Biography of King Richard II of England 1367-1400

1361 Marriage of Edward "The Black Prince" and Joan "The Fair Maid of Kent"

1376 Death of the Black Prince

1377 Creation of Garter Knights

1377 Death of Edward III

1377 Coronation of Richard II

1381 Peasant's Revolt

1382 Marriage of Richard II and Anne of Bohemia and her Coronation

1385 Richard II Creates his Two Uncles as Dukes

1386 Wonderful Parliament

1387 Battle of Radcot Bridge

1388 Merciless Parliament

1389 Scrope vs Grosvenor Case

1389 Christmas Court

1394 Death and Funeral of Anne of Bohemia

1394 Richard II Travels to Ireland

1396 Marriage of Richard II and Isabella of Valois

1397 Thomas Haxey's Case

1397 Legitimation of the Beauforts

1397 John Beaufort created Earl Somerset

1397 Arrest and Execution of Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel

1397 Richard II Rewards his Supporters

1397 Murder of Thomas of Woodstock

1398 Richard II's Second Trip to Ireland

1398 Thomas Mowbray Duel

1399 Death of John of Gaunt

1399 Richard II's Last Will

1399 Richard II's Third Trip to Ireland

1399 Richard II Abdication

1399 Epiphany Rising

1400 Death of Richard II

Around Mar 1340 Thomas Holland 1st Earl Kent 1314-1360 (26) and [his mother] Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales 1328-1385 (11) were married in secret He a great x 4 grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She a granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. It isn't clear whether the marriage was canonical given the secrecy; there were no witnesses. She twelve years old. A subsequent investigation by papal commissioners confirmed it as valid.

Around Nov 1340 [his step-father] William Montagu 2nd Earl Salisbury 1328-1397 (12) and Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales 1328-1385 (12) were married. She a granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She was already married albeit secretly to Thomas Holland 1st Earl Kent 1314-1360 (26). The subsequent investigation found her marriage to Thomas Holland 1st Earl Kent 1314-1360 (26) to be valid.

On 12 May 1343 [his father] Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (12) was created Prince of Wales.

On 26 Dec 1352 [his uncle] John Plantagenet 3rd Earl Kent 1330-1352 (22) died. He was buried at Greyfriars Church Winchester. His sister Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales 1328-1385 (24) succeeded 4th Earl Kent 5C 1321, 5th Baron Wake Liddell.

On 26 Dec 1360 Thomas Holland 1st Earl Kent 1314-1360 (46) died. His son [his half-brother] Thomas Holland 2nd Earl Kent 1350-1397 (10) succeeded 2nd Earl Kent 6C 1360.

Marriage of Edward "The Black Prince" and Joan "The Fair Maid of Kent"

On 10 Oct 1361 [his father] Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (31) and Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales 1328-1385 (33) were married at Windsor Castle. They were half first cousins once removed. He a son of King Edward III England. She a granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She by marriage Princess of Wales. His first wife, her second (or third depending on how you count them) husband. She had four children already. They had known each other since childhood. Thirty-one and thirty-three respectively. A curious choice for the heir to the throne; foreign princesses were usual. They were married nearly fifteen years and had two children.

In May 1366 John Montfort V Duke Brittany 1339-1399 (27) and [his half-sister] Joan Holland Duchess Brittany 1350-1384 (16) were married. They were third cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She a great granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. [his half-sister] She by marriage Duchess Brittany 1221 Dreux.

On 06 Jan 1367 King Richard II of England 1367-1400 was born to [his father] Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (36) and Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales 1328-1385 (38) at Bordeaux. He a grandson of King Edward III England. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.42%. He became the Heir to the Throne of England.

Before 13 Oct 1370 [his half-brother] Thomas Holland 2nd Earl Kent 1350-1397 and Alice Fitzalan Countess Kent 1350-1416 were married. They were third cousins. He a great grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She by marriage Countess Kent.

Death of the Black Prince

On 08 Jun 1376 [his father] Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (45) died of dysentery at Westminster Palace. He was buried in Canterbury Cathedral. His son Richard (9) succeeded King England. His niece Philippa Plantagenet Countess March 5th Countess Ulster 1355-1382 (20) succeeded Heir to the Throne of England.

In 1377 Simon Burley 1340-1388 (37) was confirmed an annual grant of £100 by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (9).

From 1377 to 1381 Thomas de Brantingham Lord Treasurer Bishop Exeter -1394 was appointed Lord Treasurer to King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (9).

1377 Creation of Garter Knights

On 23 Apr 1377 [his grandfather] King Edward III England (64) created three new Garter Knights:

61st Richard of Gloucester (10) (the future Richard III).

62nd Henry Bolingbroke (10) (the future Henry IV).

63rd John Burley 1325-1383 (52).

Death of Edward III

On 21 Jun 1377 [his grandfather] King Edward III England (64) died of a stroke at Sheen Palace. He was buried in the Chapel of St Edward the Confessor. His grandson King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (10) succeeded II King England.

Coronation of Richard II

On 16 Jul 1377 King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (10) was crowned II King England at Westminster Abbey by Simon Sudbury Archbishop of Canterbury 1316-1381 (61).

Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel 1346-1397 (31) carried the Crown.

Guichard d'Angle 1st Earl Huntingdon -1380 was appointed 1st Earl Huntingdon 3C 1377.

John Mowbray 1st Earl Nottingham 1365-1383 (11) was created 1st Earl Nottingham 1C 1377.

Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (4) and Robert Harrington 3rd Baron Harington 1356-1406 (21) were knighted.

Roger Scales 4th Baron Scales 1354-1386 (23) attended.

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Around 1378 Lewis Clifford 1364-1404 (14) was appointed 64th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (10).

In 1380 Bermond Arnaud -1385 was appointed 65th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (12).

After 24 Jun 1380 John Hastings 3rd Earl Pembroke 1372-1389 and Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter 1363-1426 marriage annulled since she had become pregnant by [his half-brother] John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 who she subsequently married. It isn't clear whether John Holland was punished; he was half-brother to King Richard II of England 1367-1400 through their mother Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales 1328-1385.

In 1381 Simon Burley 1340-1388 (41) was appointed 69th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (13)..

In 1381 [his uncle] Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (25) was appointed 66th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (13).

In Jan 1381 Thomas Felton 1330-1381 (51) was appointed 67th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (13).

On 23 Apr 1381 [his half-brother] John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (29) was appointed 68th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (14).

Peasant's Revolt

On 11 Jun 1381 King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (14) held council with his mother [his mother] Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales 1328-1385 (52), Thomas Beauchamp 12th Earl Warwick 1338-1401 (43), William Montagu 2nd Earl Salisbury 1328-1397 (52), Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel 1346-1397 (35), Simon Sudbury Archbishop of Canterbury 1316-1381 (65) and Robert Hales 1325-1381 (56) at the Tower of London.

On 15 Jun 1381 King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (14) met with Wat Tyler -1381 at Smithfield. During the course of the meeting Wat Tyler -1381 was wounded by William Walworth Lord Mayor -1385. Wat Tyler -1381 was then killed by John Cavendish 1374-1417 (7).

On 15 Jul 1381 John Ball 1338-1381 was hanged, drawn and quartered in St Albans in the presence of King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (14).

In 1382 Richard Burley -1387 was appointed 71st Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (14)..

In 1382 Bryan Stapleton 1322-1394 (60) was appointed 70th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (14).

Marriage of Richard II and Anne of Bohemia and her Coronation

On 20 Jan 1382 King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (15) and [his wife] Anne of Bohemia Queen Consort England 1366-1394 (15) were married at Westminster Abbey by Robert Braybrooke Bishop of London -1404. They were fourth cousins. He a grandson of King Edward III England. [his wife] She by marriage Queen Consort England.

It was the first royal wedding that including a Royal Procession from the Tower of London to Westminster Abbey.

Arranged by Michael Pole 1st Earl Suffolk 1330-1389 (52) the marriage not popular since it brought no dowry and little prospect of increased trade since Bohemia not a primary English trade partner.

In 1383 Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke Norfolk 1368-1399 (14) was appointed 72nd Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (15).

In 1383 Bryan Stapleton 1322-1394 (61) and [his wife] Anne of Bohemia Queen Consort England 1366-1394 (16) were divorced when in Calais.

In 1384 [his half-sister] Joan Holland Duchess Brittany 1350-1384 (34) died.

In 1385 [his brother-in-law] Sigismund I King Hungary I King Germany I King Bohemia Holy Roman Emperor Luxemburg 1368-1437 (16) and Mary Hungary I Queen Hungary 1371-1395 (14) were married. They were third cousins.

In 1385 Robert Vere 1st Duke Ireland 1362-1392 (22) was appointed 73rd Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (17).

Richard II Creates his Two Uncles as Dukes

On 06 Aug 1385 [his uncle] Edmund of Langley (44) was created 1st Duke York 1C 1385 by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (18). Isabella of Castile (30) by marriage Duchess York.In 1385 Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (29) was created 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 1C 1385, and around the same time 1st Duke Gloucester 1C 1385.Eleanor Bohun Duchess Albemarle and Gloucester 1366-1399 (19) by marriage Duchess Albemarle aka Aumale and Duke Gloucester 1C 1385.

On 07 Aug 1385 [his mother] Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales 1328-1385 (56) died at Wallingford Castle. She was buried at Stamford.

In 1386 Richard Adderbury of Donnington Casatle 1331-1399 (55) was given permission by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (18) to fortify Donnington Castle.

On 24 Jun 1386 [his half-brother] John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (34) and Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter 1363-1426 (23) were married at Plymouth. They were half second cousins once removed. He a great grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England.

Wonderful Parliament

Around Sep 1386 the Wonderful Parliament sought to reform the administration of King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (19). Michael Pole 1st Earl Suffolk 1330-1389 (56) was impeached for his failures in France.

In 1387 Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel 1346-1397 (41) was appointed 74th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (19).

In 1387 Nocholas Sarnesfeld 1348-1397 (39) was appointed 75th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (19).

In 1387 David Hamner 1332-1387 (55) was knighted by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (19).

In May 1387 Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (14) was appointed 76th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (20).

Battle of Radcot Bridge

On 22 Dec 1387 the forces of the Lords Appellant led by the future Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (20) prevented the forces of King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (20) commanded by Robert Vere 1st Duke Ireland 1362-1392 (25) from crossing the bridge over the River Thames at Radcot in Oxfordshire. When [his uncle] Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (32) arrived with further Lord Appellant forces the King's men were encircled. The King's men attempted to force the crossing of the bridge at which time the only casualties occurred including Thomas Molyneux Constable Chester Castle 1338-1387 (49) who was killed by Thomas Mortimer 1350-1399 (37). Robert Vere 1st Duke Ireland 1362-1392 (25) narrowly escaped to France. Around 800 of his men drowned in the marshes whilst trying to escape.

In 1388 Henry "Hotspur" Percy 1364-1403 (23) was appointed 77th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (20).

Around 1388 Thomas Despencer 1st Earl Gloucester 1373-1400 (14) was appointed 80th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (20).

In 1388 [his half-brother] John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (36) was created 1st Earl Huntingdon 4C 1388. Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter 1363-1426 (24) by marriage Countess Huntingdon.

Merciless Parliament

On 03 Feb 1388 the Merciless Parliament commenced. It ended on 04 Jun 1388. Its primary function was to prosecute members of the Court of King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (21). The term "Merciless" is contemporary having been coined by the chronicler Henry Knighton.

Michael Pole 1st Earl Suffolk 1330-1389 (58) was sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered in his absence. He had escaped to France.

Alexander Neville Archbishop of York 1341-1392 (47) was found guilty of treason and it was determined to imprison him for life in Rochester Castle. He fled to Louvain where he became a parish priest for the remainder of his life.

On 19 Feb 1388 Robert Tresilian Chief Justice -1388 was hanged naked and his throat cut.

On 25 Mar 1388 Nicholas Brembre Lord Mayor of London -1388 was hanged. He was buried at Christ Church Greyfriars.

On 05 May 1388 Simon Burley 1340-1388 (48) was executed despite the protestations of his friend [his uncle] Edmund of Langley (46).

On 12 May 1388 John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp 1319-1388 (69) was beheaded at Tower Hill. He was buried at Worcester Cathedral.

Robert Vere 1st Duke Ireland 1362-1392 (26) was attainted.

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On 07 Oct 1388 Roger Mortimer 4th Earl Dunbar aka March 6th Earl Ulster 1374-1398 (14) and [his niece] Eleanor Holland Countess March Countess Ulster 1370-1405 (17) were married. They were second cousins once removed. He a great grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. [his niece] She by marriage Countess March, Earl Ulster.

Around 1389 Peter Courtenay 1346-1405 (43) was appointed 79th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (21).

In 1389 John Devereux 1st Baron Devereux 1337-1393 (52) was appointed 78th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (21).

In 1389 Thomas de Brantingham Lord Treasurer Bishop Exeter -1394 was appointed Lord Treasurer to King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (21).

