mortimer's Cross Wigmore. Note the mistake - Edward IV described as Edward Mortimer. The monument was erected by subscription in 1799.

Second Battle of St Albans

On 17 Feb 1461 the Lancastrian army defeated the Yorkist army at Second Battle of St Albans and rescued King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (39). The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (30) and included Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (39), John Mowbray 3rd Duke Norfolk 1415-1461 (45), Henry Grey 4th or 7th Baron Grey Codnor 1435-1496 (26), Henry Roos -1504 and Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (33).

Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley 1427-1464 (33), William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme 1415-1464 (46), John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury 3rd Earl Waterford 1448-1473 (12) and Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 (41) were knighted.

The Yorkist army included Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (32), William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel 1417-1487 (43), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (61) and Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu 1st Earl Essex 1404-1483 (57). John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (30) was captured. Robert Poynings 1419-1461 (42) and James Luttrell Baron Dunster 1427-1461 (34) were killed.

John Grey 1432-1461 (29) was killed fighting for Lancaster. A death that was to have far reaching consequences; his widow [his future wife] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (24) subsequently married King Edward IV (18).

During the battle William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville 1392-1461 (68) and Thomas Kyriell 1396-1461 (65) were assigned to the protection of the King Henry VI (39). After the battle both were beheaded against all decent laws of battle.

William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville 1392-1461 (68) was beheaded. His great granddaughter Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset 1460-1529 succeeded 7th Baron Harington, 2nd Baron Bonville.

Thomas Kyriell 1396-1461 (65) was beheaded.

William Cotton 1440-1461 (21) was killed.

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Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Alle soo the xxvj day of Februer nexte folowyng Edwarde Erle of Marche (18) com to London owt of Walys and the Erle of Warwycke (32) with hym, and xlMl men with hem bothe, and they enteryd unto the cytte of London, and there he toke uppon hym the crowne of Inglond by the avysse of the lordys spyrytual and temporalle, and by the elexyon of the comyns. And so he began hys rayne the iiij day of Marche, in the yere of oure Lorde God MlCCCC lxj, the Sondy letter D as for that yere.

Around Mar 1461 Thomas Billing -1481 was knighted on the accession of King Edward IV (18).

Proclamation of Edward IV as King

On 04 Mar 1461 King Edward IV (18) declared himself King of England. William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (30) was present.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 12 Mar 1461. Westminster Palace. Commission to the king's kinsman Richard, earl of Warwick (32), to receive deserters from the party of King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (39) and to cause proclamations to be made to the effect, and to seize the possessions of all recusants. By K (18) by word of mouth.

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. The xiij day of Marche the kynge, owre newe Kynge Edwarde (18), toke hys jornaye unto the Northe, and the Duke of Northefolke (45) with hym. The Erle of Warwycke (32) and the Lorde Fauconbrygge (32), with many knyghtes, squyers, and comyns, to the nombyr of iic Mlmen.

Battle of Towton

On 29 Mar 1461 the Battle of Towton was a decisive victory for King Edward IV (18) bringing to an end the first war of the Wars of the Roses. Said to be the bloodiest battle on English soil 28000 were killed mainly during the rout that followed the battle.

The Yorkist army was commanded by King Edward IV (18) with John Mowbray 3rd Duke Norfolk 1415-1461 (45), Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (30), [his uncle] William Neville 1st Earl Kent 1405-1463 (56), William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (30) (knighted), Walter Blount 1st Baron Mountjoy 1416-1474 (45), Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu 1st Earl Essex 1404-1483 (57), John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope of Bolton 1437-1498 (23) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (61).

The Lancastrian army suffered significant casualties including Richard Percy 1426-1461 (35), Ralph Bigod Lord Morley 1410-1461 (50), John Bigod 1433-1461 (28), Robert Cromwell 1390-1461 (71), Ralph Dacre 1st Baron Dacre Gilsland 1412-1461 (49), Ralph Eure 1412-1461 (49), John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1410-1461 (51), John Beaumont 1428-1461 (33), Thomas Dethick 1400-1461 (61), Everard Simon Digby -1461, William Plumpton 1436-1461 (25) and William Welles 1410-1461 (51) who were killed.

Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (39) was killed. His son Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland 1449-1489 (12) succeeded 4th Earl of Northumberland 1C 1377, 7th Baron Percy of Alnwick 1C 1299, 15th Baron Percy of Topcliffe. Maud Herbert Countess Northumberland 1458-1485 (3) by marriage Countess of Northumberland.

Lionel Welles 6th Baron Welles 1406-1461 (55) was killed. His son Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (33) succeeded 7th Baron Welles.

Those who fought for the Lancaster included William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme 1415-1464 (46), John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 (60), William Norreys 1441-1507 (20), Thomas Grey 1st Baron Grey Richemont 1418-1461 (43), Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford 1st Baron Moleyns 1431-1464 (30), John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury 3rd Earl Waterford 1448-1473 (12), Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (33), [his future father-in-law] Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers 1405-1469 (56), James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40), John Butler 6th Earl Ormonde 1422-1476 (39), William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (22), Henry Roos -1504 and Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 (41). Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (41) were captured.

On 03 Apr 1461 Thomas Courtenay 14th Earl Devon 1432-1461 (29) was beheaded at York. His brother John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 (26) succeeded 15th Earl Devon 2C Courtenay. Laura Bourchier Countess Devon 1440-1484 (21) by marriage Countess Devon 2C Courtenay.

John Heron of Ford Castle Northumberland 1416-1461 (45), Robert Dethick 1375-1461 (86), Andrew Trollope -1461 and his son David Trollope -1461 were killed.

Thomas Grey 1st Baron Grey Richemont 1418-1461 (43) was executed.

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Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Ande the xxix day of the same monythe of Marche, that was Palme Sunday, the kyng (18) mette with the lordys of the Northe at Schyrborne. And there was on Harrys party that was kynge—

Prynce Edwarde (7), Kyng Harrys son.

The Duke of Exceter (30).

The Duke of Somersett (25).

The Erle of Northehumberlond (39).

The Erle of Devynschyre (29).

The Lorde Roos.

The Lorde Bemound (33).

The Lorde Clyfforde (25).

The Lorde Nevyle.

The Lorde Wellys (51).

The Lorde Wylby (40).

The Lorde Harry of Bokyngham.

[his future father-in-law] The Lorde Ryvers (56).

The Lorde Schalys.

The Lorde Maule (50).

The Lorde Ferys of Groby (23).

The Lorde Foschewe. [Possibly John Fortescue 1394-1479 (67)]

The Lorde Lovelle (28).

Syr Thomas Hammys, captayne of alle the fote men.

Syr Androwe Thorlloppe.

Syr Thomas Tressam (41).

Syr Robert Whytyngham (32).

Syr John Dawne.

And the yonge Lorde of Schrouysbury (12), and many moo othyr, bothe lordys, knyghtys, and squyers.

Here ben the namys of the lordys that were slayne in the felde in Kynge Harrys (39) party.

The Erle of Northehumberlond (39),

The Lorde Clyfforde (25),

The Lorde Nevyle,

The Lorde Wellys (51),

The Lorde Maules (50),

And many moo then I can reherse; but whythe [t]es and othyr that were slayne in the fylde ys a grete nombyr, by syde xlij knyghtys that were slayne aftyr; the hoole nombyr ys xxxv Mlof comeners. Jhesu be [t]ou marcyfulle unto hyr soulys. Amen.

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1461 Creation of Garter Knights by Edward IV

In Apr 1461 King Edward IV (18) appointed new Garter Knights:

185th (his brother) [his brother] George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (11).

186th William Chamberlaine -1462.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 02 May 1461. Westminster Palace. The like (Grant for life) to the king's (19) kinsman John Neville of Montagu (30), knight, from Easter last, of the king's mines in Decon and Cornwall in which gold and silver can be found or worked for, at a rent of 110l yearly, as the king's father used to pay, with power of demise the same for 10, 15 or 20 years, provided that after his death the holders pay a tithe of the pure silver or lead to the king or his farmer. By p.s.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 04 May 1461. Westminster Palace. Grant for life to the king's (19) kinsman George (29), bishop of Exeter, from Easter last of the custody of the king's manor manor or lordship of Chiltern Langley in Hertfordshire, with mills, rents, vert and other profits, excepting 250 rabbits yearly for the king's hosehold, at a yearly rent of 50 marks 20d as formerly and 6s 8d besides; with acquittance of repairs and allowance for any annuity granted out of the manor. By K (19).

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 07 May 1461. Middleham Castle. Grant to the king's (19) kinsman Richard, earl of Warwick (32), of the custody of all lordships, manors and lands with knight's fees and advowsons held by the king's uncle [his uncle] George Neville (54), knight, lord Latymer, within the county of York or elsewhere, during the idiotcy of the latter, even though no inquisition has been taken. By other letters patent.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 08 May 1461. York. Commission to John Haryngton (47), esquire, John Kyrton, Thomas Banke and William Boleyn -1427 to arrest Thomas CLaymond, esquire, Robert Heryng, 'sowter' and John Hedale, carpenter, and bring them before the king (19) in Chancery.

Coronation of Edward IV

Around Jun 1461, the time of his coronation, King Edward IV (19) created his two brothers as Dukes ...

[his brother] George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (11) was created 1st Duke Clarence 3C 1461.

[his brother] Richard III King England 1452-1485 (8) was created 1st Duke Gloucester 3C 1461.

Edward IV marries Eleanor Talbot possibly

Around Jun 1461, the record is very vague, King Edward IV (19) and Eleanor Talbot 1436-1468 (25) were possibly secretly married by Robert Stillington Bishop of Bath and Wells 1420-1491 (41). The marriage came to light after Edward's death. Robert Stillington Bishop of Bath and Wells 1420-1491 (41) provided the information to the future [his brother] Richard III King England 1452-1485 (8) in 1483; Richard used the information to justify his succeeding to be King since Edward IV's (19) children with Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (24) were, therefore, illegitimate as a result of their marriage being bigamous and George Duke of Clarence's (11) children were barred from the throne as a consequence of their father's attainder.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. On 05 Jun 1461. Westminster Palace. Grant for life to Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury (43), of the custody of the lordship, manor and park of Langle by Maydeston, co Kent, rendering 5 marks yearly. By K (19).

Coronation of Edward IV

On 28 Jun 1461 King Edward IV (19) was crowned IV King England by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (43) who was assisted by William Booth Archbishop of York 1388-1464 (73) at Westminster Abbey during the Coronation of Edward IV.

Edward IV Rewards his Followers

On 26 Jul 1461 William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (30) was created 1st Baron Hastings 2C 1430 for supporting King Edward IV (19) in his claim to the throne.

Robert Ogle 1st Baron Ogle 1406-1469 (55) was created 1st Baron Ogle by King Edward IV (19) for having been the principal Northumbrian gentleman to support the Yorkist cause.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 26 Nov 1461. Westminster Palace. The like (Grant for life) to Margaret, duchess of Somerset (51), of 166l 13s 4d yearly from Michaelmas, 39 Henry VI, from the king's petty custom in the port of London and the same at the same at the receipt of the Exchequer, in lieu of a grant and confirmation to her of the same sums in pdwer by latters atent dated 9 July, surrendered. By K (19).

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 02 Dec 1461. Westminster Palace. Grant for life to the king's (19) kinsman John, earl of Worcester (34), of the office of the constable of the Tower of London, with the accustomed fees.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 03 Dec 1461. Westminster Palace. Appointment of the king's (19) kinsman Richard, earl of Warwick (33), to execute the office of steward of England at the trial of Henry VI and other rebels who murdered the King's father Richard, duke of York, at Wakefield.

1462 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1462 King Edward IV (19) appointed new Garter Knights:

187th John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 (34).

188th William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (31).

189th John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (31).

190th William "Black William" Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke 1423-1469 (39).

191st John Astley 1373-1441 (89).

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Vere Plot to Murder Edward IV

Before 20 Feb 1462 John Vere 12th Earl Oxford 1408-1462, his son Aubrey Vere -1462 and Thomas Tuddenham 1401-1462 were arrested for treason against King Edward IV. They were subsequently tried by John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470.

Before Dec 1462 Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh 1431-1496 was appointed Esquire to the Body to King Edward IV, and to the Privy Council.

1463 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1463 King Edward IV (20) appointed new Garter Knights:

192nd Ferdinand I King Naples 1423-1494 (39).

193rd Galeard Durefort 1430-1487 (33).

194th John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope of Bolton 1437-1498 (25).

195th Francesco Sforza I Duke Milan 1401-1466 (61).

196th James Douglas 9th Earl Douglas 3rd Earl Avondale 1426-1488 (37).

197th Robert Harcourt 1410-1470 (52).

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On 28 Feb 1463 John Lovell 8th Baron Lovel 5th Baron Holand 1433-1463 (30) died. On 28 Feb 1463 His son Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell 1456-1488 (7) succeeded 9th Baron Lovel of Titchmarsh, 6th Baron Holand at around eight years of age. He became a ward of King Edward IV (20) who gave his wardship to Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (34) spending his childhood at Middleham Castle with the young (future) [his brother] Richard III King England 1452-1485 (10).

On 21 Aug 1463 Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (35) arrived at Dover with King Edward IV (21).

Around 1464 [his illegitimate daughter] Elizabeth York 1464- was born illegitimately to King Edward IV (21) and Elizabeth Waite.

In 1464 Henry Pierrepoint 1430-1499 (34) rewarded by King Edward IV (21) for his good and laudable services at his great cost and charges, and with manifold bodily dangers against the king's rebels levying war against him.

Battle of Hedgeley Moor

On 25 Apr 1464 a Yorkist army commanded by John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (33) defeated a Lancastrian army commanded by Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (28) at Hedgeley Moor during the Battle of Hedgeley Moor.

Of the Lancastrians ...

Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley 1427-1464 (36) was killed. His son Edmund Ros 10th Baron Ros Helmsley 1455-1508 (9) succeeded 10th Baron Ros Helmsley. Thomas' lands however, including Belvoir Castle was given by King Edward IV (21) to William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (33).

Ralph Percy 1425-1464 (39) was killed.

Marriage of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville

On 01 May 1464 King Edward IV (22) and [his wife] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (27) were married at Grafton Regis. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford 1415-1472 (49), Elizabeth's mother, being the only witness. The date not certain.

Chronicle of Gregory 1464. 01 May 1464. That same yere, the fyrste day of May be fore sayde or wrete, oure soverayne lorde the Kynge, Edwarde the iiij (22), was weddyd to the [his father-in-law] Lorde Ryvers (59) doughter; hyr name ys Dame Elyzabethe (27), that was wyffe unto Syr John Grey (32), sone and heyre unto the Lady Ferys of Groby (45). And thys maryage was kepte fulle secretely longe and many a day, that no man knewe hyt; but men mervelyd that oure soverayne lorde was so longe with owte any wyffe, and were evyr ferde that he had be not chaste of hys levynge.

On 01 May 1464 [his illegitimate son] Arthur York 1st Viscount Lisle 1464-1542 was born illegitimately to King Edward IV (22) and Elizabeth Waite.

Edward IV announces his marriage at Privy Council

In Sep 1464 King Edward IV (22) announced his recent marriage at Privy Council to the astonishment of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (35) who had until recently been actively seeking a French Princess as Edward's future wife.

In 1465 [his brother] Richard Duke of Gloucester (12) was appointed 198th Knight of the Garter by King Edward IV (22).

Coronation of Elizabeth Woodville

On 26 May 1465 [his wife] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (28) was crowned Queen Consort England by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (47) at Westminster Abbey.

King Edward IV (23) attended.

John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne 1442-1499 (23), [his brother-in-law] Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (25), Richard Woodville 3rd Earl Rivers 1453-1491 (12) and William Calthorpe 1410-1494 (55) were created Knight of the Bath.

Elizabeth Tilney Countess Surrey 1444-1497 (21) carried her train.

Judge Richard Choke 1420-1483 (45) was created Knight of the Bath.

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In 1466 [his brother-in-law] Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (26) was appointed 199th Knight of the Garter by his brother-in-law King Edward IV (23).

