Biography of Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509

1418 Siege of Rouen

1422 Death of Henry V

1422 Death of Charles VI

1445 Marriage of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou

1450 Murder of William de la Pole

1457 Birth of King Henry VII

1458 Margaret Beaufort marries Henry Stafford

1471 Death of Henry VI

1483 Coronation of Richard III

1483 Buckingham's Rebellion

1485 Battle of Bosworth

1485 Coronation of Henry VII

1486 Marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth York

1495 Death of Jasper Tudor Duke Bedford

1509 Death of Henry VII

1509 Funeral of Henry VII

Siege of Rouen

On 29 Jul 1418 the English forces commenced the Siege of Rouen with the city being taken on 19 Jan 1419. Robert Willoughby 6th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 1385-1452 (33) fought. John Blount 1388-1418 (30) died. William Harrington 1373-1440 (45), the King's Standard Bearer, was wounded.

Walter Hungerford 1st Baron Hungerford 1378-1449 (40) fought.

[her uncle] Henry Beaufort 2nd Earl Somerset 1401-1418 (17) was killed. John Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1403-1444 (15) succeeded 3rd Earl Somerset 2C 1397.

Death of Henry V

On 31 Aug 1422 King Henry V of England 1386-1422 (36) died at Château de Vincennes, Vincennes possibly from dysentery, possibly from heatstroke. John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 (21) brought the body back to England. [her future brother-in-law] King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 succeeded VI King England.

Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 (45) was appointed Governor to [her future brother-in-law] King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471.

Death of Charles VI

On 21 Oct 1422 Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France 1368-1422 (53) died at Hôtel Saint Pol. The succession of the French throne was disputed between:

[her future brother-in-law] King Henry VI succeeded II King France: Lancaster

Charles "Victorious" VII King France 1403-1461 (19) succeeded VII King France: Capet Valois. Marie Valois Anjou Queen Consort France 1404-1463 (18) by marriage Queen Consort France.

Before 1426 Oliver St John 1400-1437 and [her mother] Margaret Beauchamp Duchess Somerset 1410-1482 were married.

In 1439 [her father] John Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1403-1444 (36) and Margaret Beauchamp Duchess Somerset 1410-1482 (29) were married. He a great grandson of King Edward III England. She by marriage Countess Somerset.

On 31 May 1443 Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 was born to [her father] John Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1403-1444 (40) and Margaret Beauchamp Duchess Somerset 1410-1482 (33) at Bletsoe Castle. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England.

On 28 Aug 1443 [her father] John Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1403-1444 (40) was created 1st Duke Somerset 1C 1443, 1st Earl Kendal 2C 1443 by his half first cousin once removed King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (21). Margaret Beauchamp Duchess Somerset 1410-1482 (33) by marriage Duchess Somerset.

On 30 May 1444 [her father] John Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1403-1444 (41) committed suicide. Suicide not certain but likely. Duke Somerset 1C 1443 extinct. Edmund Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (38) succeeded 4th Earl Somerset 2C 1397. Eleanor Beauchamp Duchess Somerset 1408-1468 (35) by marriage Countess Somerset.

His only child Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 aged one was his heir. [her future brother-in-law] King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (22) granted her wardship to William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk 1396-1450 (47) who married her to his son John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 (1).

Marriage of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou

On 23 Apr 1445 [her future brother-in-law] King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (23) and Margaret of Anjou (15) were married at Titchfield Abbey probably by Bishop William Ayscough 1395-1445 (50), Bishop of Salisbury They were third cousins. He a son of King Henry V of England 1386-1422.

On 14 Apr 1447 Lionel Welles 6th Baron Welles 1406-1461 (41) and [her mother] Margaret Beauchamp Duchess Somerset 1410-1482 (37) were married. He a great x 4 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. [her mother] She by marriage Baroness Welles.

On 15 Dec 1449 [her future husband] Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond 1430-1456 (19) was created 1st Earl Richmond 7C 1452 by his brother King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (28).

Around Jan 1450 [her husband] John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 (7) and Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (6) were married. They were half third cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England. The date subject to debate. Papal dispensation was granted on 18 August 1450. Margaret never recognised this marriage, and considered her next husband her first; as confirmed by her 1472 will.

Murder of William de la Pole

On 01 May 1450 [her father-in-law] William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk 1396-1450 (53) was beheaded at sea whilst travelling into exile his ship having been intercepted by the Nicholas of the Tower, or by Admiral Nicholas of the Tower. John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 (7) succeeded 2nd Marquess Suffolk 1C, 5th Earl Suffolk 3C 1385. Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (6) by marriage Marchioness Suffolk 1C.