Scrope vs Grosvenor Case

In Sep 1389 the Scrope vs Grosvenor Case was brought to the Court of Chivalry. Up to that time two families, Scrope and Grosvenor, had been using the armorial Scrope: Azure, a bend or.

Several hundred witnesses were called including [his uncle] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (49), Geoffrey Chaucer Poet Author 1343-1400 (46) and John Savile of Shelley and Golcar 1325-1399 (64).

On 03 Sep 1386 Owain Glyndŵr (27) gave evidence at the Church of John the Baptist Chester.

The Court decided in favour of Scrope.

Neither party was happy with the decision so King Richard II (22) was called upon to give his personal verdict.

On 27 May 1390 he confirmed that Grosvenor could not bear the undifferenced arms.

As a consequence of the case the Grosvenor has for many years used the name Bendor for horses and nicknames.

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Christmas Court

In Dec 1389 King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (22) held his Christmas Court at Woodstock Palace.

Before 20 Oct 1392 [his nephew] Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey 1374-1400 and Joan Stafford Countess Kent 1378-1442 were married. They were third cousins once removed. He a great x 2 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great x 3 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.

In 1393 King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (25) and [his wife] Anne of Bohemia Queen Consort England 1366-1394 (26) stayed at Titchfield Abbey.

On 04 Nov 1393 [his uncle] Edmund of Langley (52) and Joan Holland Duchess York 1380-1434 (13) were married. They were half second cousins once removed. He a son of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She by marriage Duchess York.

Around 1394 John Beaumont 4th Baron Beaumont 1361-1396 (33) was appointed 84th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (26).

In 1394 William Scrope 1st Earl Wiltshire 1350-1399 (44) was appointed 85th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (26).

Death and Funeral of Anne of Bohemia

On 07 Jun 1394 [his wife] Anne of Bohemia Queen Consort England 1366-1394 (28) died of plague (probably) at Sheen Palace. King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (27) was so distraught at her death he ordered the destruction of Sheen Palalce.

Letter XXVI Annabella Queen of Scotland to King Richard II. 01 Aug 1394. Letter XXVI. Annabella Queen of Scotland (44) to King Richard II (27).

To the most high and mighty prince Richard, by the grace of God king of England, our very dear cousin, Annabella, by the selfsame grace queen of Scotland sends health and greeting.

We give you hearty and entire thanks for your loving letters presented to as by oar well-beloved Donglas, herald-at-arms, from which we have learned to our great pleasure and comfort your good health and estate. And, dearest cousin, as touching the marriage-treaty to be made between some nearly allied to you by blood and some children of the king my lord and of us, be pleased to know that it is agreeable to the king (57) my said lord and to us, as he has signified to you by these letters. And in especial, that, although the said treaty could not be held on the third day of July last past for certain and reasonable causes contained in your letters sent to the king my aforesaid lord, you consented that the treaty should in like manner take place another day, namely, the first day of October next coming, which is agreeable to the king my aforesaid lord and to us; and we thank you heartily aud with good will, and affectionately pray you that you will continue the said treaty, and have the said day kept, for it is the will of my said lord the king and of us that as far as in us lies the said day should be kept without fail. And, dearest cousin, we affectionately require and entreat you that your highness will not be displeased that we have not sooner written to you; for we were lying in childbed of a male infant named James, of whom we are now well and graciously delivered, thanks to God and our Lady. And also, because, at the coming of your letters, the king my said lord was far away in the isles of his kingdom, we did not receive these letters sent to us on this matter till the last day of July last past. Most high and puissant prince, may the Holy Ghost ever keep you! Given under our signet, at the abbey of Dumfermline, the first day of August.

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Death and Funeral of Anne of Bohemia

On 03 Aug 1394 [his former wife] Anne of Bohemia Queen Consort England 1366-1394 (28) was buried at Chapel of St Edward the Confessor with Thomas Fitzalan Archbishop York and Canterbury 1353-1414 (41) presiding. King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (27) attended. Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel 1346-1397 (48), brother of the presiding Archbishop, and his wife Philippa Mortimer Countess Pembroke Countess Arundel Countess Surrey 1375-1400 (18), arrived late causing Richard, in a rage, to snatch a wand and strike FitzAlan in the face drawing blood.

Richard II Travels to Ireland

In Oct 1394 King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (27) travelled to Ireland with William Hankford 1350-1423 (44).

Around 1395 William Fitzalan 1369-1400 (26) was appointed 86th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (27).

After 22 Nov 1395 Robert Vere 1st Duke Ireland 1362-1392 was buried when King Richard II of England 1367-1400 had the coffin opened to kiss his lost friend's hand and to gaze on his face one last time.

Marriage of Richard II and Isabella of Valois

On 31 Oct 1396 King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (29) and [his wife] Isabella Valois Queen Consort England 1389-1409 (6) were married. They were half third cousins. He a grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272. The marriage being one of the terms of a twenty-eight year peace treaty with France. He twenty-nine, she six. The marriage sowed the seeds subsequent rebellion since there was no prospect of an heir to secure the Crown.

William Ros 6th Baron Ros Helmsley 1370-1414 (26) attended.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. 1397. The king (29) at this time resided at Eltham, whither he had summoned all his vassals and dependants. He had collected round London, in the counties of Kent and Essex, upwards of ten thousand archers, and had with him his [Note. maternal half-brother] brother [his half-brother] sir John Holland (45), the earl marshal (28), the earl of Salisbury (47), with many other great barons and knights. The king (29) sent orders to the citizens of London not to admit the duke of Lancaster (56) within their walls; but they replied, they knew of no reason why they should refuse him admittance, and the duke resided there with his son the earl of Derby (29), as did the duke of York (55) with his son the earl of Rutland (24). The king loved the earl of Rutland (24) and the earl marshal (28) beyond measure: the first dissembled his opinions concerning the death of the duke of Gloucester (41), and would willingly have seen peace restored on both sides. He said, that his late uncle (41) had on several occasions treated the king (29) very unbecomingly. The Londoners considered, also, that great mischiefs might befal England from these dissensions between the king, his uncles, and their supporters; that, since the duke of Gloucester (41) was now dead, it could not be helped; and that he, in some measure, had been the cause of it, by his too great freedom of speech, and from his attempts to excite the people of England to break the truces that had been signed between France and England. The citizens, therefore, prudently dissembled their thoughts; and, as what was done could not now be undone, they feared, should matters be pushed to extremities, they might suffer very considerably in their commerce from th king of France.

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The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. 1397. The earl of Warwick (58) ran great risk of suffering the same death, but the earl of Salisbury (47), who was in favour with the king, interceded for him, as did many other barons and prelates. The king (29) listened to their solicitations, on condition he were sent to a place he could not leave, for he would never absolutely pardon him, as he was deserving death, for having joined the [his uncle] duke of Gloucester (41) and the earl of Arundel (51) in their attempts to annul the truce which had been signed and sealed by the kings of France and England, for themselves and allies. This alone was a crime to be punished by an ignominious death: for the conditions of the treaties were, that whoever should break or infringe them was to be so punished.

In 1397 Thomas Merke Bishop of Carlisle -1409 served King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (29) as Ambassador to various German Princes.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. 1397. You have before seen, in the course of this history, that king Richard of England (29) would not longer conceal the great hatred he bore his [his uncle] uncle of Gloucester (41), but had determined to have him cut off, according to the advice given him, setting it forth to be more advisable to destroy than be destroyed. You have likewise heard how the king (29) had rode to the castle of Pleshy, thirty miles from London, and with fair words had cajoled the [his uncle] duke (41) out of his castle, and was accompanied by him to a lane that led to the Thames, where they arrived between ten and eleven o'clock at night; and how the earl-marshal (28), who there lay in ambush, had arrested him in the king's name, and forced him towards the Thames, in spite of his cries to the king (29) to deliver him. He was conscious, that from the moment of his beinor thus arrested, his end was resolved on, and it was confirmed to him by the king (29) turning a deaf ear to his complaints, and ridmg on full gallop to London, where he lodged that night in the Tower. The [his uncle] duke of Gloucester (41) had other lodgings; for, whether he would or not, he was forced into a boat that carried him to a vessel at anchor on the Thames, into which he was obliged to enter. The earl-marshal (28) embarked also with his men, and, having a favourable wind and tide, they fell down the river, and arrived, late on the morrow evening, at Calais, without any one knowing of it except the king's officers. [The earl-marshal (28), as governor, could enter Calais at all hours, without any one thinking it extraordinary: he carried the [his uncle] duke (41) to the castle, wherein he confined him.]

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The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. 1397. The resentments of the citizens began to cool, and they offered to mediate between the king (29) and the [his uncle] duke of Lancaster (56), who was mightily angered by the murder of his brother (41). He bethought himself, however, that as his nephew (29) was married to the daughter (7) of the king of France (28), should he wage war against king Richard (29), his two daughters married in Castille and Portugal might suffer for it, from the French carrying a war into those countries. The [his uncle] duke (56) was beside forced to change his mind, whether he would or not, froii; the solicitations of the citizens of London and some of the English prelates, who had been the mediators between the king and his uncles. The king obtained peace, on promising from that day forward to be solely guided by the advice of the [his uncle] duke of Lancaster (56), engaging never to do anything without first consulting him. The promise, however, he paid not any regard to, but followed the counsels of the rash and evil-minded, for which hereafter he severely suffered, as shall be related in this history. Thus did the king of England (29) gain peace from his uncles for the murder of the duke of Gloucester (41), and now governed more fiercely than before. He went with his state to Pleshy in Essex, which had belonged to his uncle of Gloucester (41), and should have descended to his son Humphrey (16) as heir to his father; but the king took possession of it, for it is the rule in England for the king to have the wardship of all children who have lost their fathers, and are under twenty-one years of age at which period their estates are restored to them. King Richard (29) took his cousin Humphrey of Gloucester (16) in ward, appropriating all his possessions to his own profit. He made him live with him, and the duchess (31) and her two daughters with the queen (7).

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The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. 1397. The late [his uncle] duke of Gloucester (41) was by inheritance constable of England; but the king (29) deprived his heir (16) of it, and gave it to his cousin the earl of Rutland (24). The king (29) now assumed a greater state than ever king of England had done before, nor had there been any one who had expended such large sums by one hundred thousand nobles. He also took the wardship of the heir (15) of Arundel (51), son to the late earl whom he had beheaded in London, as has been related, and forced him to live with him. And because one of the knights of the late duke of Gloucester, named Cerbec, had spoken too freely of the king and council, he was arrested and instantly beheaded. Sir John Lacquingay was likewise in some peril; but, when he saw the turn aflfairs had taken, he quitted the service of the duchess of Gloucester (31), and fixed his abode elsewhere. At this period there was no one, however great, in England, that dared speak his sentiments of what the king did or intended doing. He had formed a council of his own from the knights of his chamber, who encouraged him to act as they advised. The king had in his pay full two thousand archers, who were on guard day and night, for he did not think himself perfectly safe from his uncles or the Arundel family.

In 1397 Richard Redman Master of the Horse 1350-1426 (47) campaigned with King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (29) at Ireland.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. 1397. Thus were affairs carried on in England, and daily going from bad to worse, as you will find it related. When the dukes of [his uncle] Lancaster (56) and York (55) heard of their brother's (41) death at Calais, they instantly suspected the king (29) their nephew was guilty of it. At the time, they were not together, but each at his country-seat, according to the custom in England. They wrote to each other to consult how they should act on the occasion, and hastened to London because they knew the citizens were very angry at the event. On their arrival, they had several meetings, and declared that the putting the duke of Gloucester (41) to death for some foolish words ought not to be passed over in silence, nor borne; for, although he had warmly opposed the treaty with France, he had not acted upon it; that there was an essential difference between talking and acting, and that words alone did not deserve the severe punishment he had suffered, and that this matter must be inquired into and amended. The two brothers were in a situation to have thrown England into confusion, for there were enow who would have supported them, more especially all the kindred of the late earl of Arundel (51), which is a powerful family in England, and the family of the earl of Stafford.

Thomas Haxey's Case

In Jan 1397 Thomas Haxey presented a bill to Parliament criticising the costs of King Richard II of England's household. King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (29) took offence and had Haxby charged with treason and sentenced to be executed. On appeal by the Archbishop of Canterbury (44) Haxey was released into the Archbishop's care.

Legitimation of the Beauforts

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: Legitimation of Beaufort. 28. Be it remembered that on Tuesday, the fifteenth day of the parliament [4 February 1397], the chancellor (53), by order of the king (30), declared that our holy father the pope, in reverence of the most excellent person of the king (30) and his honourable uncle the [his uncle] duke of Guyenne and of Lancaster (56), and of his blood, has enabled and legitimized my lord John Beaufort (24), his brothers [Note. Cardinal Henry Beaufort 1375-1447 (22) and Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 (20)], and his sister (18). And therefore our lord the king, as sole ruler of his kingdom of England, for the honour of his blood, willed and enabled of his abundant royal power, and legitimized, of his own authority, the said John, his said brothers, and sister. And he also pronounced and published the ability and legitimation, according to the form of the charter of the king made thereon.