Around 1466 [his brother-in-law] Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (26) and Elizabeth Scales Countess Rivers -1473 were married. She a great x 5 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. [his brother-in-law] Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (26) by marriage Baron Scales.

In 1466 Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (11) and [his sister-in-law] Catherine Woodville Duchess Buckingham Duchess Bedford 1458-1497 (8) were married. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III England. [his sister-in-law] She by marriage Duchess of Buckingham.

On 11 Feb 1466 [his daughter] Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 was born to King Edward IV (23) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (29) at Westminster Palace.

Around 1675 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500.

On 17 Feb 1466 Thomas Fitzalan 17th Earl Arundel 1450-1524 (16) and [his sister-in-law] Margaret Woodville Countess Arundel 1454-1490 (12) were married. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III England.

Before Mar 1466 [his father-in-law] Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers 1405-1469 was created 1st Earl Rivers 1C 1466 by King Edward IV.

In Sep 1466 William Herbert 2nd Earl Pembroke 1451-1491 (15) and [his sister-in-law] Mary Woodville Countess Pembroke 1456-1481 (10) were married.

In Oct 1466 [his step-son] Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (11) and Anne Holland 1461-1474 (5) were married at Greenwich. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England.

In 1467 John Russell Bishop -1494 sent by King Edward IV (24) on a diplomatic mission to Charles "Bold" Valois Duke Burgundy 1433-1477 (33) at Bruges.

In 1467 Iñigo Avalos -1484 was appointed 200th Knight of the Garter by King Edward IV (24).

On 13 May 1467 [his nephew] John Pole 1st Earl Lincoln 1462-1487 (5) was created 1st Earl Lincoln 6C 1467 by King Edward IV (25).

Tournament Bastard of Burgundy

On 29 May 1467 King Edward IV (25) and Antoine "Bastard of Burgundy" 1421-1504 (46) met at Chelsea. William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (36), Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu 1st Earl Essex 1404-1483 (63), Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (12), [his brother-in-law] Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (27), James Douglas 9th Earl Douglas 3rd Earl Avondale 1426-1488 (41) and Thomas Montgomery -1495 accompanied Edward.

On 08 Jun 1467 King Edward IV (25) and John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 (40) went to Whitehall Palace to retrieve the Great Seal from George Neville Archbishop of York 1432-1476 (35). Considered as a slight against the Neville family to whom King Edward IV (25) was increasingly distant.

On 11 Jun 1467 the fighting on horseback took place witnessed by King Edward IV (25). John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 (40) was Master of the Ceremonies accompanied by John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (42). The day ended with the Bastard's (46) horse having being accidentally fatally injured by [his brother-in-law] Lord Scales' (11) saddle.

On 14 Jun 1467 the Tournament ended with a great banquet attended by King Edward IV (25) and [his wife] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (30) at the Grocer's Hall. John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 (40) and William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel 1417-1487 (49) were present.

On 16 Jun 1467 a great banquet was hosted by the King's older sister [his sister] Anne York Duchess Exeter 1439-1476 (27) and, in the absence of her husband Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (36) who remained, her future husband Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (27). King Edward IV (25) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (30) attended as did Antoine "Bastard of Burgundy" 1421-1504 (46).

On 11 Aug 1467 [his daughter] Mary York 1467-1482 was born to King Edward IV (25) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (30) at Windsor Castle.

On 10 May 1468 King Edward IV (26), his brother [his brother] Richard Duke of Gloucester (15), John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 (41) and John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley of Heighley 3rd Baron Tuchet 1426-1490 (42) met in the Chapter House at Salisbury Cathedral.

On 24 May 1468 King Edward IV (26) was admitted to the confraternity of the Chapter of Salisbury in the Chapter House at Salisbury Cathedral.

In 1469 William Norreys 1441-1507 (28) was appointed Esquire to the Body to King Edward IV (26).

Execution of Warwick's Supporters

On 17 Jan 1469 Warwick's supporters were executed in Salisbury Marketplace in the presence of King Edward IV (26):

Thomas Hungerford -1469 was beheaded. His father Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford 1st Baron Moleyns 1431-1464 (38) had been executed five years previously after the Battle of Hexham.

Henry Courtenay -1469 was beheaded.

On 20 Mar 1469 [his daughter] Cecily York Viscountess Welles 1469-1507 was born to King Edward IV (26) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (32) at Westminster Palace. Named after her father's mother Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (53).

Marriage of George Duke of Clarence and Isabel Neville

On 11 Jul 1469 [his brother] George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (19) and Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence 1451-1476 (17) were married by George Neville Archbishop of York 1432-1476 (37) at the Église Notre-Dame de Calais witnessed by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (40). They were first cousins once removed. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England. She by marriage Duchess Clarence.

Capture of Edward IV

After 26 Jul 1469 King Edward IV was captured by his brother [his brother] George at Olney after the Battle of Edgecote Moor.

Around 05 Aug 1469 King Edward IV (27) was imprisoned at Warwick Castle.

Execution of the Woodvilles

On 12 Aug 1469 Woodvilles father and son were beheaded at Kenilworth Castle by supporters of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (40).

[his father-in-law] Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers 1405-1469 (64) was beheaded. His son Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (29) succeeded 2nd Earl Rivers 1C 1466. Elizabeth Scales Countess Rivers -1473 by marriage Countess Rivers.

[his brother-in-law] John Woodville 1445-1469 (24) was beheaded.

Around 15 Aug 1469 King Edward IV (27) was imprisoned at Middleham Castle.

On 10 Sep 1469 King Edward IV (27) was released by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (40) afer Warwick realised he didn't have sufficient support for an alternative regime.

Execution of the Neville Brothers

On 29 Sep 1469 brothers Humphrey Neville of Brancepeth (30) and Charles Neville of Brancepeth were beheaded at York in the presence of King Edward IV (27) and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (40) bringing to an end the Neville-Neville fued that arose as a consequence of the senior line being dis-inherited.

Around Oct 1469 Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh 1431-1496 (38) rescued King Edward IV (27) from Middleham Castle.

In 1470 John Hales Bishop Coventry and Lichfield 1400- (70) was appointed Lord Keeper of the Great Seal by King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (48) during his re-adeption but lost it again when King Edward IV (27) was restored in 1471.

In Feb 1470 Charles "Bold" Valois Duke Burgundy 1433-1477 (36) was appointed 201st Knight of the Garter by King Edward IV (27).

Welles' Rebellion and Battle of Losecoat Field aka Empingham

Before 03 Feb 1470 Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 8th Baron Welles -1470 attacked Gainsborough Old Hall home of Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh 1431-1496, a senior Yorkist, Edward IV's Master of the Horse. It isn't known whether this attack was a consequence of local or national issues. King Edward IV summoned Robert's father Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 and uncle-in-law Thomas Dymoke 1428-1470 (married to Margaret Welles 1432-1480 sister of Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 8th Baron Welles -1470) to London. Both initially went into Sanctuary Westminster Abbey but were pardoned on 03 Mar 1470.

After 03 Mar 1470 Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 8th Baron Welles -1470 continued to resist King Edward IV by raising forces in Lincolnshire. King Edward IV travelled north and threatened Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 8th Baron Welles -1470 with the execution of his father and Thomas Dymoke 1428-1470 if Robert persisted in rebellion.

On 12 Mar 1470 King Edward IV (27) commanded at the Battle of Losecoat Field (Empingham). The battle apparently didn't take place since the army of Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 8th Baron Welles -1470 fled in the face of the Royal army. The name 'Losecoat' not contemporary; Battle of Empingham may be. Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 8th Baron Welles -1470 was captured with documents describing the fomenting of rebellion by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (41) and [his brother] George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (20).

On 19 Mar 1470 Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 8th Baron Welles -1470 was beheaded at Doncaster. He was buried at Whitefriars Doncaster. His sister Joan Welles 9th Baroness Willoughby Eresby -1475 succeeded 9th Baron Willoughby de Eresby. Richard Hastings Baron Willoughby de Eresby 1433-1503 (37) by marriage Baron Willoughby de Eresby. He, Hastings, a favourite of King Edward IV (27), younger brother of Edward's (27) great friend William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (39).

Earldom of Northumberland returned to the Percy Family

On 27 Mar 1470 George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (9) was created 1st Duke Bedford 3C 1470 by King Edward IV (27) in preparation for his marriage to [his daughter] Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (4) which didn't, in the end, take place. He, George, was nephew to Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (41) whose defection to the Lancastrian side may have caused the King to change his mind about his daughter's marriage. The attainder of John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471, if it was enacted, would have resulted in the King appropriating the estate of John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471. Eight

Edward IV escapes to Flanders

In Sep 1470 King Edward IV (28) fled from King's Lynn to the court of Charles the Bold (36) who was married to his sister [his sister] Margaret (24) two years earlier.

Edward V born in Sanctuary

On 02 Nov 1470 [his son] the future Edward V was born to Edward IV (28) and Elizabeth Woodville (33) in Sanctuary Westminster Abbey. His father was abroad in Flanders. His Godparents included the Abbot and Prior of Westminster, and Elizabeth St John Baroness Scrope Bolton Baroness Zouche Harringworth -1494.

1876. John Everett Millais Painter Baronet 1829-1896.

In 1471 the wardship of Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell 1456-1488 (15) was awarded by King Edward IV (28) to his sister [his sister] Elizabeth York Duchess Suffolk 1444-1503 (26).

In 1471 William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel 1417-1487 (53) was appointed 202nd Knight of the Garter by King Edward IV (28).

Edward IV lands at Ravenspur

On 14 Mar 1471 King Edward IV (28) landed at Ravenspur with William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (40).

Battle of Barnet

On 14 Apr 1471 Edward IV (28) commanded at the Battle of Barnet supported by his brothers [his brother] George (21) and Richard (18), John Babington 1423-1485 (48), Wiliam Hastings (40) (commanded), Ralph Hastings -1495, William Norreys 1441-1507 (30), William Parr 1434-1483 (37), John Savage 1422-1495 (49), Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (31), John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley of Heighley 3rd Baron Tuchet 1426-1490 (45), Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh 1431-1496 (40), John Scott Comptroller 1423-1485 (48) and Thomas Strickland -1494.

The Yorkists William Blount 1442-1471 (29), Humphrey Bourchier 1431-1471 (40), Humphrey Bourchier 1435-1471 (36), Henry Stafford 1425-1471 (46) and Thomas Parr -1471 were killed.

The Lancastrians Warwick the Kingmaker (42), !John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (40) and William Tyrrell -1471 were killed.

William Fiennes 2nd Baron Saye and Sele 1428-1471 (43) was killed. His son Henry Fiennes 3rd Baron Saye and Sele 1446-1476 (25) succeeded 3rd Baron Saye and Sele. Anne Harcourt Baroness Saye and Sele by marriage Baroness Saye and Sele.

Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (40) commanded the left flank, was badly wounded and left for dead, Henry Stafford 1425-1471 (46) and John Paston 1444-1504 (27) were wounded, John Vere 13th Earl Oxford 1442-1513 (28) commanded, and John Paston 1442-1479 (29) and William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (33) fought.

Robert Harleston 1435-1471 (36) was killed.

Thomas Hen Salusbury 1409-1471 (62) was killed.

Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 (51) escaped but was subsequently captured and executed on 06 May 1471.

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Battle of Tewkesbury

On 04 May 1471 King Edward IV (29) was victorious at the Battle of Tewkesbury. His brother [his brother] Richard (18), Richard Beauchamp 2nd Baron Beauchamp Powick 1435-1503 (36), John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (46), George Neville 4th Baron Bergavenny 1440-1492 (31), John Savage 1422-1495 (49), John Savage 1444-1492 (27), Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (31), John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley of Heighley 3rd Baron Tuchet 1426-1490 (45), Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh 1431-1496 (40) fought. William Brandon 1425-1491 (46), George Browne 1440-1483 (31), Ralph Hastings -1495, Richard Hastings Baron Willoughby de Eresby 1433-1503 (38), James Tyrrell 1455-1502 (16), Roger Kynaston of Myddle and Hordley 1433-1495 (38) were knighted. William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (40) commanded.

Margaret of Anjou (41) was captured. Her son Edward of Westinster Prince of Wales 1453-1471 (17) was killed. He was the last of the Lancastrian line excluding the illegitmate Charles Somerset 1st Earl Worcester 1460-1526 (11) whose line continues to the present.

John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 (36), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (71), Humphrey Tuchet 1434-1471 (37) and John Beaufort 1441-1471 (30) were killed.

Edmund Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset 1439-1471 (32) and Hugh Courtenay 1427-1471 (44) were captured.

William Vaux of Harrowden 1436-1471 (35) and Robert Whittingham 1429-1471 (42) were killed.

Henry Roos -1504 fought and escaped to Tewkesbury Abbey where sough sanctuary. He was subsequently pardoned.

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On 09 May 1471 George Neville 4th Baron Bergavenny 1440-1492 (31) was knighted by King Edward IV (29).

Edward V created Prince of Wales

On 26 Jun 1471 [his son] Edward, the future Edward V was created Prince of Wales. Thomas Vaughan 1410-1483 (61) was knighted.

1472 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1472 King Edward IV (29) appointed new Garter Knights given the large number of vacant positions as a result of the recent Warwick rebellion:

203rd John Mowbray 4th Duke Norfolk 1444-1476 (27).

204th John Stafford 1st Earl Wiltshire 1427-1473 (44).

205th Walter Devereux 7th Baron Ferrers Chartley 1432-1485 (40).

206th Walter Blount 1st Baron Mountjoy 1416-1474 (56).

207th John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (47).

208th John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 (29).

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In 1472 [his brother] George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (22) was created 1st Earl Salisbury 3C 1472.

On 10 Apr 1472 [his daughter] Margaret York 1472-1472 was born to King Edward IV (29) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (35).

Marriage of Richard Duke of Gloucester and Anne Neville

On 12 Jul 1472 [his brother] Richard Duke of Gloucester (19) and Anne Neville (16) were married at St Stephen's Chapel. They were first cousins once removed. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England. She by marriage Duchess Gloucester.

On 08 Apr 1473 (some sources state 1482) Humphrey Dacre 1st Baron Dacre Gilsland 1424-1485 (49) was created 1st Baron Dacre Gilsland 3C 1473 by King Edward IV (30). By letters patent he created Dacre Baron Dacre of Gilsland, declaring "that the said Humfrey Dacre, Knight, and the heirs male of the body of the said Thomas, late Lord Dacre, comyng, bee reputed, had, named and called the Lord Dacre of Gillesland". Mabel Parr Baroness Dacre Gilsland -1508 by marriage Baroness Dacre Gilsland.

On 17 Aug 1473 [his son] Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- was born to King Edward IV (31) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (36) at Westminster Palace. [his son] He was created 1st Duke York 2C 1474 by his father on the same day.

1876. John Everett Millais Painter Baronet 1829-1896.

1474 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1474 King Edward IV (31) appointed new Garter Knights:

209th Thomas Fitzalan 17th Earl Arundel 1450-1524 (24).

210th William Parr 1434-1483 (40).

211th Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (19).

212th Federico Montefeltro 1422-1482 (51).

213th Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland 1449-1489 (25).

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Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead

In 1474 Parliament declared Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick 1426-1492 (47) legally dead (she lived until 1492) so that Edward IV's (31) two younger brothers [his brother] George (24) and the [his brother] Richard (21), who had married Anne Beauchamp's (47) daughters, Isabel (22) and Anne (17) respectively, could enjoy the significant Beauchamp inheritance after her husband Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (45) had been killed at the Battle of Barnet in 1471.

Some of the inhertance should have been given to George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (13) but he was only thirteen at the time; his father John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (43), younger brother of Warwick the Kingmaker (45), had also been killed at the Battle of Barnet. He, George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (13), died in 1483 aged twenty-one somewhat conveniently after the death of King Edward IV (31) and before [his brother] Richard III King England 1452-1485 (21) acceded to the throne. Curiously the Act of Parliament described [his brother] Richard III King England 1452-1485 (21) enjoying the inheritance as long as there were Neville living heirs male. Upon the death of George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (13) the Neville heir male was Richard Neville 2nd Baron Latimer of Snape 1468-1530 (6) born 1468 whose wardship was held by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (56).