In 1451 [her future husband] Thomas Stanley 1st Earl Derby 1435-1504 (16) and Eleanor Neville Baroness Stanley 1447-1471 (4) were married in the Chapel at Middleham Castle. They were third cousins. He a great x 4 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England.

On 25 Nov 1452 [her future brother-in-law] Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (21) was created 1st Earl Pembroke 7C 1452.

In Feb 1453 [her husband] John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 (10) and Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (9) marriage annulled.

On 01 Nov 1455 [her husband] Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond 1430-1456 (25) and Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (12) were married at Bletsoe Castle. He a great x 5 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England. She by marriage Countess Richmond.

On 03 Nov 1456 [her husband] Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond 1430-1456 (26) died of plague at Carmarthen Castle leaving his twelve year old wife Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (13) pregnant with their child Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525 is believed to have painted the portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Birth of King Henry VII

On 28 Jan 1457 [her son] Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 was born to the late Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond (26) and Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (13) at Pembroke Castle. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III England.

Margaret Beaufort marries Henry Stafford

On 03 Jan 1458 Henry Stafford 1425-1471 (33) and Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (14) were married probably at Maxstoke Castle. They were second cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England. Her third marriage (second if you don't include the one annulled) aged fourteen and already the mother of the future King Henry VII. She had no further issue.

Before Feb 1458 [her former husband] John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 and Elizabeth York Duchess Suffolk 1444-1503 were married. They were half third cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England. She by marriage Marchioness Suffolk 1C.

On 20 Feb 1459 Thomas Stanley 1st Baron Stanley 1405-1459 (54) died at Knowsley. Thomas Stanley 1st Earl Derby 1435-1504 (24) succeeded King Mann, 2nd Baron Stanley. Eleanor Neville Baroness Stanley 1447-1471 (12) by marriage Baroness Stanley.

In 1464 [her former step-son] Geoffrey Pole 1463-1464 (1) died.

Before 1468 John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury 3rd Earl Waterford 1448-1473 and Catherine Stafford Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford 1437-1476 were married. They were second cousins once removed. He a great x 5 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England. She by marriage Countess Shrewsbury Earl Waterford.

On 05 Jan 1470 John Stafford 1st Earl Wiltshire 1427-1473 (42) was created 1st Earl Wiltshire 4C 1470.

Before 07 Apr 1470 John Stafford 1st Earl Wiltshire 1427-1473 and Constance Green Countess Wiltshire 1427-1475 were married. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. She by marriage Countess Wiltshire.

Death of Henry VI

On 21 May 1471 [her former brother-in-law] Henry VI (49) died (possibly murdered) in the Wakefield Tower in the Tower of London.

In 1472 [her former step-daughter] Dorothy Pole 1472-1472 died.

Around 12 Jun 1472 [her husband] Thomas Stanley 1st Earl Derby 1435-1504 (37) and Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (29) were married. They were third cousins. He a great x 4 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England. She by marriage Queen Mann, Baron Stanley.

On 08 May 1473 John Stafford 1st Earl Wiltshire 1427-1473 (45) died. On 08 May 1473 Edward Stafford 2nd Earl Wiltshire 1470-1499 (3) succeeded 2nd Earl Wiltshire 4C 1470.

In 1475 [her step-son] Thomas Stanley -1475 died.

On 26 Dec 1476 Catherine Stafford Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford 1437-1476 (39) died.

In 1482 [her step-son] George Stanley 9th Baron Strange Knockin 5th Baron Mohun Dunster 1460-1504 (22) and Joan Strange 9th Baroness Strange Knockin 5th Baroness Mohun Dunster 1460-1514 (22) were married. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III England.

On 08 Aug 1482 [her mother] Margaret Beauchamp Duchess Somerset 1410-1482 (72) died.

Coronation of Richard III

On 06 Jul 1483 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) was crowned III King England by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (65) at Westminster Abbey. Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (27) by marriage Queen Consort England. See Coronation of Richard III.

John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (58) was appointed Lord High Steward. William Brandon 1425-1491 (58), Thomas Fitzalan 17th Earl Arundel 1450-1524 (33), Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (43), Richard Hastings Baron Willoughby de Eresby 1433-1503 (50), Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (46), Elizabeth York Duchess Suffolk 1444-1503 (39), Giles Daubeney 1st Baron Daubeney 1451-1508 (32) and Humphrey Dacre 1st Baron Dacre Gilsland 1424-1485 (59) attended.