John Beaufort created Earl Somerset

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: Legitimation of Beaufort. 30. Also, on the Saturday [10 February 1397], the chancellor (53) announced by the king's (30) command that reason willed that one should honour and enhance the estate of worthy and virtuous persons. Wherefore the king (30) - considering the nobility and virtue of his cousin Sir John Beaufort (24), son of his [his uncle] uncle of Guyenne and Lancaster (56), and the great honour he had done his person on various expeditions and labours in many kingdoms and lands overseas, to the great honour of the king and kingdom; and also to encourage him and others to do such honour; and also to strengthen the royal sceptre which could best be supported in honour by worthy and valiant persons - had, of his royal dignity and special grace, made and created the said John an earl, and given him the name and honour of the earl of Somerset, to have to him and his male heirs lawfully engendered of his body, with twenty pounds a year to be taken from the issues and profits of the county of Somerset for his title and the name of earl.

Note. On 10 Feb 1397 John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset Dorset 1373-1410 (24) was created 1st Earl Somerset 2C 1397.

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: Of the appointment of the earl of Somerset. 32. The king (30) to his archbishops, bishops, abbots, priors, dukes, earls, barons, justices, sheriffs, reeves, ministers, and other his bailiffs and faithful men, greeting. Know that we, considering the strenuous probity and prudent mind, distinguished conduct and nobility of birth of our beloved and faithful kinsman John Beaufort (24), knight, son of our beloved uncle [his uncle] John duke of Aquitaine and Lancaster (56), and willing therefore deservedly to exalt the same John Beaufort with the prerogative of honour, we do appoint and create John Beaufort earl of Somerset in our present parliament, and invest him with the style and name and honour of the aforesaid earl by girding him with the sword, to have to him and his male heirs issuing from his body in perpetuity. And that the same earl and his aforesaid heirs, given such name and honour, may the better and more honourably support the burdens incumbent upon the same, of our special grace in our present parliament we have given and granted, and by this our charter confirmed, to the same earl and his aforesaid heirs twenty pounds to be received each year from the issues of the aforesaid county by the hand of the sheriff of that county for the time being, at the terms of Easter and Michaelmas [29 September] in equal portions, in perpetuity. Witnessed by these, the venerable father Thomas archbishop of Canterbury (44) primate of all England, John of Aquitaine and Lancaster, and Edmund of York (55), dukes; Robert of London, William of Winchester (77), John of Ely, Edmund of Exeter, our chancellor (53), bishops; Henry of Derby (29), Edward of Rutland (24), Thomas of Nottingham and marshal of England (28), earls; Reginald Grey (35), Ralph Neville (33), John Lovell, knights; Roger Walden dean of York, our treasurer, Thomas Percy (54), steward of our household, Guy Mone, keeper of our privy seal, and others. Given by our hand at Westminster on 10 February in the twentieth year of our reign [10 Feb 1397].

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On 25 Apr 1397 [his half-brother] Thomas Holland 2nd Earl Kent 1350-1397 (47) died. He was buried in Bourne Abbey aka Church of St Peter and St Paul Bourne. His son Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey 1374-1400 (23) succeeded 3rd Earl Kent 6C 1360, 4th Baron Holland. Joan Stafford Countess Kent 1378-1442 (19) by marriage Countess Kent.

Arrest and Execution of Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel

On 12 Jul 1397 Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel 1346-1397 (51) was arrested for his opposition to King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (30).

After Sep 1397 John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset Dorset 1373-1410 was appointed 87th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England 1367-1400.

Richard II Rewards his Supporters

On 29 Sep 1397 King Richard II (30) rewarded his relations with Dukedoms possibly for their part in the arrest, trial and execution of Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel 1346-1397 (51) ...

His older half-brother [his half-brother] John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (45) was created 1st Duke Exeter 1C 1397. Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter 1363-1426 (34) by marriage Duchess Exeter.

His nephew [his nephew] Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey 1374-1400 (23) was created 1st Duke Surrey.

His second cousin once removed Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke Norfolk 1368-1399 (29) was created 1st Duke Norfolk 1C 1397 probably for arranging the murder of [his uncle] Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (42). Elizabeth Fitzalan Duchess Norfolk 1366-1425 (31) by marriage Duchess Norfolk.

His first cousin Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (24) was created 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2C 1397. Beatrice Burgundy Countess Rutland Countess Cork 1373-1408 (24) by marriage Duchess Albemarle aka Aumale.

His illegitimate first cousin John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset Dorset 1373-1410 (24) was created 1st Marquess Somerset 2C 1397, 1st Marquess Dorset 1C 1397. [his niece] Margaret Holland Duchess Clarence 1385-1439 (12) by marriage Marchioness Somerset.

Ralph Neville 1st Earl Westmoreland 1364-1425 (33) was created 1st Earl Westmoreland 1C 1397. Joan Beaufort Countess Westmoreland 1379-1440 (18) by marriage Countess Westmoreland.

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On 27 Nov 1397 John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset Dorset 1373-1410 (24) and [his niece] Margaret Holland Duchess Clarence 1385-1439 (12) were married. They were half third cousins. He a grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. [his niece] She by marriage Countess Somerset.

Richard II's Second Trip to Ireland

In 1398 King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (30) travelled to Ireland with Rhys ap Tudor Tudor -1412 and Gwilym ap TudorTudor.

In 1398 Simon Felbrigge -1442 was appointed 91st Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (30).

In 1398 Albert Wittelsbach I Duke Bavaria 1336-1404 (61) was appointed 90th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (30).

In 1398 [his nephew] Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey 1374-1400 (24) was appointed 88th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (30).

In 1398 John Montagu 3rd Earl Salisbury 1350-1400 (48) was appointed 89th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (30).

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 93. 1398. Peter d'Ailly, bishop of Cambray, was not long in making preparations for his journey, and set out on his embassy to Rome and Avignon, to declare the engagements the emperor and king of France had entered into. The king of France sent ambassadors to his son-in-law, the king of England (30), to acquaint him with what had been done, that he might unite in the same opinion. King Richard (30) received the ambassadors with joy: and when he learnt the object of their mission, which was, to entreat he would remain neuter, if he could not prevail on his subjects to unite with France and Germany, in case the two popes refused compliance, replied he would so manage that his kingdom should act in the matter as he pleased. This he instantly promised, to the great joy of the ambassadors. After they had staid with the king (30) and [his wife] queen (8) of England as long as they had chosen, they took leave and returned to Paris by Boulogne, and related all that had passed to the king and council. This was very agreeable to the king (30), and affairs remained in this state some time.

Thomas Mowbray Duel

Before 16 Sep 1398 the future Henry IV reported to King Richard II that Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke Norfolk 1368-1399 had made a treasonous remark regarding Richard's rule. Richard II proposed a duel of honour at Gosford Green Caludon Coventry, neat Mowbray's home Caludon Castle.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 16 Sep 1398. King Richard of England (31) was of a temper that, when he took a liking to any one, he instantly raised him to high honours, and had such confidence in him that no-one dared to say anything to his prejudice. At the same time, there had not been a king of England in the memory of man who so easily believed all that was told him. His favourites, however paid no attention to the miserable fate of many of their predecessors; how the duke of Ireland had been banished, sir Simon Burley (58), sir Robert Tresilian, sir Nicholas Bramber and others had lost their lives, for counsels they had given the king, and for which the [his uncle] duke of Gloucester (43) had taken great pains in their destruction. The [his uncle] duke (43) was now dead, and the favourites of the moment, who continually counselled the king as they pleased, were not sorry, for they imagined no one would now pretend to oppose them. Some about the king's person could not disguise their pride and presumption, especially the earl marshal (30), who was in the highest degree of favour. To flatter and please the king, and to show how true and loyal a servant he was, whenever he heard any reports he told them to the king, expecting from such means to rise still higher in favour; but many, thinking to advance, are repulsed. Thus it happened to the earl marshal.

Thomas Mowbray Duel

On 17 Sep 1398 King Richard II (31), the nobility and thousands of spectators assembled at Gosford Green to witness the duel between the future Henry IV (31) and Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke Norfolk 1368-1399 (30). the future Henry IV (31) had had new armour constructed. Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (25) and [his nephew] Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey 1374-1400 (24) managed the proceedings. Just as the duel was to commence King Richard II (31) stopped it. After two hours of deliberation King Richard II (31) had his decision announced; both men were to be exiled. the future Henry IV (31) for ten years,Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke Norfolk 1368-1399 (30) forever.

On 19 Oct 1398 Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke Norfolk 1368-1399 (30) left England never to return.

See Froissart Book 2 Chapters 94 to 96.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. The king (31) had it proclaimed that he would hold a solemn feast at his palace at Eltham on Palm Sunday, and sent particular invitations to the dukes of [his uncle] Lancaster (58) and York (57) and their children, who, not suspecting any mischief, came thither. When the day of the feast was arrived, and all the lords had retired after dinner with the king to his council-chamher, the earl marshal (30), having settled in his own mind how to act and what to say, cast himself on his knees before the king (31), and thus addressed him "Very dear and renowned lord, I am of your kindred, your liege man and marshal of England; and I have heside sworn on my loyalty, my hand within yours, that I would never conceal from you anything I might hear or see to your prejudice, on pain of being accounted a disloyal traitor. This I am resolved never to be, but to acquit myself before you and all the world." The king, fixing his eyes on him, asked, " Earl marshal (30), what is your meaning in saying thus? We will know it." "Very dear lord," replied the earl, " as I have declared, I will not keep any secret from you: order the earl of Derby (31) to come to your presence, and I will speak out." The earl of Derby (31) was called for, and the king made the earl marshal (30) rise, for he addressed him on his knees. On the earl of Derby's (31) arrival, who thought no harm, the earl marshal (30) spoke as follows: "Earl of Derby (31), I charge you with having thought and spoken disrespectfully against your natural lord the king of England, when you said he was unworthy to hold his crown: that without law or justice, or consulting his council, he disturbed the realm; and that, without any shadow of reason, he banished those valiant men from his kingdom who ought to be its defenders, for all of which I present my glove, and shall prove, my body against yours, that you are a false and wicked traitor."

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The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. The king (31) attended to this advice, for he knew it was true: in consequence, he dissembled his opinion, and suffered each to provide for himself. The news of this combat between the earl of Derby and the earl marshal made a great noise in foreign parts: for it was to be for life or death, and before the king (31) and great barons of England. It was spoken of differently: some said, particularly in France, — " Let them fight it out: these English knights are too arrogant, and in a short time will cut each other's throats. They are the most perverse nation under the sun, and their island is inhabited by the proudest people." But others, more wise, said, — " The king of England (31) does not show great sense, nor that he is well advised, when for foolish words, undeserving serious notice, he permits two such valiant and noble lords, and of his kindred, thus to engage in mortal combat. He ought, according to the opinions of many wise men, to have said, when he first heard this charge, — "You earl of Derby (31), and you earl marshal (30), are my near relations: I command, therefore, that you harbour no hatred nor malevolence against each other, but live like friends and cousins as you are. Should your stay in this country become tiresome, travel into foreign parts, to Hungary or elsewhere, and seek for deeds of arms and adventures." If the king of England (31) had done so, or come forward to prevent this combat, he would have acted wisely, according to the opinions of men of sense and prudence.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. King Richard (31), notwithstanding he had suffered this challenge and appeal to arms to be made in his presence, was imcertain how to act, and whether to allow the combat to take place or not. And although he was the king of England the most feared of any who had worn the crown, he was guarded day and night by two thousand archers, who were regularly paid weekly, and had confidence only in his brother the [his half-brother] earl of Huntingdon (46), and the earls of Salisbury (48) and Rutland (25), his cousin, who were highly in his favour. He paid no regard to others, except a few of the knights of his chamber, who were his advisers. When the day for the combat was approaching, and the two lords had made their preparations, waiting only for the king's commands, king Richard's secret advisers asked, " Sire, what is your intention respecting this combat between your two cousins, the earl of Derby (31) and the earl marshal (30)? Will you permit them to proceed?" " Yes," replied the king: "why not? I intend to be present myself and to see their prowess. We may perhaps learn, from the issue of this combat, what we are now ignorant of, although it may be very important for ns to know, that we may provide accordingly: for there is no one so great in England, but, if he anger me, he shall dearly pay for it. Should I allow myself to be any way governed by my subjects, they would soon overpower me; I know for certain that some of my kinsmen have held secret meetings respecting my government; but the most dangerous among them was the duke of Gloucester (43), for in all England there was none more wrong-headed. lie is now at peace, and henceforward we shall manage the rest well enough. But tell me, I pray you, why you ask the question?" " Sire," replied they, " we are bound to advise you to the best of our knowledge and abilities. We sometimes hear and observe what you cannot, for you are in your apartments, and we abroad in the fields, or in London, where many conversations are held that nearly touch you, as well as us. There is yet time to provide a remedy, and we earnestly advise you not to delay it." " What do you mean?" said the king: " speak out, and do not spare me; for I wish to act rightly, and to maintain justice in my kingdom." "Sire, the common report throughout England, but especially in London, is, that you are the cause of this combat, and that you have induced the earl marshal (30) to challenge the earl of Derby (31). The Londoners in general, and many of the prelates and nobles, say, that you are in the direct road to destroy all your kindred and kingdom, but that they will not suffer it to be done. Now, were the citizens to rise and be joined by the nobility, who could oppose them? You have no power but from your vassals; and they are now more suspicious of you than ever, from your marriage with a princess of France; and you are less beloved by your subjects on this account. Know, that if you allow these two earls to meet in arms, you will not be lord of the field, but the Londoners, united with the earl of Derby's (31) great connexions by blood, who are all much attached to him. The earl marshal (30) is become very unpopular, particularly with the citizens of London, who would willingly put him to death. Three parts of the people of England say, that when you heard the charge of the earl marshal (30), you should have acted otherwise than yon did, and checked the quarrel by telling them, "You are both my cousins and liege men, and I command that peace be henceforward between you;" and that you should have taken the earl of Derby (31) by the hand, and led him to your chamber with every token of affection. Because you did not this, the common report is, that you warmly take the part of the earl marshal (30) against the earl of Derby (31). Weigh well what we have said, for we have told you the truth, and you never had more occasion for good advice than at this moment."