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In 1474 Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (34) and [his sister] Anne York Duchess Exeter 1439-1476 (34) were married. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England.

On 05 Sep 1474 [his step-son] Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (19) and Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset 1460-1529 (14) were married. They were half second cousins once removed. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England.

1475 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1475 King Edward IV (32) created his two sons as Garter Knights:

214th [his son] Edward V King England 1470- (4).

215th [his son] Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- (1).

In 1475 [his step-son] Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (20) was created 1st Marquess Dorset 3C 1475. Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset 1460-1529 (14) by marriage Marchioness Dorset.

Welles' Rebellion and Battle of Losecoat Field aka Empingham

Before 23 Jan 1475 Joan Welles 9th Baroness Willoughby Eresby -1475 died. King Edward IV had father and son Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 8th Baron Welles -1470 and Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 8th Baron Welles -1470 posthumously attainted some five years after the Welles' Rebellion to ensure Richard Hastings Baron Willoughby de Eresby 1433-1503 would continue to enjoy the benefit of the Welles' estates; he was given a life interest in the estates on 23 Jan 1475. Another example of King Edward IV being somewhat disingenuous with the legal system to his own advantage. He, Edward was, in effect, disinheriting Christopher Willoughby 10th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 1453-1499 who should have inherited Baron Willoughby de Eresby and John Welles 1st Viscount Welles 1450-1498 who should have inherited Baron Welles following Joan's death. Her first cousin Christopher Willoughby 10th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 1453-1499 de jure 10th Baron Willoughby de Eresby. Margaret Jenney Baroness Willoughby Eresby by marriage Baroness Willoughby de Eresby.

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After 20 May 1475. St Mary's Church Ewelme. Monument to Alice Chaucer Duchess Suffolk 1404-1475. Wrist Garter. The effigy was, apparently, viewed to determine how a lady should wear the garter at the re-commencement of Lady of the Garter appointments in 1901 after a gap of several hundred years. A particularly fine Cadaver Underneath the chest on which Alice's effigy lies. Full-length in a shroud. Chest with Angels with Rounded Wings holding Shields.

Detail of the South Side of the Monument to Alice Chaucer Duchess Suffolk 1404-1475 (71). From left to right ...

1 Roet impaled Chaucer Modern. Alice's paternal grandparents.

2 De La Pole impaled Stafford. Her third husbands parents Michael Pole 2nd Earl Suffolk 1361-1415 and Katherine Stafford Countess Suffolk 1376-1419 (99).

3 Montacute and Monthermer impaled Francis? Possibly Alice's second husband's parents John Montagu 3rd Earl Salisbury 1350-1400 and Maud Francis Countess Salisbury 1364-1424.

4 De La Pole quartered Chaucer Modern.

5 Roet impaled Chaucer Modern.

6 Chaucer Modern.

7 De La Pole.

8 De La Pole impaled England Henry IV signifying Alice's son John's (32) marriage to [his sister] Elizabeth of York (31) sister of King Edward IV (33).

Detail of the North Side of the monument to Alice Chaucer Duchess Suffolk 1404-1475 (71). Arms from left to right ...

1 De La Pole quartered Chaucer Modern impaled Unknown.

2 De La Pole. Her third husband William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk 1396-1450 (78).

3 De La Pole quarted Chaucer Modern. Alice's son John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 (32) by her second husband William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk 1396-1450 (78).

4 Chaucer. Alice's father Thomas Chaucer 1367-1434.

5 Montacute and Monthermer quartering impaled Chaucer. Alice's second husband Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche 4th Earl Salisbury 1388-1428 (86).

6 Roet. Alice's paternal grandmother Philippa Roet 1346-1387.

7 Roet impaling England Henry IV probably signifying John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 and Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403, Katherine being the sister of Alice's paternal grandmother Philippa Roet 1346-1387 who married Geoffrey Chaucer Poet Author 1343-1400.

8 Roet impaling Chaucer Modern. Her paternal grandparents Geoffrey Chaucer Poet Author 1343-1400 and Philippa Roet 1346-1387.

Treaty of Picquigny

On 29 Aug 1475 Edward IV (33) signed the Treaty of Picquigny; in effect a non-aggression pact or, possibly, a protection racket. France would pay Edward a pension of 50,000 crowns per year as long as he didn't invade France. Cardinal Bourchier (57) arbitrated on behalf of Edward. William Hastings (44) received a pension of 2000 crowns per year, John Howard and Thomas Montgomery 1200 each, Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York (52) 1000, Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (55) 600.

Edward's youngest brother [his brother] Richard (22) opposed the Treaty considering it dishonourable. Roger Cheney 1442-1499 (33) was present at the signing, and remained as a hostage until King Edward IV (33) returned to England.

In Sep 1475 Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (45) drowned on his return from France having probably been thrown over-board on the orders of King Edward IV (33).

On 02 Nov 1475 [his daughter] Anne York 1475-1511 was born to King Edward IV (33) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (38) at Westminster Palace.

In 1476 [his step-son] Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (21) was appointed 216th Knight of the Garter by King Edward IV (33).

In 1476 Thomas Montgomery -1495 was appointed 217th Knight of the Garter by King Edward IV (33).

On 14 Jan 1476 [his niece] Anne St Leger Baroness Ros Helmsley 1476-1526 was born to Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (36) and Anne York Duchess Exeter 1439-1476 (36). She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England. Her mother (36) died in childbirth. She was buried at St Leger Chantry, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

On 12 Jun 1476 [his son] Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- (2) was created 1st Earl Nottingham 3C 1476 by King Edward IV (34).

Reburial of Richard and Edmund of York

On 29 Jul 1476 Edward I's paternal grand-father Edward of York, his father [his father] Richard of York (64) and and his younger brother Edmund (33) were reburied at St Mary and All Saints in Fotheringhay in a ceremony attended by King Edward IV (34), George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (26), Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (21), William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (45), Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (36).

Around Dec 1476 King Edward IV (34) began an affair with Elizabeth "Jane Shore" Lambert 1445-1527 (31). See Patent Rolls Edward IV 1476.

Trial and Execution of Ankarette Twynyho

On 22 Dec 1476 Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence 1451-1476 (25) died in childbirth. She was buried in Tewkesbury Abbey. [his brother] George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (27) believed she had been murdered by Ankarette Twynyho -1477. Her son Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick 1475-1499 (1) succeeded 17th Earl Warwick 1C 1088. See Trial and Execution of Ankarette Twynyho.

On 07 Feb 1477 [his son] Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- (3) was created 1st Duke Norfolk 2C 1481 by King Edward IV (34).

In Mar 1477 [his son] George York 1st Duke Bedford 1477-1479 was born to King Edward IV (34) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (40) at Windsor Castle.

Execution of George Duke of Clarence

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. [his brother] George, Duke of Clarence (28), was a goodly noble prince, and at all points fortunate, if either his own ambition had not set him against his brother (35), or the envy of his enemies had not set his brother against him. For were it by the Queen (41) and the lords of her blood, who highly maligned the King's kindred (as women commonly, not of malice but of nature, hate them whom their husbands love), or were it a proud appetite of the [his brother] Duke (28) himself intending to be king, in any case, heinous treason was there laid to his charge, and, finally, were he faulty or were he faultless, attainted was he by Parliament and judged to the death, and thereupon hastily drowned in a butt of malmesey, whose death, King Edward (although he commanded it), when he knew it was done, piteously bewailed and sorrowfully repented. .

Trial and Execution of Ankarette Twynyho

In 1478 Ankarette Twynyho -1477 was pardoned by King Edward IV (35).

In 1478 [his son] George York 1st Duke Bedford 1477-1479 was created 1st Duke Bedford 4C 1478 by King Edward IV (35).

Marriage of Richard Duke of York and Anne Mowbray

On 15 Jan 1478 Edward IV's youngest son [his son] Richard of Shrewsbury (4) and Anne Mowbray (5) were married at St Stephen's Chapel in Westminster. They were second cousins once removed. He a son of King Edward IV of England 1442-1483. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England. She had recently inherited the vast Mowbray inheritance when her father John Mowbray 4th Duke Norfolk 1444-1476 (33) died in 1476. The ceremony was attended by Edward's daughters Elizabeth (11), Mary (10) and Cecily (8). The day before Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (35) was knighted. In 1483 Parliament changed the succession so [his son] Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- (4) would continue to enjoy her inheritance (she died in 1481) effectively dis-inheriting William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley 1426-1492 (52) (who was subsequently created Earl and Marquess) and John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (53) (who would become an ardent supporter of Richard III following Edward's death).

Attainder of George Duke of Clarence

After 16 Jan 1478 and before 07 Feb 1478. The original act doesn't contain a date. Parliament opened on 16 Jan 1478. On 07 Feb 1478 Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 was appointed Steward of England for the purpose of effecting the exection. [his brother] George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 was attainted by Parliament. The wording of the attainder as follows:

The Kyng (35), oure Sovereigne Lorde, hath called to his Remembraunce the manyfold grete Conspiracies, malicious and heynous Ttresons, that hertofore hath be compassed by dyverse persones his unnaturall Subgetts, Rebelles and Traytoures, wherby Commocions and Insurrections have been made within this his Royaulme, for entent and purpose to have destroyed his moost Roiall persone, and with that to have subverted the state, wele publique and politic of all his said Royaulme; ne had so been, that by th’elp of Almyghty God, with the grete laboures and diligences and uttermost explette of his persone by Chevalrye and Werr, he had mightly and graciously repressed the same. Wherthrogh grete nowmbre of the said his Rebelles and Traytours he hath at dyverse tymes punysshed, as well by swerd as other punysshments, in exemple to others to have been ware of suche attempting hereafter. And yet as a benigne and a gracious Prince moeved unto pitie, after his grete Victories sent hym by God, not oonly he hath spared the multitudes in theire feldes and assembles overcomen, but thaym and certeyn other, the grete movers, sturters and executours of suche haynous Tresons, at the reverence of God, he hath taken to his mercy and clerly pardoned, as may not be unknowen to all the Worlde.

This notwithstondyng, it is comen nowe of late to his knowlage, howe that agaynst his mooste Royall persone, and agaynst the persones of the blessed Princesse oure alther soveraigne and Liege Lady the Quene, of my Lorde the Prince theire son and Heire, and of all the other of thaire moost noble issue, and also against the grete parte of the Noble of this Lande, the good rule, politike and wele publique of the same, hath been conspired, compassed and purposed a moch higher, moch more malicious, more unnaturall and lothely Treason than atte eny tyme hertoforn hath been compassed, purposed and conspired, from the Kyng’s first Reigne hiderto; which Treason is, and must be called, so moche and more henyous, unnaturell and lothely, for that not oonly it hath proceded of the moost extreme purpensed malice, incomparably excedyng eny other that hath been aforn, but also for that it hath been contryved, imagined and conspired, by the persone that of all erthely creatures, beside the dutie of ligeaunce, by nature, by benefette, by gratitude, and by yeftes and grauntes of Goodes and Possessions, hath been moost bounden and behalden to have dradde, loved, honoured, and evere thanked the kyng more largely, than evere was eny other bounden or beholden, whom to name it gretely aggruggeth the hert of oure said Sovereigne Lorde, sauf oonly that he is of necessite compelled, for the suertie, wele and tranquillite of hym and all this Royaulme, which were full neer the poynt of perdicion, ne were the help and grace of Almyghty God:

He sheweth you therefore, that all this hath been entended by his Brother, [his brother] George, the Duke of Clarence (28). Wherein it is to be remembered that the Kynges Highnesse, of tendre youthe unto now of late, hath evere loved and cherysshed hym, as tenderly and as kynderly, as eny creature myght his naturell Brother, as well it may be declared, by that that he beyng right yonge, not borne to have eny lifelode, butt oonly of the Kynges grace he yave hym soo large porcion of Possessions that noo memorie is of, or seldom hath been seen, that eny Kyng of Englande hertoforn within his Royaulme yave soo largely to eny his Brothers. And not oonly that, butt above that, he furnyssed hym plenteously of all manere stuff, that to a right grete Prynce myght well suffice; so that aftre the Kynges, his lifelode and richesse notably exceded any other within his Lande at thatt tyme.

And yet the kyng, not herewith content, butt beyng ryght desirous to make hym of myght and puissance excedyng others, caused the greate parte of all the Nobles of this Lande to be assured unto hym next his Highnesse; trustyng that not oonly by the bond of nature, butt also by the bondes of soo grete benefitt, he shulde be more than others loving, helping, assisting and obeissaunt to all the Kyngs good pleasures and commaundments, and to all that myght be to the politik wele of his Lande.

All this notwithstondyng, it is to remember, the large grace and foryevnesse that he yave hym uppon, and for that at dyverse tyme sith he gretely offended the Kyng, as in jupartyng the Kyngs Royall estate, persone and life, in straite warde, puttyng hym thereby from all his libertie, aftre procuryng grete Commocions, and sith the voydaunce oute of his Royaulme, assistyng yevyng to his enemies mortall, the usurpers, laboryng also by Parlement to exclude hym and all his from the Regalie, and enabling hymself to the same, and by dyverse weyes otherwyse attemptyng; which all the Kyng, by nature and love moeved, utterly foryave, entendyng to have putte all in perpetuell oblivion.

The said Duke, nathelesse for all this, noo love encreasyng, but growyng daily in more and more malice, hath not left to consedre and conspire newe Treasons, more haynous and lothely than ever aforn, how that the said Duke falsly and traitrously entended, and puposed fermely, th’extreme distruction and disherityng of the Kyng and his Issue, and to subverte all the polityk rule of this Royaulme, by myght to be goten as well outewarde as inward, which false purpose the rather to brynge aboute, he cast and compassed the moyans to enduce the Kynges naturell Subgetts to withdrawe theire herts, loves and affections from the Kyng, theire naturell Sovereigne Lorde, by many subtill, contryved weyes, as in causyng dyverse his Servauntes, suche as he coude imagyne moste apte to sowe sedicion and aggrugge amonge the People, to goo into diverse parties of this Royaulme, and to laboure to enforme the People largely in every place where they shulde come, that Thomas Burdett (53), his Servaunte, which was lawefully and truly atteynted of Treason, was wrongefully putte to Deth; to some his Servauntes of suche like disposicion, he yave large Money, Veneson, therewith to assemble the Kynges Subgects to Feste theym and chere theym, and by theire policies and resonyng, enduce hem to beleve that the said Burdett (53) was wrongfully executed, and so to putte it in noyse and herts of the People;

he saide and laboured also to be noysed by such his Servauntez apte for that werk, that the Kyng, oure Sovereigne Lorde, wroght by Nygromancye, and used Crafte to poyson his Subgettes, suche as hym pleased; to th’entent to desclaundre the Kyng in the moost haynous wyse he couth in the sight and conceipt of his Subgetts, and thefore to encorage theym to hate, despice and aggrugge theire herts agaynst hym, thynkyng that he ne lived ne dealid with his Subgettes as a Christien Prynce.

And overe this, the said duke beyng in full purpose to exalte hymself and his Heires to the Regallye and Corone of Englande, and clerely in opinion to putte aside from the same for ever the said Corone from the Kyng and his Heirez, uppon oon the falsest and moost unnaturall coloured pretense that man myght imagine, falsely and untruely noysed, published and saide, that the Kyng oure Sovereigne Lorde was a Bastard, and not begottone to reigne uppon us; and to contynue and procede ferther in this his moost malicious and traytorous purpose, after this lothely, false and sedicious langage shewed and declared amonge the People, he enduced dyverse of the Kynges naturall Subgetts to be sworne uppon the blessed Sacrament to be true to hym and his heires, noon exception reserved of theire liegeaunce; and after the same Othe soo made, he shewed to many other, and to certayn persones, that suche Othe had made, that the Kyng had taken his lifelode from hym and his men, and disheryed theym, and he wolde utterly endevoire hym to gete hem theire enheritaunce as he wolde doo for his owen.