Robert Dymoke 1461-1544 (22) attended as the Kings' Champion.

Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent 1416-1490 (66) carried The Pointed Sword of Justice. Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (40) carried the Crown. Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell 1456-1488 (27) carried the Third Sword of State. [her former husband] John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 (40) carried the Sceptre. John Pole 1st Earl Lincoln 1462-1487 (21) carried the Cross and Ball. Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (28) carried the king's train. Edward Stafford 2nd Earl Wiltshire 1470-1499 (13) bore the Queen's Crown.

[her husband] Thomas Stanley 1st Earl Derby 1435-1504 (48) carried the Lord High Constable's Mace. Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (40) held Queen Anne's train. Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland 1478-1527 (5) carried The Blunt Sword of Mercy. Christopher Willoughby 10th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 1453-1499 (30) was appointed Knight of the Bath.

Humphrey Dacre 1st Baron Dacre Gilsland 1424-1485 (59) attended.

Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (68) refused to attend the Coronation of Richard III. History doesn't record her reason.

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Buckingham's Rebellion

On 23 Jan 1484 Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (40) was subject to an attainder in the first Parliament of Richard III for her involvement. Whilst the Act was described as an Attainder Richard in effect transferred all of Margaret's property to her husband [her husband] Thomas Stanley 1st Earl Derby 1435-1504 (49) as follows:

An act for the attainder of Margaret, countess of Richmond (40):

Because Margaret, countess of Richmond, mother of the king's great rebel and traitor, Henry, earl of Richmond, has lately conspired, leagued and committed high treason against our sovereign lord King Richard III in various ways, and in particular by sending messages, writings and tokens to the said Henry, urging, instigating and stirring him by them to come into this realm to make war upon our said sovereign lord; to which urging, instigation and stirring the said Henry applied himself, as experience has recently shown. Also, the said countess supplied great sums of money within the city of London as well as elsewhere in this realm to be employed in the execution of the said treason and malicious purpose; and the said countess also conspired, leagued and plotted the destruction of our said sovereign lord, and knew of and assented to, and assisted in the treason planned and committed by Henry, late Duke of Buckingham, and his supporters, for which he and some of his supporters have been attainted by an act in this present parliament. Nevertheless, our said sovereign lord, of his special grace, mindful of the good and faithful service which Thomas, Lord Stanley, has given and intends to give our said sovereign lord, and for the sincere love and trust which the king has in him, and for his sake, remits and will forbear the great punishment of attainting the said countess, which she or anyone else doing the same has deserved; and in consideration of the foregoing, our said sovereign lord wills that it be enacted, ordained and decreed, by the assent of the lords spiritual and temporal and the commons assembled in this present parliament, and by authority of the same, that the said countess henceforth shall be legally unable to have, inherit or enjoy any manors, lands or tenements, or other hereditaments or possessions whatsoever, and also henceforth shall be unable to bear or have any name of estate or dignity; and that the said countess shall forfeit to our said sovereign lord the king and his heirs all the castles, manors, lordships, lands, tenements, rents, services, reversions and other hereditaments and possessions, whatsoever they may be, of which the said countess, or anyone else to her use, is now seised or possessed of estate of fee-simple, fee-tail, term of life, in dower or otherwise. And be it ordained by the said authority that all the said castles, manors, lordships, lands, tenements, rents, services, reversions and other hereditaments with the appurtenances of which the said countess, or anyone else to her use, is now seised of estate of fee-simple or fee-tail, shall remain to the said Thomas for term of his life, and after his death to our said sovereign lord the king and his heirs. And moreover, all the lordships, manors, lands, tenements, rents, services and reversions of which the said countess, or any other person to her use, is now seised of estate, term of her life or in dower, shall remain to the said Thomas during her life. And if the said Thomas dies during the lifetime of the said countess, they shall remain to the king; saving to every person and persons, except the said countess and her heirs, their right, title and interest in the said lands and tenements.

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In 1485 [her former step-son] Edward Pole Archdeacon Richmond 1466-1485 (19) died.

Battle of Bosworth

On 22 Aug 1485 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (32) was killed during the Battle of Bosworth. [her son] Henry Tudor (28) succeeded VII King England.

Those supporting Henry Tudor included:

John Blount 3rd Baron Mountjoy 1450-1485 (35).

John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne 1442-1499 (43).

Richard Guildford 1450-1506 (35).

Walter Hungerford 1464-1516 (21).

[her husband] Thomas Stanley 1st Earl Derby 1435-1504 (50).

John Wingfield -1525.