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The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 95. Before 19 Oct 1398. Not long after this, the king of England (31) summoned a large council of the great nobles and prelates at Eltham. On their arrival, he placed his two uncles of [his uncle] Lancaster (58) and York (57) beside him, with the earls of Northumberland (56), Salisbury (48) and Huntingdon (46). The earl of Derby (31) and the earl marshal (30) were sent for, and put into separate chambers, for it had been ordered they were not to meet. The king (31) showed he wished to mediate between them, notwithstanding their words had been very displeasing to him, and ought not to be lightly pardoned. He required therefore that they should submit themselves to his decision; and to this end sent the constable of England, with four great barons, to oblige them to promise punctually to obey it. The constable and the lords waited on the two earls, and explained the king's intentions They both bound themselves, in their presence, to abide by whatever sentence the king should give. They having reported this, the king said,— " Well then, I order that the earl marshal (30), for having caused trouble in this kingdom, by uttering words which he could not prove otherwise than by common report, be banished the realm: he may seek any other land he pleases to dwell in, but he must give over all hope of returning hither, as I banish him for life. I also order, that the earl of Derby (31), our cousin, for having angered us, and because he has been, in some measure, the cause of the earl marshal's (30) crime and punishment, prepare to leave the kingdom within fifteen days, and be banished hence for the term of ten years, without daring to return unless recalled by us; but we shall reserve to ourself the power of abridging this term in part or altogether." The sentence was satisfactory to the lords present, who said: "The earl of Derby (31) may readily go two or three years and amuse himself in foreign parts, for he is young enough; and, although he has already travelled to Prussia, the Holy Sepulchre, Cairo and Saint Catherine's,1 he will find other places to visit. He has two sisters, queens of Castillo (25) and of Portugal (38), and may cheerfully pass his time with them. The lords, knights and squires of those countries, will make him welcome, for at this moment all warfare is at an end. On his arrival in Castille, as he is very active, he may put them in motion, and lead them against the infidels of Granada, which will employ his time better than remaining idle in England. Or he may go to Hainault, where his cousin, and brother in arms, the count d'Ostrevant, will be hapi)y to see him, and gladly entertain him, that he may assist him in his war against the Frieslanders. If he go to Hainault, lie can have frequent intelligence from his own country and children. He therefore cannot fail of doing well, whithersoever he goes; and the king (31) may speedily recall him, through means of the good friends he will leave behind, for he is the finest feather in his cap; and he must not therefore suffer him to be too long absent, if he wish to gain the love of his subjects. The earl marshal (30) has had hard treatment, for he is banished without liope of ever being recalled; but, to say the truth, he has deserved it, for all this mischief has been caused by Isim and his foolish talking: he must therefore pay for it." Thus conversed many English knights with each other, the day the king passed sentence on the earl of Derby (31) and the earl marshal (30).

Note 1. The monastery on Mount Sinai. — Ed.

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The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. The earl of Derby (31) was confounded at this address, and retired a few paces, without demanding from the [his uncle] duke his father (58), or any of his friends, how he should act. Having mused a while, he advanced, with his hood in his hand, towards the king (31), and said, " Earl marshal (30), I say that thou art a false and wicked traitor, which I will bodily prove on thee, and here is my glove." The earl marshal (30), seeing his challenge was accepted, showed a good desire for the combat, by taking up the glove and saying, — "I refer your answer to the good pleasure of the king (31) and the lords now present. I will prove that what you have said is false, and that my words are true." Each of these lords then withdrew with his friends, and the time for serving wine and spices was passed by; for the king (31) showed he was sore displeased, and retired to his chamber and shut himself within it. His two uncles [Note. [his uncle] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (58) and Edmund of Langley (57)] remained without with their children, as did the earls of Salisbury (48) and Huntingdon (46), the king's brother [Note. John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (46) was the King's maternal half-brother].

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. At this time, a conversation passed between the earl of Derby (31) and the earl-marshal (30), in which the state of the king (31) and the counsellors whom he trusted became the subject of discussion. The earl marshal (30) caught at the following words the other had made use of, with a good intent, thinking they would never have been mentioned again, for they were neither arrogant nor traitorous: " Holy Mary ! fair cousin, what does the king next intend to do? Will he drive all the nobles out of England? There will soon be none left; and he plainly shows he is not desirous to add to the honour of his realm." The earl marshal (30) made no reply, but treasured this speech in his mind, as he considered it very impertinent, in regard to the king, and thought within himself that the earl of Derby (31) was well inclined to excite troubles in England, for he was marvellously beloved by the Londoners. He therefore determined (for the devil entered his brain, and what has been ordained to happen must come to pass), to report this speech in the presence of the king and his nobility.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. The [his uncle] duke of Lancaster (58) was much vexed and melancholy at seeing the king of England (31), his nephew, thus badly conduct himself, but knew not to whom to open his thoughts. He, like a wise man, considered the consequences that might ensue, and at times said to those he most confided in, " Our nephew will ruin everything before he have done: he too readily listens to evil counsellors, who will destroy him and his kingdom. Should he live long, he will lose by little and little all it has cost his predecessors and us so much pains to gain. He encourages discord between his nobles and great lords, bv whom he ought to be honoured and served, and the country guarded. He has put my brother (43) to death, for it is now notorious he ordered it, and likewise the earl of Arundel (52), because they told him the truth; but this he refuses to hear, and will not listen to any one who does not flatter his own imaginations. He cannot sooner ruin his country than by exciting hatreds among his nobility and principal towns. The French are too subtle a race, for one misfortune that befals us they would wish ten, as they can never obtain their ends, or recover their domains, but through ourselves; and everv day there are examples of the misery of kingdoms when divided. Such has been the unfortunate lot of France, Castille, Naples, and the Roman state; and the present schism is the ruin of the contending popes, as well as the church. Flanders is another example which we have seen of self-destraction. Friesland is at this moment in a similar state, oppressed by the war of the count of Hainault, and ruining themselves by domestic quarrels. We shall be in the same situation unless God prevent it, from the appearance of the present state of affairs. The king has consented that my son and heir, for I have none other by my first two marriages, should be challenged to mortal combat for a mere trifle; and I, his [his uncle] father (58), dare not say a word against it, in regard to my own and my son's honour; for my son has the feelings of a knight, and is of sufficient strength to encounter the earl marshal (30). Howbeit, let the best be made of it, they will never again love each other as they did before." Such were the conversations of the [his uncle] duke of Lancaster (58).

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The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. Soon after this conversation, the earl marshal (30), to flatter and gain favour with the king (31), said, — " My lord, all your enemies and ill-wishers are not dead, nor out of the kingdom." The king changed colour, and replied, "How, cousin, do you know this?" " I know it well," answer the earl marshal: " for the moment, I will not say more; but, that you may provide a remedy in time, have it proclaimed that you will hold a solemn feast on this ensuing Palm Sunday, and invite all the princes of your blood, particularly the earl of Derby (31), when you shall hear something that will surprise you, and what you are not suspicious of, notwithstanding it so nearly concerns you." The king (31) was very pensive on hearing this, and begged the earl marshal (30) to give him further information; that he might safely tell him all, for he would keep it secret. I know not if he did so; but the king, if he did, kept it to himself, and allowed the earl to act in the matter as he pleased; the consequences of which were as follows.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. The two earls, in the mean time, were making every preparation for their combat. The [his uncle] duke of Lancaster (58) never went near the king, and as seldom saw his son (31), acting throughout with great good sense. He knew the earl of Derby (31) was very popular with all ranks in England, but more particularly with the Londoners, who waited on him, and addressed him, — " Earl of Derby (31), make your mind easy: whatever may be the event of this combat it will turn out to your honour, in spite of the king and all his minions. We know well how things are managed, and what will be the result of them: this accusation has been invented by envy, to cause your banishment out of the kingdom, where they are aware you are so greatly beloved by all ranks and sexes; and should you be forced to quit us in sorrow, you shall return in joy, for you are more worthy to rule than Richard of Bordeaux (31). Whoever may choose to search the matter to the bottom, to discover the real origin of you both, will soon see that you have a greater right to the crown of England than he who wears it, although we have paid him homage, and acknowledged him for king these twenty years; but that was obtained by the entreaties of your grandfather, king Edward of happy memory, who was suspicious of what we hint, and feared the consequences. There was once a serious dispute on this subject between king Edward and your grandfather by your mother's side, duke Henry of Lancaster, but the great lords interfered and made up matters between them. King Edward was valiant and successful in all his enterprises, and had gained the love of his subjects high and low. Your grandfather of Lancaster only required from the king what was just, and served him and his kingdom so loyally, that his conduct deserved the commendation of all. Every one who knew him called him their old father. These things are worthy of king Richard's consideration, and may make him repent, if anji;hing can, at his leism-e, that he has not more prudently governed." Such conversations did many of the nobles and citizens of London hold with the earl of Derby, who was pleased with their affection, and received them kindly. He did not, however, neglect any preparations for his combat, but sent to every one of his friends throughout England, to entreat their company at the appointed day and place.

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The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. Soon afterward, the king (31) called to him his uncles [Note. [his uncle] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (58) and Edmund of Langley (57)], and demanded from them how he was to act on this occasion. " Sire, order your constable hither, and we will tell you." The earl of Rutland (25), constable of England, being sent for, came, and he was told, — " Constable go to the earl of Derby (31) and the earl marshal (30), and oblige them to promise not to quit the kingdom without the king's permission." The constable obeyed the order, and returned to the king's apartment. You may believe the whole court was greatly troubled by this event, and many barons and knights were much displeased, who blamed the earl marshal for his conduct; but what he had said he could not now retract, and he showed by his manners that he made light of it, so arrogant and swollen with pride was his heart. The lords now separated, each for his own home. The [his uncle] duke of Lancaster (58), in spite of appearances, was much vexed at what had passed, and his opinion was, that the king should not have listened to such a charge, but instantly have annihilated it; and in this he was joined by the more sensible barons of the country.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 94. Before 19 Oct 1398. The king (31), on hearing these words, changed colour (for they had boldly spoken out, and certainly what they had said could not be contradicted), turned aside and leant on a window, where he mused a considerable time. He then turned to those who had addressed him, namely, the archbishop of York (48), the earls of [his half-brother] Huntingdon (46) and Salisbury (48), and three other knights of his chamber, and said, — " I have attentively heard everything you have advised, and should be blameworthy if I followed not your counsel: consider, therefore, how you would have me act." "Sire," replied their spokesman, "what we have been talking of is matter of great danger. You must dissemble your resentments, and put an end to this business, if you wish for peace and to preserve your honour. You ought to pay more respect to the general opinion of your realm than to the idle talk of two knights. It is believed throughout England that the lord marshal behaved himself very ill, and, by stirring up many things that were better forgotten, is desirous to pick a quarrel with the earl of Derby (31), raise the people, and throw all things into confusion. He must therefore suffer for so doing, and the earl of Derby (31) be acquitted. We have considered the matter in every point of view, and advise that, before they arm or make further preparations, you send them your commands to appear before you, and to abide by whatever you determine between them. You will therefore give judgment, that, within fifteen days, the earl marshal (30) quit England, without any hope of ever returning, and the earl of Derby (31) be banished thence for the space of ten years. When the time for their departure arrives, you will, to please the people, abridge four years of the earl of Derby's (31) sentence, so that his banishment will be only for six vears, but that he must not expect further favour. Such is the advice we give you: be very careful to prevent their meeting in arms, or the greatest mischiefs may arise from it." The king was thoughtful a moment, and replied, " You have faithfully advised me, and it shall be done."