He shewed also that the Kyng entended to consume hym in like wyse as a Candell consumeth in brennyng, wherof he wolde in brief tyme quyte hym. And overe this, the said Duke continuyng ín his false purpose, opteyned and gate an exemplificacion undre the Grete Seall of Herry the Sexte, late in dede and not in right Kyng of this Lande, wherin were conteyned alle suche appoyntements as late was made betwene the said Duke and Margaret, callyng herself Quene of this Lande, and other; amonges whiche it was conteyned, that if the said Herry, and Edward, his first begoton Son, died withoute Issue Male of theire Bodye, that the seid Duke and his Heires shulde be Kyng of this Lande; which exemplificacion the said Duke hath kepyd with hymself secrete, not doyng the Kyng to have eny knowlegge therof, therby to have abused the Kynges true Subgetts for the rather execucion of his said false purpose.

And also, the same Duke purposyng to accomplisse his said false and untrue entent, and to inquiete and trouble the Kynge, oure said Sovereigne Lorde, his Leige People and this his Royaulme, nowe of late willed and desired the Abbot of Tweybury, Mayster John Tapton, Clerk, and Roger Harewell Esquier, to cause a straunge childe to have be brought into his Castell of Warwyk, and there to have beputte and kept in likelinesse of his Sonne and Heire, and that they shulde have conveyed and sent his said Sonne and Heire into Ireland, or into Flaundres, oute of this Lande, whereby he myght have goten hym assistaunce and favoure agaynst oure said Sovereigne Lorde; and for the execucion of the same, sent oon John Taylour, his Servaunte, to have had delyveraunce of his said Sonne and Heire, for to have conveyed hym; the whiche Mayster John Tapton and Roger Harewell denyed the delyveraunce of the said Childe, and soo by Goddes grace his said false and untrue entent was lette and undoon.

And also, the same Duke purposyng to accomplisse his said false and untrue entent, and to inquiete and trouble the Kynge, oure said Sovereigne Lorde, his Leige People and this his Royaulme, nowe of late willed and desired the Abbot of Tweybury, Mayster John Tapton, Clerk, and Roger Harewell Esquier, to cause a straunge childe to have be brought into his Castell of Warwyk, and there to have beputte and kept in likelinesse of his Sonne and Heire, and that they shulde have conveyed and sent his said Sonne and Heire into Ireland, or into Flaundres, oute of this Lande, whereby he myght have goten hym assistaunce and favoure agaynst oure said Sovereigne Lorde; and for the execucion of the same, sent oon John Taylour, his Servaunte, to have had delyveraunce of his said Sonne and Heire, for to have conveyed hym; the whiche Mayster John Tapton and Roger Harewell denyed the delyveraunce of the said Childe, and soo by Goddes grace his said false and untrue entent was lette and undoon.

The Kyng, remembryng over, that to side the neernesse of Blode, howe be nature he myght be kynde to his Brother; the tendre love also, whiche of youthe he bare unto hym, couthe have founden in his hert, uppon due submission, to have yet foryeven hym estsones, ne were, furst that his said Brother by his former dedes, and nowe by this conspiracye, sheweth hymself to be incorrigible, and in noo wyse reducible to that by bonde of nature, and of the grete benefices aforn reherced, he were moost soveraynly beholden of all Creature: Secondly, ne were the grete juparty of effusion of Christien blode, which most likkely shulde therof ensue: And thridenly and principally, the bond of his Conscience, wherby and by solempne Othe, he is bounden anenst God, uppon the peryll of everlastyng dampnacion, to provyde and defende, first the suertie of hymself and his moste Royall Issue, secondly, the tranquilite of Goddes Churche within this, his Royaulme, and after that, the wele publique, peas and tranquilite of all his Lordez, Noblemen, Comens and others of every degree and condicion, whiche all shulde necessarily stande in extreme jupartie, yf Justice and due punyshement of soo lothely offencez shulde be pardoned; in pernicious example to all mysdoers, theves, traytours, rebelles and all other suche as lightly wolde therby bee encoraged and enbolded to spare noo manner of wikkednesse.

Wherfore thof all [sic]11 the Kynges Highnesse be right sory to determyne hymself to the contrarie, yet consideryng that Justice is a vertue excellently pleasyng Almyghty God, wherby Reaulmes stande, Kynges and Pryncez reign and governe, all goode rule, polyce and publique wele is mayteigned; and that this vertue standeth not oonly in retribucion and rewarde for goode dedes, butt also in correccion and punysshement of evil doers, after the qualitees of theire mysdoyngs. For whiche premissez and causez the Kyng, by the avyse and assent of his Lordes Speretuell and Temporell, and by the Commons, in this present parliament assembled, and by the auctorite of the same, ordeyneth, enacteth and establith that the said George, Duke of Clarence, be convicte and atteyntit of Heigh Treason commyttet and doon agaynst the Kynges moost Royall persone; and that the same Duke, by the said auctorite, forfett from hym and his heyres for ever the Honoure, Estate, Dignite and name of Duke1. And also that the same Duke, by the said auctorite, forfett from hym and his heyres for ever, all Castelles, Honoures, Maners, Landes, Tenements, Rents, Advousons, Hereditaments and Possessions that the same Duke nowe hath by eny of the Kynges Lettrez Patents to his owen use, or that any other persone nowe hath to the use of the same Duke by eny of the Kynges Letterez Patents, or that passed to hym fro the Kyng by the same: And that all Lettrez Patents made by the kyng to the said Duke bee from henseforthe utterly voyde and of noon effecte.

And that it be also ordeigned by the same auctorite that noo Castelles, Honoures, Maners, Landez, Tenementz, Rents, Advousons, Hereditaments or Possessions that the same duke nowe hath joyntly with other, or sole to hymself, to the use of eny other persone, be forfett, nor conteyned by or in this present Acte; but that by the said auctoritee, every other persone to whose use the said Duke is sole seised in eny Castelles, Honoures, Maners, Landez, Tenements, Rents, Advousons, Hereditaments and Possessions, otherwyse than by the Kyngs Lettres Patents, have power and auctorite by this present Acte lawefully to entre into theym, and theym to have and holde after the entent and trust that the said Duke nowe hath theryn. And also where the same Duke is joyntly seased with any other persone in any Castells, Maners, Landez, Tenementz, Rents, Hereditaments or Possessions to the use of eny other persone, otherwyse than by the Kyngs Lettrez Patents: that by the said auctorite, the said joynt feffez stonde and be feoffez to the same use and entent as they nowe arre and be; and that suche right, interest and title as the same Duke nowe hath with theym in the same premyssez, by the said auctorite, be in his cofeffez to the same entent as the same Duke nowe ys: Savyng to every of the Kynges Liege people, other than the said Duke and his Heyrez, and all other persone and persones that clayme or have eny tytell of interest in eny of the premyssez by the same Duke, suche right, tytle and interest as they owe or shulde have in eny of the premyssez, as if this Acte had never been made.

A cest Bille les Comunez sont assentuz.

Le Roy le voet.

Note 1. It is interesting that he forfeits the title of Duke rather than the usual attainted in the blood which may have debarred his children from inheriting the crown.

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On 15 Feb 1478 [his nephew] Edward York Prince of Wales 1473-1484 (4) was created 1st Earl Salisbury 4C 1478.

Execution of George Duke of Clarence

On 18 Feb 1478 [his brother] George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (28) was drowned in a butt of wine (Malmsey) wine in the Bowyer Tower in the Tower of London. Duke Clarence 3C 1461 extinct. "in a butt of Malmsey wine" may refer to 1 a butt full of Malmsey wine or 2 a butt that once contained Malmsey wine that was subsequently re-used for another purpose such as washing or bathing.

William Hussey 1443-1495 (35) conducted the impeachment of the Duke of Clarence for treason.

The only other person known to have been executed, or ritually killed, by drowning in a butt of wine is Muirchertach mac Muiredaig High King of Ireland -534 (as reported by the Annals of Ulster) in his case at Newgrange Passage Tomb.

In 1479 [his step-son] Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (24) was created 1st Earl Huntingdon 6C 1479. Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset 1460-1529 (18) by marriage Countess Huntingdon.

In Mar 1479 [his son] George York 1st Duke Bedford 1477-1479 (2) died of plague at Windsor Castle. Duke Bedford 4C 1478 extinct.

On 14 Aug 1479 [his daughter] Catherine York Countess Devon 1479-1527 was born to King Edward IV (37) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (42).

Before 1480 [his nephew] John Pole 1st Earl Lincoln 1462-1487 and Margaret Fitzalan Countess Lincoln were married. They were second cousins once removed. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Edward III England. She by marriage Countess Lincoln.

In 1480 Oliver King Bishop of Bath and Wells 1432-1503 (48) was appointed Secretary to King Edward IV (37).

In 1480 Ercole Este I Duke Ferrara 1431-1505 (48) was appointed 219th Knight of the Garter by King Edward IV (37).

In 1480 Ferdinand II King Aragon 1452-1516 (27) was appointed 218th Knight of the Garter by King Edward IV (37).

On 10 Nov 1480 [his daughter] Bridget York 1480-1517 was born to King Edward IV (38) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (43) at Eltham Palace.

Around 1481 [his sister-in-law] Mary Woodville Countess Pembroke 1456-1481 (25) died.

In 1482 John II King Portugal 1455-1495 (26) was appointed 220th Knight of the Garter by King Edward IV (39).

Before 1483 Ralph Hastings -1495 was appointed Knight of the Body to King Edward IV.

Death of Edward IV

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. As soon as the King (40) was departed, that noble [his son] Prince (12) his son drew toward London, who at the time of his father's death kept household at Ludlow in Wales. Such country, being far off from the law and recourse to justice, was begun to be far out of good will and had grown up wild with robbers and thieves walking at liberty uncorrected. And for this reason the [his son] Prince (12) was, in the life of his father, sent thither, to the end that the authority of his presence should restrain evilly disposed persons from the boldness of their former outrages. To the governance and ordering of this young [his son] Prince (12), at his sending thither, was there appointed Sir Anthony Woodville, Lord Rivers (43) and brother unto the Queen (46), a right honorable man, as valiant of hand as politic in counsel. Adjoined were there unto him others of the same party, and, in effect, every one as he was nearest of kin unto the Queen (46) was so planted next about the [his son] Prince (12).

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. When these lords [Note. William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52), John Grey 1432-1461 (51)] with diverse others of both parties were come into his presence, the King (40), lifting up himself and propped up with pillows, as it is reported, after this fashion said unto them:

My lords, my dear kinsmen and allies, in what plight I lie, you see, and I feel. By which, the less while I expect to live with you, the more deeply am I moved to care in what case I leave you, for such as I leave you, such be my children like to find you. That if they should (God forbid) find you at variance, might by chance fall themselves at war before their discretion would serve to set you at peace. You see their youth, of which I reckon the only security to rest in your concord. For it suffices not that all you love them, if each of you hate the other. If they were men, your faithfulness by chance would suffice. But childhood must be maintained by men's authority, and slippery youth supported with elder counsel, which neither they can have unless you give it, nor can you give it if you do not agree. For where each labors to break what the other makes, and for hatred of each other's person impugns each other's counsel, it must needs be long before any good conclusion go forward. And also while either party labors to be chief, flattery shall have more place than plain and faithful advice, of which must needs ensue the evil bringing up of the Prince, whose mind in tender youth infected shall readily fall to mischief and riot, and draw down with this noble realm to ruin—unless grace turn him to wisdom, which if God send, then they who by evil means before pleased him best shall after fall furthest out of favor, so that ever at length evil plans drive to nothing and good plain ways prosper.

Mowbray Succession Changed

In Jan 1483 King Edward IV (40) had Parliament re-enact earlier legislation regarding the Mowbray succession so that his son, [his son] Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- (9), who had married Anne Mowbray 8th Countess Norfolk 1472-1481 (10) (who had died in 1481), would continue to benefit from them effectively dis-inheriting William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley 1426-1492 (57) (who was subsequently created Earl and Marquess) and John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (58) (who would become an ardent supporter of Richard III following Edward's death.

On 23 Jan 1483 Elizabeth Ferrers 6th Baroness Ferrers Groby 1419-1483 (64) died. Her grandson [his step-son] Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (28) succeeded 7th Baron Ferrers Groby. Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset 1460-1529 (22) by marriage Baroness Ferrers Groby.

Death of Edward IV

On 25 Mar 1483 King Edward IV (40) returned to Westminster from Windsor. A few days later he became sufficiently unwell to add codicils to his will, and to have urged reconciliation between William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52) and [his step-son] Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (28); it isn't clear what the cause of the friction between the two men was although it appears well known that Hastings resented the Woodville family.

On 09 Apr 1483 King Edward IV (40) died at Westminster. His son [his son] Edward V King England 1470- (12) succeeded V King England. Those present included Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (46), William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52) and Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (28).

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. King Edward of that name the Fourth (40), after he had lived fifty and three years, seven months, and six days, and thereof reigned two and twenty years, one month, and eight days, died at Westminster the ninth day of April, the year of our redemption, a thousand four hundred four score and three, leaving much fair issue, that is, [his son] Edward the Prince (12), thirteen years of age; Richard Duke of York (9), two years younger; Elizabeth (17), whose fortune and grace was after to be queen, wife unto King Henry the Seventh (26), and mother unto the Eighth; Cecily (14) not so fortunate as fair; Brigette (2), who, representing the virtue of her whose name she bore, professed and observed a religious life in Dertford, a house of cloistered Nuns; Anne (7), who was after honorably married unto Thomas (10), then Lord Howard and after Earl of Surrey; and Katherine (3), who long time tossed in either fortune—sometime in wealth, often in adversity—at the last, if this be the last, for yet she lives, is by the goodness of her nephew, King Henry the Eighth, in very prosperous state, and worthy her birth and virtue.

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525 is believed to have painted the portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547.

After 09 Apr 1483 King Edward IV lay in state at St Stephen's Chapel.

Funeral of Edward IV

On 10 Apr 1483, in the morning, the coffin of King Edward IV (40) was moved to St Stephen's Chapel. Edward Story Bishop of Chichester -1503 sang the masses. Richard Fiennes 7th Baron Dacre Gilsland 1415-1483 (68), Chamberlain to [his wife] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (46), offered on the Queen's behalf.

On 17 Apr 1483 the coffin of Edward IV (40) was carried to Westminster Abbey by Edward Stanley 1st Baron Monteagle 1462-1524 (21), John Savage 1444-1492 (39), Thomas Wortley 1433-1514 (50), Thomas Molyneux 1445-1483 (38), probably John Welles 1st Viscount Welles 1450-1498 (33) who had married Edward's daughter Cecily), John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne 1442-1499 (41), Walter Hungerford 1464-1516 (19), Guy Wolston 1433-1490 (50), John Sapcote 1448-1501 (35), Thomas Tyrrell 1453-1512 (30), John Risley, Thomas Dacre 2nd Baron Dacre Gilsland 1467-1525 (15), John Norreys, Louis de Bretelles and John Comyn 4th Lord Baddenoch 1294-1314.

Those in the procession included:

Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (43), widow of Edward's sister Anne.

William Parr 1434-1483 (49).

John Astley 1373-1441.

William Stonor 1450-1494 (33).

Henry Ferrers 1443-1500 (40).

James Radclyffe 1440-1484 (43).

George Browne 1440-1483 (43).

Gilbert Debenham.

John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (58) walked in front of the coffin with Edward's personal arms.

John Marlow Abbot Bermondsey followed by:

Thomas Kempe Bishop of London 1390-1489 (93).

John Hales Bishop Coventry and Lichfield 1400- (83) (Bishop of Chester?).

Robert Stillington Bishop of Bath and Wells 1420-1491 (63).

Edward Story Bishop of Chichester -1503.

Richard Bell Bishop of Carlisle -1496.

James Goldwell Bishop of Norwich -1499.

Bishop William Dudley 1425-1483 (58).

John Russell Bishop -1494.

Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63) (as Bishop of Ely).

Edmund Tuchet Bishop of Rochester Bishop of Hereford Bishop of Salisbury 1443-1524 (40) (as Bishop of Rochester).

Peter Courtenay Bishop of Exeter Bishop of Winchester -1492, and.