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The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 96. 19 Oct 1398. When the two earls heard the sentence the king (31) had passed on them, they were much cast down, and not without cause. The earl marshal (30) bitterly repented what he had said and done, but he could not foresee its consequences: he had firmly relied on being otherwise supported by the king (31) than he was, or he would not have thought of it. It was, however, necessary to make his preparations for banishment. He settled the payments of his income through the Lombards of Bruges, and, quitting England, arrived at Calais, where he had been governor. He staid there a short time, to receive part of his equipage which had been left behind. On his departure he took leave of the townsmen of Calais, and having fixed his route, would not go to France nor Hainault, for he had not any business at these places, but went to Bruges, where he staid fifteen days. On leaving this town, he visited Ghent, Mechlin, Louvain, St. Tron, Utrecht, Aix and Cologne, where we will leave him, and speak of the earl of Derby (31), who in like manner made his preparations for obeying his sentence of banishment.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 96. After 19 Oct 1398. When the day of his exile drew near, he went to Eltham where the king (31) resided. He found there his [his uncle] father (58), the duke of York (57) his uncle, and with them the earl of Northumberland (56), sir Henry Percy (34) his son, and a great many barons and knights of England, vexed that his ill fortune should force him out of England. The greater part of them accompanied him to the presence of the king (31), to learn his ultimate pleasure as to this banishment. The king (31) pretended that he was very happy to see these lords: he entertained them well, and there was a full court on the occasion. The earl of Salisbury (48), and the earl of Huntingdon (46), who had married the [his uncle] duke of Lancaster's (58) daughter (35), were present, and kept near to the earl of Derby (31), whether through dissimulation or not I am ignorant. When the time for the earl of Derby's (31) taking leave arrived, the king (31) addressed his cousin with great apparent humility, and said, "that as God might help him, the words which had passed between him and the lord marshal had much vexed him; and that he had judged the matter between them to the best of his understanding, and to satisfy the people, who had murmured greatly at this quarrel. Wherefore, cousin," he added, " to relieve you somewhat of your pain, I now remit four years of the term of your banishment, and reduce it to six years instead often. Make your preparations, and provide accordingly." "My lord," replied the earl, "I humbly thank you; and, when it shall be your good pleasure, you will extend your mercy." The lords present were satisfied with the answer, and for this time were well pleased with the king's (31) behaviour, for he received them kindly. Some of them returned with the earl of Derby (31) to London. The earl's baggage had been sent forward to Dover, and he was advised by his father, on his arrival at Calais, to go straight to Paris, and wait on the king of France (29) and his cousins the princes of France, for by their means he would be the sooner enabled to shorten his exile than by any other. Had not the duke of Lancaster earnestly pressed this matter, like a father anxious to console his son, he would have taken the direct road to the count d'Ostrevant in Hainault.

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Before 1399 Richard Vere 11th Earl Oxford 1385-1417 and [his niece] Alice Holland Countess Oxford 1392-1406 were married. He a great x 5 grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She a great granddaughter of King Edward III England.

In 1399 Robert Waterton Constable 1360-1425 (39) was appointed Constable Pontefract Castle. In Jan 1400 he was given custody of King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (31) who died shortly thereafter.

Around 1399 John Bourchier 2nd Baron Bourchier 1329-1400 (70) was appointed 83rd Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (31).

Around 1399 William Jülich 3rd Duke Guelders 3rd Duke Jülich 1364-1402 (34) was appointed 81st Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (31).

Around 1399 William Wittelsbach IV Count Holland VI Count Hainault V Count Zeeland 1365-1417 (33) was appointed 82nd Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (31).

Death of John of Gaunt

On 03 Feb 1399 [his uncle] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (58) died at Leicester Castle. Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403 (48) was by his side. He was buried at St Paul's Cathedral.

He was buried in the Choir of St Paul's Cathedral with his first wife Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (53).

Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (31) succeeded 2nd Duke Lancaster 2C 1362, 7th Earl of Leicester 2C 1265.

King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (32) witheld the future Henry IV's (31) inheritance from him giving Henry (31) reason to return to England to claim his lands and titles.

Letter XXVII Joanna of Navarre afterwards Queen of Henry IV to King Richard II. 15 Mar 1399. Letter XXVII. Joanna of Navarre (29) afterwards Queen of Henry IV to King Richard II (32).

My most dear and redoubted lord,.

I desire every day to be certified of your good estate, which our Lord grant that it may ever be as good as your heart desires and as I should wish it for myself. If it would please you to let me know of it, you would give me great rejoicings in my heart, for every time that I hear good news of you I am most perfectly glad at heart. And if to know tidings from this side would give you pleasure, when this was written my lord (31), I, and our children were together in good health of our persons, thanks to our Lord, who by his grace ever grant you the same. I pray you, my dearest and most redoubted lord, that it would ever please you to have the affairs of my said lord well recommended, as well in reference to the deliverance of his lands as other things, which lands in your hands are the cause why he sends his people promptly towards you. So may it please you hereupon to provide him with your gracious remedy, in such manner that he may enjoy his said lands peaceably; even as he and I have our perfect surety and trust in you more than in any other. And let me know your good pleasure, and I will accomplish it willingly and with a good heart to my power.

My dearest and most redoubted lord, I pray the Holy Spirit that he will have you in his holy keeping.

Written at Vannes, the 15th day of March. The Duchess of Bretagne.

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Richard II's Last Will

On 16 Apr 1399 King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (32) wrote his Last Will from which the following extracts are taken … Also we bequeath to our beloved nephew [his nephew] Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey 1374-1400 (25) ten thousand marks and to our beloved brother Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (26) two thousand marks and to our beloved brother [his half-brother] John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (47) three thousand marks and to our faithful and beloved William Scrope 1st Earl Wiltshire 1350-1399 (49) two thousand marks ... we ordain and set aside for the fulfilment of all and singular the premises the sum of ninety-one thousand marks, of which sixty-five thousand marks are in the keeping of Sir John Ikelyngton and twenty-four thousand marks in the hands and keeping of our dear nephew [his nephew] Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey 1374-1400 (25).

Of this our royal testament we nominate make and depute executors the venerable fathers in Christ Richard Mitford Bishop -1407, Edmund Stafford Bishop of Exeter 1344-1419 (55), Robert Tideman of Winchcombe, Thomas Merke Bishop of Carlisle -1409 and Guy Mone Aka Mohun Bishop of St David's -1407; our beloved brother Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (26), our nephew [his nephew] Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey 1374-1400 (25), our brother [his half-brother] John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (47) and William Scrope 1st Earl Wiltshire 1350-1399 (49) to each of whom we bequeath a gold cup of the value of twenty pounds and our beloved and faithful clerks Master Richard Boteville Bishop of Bath and Wells Bishop of Worcester Bishop of London -1421 Keeper of our Privy Seal, Master Richard Maudeleyn, Master William Fereby and Master John Painter Ikelyngton clerks and John Lufwyk and William Serle laymen, to each of whom we will shall be paid their expenses and necessary costs while it shall happen that they or any of them are employed about the execution of our present last will, but according to the discretion of their said co-executors ...

Whom all and singular we have charged and charge that they shall do as much as in them is for the due execution and fulfilment of this our last will as they shall wish to answer before God. We create ordain depute and make overseers of this our will the reverend fathers in Christ Roger Walden Archbishop of Canterbury -1406 and Richard Scrope Archbishop of York 1350-1405 (49), William bishop of Winchester and William abbot of the monastery of Westminster Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (26) our uncle and Henry Percy 1st Earl of Northumberland 1341-1408 (57) our cousin.

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Richard II's Third Trip to Ireland

In May 1399 King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (32) travelled to Ireland with Thomas Merke Bishop of Carlisle -1409, Rhys ap Tudor Tudor -1412 and Gwilym ap TudorTudor.

Before 19 Jun 1399 Edward Charleton 5th Baron Cherleton 1370-1421 and [his niece] Eleanor Holland Countess March Countess Ulster 1370-1405 were married. They were half third cousins once removed. He a great x 3 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.

Richard II Abdication

On 24 Jul 1399 King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (32) landed in Wales having travelled from Ireland.

On 12 Aug 1399 King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (32) negotiated with Henry Percy 1st Earl of Northumberland 1341-1408 (57) at Conwy Castle.

On 19 Aug 1399 King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (32) surrendered to Henry Bolingbroke Earl of Derby (32) at Flint Castle. William Ros 6th Baron Ros Helmsley 1370-1414 (29) was present [Note. Wikipedia states Berkeley Castle?]

On 29 Sep 1399 King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (32) abdicated II King England at the Tower of London. William Ros 6th Baron Ros Helmsley 1370-1414 (29), Thomas Grey 1359-1400 (40), William Willoughby 5th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 1370-1409 (29), Hugh Burnell 2nd Baron Burnell 1347-1420 (52) and Thomas Rempston -1406 were present.

On 30 Sep 1399 Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (32) became IV King England. He had usurped his cousin Richard II (32) and Richard's heir the seven year old Edmund Mortimer 5th Earl of March (7) who was descended from Edward III's second son [his uncle] Lionel of Antwerp Duke of Clarence (60). This second usurption was to have far reaching consequences since it subsequently became the descent by which the House of York claimed precedence over the House of Lancaster being one of the causes of the Wars of the Roses.

Ralph Neville 1st Earl Westmoreland 1364-1425 (35) was appointed Earl Marshal.

Epiphany Rising

In Dec 1399 the Epiphany Rising was an attempt to restore King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (32) to the throne replacing Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (32).

On 07 Jan 1400 at Cirencester Ralph Lumley 1st Baron Lumley 1360-1400 (40) was beheaded by the townspeople following an unsuccessful attempt to seize the town. Baron Lumley 1C 1384 forfeit.

[his nephew] Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey 1374-1400 (26) was beheaded. His brother Edmund Holland 4th Earl Kent 1384-1408 (16) succeeded 4th Earl Kent 6C 1360, 5th Baron Holland.

John Montagu 3rd Earl Salisbury 1350-1400 (50) was captured, tried and beheaded.

Bernard Brocas 1354-1400 (46) was captured.

On 16 Jan 1400 [his half-brother] John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (48) was executed at Pleshy Castle. His son John Holland 2nd Duke Exeter 1395-1447 (4) succeeded 2nd Earl Huntingdon 4C 1388. [his half-brother] He was captured by Joan Fitzalan Countess Essex Hereford and Northampton 1347-1419 (53) whose brother Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel 1346-1397 (54) John Holland had had executed three years before. She arranged for the children of her dead brother to witness the execution of [his half-brother] John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (48) at Pleshy Castle; her primary seat.

Death of Richard II

On 14 Feb 1400 (exact date not known) King Richard II (33) died at Pontefract Castle, possibly murdered, possibly starved to death, as a consequence of the Epiphany Rising. His first cousin Philippa Plantagenet Countess March 5th Countess Ulster 1355-1382 (44) de jure Heir to the Throne of England.

On 17 Feb 1400 Richard's (33) corpse was displayed at St Paul's Cathedral.

On 06 Mar 1400 Richard's (33) remains were buried at King's Langley Priory.

Richard II Abdication

Around 1401. Jean Creton Painter Chronicler -1420. The Capture and Death of King Richard. King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (33) (in black) surrendering to Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (33) (holding the white staff) at Flint Castle.

Around 1401. Jean Creton Painter Chronicler -1420. The Capture and Death of King Richard. King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (33) negotiating Henry Percy 1st Earl of Northumberland 1341-1408 (59) at Conwy Castle.

Around 1401. Jean Creton Painter Chronicler -1420. The Capture and Death of King Richard. King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (33) delivered to the citizens of London.

In 1406 Charles Valois Duke Orléans 1394-1465 (11) and [his wife] Isabella Valois Queen Consort England 1389-1409 (16) were married at Compiègne, Oise They were first cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She a great x 5 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272. [his wife] She by marriage Duchess Orléans.

On 13 Sep 1409 [his wife] Isabella Valois Queen Consort England 1389-1409 (19) died in childbirth.

In 1413 King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (45) was reburied at Chapel of St Edward the Confessor.

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 1414. Ande that yere the kyng (27) made to be brought the bonys of Kyng Rychard (46) to Westemyster, and they were beryd and put in his owne sepulture, that he let make hym selfe with [his former wife] Quene Anne his wyfe (47)8. [th]is was the laste yere of raygne of the fadyr, and the fyrste yere of the raygne of the sone, Kyng Harry the v.

Note 8. The words betweenb bare repeated in the MS.

John Evelyn's Diary 17 August 1654. 17 Aug 1654. Passed through Pontefract; the richard castle famous for many sieges both of late and ancient times, and the death of that unhappy King murdered in it, was now demolishing by the Rebels; it stands on a mount, and makes a goodly show at a distance. The Queen (44) has a house here, and there are many fair seats near it, especially Mr. Pierrepont's (48), built at the foot of a hill out of the castle ruins. We all alighted in the highway to drink at a crystal spring, which they call Robin Hood's Well; near it, is a stone chair, and an iron ladle to drink out of, chained to the seat. We rode to Tadcaster, at the side of which we have prospect of the Archbishop's Palace (which is a noble seat), and in sight of divers other gentlemen's fair houses. This tract is a goodly, fertile, well-watered, and wooded country, abounding with pasture and plenty of provisions.

Around 1625 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669.

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: The disclaimer of the commons touching the promise of the expedition of Lombardy. 9. Also, on the following Thursday, the commons came before the king and lords in parliament and explained to the king that although the archbishop of Canterbury and the earl of Rutland and the earl marshal had told them that the king had heard that there were some who intended to oppose the expedition of the said earls promised to his honourable compeer of France towards the parts of Lombardy, and had incited and procured the commons to request of the king our lord that the said expedition be prevented, and that he break the promise thereon made by him to his said compeer of France, the same commons excused themselves, for that neither they nor any one of them had ever had such purpose nor intent, nor had they spoken amongst themselves, nor had any others instructed them to make a request about nor to influence our lord the king contrary to the honourable promise aforesaid; but that they thanked him most wholeheartedly for the his honourable bearing, for the honour of himself and his kingdom, both in that matter and in others with his said compeer on his last expedition to France, as is well known to a great part of Christendom. And although the said lords in relating it explained to the said commons the gracious intent of our lord the king, that neither the commons nor the realm would be bound nor charged by virtue of that expedition; nevertheless the said commons prayed and protested that although the king of his own authority and will had granted such an expedition, that neither in this expedition nor in anything else which might arise in future, would they be a party, nor suffer loss, but be wholly excused. To which the king replied in his own words in full parliament, and said to the commons that they should not marvel at the said promise; and he kindly explained to them certain reasons which encouraged him to make the promise of the said expedition.

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Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: Ordinance on bullion. 19. Be it remembered that it was ordained in this parliament, with the assent of the same parliament, that each and every merchant, as well denizens as aliens, who should wish to take out of England wool, hides or woolfells, should pay one ounce of gold in foreign coin for every sack of wool, and one such ounce for every half last of hides, and one such ounce for every two hundred and forty woolfells, to the king's bullion in the Tower of London, within half a year from the time of the custom and cocketing of the same wool, hides and woolfells, and in and under the name of him from whom they shall thus be customed and cocketed. And that the said merchants, if they do not pay one such ounce of foreign coin for every sack of wool and for every half last of hides, and for every two hundred and forty woolfells to the said bullion, in the aforesaid form, should pay the king for every sack of wool thirteen shillings and four pence, and on every last of hides thirteen shillings and four pence, and on every four hundred and eighty woolfells thirteen shillings and four pence, in addition to the customs and subsidies and other dues owed thereon. And that each and every such merchant, before they take the said wool, hides, and woolfells out of any ports of the kingdom of England, should find sufficient surety to the king's customs officers in the same ports to pay the said ounces of gold to the said bullion in the aforesaid form.

Whereupon writs of proclamation were directed to the mayors and bailiffs of the cities and towns where the staples are. Also, writs to the collectors of customs and subsidies in the ports where the staples are, to take surety from the said merchants, and to notify thereof the keeper and master of the mint in the said Tower of London, as appears from the tenor of the said writs transcribed below:

Writs made thereon.

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: How the king graciously held them to be excused. 17. Whereupon the chancellor, by the king's command, said to the commons that the king of his royal kindness and gracious lordship considered the aforesaid commons wholly excused, and promised them good lordship, as had always been his will, charging them that on the following Monday they should proceed with the business of parliament as best they could. And further, the king himself said to the commons that they were bound to him in many ways, and now especially, inasmuch as he, for their ease and tranquillity, would abstain from making or demanding a charge from them in tenths or fifteenths, nor did he think to charge them in future for any such charge concerning his own body or person.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. The king of England left the Tower of London at a very early hour, and rode to Eltham, where he remained. The same day, towards evening, the earls of Arundel and Warwick were brought to the Tower by the king's officers, and there confined, to the great surprise of the citizens. Their imprisonment caused many to murmur, but they were afraid to act, or do anything against the king's pleasure, lest they might suffer for it. It was the common conversation of the knights, squires, and citizens of London, and in other towns, — "It is useless for us to say more on this matter, for the dukes of [his uncle] Lancaster and of York, brothers to the duke of Gloucester, can provide a remedy for all this whenever they please: they assuredly would have prevented it from happening, if they had suspected the king had so much courage, or that he would have arrested their brother; but they will repent of their indolence: and, if they are not instantly active, it will end badly."

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: The excuse and submission of the commons to the king. 16. Item, on Saturday, the morrow of the said feast of Candlemas [3 February 1397], the lords spiritual and temporal were with the commons and showed them the king's will and command, and the said commons delivered the said bill to the lords, with the name of the person who submitted it to them, namely Sir Thomas Haxey. Which bill was later delivered to the clerk of the crown by the clerk of parliament by the king's command, and immediately afterwards the commons came before the king in parliament by his command. And there with all the humility and obedience that they could, they lamented, as was apparent from their mien, that the king had formed such an impression of them, praying most humbly of the king to hear and accept their excuse that it had never been their intent nor will to speak, show nor do anything which would give offence or displeasure to the king's royal majesty, nor against his royal estate or liberty; and especially in the matter concerning his own royal person and the governance of his household, or of the lords and ladies in his company, nor in any other matter which touched himself: knowing and understanding well that such things did not pertain to them, but only to the king himself and to his ordinance. For that their intent was, and is, because of the great affection they bear for the king as faithful lieges, that the lords should ask the king to consider his honourable estate and do thereon whatsoever pleased him, and even though the king perceived differently, that it was not their intent which weighed heavily upon them. And thereupon the said commons humbly submitted themselves to the grace and will of the king, imploring his royal majesty graciously to hold them excused: saying also that they were always ready to do their utmost to save his royal estate and liberty, and to do in body and goods, as loyal lieges were bound to do, that which might be to the honour and salvation of his royal majesty.

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: By the king in parliament. 33. Also, on the same Saturday [10 February 1397], a charter of the king made to the earl marshal touching his office of marshal of England, and the gold staff adorned with the emblem of the king's arms which he will carry in his office, was read and delivered to the said earl. The tenor of which charter follows:

The king to the same, greeting. Know that whereas recently by our letters patent of our special grace we granted to our beloved kinsman Thomas, earl of Nottingham, the office of marshal of England, together with the name and honour of earl marshal, to have to him and his male heirs issuing from his body, with all the fees, profits, and appurtenances whatsoever pertaining in any way to the said office, in perpetuity; as is fully contained in the same letters. We, mindful of the gracious and laudable services often performed by the aforementioned earl, on either side of the sea, for the benefit and honour of us and our kingdom, at no small effort, cost, and charge to him; and wishing therefore to provide for the estate and honour of that earl, of our special grace have granted in our present parliament for us and our heirs to the same earl the said office, and the name, title, and honour of earl marshal of England, to have to him and his male heirs issuing from his body, together with all offices, commodities, profits and other appurtenances whatsoever, both in our courts and elsewhere, relating or pertaining in any way to the same office, in the same manner and as fully, freely, wholly, and peacefully as Thomas Brotherton, lately earl of Norfolk and marshal of England, father of our beloved kinswoman Margaret countess of Norfolk, [widow] of the aforesaid late earl, or Roger Bigod sometime earl of Norfolk and marshal of England, or any other after the death of the same former earl, or the same present earl, had or held the said office of marshal of England in their time.

Willing further and granting for us and our heirs, that the office of marshal of our Bench before us, which John Wicks holds for the term of his life by our grant, and the office of marshal in our treasury which Richard Gascoigne holds for his life by grant of our beloved brother [his half-brother] Thomas earl of Kent, lately marshal of England, by our confirmation; and also the office of herald of the marshal before the steward and marshal of our household, which Guy Allesley holds for his life by grant of the lord Edward [III], late king of England, our grandfather, and by our confirmation; which offices after the death of the aforesaid John, Richard and Guy should revert to us and our heirs, after the death of the same John, Richard, and Guy shall remain to the aforementioned earl marshal, to have to him and his male heirs in perpetuity. And that the same offices, and all other offices in any of our courts and elsewhere, which pertained, and used to pertain to the said office of marshal of England in times past, shall be fully restored, annexed, and reunited to the said office of marshal of England in perpetuity. And that the same earl and his male heirs may give, grant, or confer those offices on any suitable persons freely and without hindrance as soon as they shall have fallen vacant by death, demise, resignation, surrender, or in any other way, notwithstanding any of our letters patent made to the contrary.

Considering also the vigour and nobility of that earl, and that he may in future the more fittingly and honourably perform and exercise the aforesaid office, we have granted for us and our heirs to the same present earl that he and his said male heirs, marshals of England, by virtue of their aforesaid office should have, carry, and bear, as well in the presence as in the absence of us and our heirs, a certain gold staff, with both ends enamelled in black, and with the emblem of our arms decorating the top of the said staff, and with the emblem of the arms of that earl decorating the bottom of the said staff; notwithstanding that the same present earl in his time, or the aforementioned former earls, or any other who had the said office of marshal of England before this time, used to carry or bear a wooden staff. Witnessed by these, the venerable fathers Thomas archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England, Robert of London, William of Winchester, John of Ely, Edmund of Exeter, our chancellor, bishops; [his uncle] John of Aquitaine and Lancaster, Edmund of York, dukes, our beloved uncles; Henry of Derby, Edward of Rutland, Henry of Northumberland, earls; Reginald Grey of Ruthin, Ralph Neville, John Lovell, knights; Roger Walden, dean of York, our treasurer, Thomas Percy, steward of our household, and others. Given by our hand at Westminster on 10 February 1397.

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Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: The king's will thereon announced to the lords. 15. Also, as to the fourth article, touching the expenses of the king's household and the presence of bishops and ladies in his company, the king took great offence and affront in that the commons who were his lieges should wrongly take upon themselves or presume any ordinance or governance of the kingking's person, or his household, or other persons of standing whom it should please him to have in his company. And it seemed to the king that the commons committed a great offence therein against his regality and his royal majesty, and the liberty of himself and his honourable progenitors, which he was bound and willed to maintain and sustain by the aid of God. Wherefor the king ordered the said lords spiritual and temporal that on the following Saturday morning [3 February 1397] they should explain and declare in full to the said commons the king's will in the matter. And further, the king understanding that the said commons had been influenced and informed by a bill delivered to them to present and explain the said last article, so he ordered the [his uncle] duke of Guyenne and of Lancaster to charge Sir John Bushy, speaker for the commons, on his allegiance to recount and tell him the name of whomsoever submitted the said bill to the said commons.

Legitimation of the Beauforts

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: Legitimation of Beaufort. 29. Which charter was read in full parliament, and delivered to the said [his uncle] duke, father of the said John, and his said brothers and sister; the tenor of which charter follows:

Richard, by the grace of God, king of England and France and lord of Ireland, to our most beloved kinsmen the noble John, knight, Henry, cleric, Thomas, donzel, and our beloved noblewoman Joan Beaufort, lady-in-waiting, our most beloved cousins born of our uncle that noble man [his uncle] John duke of Lancaster, our lieges, greeting and the goodwill of our royal majesty. While inwardly considering how endlessly and with how many honours of parental and sincere affection of our aforementioned uncle and of his mature counsel we are on all sides blessed, we have judged it appropriate and worthy that in consideration of his merits, and in contemplation of the grace of persons, we should endow you, who are resplendent with probity and virtuous life and conduct, and are born of royal stock and divinely marked with many virtues and gifts, with the protection of grace and favour by special prerogative. Thus it is that, yielding to the prayers of our said uncle, your [his uncle] father, we grant to you who, so it is claimed, have suffered such defect of birth, that, notwithstanding this defect, which, together with its various consequences, we wish to be fully included in these presents, you may nevertheless receive all honours, dignities, preferments, estates, degrees, and public and private offices, both perpetual and temporal, and feudal and noble rights, by whatsoever name they are called, such as duchies, lordships, earldoms, baronies, or whatsoever other fiefs they be, whether they be dependent upon or held of us mediately or intermediately, which may be preferred, promoted, elected, taken up and allowed, and received, retained, performed and exercised prudently, freely and lawfully, as if you were born in wedlock, notwithstanding any statutes or customs of our kingdom of England decreed or observed to the contrary; and we dispense you [from this defect] by the tenor of these presents, by the plenitude of our royal power and with the assent of our parliament; and we restore you and each of you to legitimacy.