[his brother-in-law] Lionel Woodville Bishop of Salisbury 1447-1484 (36).

Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 (59) brought up the rear.

Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (65), then Archbishop of Canterbury, took no part due to infirmity.

[his nephew] John Pole 1st Earl Lincoln 1462-1487 (21); the King's nephew,.

William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52).

[his step-son] Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (28).

William Herbert 2nd Earl Pembroke 1451-1491 (32) (some sources say Earl of Huntingindon?).

William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley 1426-1492 (57).

Thomas Stanley 1st Earl Derby 1435-1504 (48).

Richard Fiennes 7th Baron Dacre Gilsland 1415-1483 (68).

John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 (82).

George Neville 4th Baron Bergavenny 1440-1492 (43).

John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley of Heighley 3rd Baron Tuchet 1426-1490 (57).

Walter Devereux 7th Baron Ferrers Chartley 1432-1485 (51).

Edward Grey 1st Viscount Lisle 1432-1492 (51).

Henry Lovell 9th Baron Marshal 8th Baron Morley 1476-1489 (7).

[his brother-in-law] Richard Woodville 3rd Earl Rivers 1453-1491 (30).

John Brooke 7th Baron Cobham 1447-1512 (35).

Richard Hastings Baron Willoughby de Eresby 1433-1503 (50).

John Bourchier 6th Baron Ferrers Groby 1438-1495 (45).

Thomas Bourchier -1492.

Thomas Bourchier -1533.

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On 20 Apr 1483 King Edward IV (40) was buried at Altar St George's Chapel Windsor Castle. Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 (59) celebrated the mass. John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (58) attended. [his nephew] John Pole 1st Earl Lincoln 1462-1487 (21) was chief mourner. John Savage 1444-1492 (39) and Edward Stanley 1st Baron Monteagle 1462-1524 (21) were pall-bearers.

Robert Stillington Claims Edward IV's Marriage to Elizabeth Woodville to be Bigamous

Around 09 Jun 1483 Robert Stillington Bishop of Bath and Wells 1420-1491 (63) informed a Council meeting that the coronation of [his son] Edward V King England 1470- (12) could not proceed since he was illegitimate since his father's marriage to his mother Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (46) had been bigamous since King Edward IV (41) had previously married Eleanor Talbot 1436-1468 (47) at which Robert Stillington Bishop of Bath and Wells 1420-1491 (63) presided. The only witness being Robert Stillington Bishop of Bath and Wells 1420-1491 (63).

Execution of William Hastings by Richard III

On 13 Jun 1483 [his brother] Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) arranged a Council meeting at the Tower of London attended by William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52), Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63), Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 (59) and Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (28). During the course of the evening Richgard accused William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52), Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63) and Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 (59) of treasonable conspiracy with the Queen (46).

William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52) was beheaded at Tower Green Tower of London. He was buried in North Aisle St George's Chapel Windsor Castle next to King Edward IV (41). His son Edward Hastings 2nd Baron Hastings Baron Botreaux 1466-1506 (16) succeeded 2nd Baron Hastings 2C 1430.

Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63) and Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 (59) were arrested.

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Richard of Shrewsbury Removed from Sanctuary

On 16 Jun 1483 Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (65) removed Edward IV's (41) youngest son [his son] Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- (9) from Sanctuary in Westminster Abbey to the Tower of London so that he could join his brother in preparation for his Coronation. Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (28) was present.

The Princes of the Tower described as Illegitimate

On 22 Jun 1483 Ralph Shaa -1484 preached the bastardy of Edward IV's (41) children by Elizabeth Woodville, including Edward V, and were therefore ineligible to be King, at St Paul's Cross.

Richard III Rewards his Supporters

On 28 Jun 1483 John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (58) was created 1st Duke Norfolk 3C 1483 by [his brother] Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30). William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley 1426-1492 (57) was created 1st Earl Nottingham 4C 1483. Significant insofar as both men were heirs to the vast Mowbray estates that had been inherited by Anne Mowbray 8th Countess Norfolk 1472-1481 (10) who had then been married to Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- (9). Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473-'s father King Edward IV (41) had attempted by very flawed legal process to legislate so that even in the event of Anne's death his son Richard would continue to benefit from the inheritance. [his brother] Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) was restoring John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (58) and William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley 1426-1492 (57) to their rightful inheritance.

Marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth York

Vatican Regesta Vol. DCLXXXV Secretarum Tomus IV 2 Innocent VIII. 10 Kal. Aug. Decree, at the petition of [his son-in-law] king Henry (29) and [his daughter] queen Elizabeth (20), that a notarial copy of the process before James, bishop of Imola (7), Apostolic Nuncio with the power of a legate de latere, in regard to the dispensation granted by him to them to contract marriage, notwithstanding the impediment arising from their being related in the double fourth degree of kindred, shall have the same credence as the original letters of the said bishop (7). The Pope (54) exemplifies the said letters and process as follows:

Public instrument, setting forth that in the year of the Incarnation 1486, after the computation of the English church, the 4th indiction, anno 2 Innocent VIII [16 Jan 1486], in the chapel of St. Mary [the Virgin] on the east side of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London, before James, bishop of Imola (7), apostolic legate to England and Scotland, in presence of the below-written notaries public, appointed by the said bishop as scribes in the below-written matter of dispensation, and witnesses below-named, there appeared in person Master Robert Morton (51), Archdeacon of Winchester, and John de Giglis, I.U.D., as proctors of [his son-in-law] king Henry (29), and Richard Hill, dean of the chapel of the household of the said king, and David William, doctor of decrees, dean of St. Mary's Arches, London, as proctors of the [his daughter] lady Elizabeth (20), eldest daughter of the late king Edward IV (44), who produced their mandates of procuration and presented to the said legate a schedule of petition on behalf of the said king and lady, praying him to dispense them to marry, notwithstanding the impediment of their relationship in the fourth and fourth degrees of kindred, as was specified by the said Master Robert Morton (51).

The said instrument exemplifies the said procurations and schedule, as follows:

(i) A public instrument, setting forth that in the year of the Incarnation, etc., 1486, the 4th indiction, anno 2 Innocent VIII, January 14, in a certain great chamber within the palace royal at Westminster, before Thomas, archbishop of York (62) and legate of the apostolic see, John, bishop of Worcester (56), chancellor of England, and Jasper duke of Bedford (54), and many other nobles and magnates, in the presence of me, Richard Spencer, notary public below-written, the said [his son-in-law] king (29), present in person, appointed Masters John de Giglis, I.U.D., and Robert Morton (51), master or keeper of the rolls of the chancery of the said king, as his proctors to appear before the said bishop and legate (who, as is said, has faculty from the apostolic see to dispense a certain number of persons related in the fourth and fourth degrees of kindred and affinity to contract marriage), and to request him to exhibit, etc., the said letters, and execute them in accordance with the desire of the said king, etc. Of all which things, done on the above date and in the above place, in the presence of the above-named witnesses and of Richard Spencer, clerk, of the diocese of Lincoln, notary public by apostolic and imperial authorities, registrar-principal of the court of Canterbury, and keeper of the registers of the same court, the said notary has made the present public instrument, and, being otherwise engaged, has caused it to be written by another, and has published and drawn it up in this public form, and has signed it with his wonted sign and name;.

(ii) A like public instrument, setting forth that on the same date as in the preceding, and in a certain chamber within the royal palace of Westminster, before John, bishop of Worcester, chancellor of England (56), John lord de Wellys (36), Master William Smyth, dean of the chapel royal of Wymbourn in the diocese of Salisbury, and other witnesses, in the presence of the above notary, Richard Spencer, the above lady [his daughter] Elizabeth (20), present in person, appointed Masters Richard Hill, dean of the chapel of the king's household, and David William, doctor of decrees, dean of St. Mary's Arches, London, and commissary-general of the official of the court of Canterbury and president of the said court, in the absence of the said official, as her proctors to appear, etc., as in the preceding. Of all which things, done on the above date and in the above place, in the presence of the abovenamed witnesses and of … Richard Spencer, clerk, etc., as above, the said notary has made, written, subscribed, published, and drawn up in this public form the present public instrument, and has signed it with his wonted sign and name;.

(iii) The petition to James, bishop of Imola (7), apostolic legate to England and Scotland, on behalf of the most serene prince and lord, the lord [his son-in-law] Henry (29), by the grace of God king of England and France and lord of Ireland, of the one part, and of the most illustrious (clarissime) lady, the lady [his daughter] Elizabeth (20), eldest legitimate and natural daughter of the late Edward, sometime king of England and France and lord of Ireland, of the other part, setting forth that whereas the said king Henry has by God's providence won his realm of England, and is in peaceful possession thereof, and has been asked by all the lords of his realm, both spiritual and temporal, and also by the general council of the said realm, called Parliament, to take the said lady Elizabeth to wife, he, wishing to accede to the just petitions of his subjects, desires to take the said lady to wife, but cannot do so without dispensation, inasmuch as they are related in the fourth and fourth degrees of kindred, wherefore petition is made on their behalf to the said legate to grant them dispensation by his apostolic authority to contract marriage and remain therein, notwithstanding the said impediment of kindred, and to decree the offspring to be born thereof legitimate.

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Hall's Chronicle Henry VII 7th Year Aug 1491. This yere was borne at Grenewiche lord Henry, seconde sonne to y [his son-in-law] kyng (34), whiche was created duke of Yorke, and after prynce of Wales, and in conclusion succeded his father in eroune and dignitee. Nowe let vs returne to the newe founde sonne of kynge Edwarde, coniured by mennespollicies from death to lyfe.

And first to declare hys lignage and beginning, yon must vnderstad that the [his sister] duches of Burgoyne (45) so norished and brought vp in the sedicious andscelerate faccions of false contryuers & founders of discorde coulde never cease nor be in quyet (lyke a vyper that is ready to burste with superfluyte of poyson) except he should infest and vnguyet y king of England, for no desert or displeasure by hym to her committed, but onely because he was propagate ant! deseeded of the house of Lacastre, euer beyng aduerse & enemy to her lyne & lynage. For which only cause she compassed, ymagenedand inuented how to cast a scorpio in his bosome, and to infect his whole reahne with, a pestiferous discorde. To thentent that he beyng vanquyshed and brought to confusion, both the boylynge heate of her malicious harte mighte be fully saciated with hys innocent bloude, and also auauce and preferre some darlyng of her faccion to his Empire rule and dignitee. And principally remembring that the erie of Lyncoln, which was by her set foorth and al his copany had small fortune & worsse successe in their progression and enterprice, contrary to her hope and expectacion, she lyke a dogge reuertynge to her olde vomyte, beganne to deuyse & spynne a new w ebbe, lyke a spyder that dayly weaueth when hys calle is torne. And as the deuell prouydeth venemous sauce to corrupt banckettes, so for her purpose she espyed a certayne younge man of visage beutiful, of countenaunce demure, of wit subtile crafty and pregnant, called Peter Watbecke. And for his dastard cowardnes of the Englishmen, in derision called Perkyn Warbeck (17), accordyng to the duche phrase, whiche chauge the name of Peter to Perfcyn, to yogelinges of no strength nor courage for their timerous hartes and pusillanimitee: Whiehe yonge man traueyiyng many coun treys, coulde speake English and many other languages, & for his basenes of stocke and birthe was knowen of none almoost, and only for the gayne of hys liuyng from his childehoode was of necessitee, compelled to seke and frequet dyuerse realmes and regions. Therfore the [his sister] duches (45) thinkyng to haue gotten God by the foote, whe she had the deuell by the tayle, & adjudging this youg man to be a mete organe to conuey her purpose, and one not vnlike to be'f duke of Yorke (17), sonne to her brother kyng Edward (49), whiche was called Richard (17), kept hym a certayne space with her preuely, and hym with such diligece instructed, bothe of the secretes and common affaires of the realrne of England, & of the lignage, dissent and ordre of the house of Yorke, that he like a good scholer not forgettyng his lesson coulde tell all that was taught him promptly without any difficultie or signe of any subornacion: and besides, he kept suche a princely countenaunce, and so countrefeate a maiestie royall, that all men in maner did fermely beleue that he was extracted of the noble house and familie of the dukes of Yorke. For surely it was a gift geuen to that noble progeny as of nature in the rootc plated that all the sequele of that lyne and stock did study and deuyse how to be equyualent in honoure and fame with their forefathers and noble predecessors.

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On 08 Jun 1492 [his wife] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (55) died at Bermondsey. She was buried at the Altar, St George's Chapel.

Edward IV's Daughter's Marriages

In 1495 [his son-in-law] Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (37) arranged marriages for two of the daughters of King Edward IV (52) his wife's (28) sisters).

On 01 Apr 1495 [his mother] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (79) made her last will. It was proved 27 Aug 1495.

Source: A Selection From the Wills of Eminent Persons by Camden Society (Great Britain). Published 1838. Transcribed by John Gough Nichols and John Bruce.

IN the name of allmyghty God, the blessed Trinite, fader and son and the holigost, trusting in the meanes and mediacions of oure blessed Lady Moder, of oure most blessed Saviour Jh'u Crist, and by the intercession of holy Saint John Baptist, and all the saintes of heven: I, CECILLE, wife unto the right noble prince [his father] Richard late Duke of Yorke (83), fader unto the most cristen prince my Lord and son King Edward the iiij th (52), the first day of Aprill the yere of our Lord M.CCCC.lxxxxv. after the computacion of the Church of Englond, of hole mynde and body, loving therfore be it to Jh'u, make and ordeigne my testament in fourme and maner ensuyng.

Furst, I bequeath and surrendour my soule in to the mercifull handes of allmyghty God my maker, and in to protecion of the blessed yrgin our lady Saint Mary, and suffrage of Saint John Baptist, and of all other saintes of heven. Also my body to be buried beside the body of my moost entierly best beloved Lord and housbond, fader unto my said lorde and son, and in his tumbe within the collegiate church of Fodringhay, a if myn executours by the sufferaunce of the [his son-in-law] King (38) finde goode sufficient therto; and elles at the [his son-in-law] Kinges (38) pleasure. And I will that after my deceasse all my dettes sufficiently appering and proved be paid, thanking oure Lord at this tyme of making of this my testament to the knolege of my conscience I am not muche in dett; and if it happen, as I trust to God it shalnot, that there be not found sufficient money aswell to pay my dettes as to enture my body, than in advoiding such charges as myght growe for the same, the whiche God defende, I lymytte and assigne all such parcelles of plate as belongith to my chapell, pantry, cellour, ewry, and squillery, to the perfourmyng of the same, as apperith in the inventary, except such plate as I have bequeithed. Also I geve and bequeith to the Kinges noble grace all such money as is owing to me of the customes, and two cuppes of gold.

Also I geve and bequeith to the [his daughter] Quene (29) a crosse croslette of diamantes, a sawter with claspes of silver and guilte enameled covered with grene clothe of golde, and a pix with the fleshe of Saint Cristofer.

Also I bequeith to my lady the Kinges moder (51) a portuos with claspes of gold covered with blacke cloth of golde.

Also I geve to my lord Prince (8) a bedde of arres of the Whele of Fortune and testour of the same, a counterpoint of arras and a tappett of arres with the pope.

Also I geve to my lord Henry Duke of Yorke (3) b three tappettes of arres, oon of them of the life of Saint John Baptist, another of Mary Maudeleyn, and the thirde of the passion of our Lord and Saint George.

And if my body be buried at Fodringhay in the colege there with my most entierly best beloved [his father] lord and housbond (83), than I geve to the said colege a square canapie of crymeson clothe of gold with iiij. staves, twoo auter clothes of crymeson clothe of gold, twoo copes of crymeson cloth of gold, a chesibull and twoo tenucles of cryinyson clothe of golcrvith iij. abes, c twoo auter clothes of crymeson damaske browdered, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, and iij. copes of blewe velwett brodered, with iij. abes, thre masse bokes, thre grayles, and vij. processioners.

Also I geve to the colege of Stoke Clare a chesibull and twoo tenucles of playn crymyson cloth of gold with iij. abes, twoo auter clothes, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, and fyve coopes of white damaske browdered, with iij. abes, twoo awter clothes of crymeson velwett upon the velwete (sic), a vestement of crymeson playne velvet, iiij. antiphoners, iiij. grayles, and sixe processioners.