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Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: Touching the king's household and other articles. 14. Also, the fourth article was that the great and excessive charge of the king's household should be amended and reduced; namely, concerning the multitude of bishops who had lordships and were promoted by the king, and their followers; and also concerning the many ladies and their attendants who dwelt in the king's household and at his expense.

Upon which relation the king himself declared and imparted his will to the said lords: that by gift of God it was the king's right by descent and inheritance to inherit the kingdom of England, and he wished to have the regality and royal liberty of his crown. And he replied to the aforesaid articles by saying that some of the same were greatly against his regality and royal estate and liberty. And to the first article, touching the sheriffs and escheators, the king said that it pleased him well that those who were to be sheriffs and escheators should be persons of adequate means and of loyalty, as reason demanded: but it seemed that it would be more to his advantage, and for the good execution of the said offices, that sufficient persons should stay in the said offices for longer than one year, if they bore themselves well, than that they be removed at the end of the year. And this for various reasons expressed by the king: one of which was that a layman placed in office would not be able to learn how to perform his duties in so short a time; and that he should be removed once he had acquired experience of his office seemed to the king greatly damaging and of no benefit. Another reason was that whosoever should be made such an officer, although he would only be one year in office, would not dare in such a brief time to displease the lords of the land or his neighbours, nor duly serve the king, nor do right in his time. Also, concerning the march of Scotland, it well pleased the king that the lords should suggest a remedy, and if it should provide the means of supporting the charge, it well pleased the king, and he would be ready to do his duty as it reasonably pertained to him.

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Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: Ordinances for the mendicant orders. 25. The brethren of the mendicant orders submitted their petition to parliament, the tenor of which follows:

To the most excellent prince our lord the king, the prelates and lords and also the commons present in parliament, the brethren of the mendicant orders humbly pray: that whereas by a certain custom laudably observed amongst them since ancient times, no brother of the same orders shall receive the degree of master in the theology faculty unless he be sufficient in knowledge and conduct in the opinion of his superiors in this kingdom, and so is placed and assigned to receive such a degree in his provincial chapter according to the custom of his order. And nevertheless some brethren of the said orders who are wholly unworthy and untaught procure for themselves the aforesaid degree with money which they take with them overseas; and other unreasonable exemptions, and also inhibitions to their superiors in this kingdom; so that on the return of the same they cannot be punished for their delicts, and neither can their superiors prevent them in any way from obtaining such procurations, exemptions or inhibitions, to the great prejudice of the said orders, and to the shame and disparagement of the said degree, and expressly contrary to the force and effect of the custom of laudable memory. May your excellent and most revered discretion deign to provide such remedy against the insolence of those who wickedly and fraudulently acquire for themselves the degree mentioned above, that the said custom be inviolably observed amongst them hereafter on pain of a great penalty, so that henceforth no brother of the aforesaid orders shall cross the sea without the permission of the superior of his order in this kingdom; nor that such exemption nor assignation shall be allowed, nor the master's degree in any way received, unless it be previously presented in his provincial chapter in the manner mentioned above. And if those brethren, of whatsoever order they be, who are now outside the kingdom and have procured such exemptions or assignations, or the aforesaid degree in the theology faculty against the custom described above, will not, on their return, resign all such exemptions, assignations, and aforesaid scholastic degrees and submit themselves to the discipline and correction of their superiors in this kingdom, then each and every one of them shall incur that penalty which your discretion chooses and appoints for such excesses.

Whereupon, the said petition having been read openly in parliament and heard by the king and lords, the king, by the advice and assent of the lords spiritual and temporal, wills and has ordained in this parliament that none of the brethren of the mendicant orders should cross the sea without the permission of the head of his order in this kingdom; nor that he should be allowed any exemption, assignation, nor receive the degree of master of divinity in any way, unless he be first presented in his provincial chapter; on pain of being placed outside the king's protection. And if such brethren, of whatsoever order they be, who are now outside the kingdom, or within, and have procured such exemptions, assignations, or the degree of master of divinity contrary to the custom described above, will not on their return to England resign and renounce all such exemptions, assignations, and the aforesaid scholastic degree and submit themselves to the discipline and correction of their heads in this kingdom, they shall be placed outside the king's protection.

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Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: The reason for the said promise expounded by the king himself. 12. And later, the chancellor at the king's command said to the commons that on the following Friday [26 January 1397] the king's officers would come to the commons to explain to them in greater detail and discuss with them certain charges, the reasons for which they explained to them on the third day of the parliament [23 January 1397] last past.

Thomas Haxey's Case

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: The protestation of the prelates after the judgment upon Sir Thomas Haxey. 23. Be it remembered that on the Wednesday after Candlemas [7 February 1397], immediately after the judgment rendered against Thomas Haxey, clerk, who was adjudged to death in parliament as a traitor, there came before the king in parliament with great humility the archbishop of Canterbury and all the other prelates, and made full protestation that their whole and full intent was, and always would be, that the royal estate and regality of the king should be be forever saved and kept from blemish; and they humbly prayed of the king that it might please him of his grace to have pity and mercy for the said Thomas, and of his high and royal benignity to remit and release the execution of the said Thomas's death and grant and give him his life.

And the king thereupon, at the prayer of the said prelates, of his royal pity and of his special grace, remitted and released the execution of the said Thomas's death and granted him his life. Whereupon the said prelates, thanking the king for his great kindness and mercy he had shown, prayed humbly of the king that it might please him of his most abundant grace, to the reverence of God and for the honour of holy church, to grant them the keeping of the body of the said Thomas, the said prelates protesting thereon that they did not make that request nor prayer, nor demand such great grace of the keeping of his said body, for any right or due which pertained or might pertain to them in the cause, but only of the special grace and will of the king himself. Whereupon the king, only of his special grace and for the honour of holy church, and not as any due or right of the said prelates in this matter, granted and released to them the keeping of the body of the said Thomas: and thereupon he ordered Sir Thomas Percy, steward of the king's household, to deliver the body of the said Thomas Haxey to the said archbishop, to keep safely, of the king's grace, as was said above.

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Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: The reason for the said promise expounded by the king himself. 11. And further, on the other hand, the king, recalling that on the second day of parliament [23 January 1397], his [his uncle] uncle of Lancaster made him a request regarding certain grievances inflicted on him by Sir Thomas Talbot, whereof it was his wish that justice be done as an example to such lawlessness, and saying that had he been greater or lesser, of whatever condition he had been within his realm, who committed wrong, excess, or oppression against any of his lieges contrary to the law, of which he had knowledge of the truth, that he would deliver full justice and punishment thereon according to the law, whether he be of his blood of otherwise, showing no favour to anyone.

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: Ordinance on bullion. 20. The king to the mayor and sheriffs of London, greeting. Whereas in our last parliament it was ordained, with the assent of the same parliament, that each and every merchant, as well denizen as alien, who shall wish to take any wool, hides, or woolfells out of our kingdom of England, should deliver and bring one ounce of gold in foreign coinage for each sack of wool, and a similar ounce for every last of hides, and a similar ounce for every two hundred and forty woolfells, to our bullion in our Tower of London, within half a year from the time of customing and cocketing the wool, hides and woolfells, in and under the name of him by whom they were thus customed and cocketed; and that the said merchants, if they did not pay one ounce of this kind of foreign coinage for each sack of wool and each half last of hides and every two hundred and forty woolfells to our aforesaid bullion in the above manner, should pay us for every sack of wool thirteen shillings and four pence; and for every last of hides thirteen shillings and four pence; and for every four hundred and eighty woolfells thirteen shillings and four pence; in addition to the customs and subsidies and other dues owed thereon. And that all and singular such merchants before exporting the aforesaid wool, hides, and woolfells from any port of the kingdom of England should find surety to our customs officers in the same ports to pay and deliver the ounces of gold to our aforesaid bullion in the aforesaid form. We order you publicly to proclaim all and singular the aforesaid things in the said city and suburbs of the same wheresoever shall seem best to you, and cause them to be firmly kept as best you can. Witnessed by the king at Westminster on 20 February 1397.

Similar writs were sent to all the mayors and bailiffs of the cities and towns where the staples are.

Writs for taking surety.

The king to the collectors of customs and subsidies on wool, hides, and woolfells in the port of our city of London, greeting. Whereas in our last parliament, etc., as above, as far as to deliver and bring, and then thus - We order you that from every such merchant, before they take the aforesaid wool, hides, and woolfells from the said port of London, you take sufficient surety, for which you will answer to us at your peril, that they will deliver such ounces of gold to our aforesaid bullion in the aforesaid form, from time to time under your seal clearly and distinctly notifying the keeper and master of our mint in the aforesaid Tower of the surety thus taken, and of the names of the aforesaid merchants, and of the number of sacks of wool and hides and woolfells which are taken out of the said port. Witnessed as above.

Similar writs are sent to the king's collectors of customs and subsidies in the ports where the staples are under the same date.

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Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: The reason for the said promise expounded by the king himself. 10. Firstly, the king, considering how in the past there had been very great trouble and unbearable destruction by war between the two realms of England and France, thought that the greatest good anyone could do for another to oblige him and be the more bound to him, was to aid and relieve him in his trouble and need. Wherefore, with the good intention of pacifying and ending the wars of the kingdom, and to save the troubles which arose through war for his kingdom and his people, and also so that such great benefit and promise might provide a powerful reason for the peace, quiet, and salvation of his kingdom and his lieges of England, and to move his said compeer of France to greater affection for himself and his kingdom and his people in time to come, he made the said promise. The second reason is because his said compeer is cousin to our lord the king, and now his compeer by virtue of this alliance is the more bound to please and relieve him in his need. The third reason is because his said compeer of France, and he himself, are considered two of the most worthy and valiant Christian princes; and for this reason if they happen to know of any king, prince, or other person, whosoever it may be, who by tyranny would conquer and destroy the Christian people in whatsoever parts, they are bound by right, to the reverence of God, to destroy such a tyrant and destroyer, and restore and recover those oppressed and deprived of their estate. And further our lord the king said that he wished to be at large and at liberty to command his people, to send them to aid his friends, and to dispose of his own goods at his will, where and whensoever he chose.

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: The grant of the subsidy. 18. The commons of the realm, by the assent of the lords spiritual and temporal, have granted to our very redoubtable and very powerful lord the king twelve pence in the pound on every kind of merchandise, and three shillings per tun of wine, coming into the kingdom and leaving the same, from the feast of St Andrew, in the twentieth year of the reign of our said lord the king [30 November 1396], for three years next following [29 November 1399]. And also the subsidy on wool, hides and woolfells from the said feast of St Andrew in the said twentieth year for five years then next following [29 November 1401], to be levied as it was levied by virtue of the last grant, so that no levy, nor coercion to make payment, nor surety of payment, shall be made of the aforesaid subsidies after the terms appointed above without the authority of parliament.

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: The Reason for Summoning Parliament. 8. Also, on the following Wednesday [24 January 1397], the chancellor, treasurer, and clerk of the privy seal, the bishop of Chester and others of the king's council explained and declared in the refectory of Westminster to the commons the particular intent of the king and the reason for summoning the parliament. On the same day, the commons came before the king and lords in parliament and prayed that all the lords spiritual and temporal who were absent be sent for to come to parliament. To which they were given answer by the chancellor, on the king's orders, that it would cause too long a delay in parliament. Nevertheless it pleased the king that during the course of parliament he would send again for the lords who were nearby.

John Beaufort created Earl Somerset

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: Legitimation of Beaufort. 31. Whereupon the said Sir John was brought before the king in parliament between two earls, namely [his half-brother] Huntingdon and the marshal, dressed in a cloth as a dress of honour, and his sword carried before him, the hilt uppermost. And then the king's charter of the said creation was read aloud before the king, lords, and commons in parliament. And afterwards the king himself girded the said earl with his sword and took his homage, and caused him to sit in his place in parliament, that is to say, between the earls marshal and Warwick. The tenor of which charter follows:

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: The Protestation of the Commons. 7. Also, the following Tuesday [23 January 1397], the commons presented Sir John Bushy as their common speaker, with whom the king was well pleased. And then the said Sir John prayed of the king that he might make a protestation that if he should say anything through ignorance or otherwise which had not been agreed by his companions, etc., that he might be corrected by his said companions; to which the king agreed, as he should by right and reason. And on the same day the [his uncle] duke of Lancaster asked the king to do justice to Sir Thomas Talbot, etc.. And then the chancellor explained to the commons that although he had explained in general the reason for summoning the parliament, on the morrow following, at eight o'clock [24 January 1397], the officers would explain it more particularly, that the commons might be better informed; and they were ordered to make haste in the business of parliament. And later the chancellor, at the king's command, charged all the lords spiritual and temporal to be at parliament each day at nine o'clock at the latest, and that no lord should absent himself in any way without the special permission of the king himself.