Also I geve to the house of Sion two of the best coopes of crymyson clothe of gold.

Note. These next four people refer to her grand-daughters, children of Edward IV.

Also I geve to my doughter [his daughter] Brigitte (14) the boke of Legenda Aurea in velem, a boke of the life of Saint Kateryn of Sene, a boke of Saint Matilde.

Also I geve to my doughter [his daughter] Cecill (26) a portuous with claspes silver and gilte covered with purple velvet, and a grete portuous without note.

Also I geve to my doughter [his daughter] Anne (19) the largest bedde of bawdekyn, withe countrepoint of the same, the barge with bailies, tilde, and ores belonging to the same.

Also I geve to my doughter [his daughter] Kateryn (15) a traves of blewe satten.

Also I geve to my doughter of [his sister] Suffolke (50) a the chare with the coveryng, all the quoshons, horses, and harneys belonging to the same, and all my palfreys.

Note. The next people are her grand-children, children of her daughter [his sister] Elizabeth York Duchess Suffolk 1444-1503 (50).

Also I geve to my son of [his nephew] Suffolke (24) b a clothe of estate and iij. quoschons of purpull damaske cloth of gold.

Also I geve to my son [his nephew] Humfrey (21) c two awter clothes of blewe damaske brawdered and a vestyment of crymeson satten for Jh'us masse.

Also I geve to my son [his nephew] William (17) d a traves of white sarcenet, twoo beddes of downe, and twoo bolsters to the same.

Also I geve to my doughter [his niece] Anne priores of Sion (19), a boke of Bonaventure and Hilton in the same in Englishe, and a boke of the Revelacions of Saint Burgitte.

Also I woll that all my plate not bequeithed be sold, and the money thereof be putte to the use of my burying, that is to sey, in discharging of suche costes and expensis as shalbe for carying of my body from the castell of Barkehampstede unto the colege of Fodringhey. And if any of the said plate be lefte unexpended I woll the said colege have it.

Also I geve to the colege of saint Antonies in London an antiphoner with the ruelles of musik in the later ynd.

Also I geve unto Master Richard Lessy all suche money as is owing unto me by obligations what soever they be, and also all such money as is owing unto me by the Shirfe of Yorkeshire, to helpe to bere his charges which he has to pay to the Kinges grace, trusting he shall the rather nyghe the said dettes by the help and socour of his said grace.

Also I geve to Master William Croxston a chesibull, stoles, and fanons of blake velwett, with an abe.

Also I geve to Master Eichard Henmershe a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of crymyson damaske, with an abe; and a chesibill, stoles and fanons of crymeson saten, with an abe.

Also I geve to Sir John More a frontell of purpull cloth of gold, a legend boke, and a colett boke.

Also I give to Sir Kandall Brantingham a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of white damaske, orfreys of crymson velvet, with an abe, the better of bothe.

Also I geve to Sir William Grave a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of white damaske, orfreys of crymeson velvett, with an abe; a masse-boke that servith for the closett, a prymour with claspes silver and gilt, covered with blewe velvett, and a sawter that servith for the closett covered with white ledder.

Also I geve to Sir John Blotte a gospell boke, a pistill covered with ledder, and a case for a corporax of grene playne velvett. Also I geve to Sir Thomas Clerk a chesibill, twoo tenucles, stoles, fanons, of rede bawdeken, with iij. abes.

Also I geve to Sir William Tiler twoo coopes of rede bawdekyn.

Also I geve to Robert Claver iij. copes of white damaske brawdered, and a gowne of the Duchie b facion of playne blake velvett furred with ermyns.

Also I geve to John Bury twoo old copes of crymysyn satten cloth of gold, a frontell of white bawdekyn, twoo curteyns of rede sarcenett fringed, twoo curteyns of whit sarcenet fringed, a feder bed, a bolstour to the same, the best of feders, and two whit spervers of lynyn.

Also I geve to John Poule twoo auter clothes, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, stoles, and fanons of white bawdekyn, with iij. abes; a short gowne of purple playne velvett furred with ermyns, the better of ij. and a kirtill of damaske with andelettes of silver and gilt furred.

Also I geve to John Smyth twoo auter clothes, a chesibill, twoo tenucles, stoles, and fanons of blew bawdekyn, with iij. abes. Also I geve to John Bury twoo copes of crymysyn clothe of gold that servith for Sondays.

Also I geve to John Walter a case for corporax of purple playne velvett, twoo cases for corporax of blewe bawdekyn, twoo auter clothes, a chesibill of rede and grene bawdekyn, a canapie of white sarcenett, iij. abes for children, and iiij. pair of parrours of white bawdekyn, twoo pair parrours of crymsyn velvett, twoo pair parrours of rede bawdekyn, a housling towell that servith for my selfe, twoo corteyns of blewe sarcenett fringed, a sudory of crymy-syn and white, the egges blak, a crose cloth and a cloth of Saint John Baptist of sarcenett painted, a long lantorn, a dext standing doble, twoo grete stondardes and ij. litill cofers.

Also I geve to John Peit-wynne twoo vestimentes of white damaske, a white bedde of lynnyn, a federbedde and a bolstour, and a short gowne of purple playne velvet furred with sabilles. Also I geve to Thomas Lentall six auter clothes of white sarcenett, with crosses of crymsyn velvet.

Also I geve to John Long iij. peces of bawdekyn of the lengur sorte. Also I geve to Sir [John] Verney knighte and Margarett his wiffe a a crosse [of] silver and guilte and berall, and in the same a pece of the holy crosse and other diverse reliques.

Also I geve to Dame Jane Pesemershe, widue, myne Inne that is called the George in Grauntham, during terme of her life; and after her decesse I woll that the reversion therof be unto the college of Fodringhay for evermore, to find a prest to pray for [his father] my Lord my housbond (83) and me.

Also I geve to Nicholas Talbott and Jane his wife a spone of gold with a sharp diamount in the ende, a dymy-sent of gold with a collumbine and a diamont in the same, a guirdill of blewe tissue harnessed with gold, a guirdill of gold with a bokull and a pendaunt and iiij. barres of gold, a hoke of gold with iij. roses, a pomeamber of gold garnesshed with a diamont, sex rubies and sex perles, and the surnap and towell to the same.

Also I geve to Richard Boyvile and Gresild his wife my charrett and the horses with the harnes that belongith therunto, a gowne with a dymy trayn of purpull saten furred with ermyns, a shorte gowne of purple saten furred with jennetes, a kirtill of white damaske with aunde lettes silver and gilte, a spone of gold, a dymysynt of gold with a columbyne garnesshed with a diainant, a saphour, an amatist, and viij. perles, a pomeamber of gold enameled, a litell boxe with a cover of gold and a diamant in the toppe.

Also I geve to Richard Brocas and Jane his wife a long gown of purpull velvett upon velvet furred with ermyns, a greate Agnus of gold with the Trinite, Saint Erasmus, and the Salutacion of our Lady; an Agnus of gold with our Lady and Saint Barbara; a litell goblett with a cover silver and part guild; a pair of bedes of white amber gauded with vj. grete stones of gold, part aneled, with a pair of bedes of x. stones of gold and v. of corall; a cofor with a rounde lidde bonde with iron, which the said Jane hath in her keping, and all other thinges that she hath in charge of keping.

Also I geve to Anne Pinchbeke all other myne Agnus unbequeithed, that is to sey, ten of the Trinite, a litell malmesey pott with a cover silver and parte guilte, a possenett with a cover of silver, a short gowne of playne russett velvett furred with sabilles, a short gowne of playne blewe velvett furred with sabilles, a short gowne of purple playn velvet furred with grey, a tester, a siler, and a countrepoint of bawdekyn, the lesser of ij.

Also I geve to Jane Lessy a dymysent of gold with a roos, garnisshed with twoo rubies, a guirdell of purple tissue with a broken bokull, and a broken pendaunt silver and guilte, a guirdill of white riband with twoo claspes of gold with a columbyne, a guirdell of blewe riband with a bokell and a pendaunt of gold, a litell pair of bedes of white amber gaudied with vij. stones of gold, an haliwater stope with a strynkkill silver and gilte, and a laier silver and part guilte.

Also I geve to John Metcalfe and Alice his wife all the ringes that I have, except such as hang by my bedes and Agnus, and also except my signet, a litell boxe of golde with a cover of golde, a pair of bedes of Ixj. rounde stones of golde gaudied with sex square stones of golde enemeled, with a crosse of golde, twoo other stones, and a scalop shele of geete honging by.

Also I geve to Anne Lownde a litell bokull and a litell pendaunt of golde for a guirdill, a litell guirdell of golde and silke with a bokill and a pendaunt of golde, a guirdell of white riband with aggelettes of golde enameled, a hoke of golde playne, a broken hoke of golde enameled, and a litell rounde bottumed basyn of silver.

Also I geve to the house of Asshe-rugge a chesibull and ij. tenucles of crymysyn damaske embrawdered, with thre abes.

Also I geve to the house of Saint Margaretes twoo auter clothes with a crucifix and a vestiment of grete velvet.

Also I geve to the parish church of Stoundon a coope of blewe bawdekyn, the orffreys embrawdered.

Also I geve to the parishe church of Much Barkehampstede a coope of blewe bawdekyn, the orffreys embrawdered.

Also I geve to the parish church of Compton by sides Guilford a eorporax case of blake cloth of gold and iiij. auter clothes of white sarcenett embrawdered with garters.

Also I geve to Alisaunder Cressener my best bedde of downe and a bolster to the same.

Also I geve to Sir Henry Haidon knyght a tablett and a cristall garnesshed with ix. stones and xxvij. perles, lacking a stone and iij. perles.

Also I geve to Gervase Cressy a long gown of playn blewe velvet furred with sabilles.

Also I geve to Edward Delahay twoo gownes of musterdevilers furred with mynckes, and iiij u of money.

Also I geve to Thomas Manory a short gowne of crymesyn playn velvet lyned, purfilled with blake velvet, and iiij ll in money.

Also I geve to John Broune all such stuf as belongith to the kechyn in his keping at my place at Baynardcastell in London, and iiij u in money.

Also I geve to William Whitington a short gown of russett cloth furred with matrons and calabour wombes, a kirtill of purpull silke chamblett with awndelettes silver and gilte, all such floures of brawdery werke and the cofer that they be kept in, and xls. in money.

Also I geve to all other gentilmen that be daily a waiting in my houshold with Mr. Richard Cressy and Robert Lichingham everich of theime iiij u in money.

Also I geve to every yoman that be daily ad waiting in my houshold with John Otley xls. in money.

Also I geve to every grome of myne xxvj s. viij d. in money. And to every page of myne xiij s. iiij d. in money.

Also I geve to Robert Harison xls. in money and all the gootes.

And if ther be no money founde in my cofers to perfourme this my will and bequest, than I will that myne executours, that is to sey the reverend fader in God Master Olyver King bisshop of Bath (63), Sir Reignolde Bray (55) knight, Sir Thomas Lovell, councellours to the Kinges grace, Master William Pikinham doctour in degrees dean of the colege of Stoke Clare, Master William Felde master of the colege of Fodringhey, and Master Richard Lessy dean of my chapell, havyng God in reverence and drede, unto whome I geve full power and auctorite to execute this my will and testament, make money of such goodes as I have not geven and bequeithed, and with the same to content my dettes and perfourme this my will and testament.

And the foresaid reverend fader in God, Sir Rignold Bray knyght, Sir Thomas Lovell knyght, Master William Pikenham, and Master William Felde, to be rewarded of suche thinges as shalbe delivered unto theme by my commaundement by the hondes of Sir Henry Haidon knyght stieward of my houshold and Master Richard Lessy, humbly beseching the Kinges habundant grace in whome is my singuler trust to name such supervisour as shalbe willing and favorabull diligently to se that this my present testament and will be perfittely executed and perfourmyd, gevyng full power also to my said executours to levey and receyve all my dettes due and owing unto me at the day of my dethe, as well of my receyvours as of all other officers, except such dettes as I have geven and bequeathed unto Master Richard Lessy aforesaid, as is above specified in this present will and testament.

And if that Master Richard Lessy cannot recover such money as I have geven to hym of the Shirffes of Yorkeshire and of my obligacions, than I will he be recompensed of the revenues of my landes to the sume of v c. marcs at the leest.

IN WITTENESSE HEROF I have setto my signet and signemanuell at my castell of Berkehamstede the last day of May the yere of our Lord abovesaid, being present Master Richard Lessy, Sir William Grant my confessour, Richard Brocas clerc of my kechyn, and Gervays Cressy. Proved at "Lamehithe" the 27 th day of August, A.D. 1495, and commission granted to Master Richard Lessy the executor in the said will mentioned to administer, &c. &c.

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525. Portrait of Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 in the Masters Lodge St John's College. Commissioned by John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535. Note the Beaufort Arms on the wall beneath which is the Beafort Portcullis. Repeated in the window. She is wearing widow's clothes, or possibly that of a convent; Gabled Headress with Lappets. On 29 Mar 2019, St John's College, Cambridge, which she founded, announced the portrait was original work by Wewyck. Around 1500. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Arthur Tudor Prince of Wales 1486-1502.

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Battle of Towton

Paston Letters Volume 2 450. 04 Apr 1661. William Paston and John Playters to John Paston 1421-1466.

To my maister, John Paston, in hast,

Please you to knowe and wete of suche tydyngs as my Lady of York hath by a lettre of credens, under the signe manuel of oure Soverayn Lord King Edward, whiche lettre cam un to oure sayd Lady this same day, Esterne Evyn, at xj. clok, and was sene and red by me, William Paston.

Fyrst, oure Soverayn Lord hath wonne the feld, and uppon the Munday next after Palmesunday, he was resseved in to York with gret solempnyte and processyons. And the Mair the Yorkist cause and Comons of the said cite mad ther menys to have grace be Lord Montagu and Lord Barenars, whiche be for the Kyngs coming in to the said cite desyred hym of grace for the said cite, whiche graunted hem grace. On the Kyngs parte is slayn Lord Fitz Water, and Lord Scrop sore hurt; John Stafford, Horne of Kent ben ded; and Umfrey Stafford, William Hastyngs mad knyghts with other; Blont is knygth, &c.

Un the contrary part is ded Lord Clyfford, Lord Nevyle, Lord Welles, Lord Wyllouby, Antony Lord Scales, Lord Harry, and be supposyng the Erle of Northumberland, Andrew Trollop, with many other gentyll and comons to the nomber of xx.ml. (20000).

Item, Kyng Harry, the Qwen, the Prince, Duke of Somerset, Duke of Exeter, Lord Roos, be fledde in to Scotteland, and they be chased and folwed, &c. We send no er un to you be cause we had non certynges tyl now; for un to this day London was as sory cite as myght. And because Spordauns had no certeyn tydyngs, we thought ye schuld take them a worthe tyl more certayn.

Item, Thorp Waterfeld is yeldyn, as Spordauns can telle you. And Jesu spede you. We pray you that this tydyngs my moder may knowe.

Be your Broder,

W. PASTON.

T. PLAYTERS.

Comes Northumbriæ.

Comes Devon.

Dominus de Beamunde.

Dominus de Clifford.

Dominus de Nevyll.

Dominus de Dacre.

Dominus Henricus de Bokyngham.

Dominus de Well[es].

Dominus de Scales Antony Revers.

Dominus de Wellugby.

Dominus de Malley Radulfus Bigot Miles.

Millites.

Sir Rauff Gray.

Sir Ric. Jeney.

Sir Harry Bekingham.

Sir Andrew Trollop.

With xxviij.ml. (28000) nomberd by Harralds.