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: On behalf of the bishop of Llandaff touching his temporalities in the vacancy. 24. The bishop of Llandaff submitted a petition in parliament, the tenor of which follows:

John bishop of Llandaff shows, as well for our lord the king as for himself, in the present parliament that whereas the keeping of the temporalities of all the archbishoprics and bishoprics within the kingdom of England and land of Wales, in whichsoever lordships or franchises they may be, pertain during the vacancy of the same archbishoprics and bishoprics to our said lord the king and to none other, as by right of his crown and dignity. And whereas the bishopric of Llandaff, through the death of Andrew lately bishop there, by whose death the keeping of all the temporalities of the said bishopric ought by right to pertain to our said lord the king during the same vacancy - Thomas Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, after the death of the said bishop, entered the manor of Bishopston, part of the temporalities of the said bishopric in the lordship and land of Gower in Wales, and continues his possession still, and has taken the profits thereof, claiming to have the keeping of the said manor in times of vacancy by reason of the said lordship and land of Gower, wrongfully and in contempt of our said lord the king and in derogation of his crown. Wherefor the said bishop prays, as well for our lord the king as for himself, that the said manor with its appurtenances be seized into the hands of our lord the king and delivered to the said bishop.

Which petition having been read aloud in parliament and heard by the king and lords, the said matter was announced to the said earl of Warwick being then present in parliament, which earl having deliberated upon it could not deny the entry or occupation of the said manor and the taking of the issues and profits of the same, and had no excuse to make, but that he and his ancestors had acted in the same manner. And because he could not justify his deed, he submitted himself to the king's grace. Wherefor it was adjudged by the king and lords in parliament that the said manor of Bishopston with all its appurtenances should be taken into the king's hands, and the king answered for the issues of the said manor taken by the said earl; and writs made thereon as appropriate; and that the said earl makes fine to the king for the contempt.

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Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: The Opening of Parliament. 2. Furthermore, the chancellor explained and declared in general to the lords and commons the burden and peril of the enemies of Scotland, and of the land of Ireland, and of the duchy of Guyenne, and of the marches of Calais, so that provision might be made by their good advice for the better governance and salvation of the said parts, and against the enemies without, to the great honour and profit of the king and salvation of the kingdom, and with the least burden and expense for the people. And then he said that the king had ordained and assigned certain clerks to receive particular petitions on causes and matters pertaining to parliament, and certain lords to try and to answer the same petitions in the customary manner, the names of which clerks and lords follow:

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: On behalf of the earl of Salisbury. 26. William Montague, earl of Salisbury, submitted a petition in parliament, the tenor of which follows:

To our lord the king his liege William Montague, earl of Salisbury, prays: whereas the most noble King Edward [III], your grandfather, by his letters patent gave and granted to William Montague, earl of Salisbury and father of the said supplicant, whose heir he is, and to the heirs issuing from his body, with the clause of warranty of the said very noble King Edward [III] and his heirs, the castle, town and honour of Denbigh, and the cantreds of Rhos, Rhufiniog, and Cymeirch and the commote of Dinmael with their appurtenances in Wales, as plainly appears from the said letters patent: which castle, town, and honour, cantreds and commote, with their appurtenances, Roger Mortimer, late earl of March, by the name of the land of Denbigh, in Trinity term, in the twenty-eighth year of the reign of the said most noble King Edward [III] [18 June 1354-9 July 1354], before William Shareshull and his fellow justices assigned to hold the pleas before the said very noble King Edward [III], against the aforesaid supplicant, by erroneous judgment, recovered by a writ of scire facias, founded on a judgment given in the parliament held at Westminster on the Monday after the feast of St Mark the Evangelist in the twenty-eighth year of the reign of the said very noble King Edward [III], for the aforesaid Roger, on a petition showed by him to the said very noble King Edward [III] then, in the name of Roger Mortimer of Wigmore, son and heir of Edmund Mortimer, son and heir of Roger Mortimer; in which record and judgment on the said writ of scire facias there are patent errors.

May it please you of your gracious lordship to cause the full record to be brought before you, with all attachments to the same concerning the said writ of scire facias, in the present parliament, that they may be inspected and examined for error, and to forewarn Roger Mortimer, earl of March, cousin and heir of the aforesaid Roger son of Edmund, and others who are to be forewarned in the matter, to be before you at the next parliament to hear the said errors; and if they know of anything to say wherefor the aforesaid judgment on the said writ of scire facias should not be reversed, and the aforesaid supplicant restored to his said possession with the issues and profits in the meantime since the said loss, and also to do right and justice to the parties in the aforesaid manner. Whereupon, the said petition having been read before the king and lords of parliament, the king ordered Sir Walter Clopton, his chief justice, to bring before the king and lords in parliament the record of which the said petition made mention above. Which record, on the king's command, was later brought to parliament before the king and lords, and there it was read in part, and certain errors therein were pointed out and alleged by the said earl of Salisbury. Whereupon the king, by the assent and advice of the lords of parliament, the justices of the king there present, granted and ordered that the said earl have a writ of scire facias on the matter of the said petition, returnable at the next parliament, as the same petition mentions.

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Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: The assent of the commons touching the statute of provisors. 21. Be it remembered, touching the statute previously made on provisors of the court of Rome, that the commons of the kingdom of England now in parliament, for the great trust that they have in the person of our lord the king, and in his very excellent sense and discretion, and in the great affection and charity he has above all others for his crown and the rights thereof and the salvation of his royal estate, for their part agree in good will, in full parliament, that our said lord the king, by the assent and advice of such wise and worthy persons as it shall please him to summon for counsel in the matter, may make such allowance, ordinance, and moderation touching the said statute as shall seem most reasonable and profitable to him, to the pleasure of God and the salvation of holy church, at his high discretion, saving the rights of his crown and his royal estate, so that at the next parliament the same allowance, ordinance, and moderation may be heard and examined, and thereupon affirmed or corrected and amended or changed, according to that which shall seem best to the king by the advice of his council in the same parliament, for the honour of God and in salvation of holy church, and for the profit of his kingdom and his people.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. You may suppose, that when news was carried to Pleshy of the [his uncle] duke of Gloucester's arrest, the duchess and her children were greatly dismayed, and, since such a bold measure had been taken, were much afraid of the consequences. Suspecting the [his uncle] duke's life was in great danger, they consulted sir John Laquingay what would be best for them now to do. The knight advised them to send instantly to the dukes of Lancaster and York, the duke's brothers; for by their mediation, perhaps, the king's choler would be appeased. He saw no other means, as the king would not choose to make them his enemies. The duchess of Gloucester followed this advice of the knight, and instantly despatched messengers to both, for they resided at a distance from each other. They were much enraged at hearing their [his uncle] brother was arrested, and returned answers to the duchess, not to be too much distressed at what had happened, for the king would not dare to treat him otherwise than by fair and legal measures, for it would not be suffered. This answer comforted the duchess and her children.

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: The Opening of Parliament. 1 Be it remembered that on Monday the feast of St Vincent, in the twentieth year of the reign of our lord the king Richard the second since the conquest [22 January 1397], the king being in parliament, the bishop of Exeter, chancellor of England, by the king's command explained and announced the reason for the summoning of this parliament; claiming by the great authority of holy scripture that it pertains to every Christian king to do four things in his parliament, to the pleasure of God and for the good governance of his kingdom. First, that holy church be governed and defended in peace and tranquillity, with its rights and liberties. Second, that all the subjects and people of his kingdom be governed in justice and peace without oppression, and that malefactors be punished and chastised as they deserve. Third, that the good laws of his kingdom be maintained and governed, and if any laws or customs be not good or profitable, then to amend them, or ordain and establish other laws and ordinances necessary for the peace and quiet of the people of his kingdom. Also, fourth, that the people in his kingdom be defended from enemies without. All of which four points thus explained, the king willed and granted that they would be done and upheld as best they might be, with God's aid and by the good counsel of the estates of his kingdom. And he willed that holy church principally, and the lords spiritual and temporal, cities and boroughs, should have and enjoy their liberties and franchises as they reasonably had them in the time of his noble progenitors the kings of England and in his own time.

Death of Richard II

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 245. Of the Death of King Richard

It was not long after that true tidings ran through London, how Richard of Bordeaux was dead; but how he died and by what means, I could not tell when I wrote this chronicle. But this king Richard dead was laid in a litter and set in a chare covered with black baudkin, and four horses all black in the chare, and two men in black leading the chare, and four knights all in black following. Thus the chare departed from the Tower of London and was brought along through London fair and softly, till they came into Cheapside, whereas the chief assembly of London was, and there the chare rested the space of two hours. Thither came in and out more than twenty thousand persons men and women, to see him whereas he lay, his head on a black cushion and his visage open. Some had on him pity and some none, but said he had long deserved death. Now consider well, ye great lords, kings, dukes, earls, barons and prelates, and all men of great lineage and puissance: see and behold how the fortunes of this world are marvelloua and turn diversely. This king Richard reigned king of England twenty-two yeai in great prosperity, holding great estate and seignory. There was never before any king of England that spent so much in his house as he did, by a hundred thousand florins every year; for I, sir John Froissart canon and treasurer of Chimay, knew it well, for I was in his court more than quarter of a year together, and he made me good cheer, because that in my youth I was clerk and servant to the noble king Edward the third, his grandfather, and with my lady Philippa of Hainault, queen of England, his grandam; and when I departed from him, it was at Windsor, and at my departing the king sent me by a knight of his called sir John Golofre a goblet of silver and gilt weighing two mark of silver, and within it a hundred nobles, by the which I am as yet tjie better, and shall be as long as I live: wherefore I am bound to pray to God for his soul, and with much sorrow I write of his death; but because I have continued this history therefore I write thereof to follow it.

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The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 245. In my time I have seen two things though they differ, yet they be true, was in the city of Bordeaux and sitting at the table when king Richard was born, the which was on a Tuesday about ten of the clock. The same time there came thereag I was, sir Richard Pontchardon, marshal then of Acquitaine, and he said to me 'Froissart, write and put in memory thai as now my lady princess is brought abec with a fair son on this Twelfth day, that is the day of the three kings, and he is son to a king's son1 and shall be a king. This gentle knight said truth, for he was king of England twenty -two year; but when this knight said these words, he knew full little what should be his conclusion. And the same time that king Richard was born, his father the prince was in Galice, the which king don Peter had given him, and he was there to conquer the realm.

Note 1. Or rather, 'he is son of a king.' In the succeeding passage the translator's French text was | unintelligible to him owing to omissions and alterations, and therefore he attempted an emendation, writing 'son to a king's son,' because he did not know how Richard could be called 'son of a king.' In the full text the meaning is clear: ' he is son of a king, for his father is king of Galicia. King don Peter hath given him that kingdom and he goes to conquer it.' As a matter of fact the prince of Wales did not set forth from Bordeaux till after the birth of Richard, and he never actually went into Galicia at all.

Murder of Thomas of Woodstock

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 2 Richard II Chapter 92. When the [his uncle] duke of Gloucester saw himself confined in the castle of Calais, abandoned by his brothers, and deprived of his attendants, he began to be much alarmed. He addressed himself to the earl-marshal: "For what reason am I thus carried from England and confined here? It seems that you mean to imprison me. Let me go and view the castle, its garrison, and the people of the town." " My lord," replied the earl, " I dare not comply with your demands, for you are consigned to my guard, under pain of death. The king our lord is at this moment somewhat wroth with you; and it is his orders that you abide here a while, in banishment with us, which you must have patience to do, until we have other news, and God grant that it may be soon ! for, as the Lord may help me, I am truly concerned for your disgrace, and would cheerfully aid you if I could, but you know the oath I have taken to the king, which I am bound in honour to obey." The [his uncle] duke of Gloucester could not obtain any other answer. He judged, from appearances of things around him, that he was in danger of his life, and asked a priest who had said mass, if he would confess him. This he did, with great calmness and resignation, and with a devout and contrite heart cried before the altar of God, the Creator of all things, for his mercy. He was repentant of all his sins, and lamented them greatly. He was in the right thus to exonerate his conscience, for his end was nearer than he imagined. I was informed, that on the point of his sitting down to dinner, when the tables were laid, and he was about to wash liis liands, four men rushed out from an adjoining chamber, and, throwing a towel round his neck, strangled him, by two drawing one end and two the other1. When he was quite dead, they carried him to his chamber, undressed him, and placed the body between two sheets, with his head on a pillow, and covered him with furred mantles. They then re-entered the hall, properly instructed what to say and how to act, and declared the [his uncle] duke of Gloucester had been seized with a fit of apoplexy as he was washing his hands before dinner, and that they had great difficulty to carry him to bed. This was spoken of in the castle and town, where some believed it, but others not. "Within two days after, it was published abroad that the [his uncle] duke of Gloucester had died in his bed at the castle of Calais; and, in consequence, the earl marshal put on mourning, for he was nearly related to him, as did all the knights and squires in Calais.

Note 1. He was smothered with pillows, not strangled. Hall, one of the accomplices, made a particular confession of all the circumstances. See Pari Plac viiL p. 452. — Ed.

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