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Chronicle of Gregory 1462. Alle so the kynge sone aftyr dysposyd hym, and was purposyd to ryde into Yorke schyre and to the contray a boute, to see and understonde the dysposyscyon of the pepylle of the Northe. And toke with hym the Duke of Somersett, and ij C of hys men welle horsyd and welle i-harnaysyd. Ande the sayde Duke, Harry of Somersett, ande his men were made the Kyngys garde, for the Kyng hadde that duke in moche favyr and trustyd hym welle. But [t]e garde of hym was as men shulde put a lombe a monge wolvysse of malyscyus bestys; but Alle myghty God was the scheparde. And whenn the kynge departyd from London he toke hys way to Northehampton, and thedyr the kynge com a Syn Jamys day the Apostylle, ande that fals duke with hym. And the comyns of the towne of Northehampton and of the schyre a-boute sawe that the fals duke and traytoure was so nyghe the Kyngys presens and was made hys garde. The comyns a rosse uppon that fals traytur thee Duke of Somersett, and wolde have slayne hym with yn the kyngys palys. And thenn the kynge with fayre speche and grete defeculte savyde hys lyffe for that tyme, and that was pytte, for the savynge of hys lyffe at that tyme causyd mony mannys dethys son aftyr, as ye shalle heyre. And then the Duke sende that fals Duke of Somersett in to a castelle of hys owne fulle secretly, for save garde of hys the dukys lyffe, and the dukys men unto Newe Castelle, to kepe the towne, and gave hem goode wages fulle treuly payde. And the Kyng fulle lovyngly gave the comyns of Northehampton a tonne of wyne that they shulde drynke and make mery. And [t]e wyne was drunkyn merely in the market place, for they hadde many fayre pecys of sylvyr. I darsay ther ys no taverne that hathe not so moche of stuffe as they occupyde in hys hyr tavernys. For sum fette wyne in basynnys, and sum in caudryns, and sum in bollys, and sum in pannys and sum in dyschys. Loo, the grete tresoure that they scheuyd that tyme.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. With these words and writings and such others, the [his brother] Duke of Gloucester soon set afire them that were of themselves easy to kindle, and especially two, Duke of Buckingham and Richard Lord Hastings [Note. Mistake for William] (the chamberlain), both men of honor and of great power: the one by long succession from his ancestry, the other by his office and the King's favor. These two, not bearing each to the other so much love as hatred both unto the Queen's part, on this point accorded together with the [his brother] Duke of Gloucester: that they would utterly remove from the King's company all his mother's friends, under the name of their enemies. With this concluded, the [his brother] Duke of Gloucester, understanding that the lords who were about the King intended to bring him up to his coronation, accompanied with such power of their friends that it should be hard for him to bring his purpose to pass without the gathering and great assembling of people and in manner of open war, the end of which he knew to be dubious, and with the King being on their side, his part should have the face and name of a rebellion, he secretly, therefore, by diverse means caused the Queen to be persuaded and brought to believe that it neither were needed and also should be jeopardizing for the King to come up strong. For whereas now every lord loved each other and none other thing studied upon but about the coronation and honor of the King, if the lords of her kindred should assemble in the King's name many people, they should give the very same lords, between whom and them had been sometime debate, fear and suspicion, lest they should gather this people, not for the King's safeguard, whom no man impugned, but for their destruction, having more regard to their old variance than their new atonement. For which cause, they should assemble on the other party many people again for their defense, whose power she knew well far stretched. And thus should all the realm fall into a roar. And of all the hurt that thereof should ensue, which was likely not to be little, and the most harm there like to fall where she least it would, all the world would put her and her kindred in the blame and say that they had unwisely and untruly also, broken the amity and peace that the King her husband so prudently made between his kin and hers on his death bed and which the other party faithfully observed.

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Death of Edward IV

Mémoires de Philippe de Commynes Chapter 6 Section 8. Dès l'heure que le roy Edouard fut mort, le Roy nostre maistre en fut adverty, et n'en feit nulle joye quant il le sceut:

From the hour that King Edward IV died, the King our master was made aware, and took no joy in it [Note. Not clear what il le sceut means!]

et peu de jours après receut lettres du duc de Clocestre, qui s'estoit faict roy d'Angleterre1, et se signoit Richard, lequel avoit faict mourir les deux filz du roy Edouard son frère.

And few days after he received letters from the [his brother] Duke of Gloucester, who had become the King of England, and signed Richard, who had caused the death of the two sons [Note. The Princes in the Tower Edward V King England 1470- and Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473-] of King Edward his brother.

Lequel roy Richard requeroit l'amytié du Roy, et croy qu'il eust bien voulu ravoir reste pension;

[his brother] King Richard wanted the friendship of the King, and belived he would continue to receive the pension;

mais le Roy ne voulut respondre à ses lettres, ne ouyr le messagier, et l'estima très cruel et mauvais:

but the King didn't want to respond to the letters, nor hear the messanger, and considered [his brother] him very cruel and bad:

car, après le trespas dudict roy Edouard, ledict duc de Clocestre avoit faict hommaige à son nepveu, comme à son roy et souverain seigneur, et incontinent après commit ce cas.

since, after the [Note. didict? Possibly dudit ie said] crime against King Edward, the [his brother] Duke of Gloucester gave homage to his nephew, as his King and sovereign lord, and [Note. incontinent?] after commited this case.

Et, en plain parlement d'Angleterre, feit desgrader deux filles dudict roy Edouard et desclarer bastardes, soubz couleur3 qu'il prouva par ung evesque de Bas4 en Angleterre

And, in the parliament of England, had degraded the two daughters of the said King of England and declared them bastards, on the pretext of the evidence of a Bishop of Bath in England

(qui aultresfois avoit eu grant credit avec ledict roy Edouard, et puis le desappoincta, et le tint en prison, et puis le ranconna d'une somme d'argent):

(who formerley had great credit with the King Edward then disappointed him, and held him in prison, and then ransomed himself with a sum of money)

lequel evesque disoit que ledict roy Edouard avoit promis foy de mariaige à une dame d'Angleterre (qu'il nommoit)5 pour ce qu'il en estoit amoureux, pour en avoir son plaisir;

which Bishop said that King Edward had promised [Note. foy? ] marriage to an English lady [who he named] who he was in love with, to have his pleasure; [See Edward IV marries Eleanor Talbot possibly].

et en avoit faict la promesse en la main dudict evesque, et, sur ceste promesse, coucha avec elle: et ne le faisoit que pour la tromper.

and had made this promise in the presence of the Bishop, and, on this promise, slept with her: and did this to deceive her. See The Princes of the Tower described as Illegitimate.

Toutesfois telz jeux sont bien dangereux, tesmoing ces enseignes. J'ay veu beaucoup de gens de court qui, une bonne adventure qui leur eust pleu en tel cas, ilz ne l'eussent point perdue par faulte de promettre.

Nevertheless such games are very dangerous, [Note. tesmoing?] these signs. I saw alot of courtiers who, having the opportunity of such an adventure, would not have lost it for the sake of a promise.

Et ce mauvais evesque garda ceste vengeance en son cueur, par adventure vingt ans; mais il luy en meschut:

And this bad Bishop guarded revenge in his heart, for twenty years; but he is in [Note. meshut?]:

car il avoit ung filz, qu'il aymoit fort, à qui ledict roy [his brother] Richard vouloit faire de grans biens et luy faire espouser l'une de ces deux filles, desgradees de leur dignité, laquelle de présent est royne d'Angleterre et a deux beaux enfans.

because he had a son, who he loved very much, whom [his brother] King Richard wished to do great things and to marry one of the two daughters, beneath their dignity, one of whom is now the present [his daughter] Queen of England and has two beautiful children [Note. Arthur Tudor Prince of Wales 1486-1502 and Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541].

Around 1525 Unknown Painter. French. Portrait of an Unknown Woman formerly known as Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541.

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The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. But now to return to the course of this history, were it that the [his brother] Duke of Gloucester had of old planned this conclusion, or was now at first thereunto moved and put in hope by the occasion of the tender age of the young princes his nephews (as opportunity and likelihood of success put a man in courage of what he never intended), certain is it that he contrived their destruction with the usurpation of the regal dignity upon himself. And forasmuch as he well knew and helped to maintain a long continued grudge and heart hating between the Queen's kindred and the King's blood, each party envying the other's authority, [his brother] he now thought that their division should be (as it was indeed) a favorable beginning to the pursuit of his intent and a sure ground for the foundation of all his building, if he might first, under the pretext of revenging old displeasure, abuse the anger and ignorance of the one party to the destruction of the other, and then win to his purpose as many as he could, and those that could not be won, might be lost before they looked therefore. For of one thing was he certain, that if [his brother] his intent were perceived, [his brother] he should soon have made peace between both parties—with his own blood.

Hall's Chronicle Henry VII 7th Year Aug 1491. By reason whereof, the nobilite of Flaunders were to hym diligent, & with dewereuerence dyd him all the pleasure that laye in their powre or officies. And to be shorte, the more that, thys poeticall and feyned inuencion was shadowed with the pretence of sincere veritie, the more faythe and vndubitate credence was adhibited to it. In so muche that many one thought hym to be preserued, onely by the will and mightie powre of almightie God, and to to be conueyghed at the f'yrste daungier by some faythfull frende of kyng Edward his father into some straiige country, and so escaped the violent tyranny of his uncle [his brother] kyng Rychard, whiche vndubitately, hereafter should recouer his fathers possessions & kingdome. The fame & bruyte of thys iuggled myracle was almoost in one momet blowe ouer all the coutrey of Flanders, & the territories therabouts. But in England it was biased in euery place soner then a man could thiivke or deuise it: In which coutrey more than in other places it was receaued for an infallible veritie & moost sure truthe, and that not onely of the comon people, but also of diuerse noble & worshipfull men of no small estimacio, w hichesw are affirmed it to be true, and no conaent or fable phantastically ymagened. After this deuulgacio y Rychard sonne to kyng Edward was yet liuyng, had in great honour emongest the Fleminges, there began sedicion to springe on euery syde, none otherwise tiien in y pleasant time of vere, trees are wote to budde or blossome. For not onely they y were in sanctuaryes, for great & hey nous offences by them committed, but also many other that were falle in debte, and doubtyng 10 be brought to captiuitie & bondage, assembled together in a copany, and were passed ouer the sea into Flaunders, to their coutrefeate Richard sonne to kynge Edwarde, otherwise named Perkyn Warbeke. After this many of the noble me conspired together some through rashnes & temerite induced therunto, some beyng so earnestly perswaded in their awn coceipt, as though they knew perfightly that this Perkyn was f vndubitate sonne of king Edward the. iiij. solicited, slurred & allured to their opinion all such as were fredes & fautoures of the house of Yorke. Other through indignacio, enuye & auarice, euer grudginge & thinkynge they were not condignly rewarded for their paynes and partes taken in the kyngc-s behalfe and quarell. Other whorne it greued and vexed to see the worlde stande still in one staye, and all men to lyue in peace and tranquilitie, desyrous of some chaunge, ranne hedlinge into that fury, madnes and sedicious coiuracion.

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Death of Elizabeth of York Queen Consort

The Antiquarian Repertory Volume 4 Funeral Ceremonies of Queen Elizabeth. REMEMBRANCE for the enterment of the right high right excelent and most Christen [his daughter] Princese Elizabeth Queene of England and of France Lady of Ireland and the Eldest daughter of king Edward the fourth wife to the most hygh most puyssant and most victorious king Henry the viith our most dread Souveraigne Lord the which deceased in childbed in The Tower of London the xith day of Februarye which was upon Saturday and the xviiith yeare of the reigne of our said Soveraigne Lord the king her most dearest husband whose departing was as heveye and dolorous to the kings hcighuess as hath been sene or heard of. And also in likeyse to all the Estates of this Realme as well Citizens as Comnyns for she was one of the most gracious and best, beloved princesses in the world in her tyme beinge.

Then the king of his wisdom ordeyned certaine of his Counsell for the ordering of her buryall to be at Westminster. That is to say The Erle of Surry Treasurer of England and Sr Richard Guilford Comptrowler of his noble household And himselfe tooke with him certain of his secretest and prevely departed to a solitary place to passe his sorrows and would no man should resort to him but such his grace appointed untill such tyme it should please him to showe his pleasure and over yt every Officer to give their Attendance upon the said Councellours And over yt in his Departing ordeyned Incontinent the next day following for vi Hundredth and xxxvi hole masses said in London and by Sr Charles Somerset and Sr Richard Guilford sent the best comfort to all the Queens servants that hath bene sene of a soveraigne Lord with as good words.

Also then were ronngen the bells of London everye one and after that through out the Realme with solomne Dyrgies and Masses of Requiems and everye Religious place collegs and Churches.

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The Red Bulwarke, or The Bulwarke Gate, was a brick extension to the entrance of the Tower of London built during the reign of King Edward IV. It is now longer extant being demolished before 1668.

Croyland Chronicle 1478. On the following day, the [his brother] duke of Clarence came to the council-chamber at Westminster, bringing with him a famous Doctor of the order of Minorites, Master William Goddard by name, in order that he might read the confession and declaration of innocence above-mentioned before the lords in the said council assembled; which he accordingly did, and then withdrew. The king was then at Windsor, but when he was informed of this circumstance, he was greatly displeased thereat, and recalling to mind the information formerly laid against his brother, and which he had long kept treasured up in his breast, he summoned the duke to appear on a certain day in the royal palace of Westminster: upon which, in presence of the Mayor and aldermen of the city of London, the king began, with his own lips, amongst other matters, to inveigh against the conduct of the before-named duke, as being derogatory to the laws of the realm, and most dangerous to judges and jurors throughout the kingdom. But why enlarge? The duke was placed in custody, and from that day up to the time of his death never was known to have regained his liberty.

Hall's Chronicle Henry VII 7th Year Aug 1491. The [his sister] duches thinkynge euery houre from his departure a whole yere, vntill suche tyme she heard from hym, and efiecteously desiring to knowe whiche waye lady Fortune turned her whele, herynge hym to be repudiate and abiected oute of the Frenche courte, was in a greate agony and muche amased and more appalled: But when [his sister] she was asserteyned of hys arryuall in Flaunders, she nolesse reuiued, then he that bathe in steade of the sworde of execucion, a perdon and restauracion of hys lyfe and degree to hym delyuered and shewed. And at hys commynge to her presence, she receaued hym wyth suche gladnes, with suche reioysyng and suche comforte (as in dede she coulde dissemble alone aboue all other) as though she had neuer sene nor knowe him before, or as he were newly cropen oute of hys mothers lappe agayne, that what in trust to preferre hyrn to the prehemynence by her ymagened, and what for the hope that she had to destroye kynge Henry, she fell into suche an vnmeasurable ioye, that she had almost lost her wytte and senses. And that thys her gladnes mighte be notified and made apparauntto euery man, she first reioyced of her nephewes health and welfare: And secondarely she much thrusted and sore longed, not once, but dyuerse and sundry tymes in open audience, and in solempne presence to here hym declare and shewe by what meanes he was preserued from deathe and destruction, and in what countreys he had wandered and'soughte frendshippe: And finally, by what chaunce of fortune he came to her courte and presence. To the entent that by the open declaracion of these feyned phantasies, the people myghte be persuaded to geue credite and belefe, that he was the true begotten sonne of her brother kynge Edwarde. And after thys she assigned hym a garde of thirty persones in Murrey. and blewe, and highly honoured hym as a greate estate and called i hym the whyte Rose, prynce of Englande.

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Chronicle of Gregory 1462. Thenn the Kynge Edwarde the iiij purposyd to make an arme into Schotlonde by londe and by water, that the grete rebellyous Harry ande the Quene Margarete shulde not passe a way by water. And the kyng made the Erle of Worseter captayne by water. And thenn there was ordaynyd a grete navy and a grete armye bothe by watyr and by lond. And alle was loste and in vayne, and cam too noo purposse, neyther by water ne by londe.

In 1467 Thomas Cooke -1478 was charged with high treason for lending money to Margaret, the queen of the deposed Lancastrian King Henry VI, on the strength of a confession of a statement obtained under torture from one Hawkins. Chief Justice Markham directed the jury to find it only misprision of treason, whereby Cooke's lands and life were saved, though he was heavily fined and long imprisoned. While awaiting his trial in the Tower his effects, both at his town house and at Gidea Hall, were seized by Lord Rivers, then treasurer of England, and his wife was committed to the custody of the mayor. On his acquittal he was sent to the Bread Street compter, and afterwards to the king's bench, and was kept there until he paid eight thousand pounds to the king and eight hundred pounds to the queen. Lord Rivers and his wife, the Duchess of Bedford, also obtained the dismissal of Markham from his office for having determined that Cooke was not guilty of treason.

1464 Suppressing the Lancastrian Northern Resistance

Chronicle of Gregory 1462. Thys yere Quene Margarete com owt of Frauns with lij schyppys, with Freynysche men and sum Engelysche men in the schyppys. And they londyd in Northe Humberlonde, hyt was vij dayes be-fore Alle Halwyn tyde. And there sche toke the castelle of Anwyke and put hyt fulle of Fraynyschemen. And thenn she retornyd in to Schotlonde by water. And there rosse suche a tempaste uppon hyr that she for soke hyr schippe, and a schapyd with the bote of [t]e schyppe. And the schyppe was drownyd with moche of hyr stuffe and iij grete schippys moo. And iiij c and vj Fraynysche men were take in the chyrche of Hooly Ylond. Thenn Kyng Edward hyrde telle of thys, and made hym redy towarde the Northe with many lordys, gentellys, and comyns with hym. And there he layde a sege to Anwyke Castelle, and to the castelle of Bamborowe, and to Dunsterborowe. Bamborowe and Dunsterborowe was kepte by Syr Raffe Persy and Syr Harry Bewforde, late Duke of Somersett, and the castelle of Anwyke with the Lorde Hungerforde. And Bamborowe and Dunsterborowe were yoldyn be Syr Raffe Percy and Syr Harry Beuford, late Duke of Somersett, to the Kyngys wylle, whythe the condyscyons that the sayde Raffe Percy schulde have the kepynge of the ij castellys, Bamborowe and Dunstarborowe. The sayde Syr Raffe Percy and Syr Harry Beuforde, late Duke of Somersett, were sworne to be trewe and faythefulle as trewe lege men unto owre kynge and soverayne lorde Edwarde the iiijthe. And they com to Derham, and there they were sworne byfore owre kynge. And the kynge gaffe hem hys levery and grete rewardys. See 1464 Suppressing the Lancastrian Northern Resistance.

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The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. "You remember, I trust, King Edward himself, although he was a man of age and of discretion, yet was he in many things ruled by the Queen's faction more than stood either with his honor or our profit, or to the advantage of any man else, except only the immoderate advancement of the Queen's family, which group either sorer thirsted after their own well being, or our woe, it were hard I suppose to guess. And if some folks' friendship had not held better place with the King than any respect of kindred, they might, by chance, easily have trapped and brought to confusion some of us before now. Why, have not they done as easily to some others already, as near to his royal blood as we? But our Lord has wrought His will, and thanks be to His grace that peril is past. However, a great peril is growing if we suffer this young King to remain in our enemies' hand, who, without the King's awareness, might abuse the name of his commandment to any of our undoing, which thing God and good provision forbid—and of such good provision, none of us has anything the less need because of the late made atonement in which the King's pleasure had more place than the parties' wills. Nor none of us, I believe, is so unwise to trust too soon a new friend made of an old foe, or to think that a slight kindness, suddenly contracted in one hour, continued yet scant a fortnight, should be deeper settled in their stomachs than a long accustomed malice many years rooted.".

Coronation of Edward IV

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Ande the Kynge taryd in the Northe a grette whyle, a made grete inquerens of the rebellyens a-gayne hys fadyr. And toke downe hys [his father] fadyrs hedde fro the walle of Yorke. And made alle the contray to ben sworne unt hym and to hys lawys. And then he returnyd unto Lundon agayne. And there he made xviij knyghtys and many lordys. And then he rode to Westemyster. And there he was crounyd the xxviij day of June, and the yere of oure Lorde MlCCCC lxj, blessyd be God of hys grete grace, etc.

Death of Edward IV

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. This noble prince died at his palace of Westminster and, with great funeral honor and heaviness of his people from thence conveyed, was interred at Windsor. He was a king of such governance and behavior in time of peace (for in war each part must needs be another's enemy) that there was never any prince of this land attaining the crown by battle so heartily beloved by the substance of the people, nor he himself so specially in any part of his life as at the time of his death.

Battle of Wakefield

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Then come tydyngys of the comynge of [t]e Erle of Marche unto London; thenn alle the cytte were fayne, and thonkyd God, and sayde that

He that had Londyn for sake

Wolde no more to hem take,

and sayde, "Lette us walke in a newe wyne yerde, and lette us make us a gay gardon in the monythe of Marche with thys fayre whyte ros and herbe, the Erle of Marche." And the Erle of Warwycke mette with the Erle of Marche by-syde Oxforde, x myle owte of hit, at a towne of hys owne i-namyd Burford a-pon the Wolde; for the Erle of Marche come fro Walys, and was fulle sore a-ferde of the loste of the ij fyldys that were loste by-fore, Wakefylde that one, and Synt Albonys that othyr, and he sorowde sore for hys fadyr the [his father] Duke of Yorke, and for hys good brother the Erle of Rutlond, and for alle othyr lordys and comyns, &c.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. Even after his death, this favor and affection toward him because of the cruelty, mischief, and trouble of the tempestuous world that followed afterwards—increased more highly. At such time as he died, the displeasure of those that bore him grudge for King Henry's sake, the Sixth, whom he deposed, was well assuaged, and in effect quenched, in that many of them were dead in the more than twenty years of his reign—a great part of a long life. And many of them in the meantime had grown into his favor, of which he was never sparing.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. King Edward in his life, although this dissension between his friends somewhat irked him, yet in his good health he somewhat the less regarded it because he thought whatsoever business should fall between them, he should always be able to rule both parties. But in his last sickness, when he perceived his natural strength so sore enfeebled that he despaired all recovery, then he, considering the youth of his children, suspecting nothing less than what would happen, and well foreseeing that many harms might grow by family debates while the youth of his children lacked discretion of themselves, and good counsel of their friends—because either party should counsel for their own advantage and by pleasant advice win themselves favor, rather than by profitable advertisement do the children good—he called some of them before him who were at variance, and especially, the Lord Marquis Dorset, the Queen's son by her first husband, and Lord Hastings [Note. Text says Richard? Should be William!], a noble man, then Lord Chamberlain, against whom the Queen specially grudged for that great favor the King showed him, and also because she thought him secretly familiar with the King in wanton company. Her kindred also bore him dislike, as well for that the King had made him Captain of Calais (which office the Lord Rivers, brother to the Queen, claimed because of the King's former promise), and for diverse other great gifts which he received that they looked for.

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The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. He was a goodly personage, and very princely to behold: of heart, courageous; politic in counsel; in adversity nothing abashed; in prosperity, rather joyful than proud; in peace, just and merciful; in war, sharp and fierce; in the field, bold and hardy, and nevertheless, no further than wisdom would, adventurous. Whose wars whosoever would well consider, he shall no less commend his wisdom when he withdrew than his manhood when he vanquished. He was of visage lovely, of body mighty, strong, and clean made; however, in his latter days with over-liberal diet, he became somewhat corpulent and burly, and nonetheless not uncomely; he was of youth greatly given to fleshly wantonness, from which health of body in great prosperity and fortune, without a special grace, hardly refrains. This fault not greatly grieved the people, for one man's pleasure could not stretch and extend to the displeasure of very many, and the fault was without violence, and besides that, in his latter days, it lessened and well left.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. And therewithal, the King, no longer enduring to sit up, laid himself down on his right side, his face toward them, and none was there present that could refrain from weeping. But the lords, encouraging him with as good words as they could and answering for the time as they thought to stand with his pleasure, there in his presence (as by their words appeared), each forgave the other and joined their hands together, when (as it after appeared by their deeds) their hearts were far asunder.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. [his brother] Richard, the third son, of whom we now treat, was in wit and courage equal with either of them, in body and prowess far under them both: little of stature, ill featured of limbs, crooked-backed, his left shoulder much higher than his right, hard-favored in appearance, and such as is in the case of lords called warlike, in other men called otherwise. He was malicious, wrathful, envious, and from before his birth, ever perverse. It is for truth reported that the Duchess his mother had so much ado in her travail to birth him that she could not be delivered of him uncut, and he came into the world with the feet forward, as men be borne outward, and (as the story runs) also not untoothed. Either men of hatred reported the above for truth or else nature changed her course in his beginning—in the course of whose life many things were unnaturally committed. No unskilled captain was he in war, for which his disposition was more suited than for peace. Sundry victories had he, and sometimes overthrows, but never by fault of his own person, either of hardiness or political order. Free was he called when dispensing gifts, and somewhat above his power liberal; with large gifts he got for himself unsteadfast friendship, for which he was glad to pillage and spoil in other places, and get for himself steadfast hatred. He was close and secret, a deep dissembler, lowly of countenance, arrogant of heart, outwardly friendly where he inwardly hated, not omitting to kiss whom he thought to kill; pitiless and cruel, not for evil will always, but for ambition, and either for the surety or increase of his estate. Friend and foe was much the same; where his advantage grew, he spared no man death whose life withstood his purpose. He slew with his own hands King Henry the Sixth, being prisoner in the Tower, as men constantly say, and that without commandment or knowledge of the King, who would, undoubtedly, if he had intended such a thing, have appointed that butcherly office to some other than his own born brother.

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Battle of Mortimer's Cross

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Alle soo the same day that the Erle of Marche shulde take hys jornaye towarde Mortymer ys Crosse fro Herforde este, he mousterd hys many with owte the towne wallys in a mersche that ys callyd Wyg mersche. And ovyr hym men say iij sonnys schynyng.

Execution of George Duke of Clarence

Croyland Chronicle 1478. The circumstances that happened in the ensuing Parliament my mind quite shudders to enlarge upon, for then was to be witnessed a sad strife carried on before these two brethren of such high estate.29 For not a single person uttered a word against the [his brother] duke, except the king; not one individual made answer to the king except the [his brother] duke. Some parties were introduced, however, as to whom it was greatly doubted by many, whether they filled the office of accusers rather, or of witnesses: these two offices not being exactly suited to the same person in the same cause. The duke met all the charges made against him with a denial, and ofered, if he could only obtain a hearing, to defend his cause with his own hand. But why delay in using many words? Parliament, being of opinion that the informations which they had heard were established, passed sentence upon him of condemnation, the same being pronounced by the mouth of Henry, duke of Buckingham, who was appointed Seneschal of England for the occasion. After this, execution was delayed for a considerable time; until the Speaker of the Commons, coming to the upper house with his fellows, made a fresh request that the matter might be brought to a conclusion. In consequence of this, in a few days after, the execution, whatever its nature may have been, took place, (and would that it had ended these troubles!) in the Tower of London, it being the year of our Lord, 1478, and the eighteenth of the reign of king Edward.

Note 29. One would think that "tantae himanitatis," can hardly mean "of such humanity," when applied to such persons as Edward the Fourth and iua brother Clarence.

Chronicle of Gregory 1462. And then Kyng Edward made Syr John Ascheley, the knyght that fought so manly in Smethefylde with an alyon that calengyd, he was made captayne of the castelle, and Syr Raffe Gray constabylle of the sayde castelle of Anwycke. And withyn iij or iiij monythys aftyr that fals knyght and traytoure, Syr Raffe Graye, by fals treson toke the sayde Syr John Ascheley presoner, and delyveryd hym to Quene Margarete, and thenn delyveryde the castelle to the Lorde Hungerforde and unto the Fraynysche men accompanyd whythe hym; and by thys mene he put the kyng owre soverayne lorde owte of possessyon. And thenne aftyr that come Kyng Harry that was, and the Quene to the Kynge of Schottys, Syr Perys de Brasylle, with iiijxxMl Schottys, and layde a sege unto the castelle of Norham, and lay there xviij dayes.

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Thys ys the fyrste of hys rayne of Kynge Edwarde the iiijthe.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. In which time of his latter days, this realm was in quiet and prosperous estate: no fear of outward enemies, no war in hand, nor none toward, but such as no man looked for; the people toward the Prince, not in a constrained fear, but in a willing and loving obedience; among themselves, the commons in good peace. The lords whom he knew at variance, he himself in his deathbed appeased. He had left all gathering of money (which is the only thing that withdraws the hearts of Englishmen from the prince), nor anything he intended to take in hand by which he should be driven thereunto, for his tribute out of France he had obtained before, and the year foregoing his death he had obtained Berwick Castle. And although throughout his reign he was with his people so benign, courteous and so familiar that no part of his virtues was more esteemed, yet that condition in the end of his days (in which many princes by a long continued sovereignty decline into a proud port from their debonair behavior at the beginning) marvelously in him grew and increased so far forth that, in the summer, the last that ever he saw, his Highness, being at Windsor hunting, sent for the Mayor and Aldermen of London to him—for no other errand but to have them hunt and be merry with him. Here he treated them not so stately but so friendly and of so familiar cheer, and sent venison from there so freely into the city, that no one thing in many days before got him either more hearts or more hearty favor among the common people, who oftentimes more esteem and take for greater kindness a little courtesy than a great benefit.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. So died (as I have said) this noble king in that time during which his life was most desired. The love of his people and their entire affection toward him would have been to his noble children a marvelous fortress and sure armor (having in themselves also as many gifts of nature, as many princely virtues, as much goodly ability as their age could receive), if division and dissention of their friends had not unarmed them and left them destitute, and the execrable desire of sovereignty provoked their uncle to their destruction, who, if either kind or kindness had held place, must needs have been their chief defense. For [his brother] Richard, the Duke of Gloucester, by nature their uncle, by office their [his brother] Protector, to their father beholden, to themselves by oath and allegiance bound, all the bands broken that bind man and man together, without any respect of God or the world, unnaturally contrived to bereave them, not only their dignity, but also their lives. But because this Duke's demeanor ministers in effect all the whole matter whereof this book shall treat, it is therefore appropriate to show you somewhat, before we further go, what manner of man this was who could find in his heart so much mischief to conceive.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. [his father] Richard, Duke of York, a noble man and a mighty, had begun not by war but by law to challenge the crown, putting his claim into the Parliament. There his cause was either for right or favor so far forth advanced that King Henry (although he had a goodly prince utterly rejected his own blood; the crown was by authority of Parliament entailed unto the [his father] Duke of York, and his male issue in remainder, immediately after the death of King Henry. But the Duke, not enduring so long to tarry, but intending under pretext of dissension and debate arising in the realm, to reign before his time and to take upon him the rule in King Henry's life, was with many nobles of the realm at Wakefield slain, leaving three sons — Edward, George, and Richard.

All three, as they were great states of birth, so were they great and stately of stomach, greedy and ambitious of authority, and impatient of partners. Edward, revenging his [his father] father's death, deprived King Henry and attained the crown.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. Some wise men also think that [his brother] his plan—covertly conveyed—lacked not in helping his brother Clarence to his death, which he resisted openly, although somewhat (as men judged) more faintly than one who was heartily concerned for his welfare. And they who thus judged, they think he for a long time during King Edward's life forethought to be king in case the King his brother (whose life he looked to, so that evil diet should shorten it) should happen to die (as indeed he did) while his children were young. And they judged that for this reason: he was glad of his brother's death, that Duke of Clarence, whose life must needs have hindered his plans, whether the same Duke of Clarence had kept himself true to his nephew the young King, or enterprised to be king himself. But of all this point, is there no certainty, and whosoever divines upon conjectures may as well shoot too far as too short. However, this have I by credible information learned, that the same night in which King Edward died, one Mistlebrook, long before morning, came in great haste to the house of one Potter, dwelling in Redcross Street without Cripplegate, and when he was with hasty rapping quickly let in, he revealed unto Potter that King Edward was departed. "By my truth man," said Potter, "then will my master the [his brother] Duke of Gloucester be king." What cause he had so to think it is hard to say: whether he, being well disposed toward him, knew anything about such a thing the Duke had purposed, or otherwise he had any inkling thereof, for he was not ever likely to speak of it.