Edward Woodville Lord Scales 1456-1488 (29).

Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon 1459-1509 (26).

Rhys ap Thomas Deheubarth 1449-1525 (36).

[her former brother-in-law] Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (53).

William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (47).

Giles Daubeney 1st Baron Daubeney 1451-1508 (34).

[her brother-in-law] William Stanley Lord Chamberlain 1435-1495 (50).

Roger Kynaston of Myddle and Hordley 1433-1495 (52).

Henry Marney 1st Baron Marney 1447-1523 (38).

William Brandon 1456-1485 (29) was killed.

James Harrington 1430-1485 (55) was killed.

John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (60) was killed. He was buried firstly at Thetford Priory and therafter at Church of St Michael the Archangel Framlingham. Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (42) succeeded 13th Baron Mowbray 1C 1283, 14th Baron Segrave 2C 1295. Elizabeth Tilney Countess Surrey 1444-1497 (41) by marriage Baroness Mowbray, Baron Segrave 2C 1295.

John Sacheverell 1400-1485 (85) was killed.

Philibert Chandee 1st Earl Bath -1486,.

William Norreys 1441-1507 (44), Gilbert Talbot 1452-1517 (33), John Vere 13th Earl Oxford 1442-1513 (42) and John Savage 1444-1492 (41) commanded,.

Robert Poyntz 1450-1520 (35) was knighted.

Those who fought for Richard III included:

John Bourchier 6th Baron Ferrers Groby 1438-1495 (47).

John Conyers Sheriff of Yorkshire 1411-1490 (74).

Thomas Dacre 2nd Baron Dacre Gilsland 1467-1525 (17).

William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley 1426-1492 (59).

Richard Fitzhugh 6th Baron Fitzhugh 1457-1487 (28).

John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope Bolton 1437-1498 (48).

Thomas Scrope 6th Baron Scrope Masham 1459-1493 (26).

Henry Grey 4th or 7th Baron Grey Codnor 1435-1496 (50).

Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent 1416-1490 (68).

Ralph Neville 3rd Earl Westmoreland 1456-1499 (29).

[her former step-son] John Pole 1st Earl Lincoln 1462-1487 (23).

Humphrey Stafford 1426-1486 (59).

George Talbot 4th Earl Shrewsbury 4th Earl Waterford 1468-1538 (17).

Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (42) was wounded.

Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell 1456-1488 (29) fought and escaped.

John Zouche 7th Baron Zouche Harringworth 1459-1526 (26) was captured.

John Babington 1423-1485 (62), William Alington 1420-1485 (65), Robert Mortimer 1442-1485 (43), Robert Brackenbury -1485, Richard Ratclyffe 1430-1485 (55) and Richard Bagot 1412-1485 (73) were killed.

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Coronation of Henry VII

On 28 Oct 1485 [her former brother-in-law] Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (53) was created 1st Duke Bedford 5C 1485 by Henry VII (28) for having supported Henry's claim to the throne. Catherine Woodville Duchess Buckingham Duchess Bedford 1458-1497 (27) by marriage Duchess Bedford.

[her husband] Thomas Stanley 1st Earl Derby 1435-1504 (50) was created 1st Earl Derby 3C 1485.

Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon 1459-1509 (26) was created 1st Earl Devon 3C 1485.

Reginald Bray 1440-1503 (45), John Fitzwalter, Thomas Cokesge, Roger Lewknor, Henry Haydon and John Verney were appointed Knight of the Bath.

On 30 Oct 1485 [her son] Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (28) was crowned VII King England by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (67) at Westminster Abbey. Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (42), his mother, attended.

Robert Dymoke 1461-1544 (24) attended as the Kings' Champion.

John Vere 13th Earl Oxford 1442-1513 (43) carried the King's train.

On 07 Nov 1485 [her former brother-in-law] Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (54) and Catherine Woodville Duchess Buckingham Duchess Bedford 1458-1497 (27) were married. He a great x 5 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She by marriage Countess Pembroke.

Marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth York

On 18 Jan 1486 [her son] Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (28) and Elizabeth, Edward IV's eldest daughter (19) were married at Westminster Abbey. They were third cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III England. She a daughter of King Edward IV of England 1442-1483. She by marriage Queen Consort England.

Around 1675 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500.

In 1488 Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (44) was appointed Lady of the Garter by her son [her son] Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (30).

Before 1489 Henry Lovell 9th Baron Marshal 8th Baron Morley 1476-1489 and [her former step-daughter] Elizabeth Pole Baroness Marshal Baroness Morley 1468-1489 were married. They were second cousins once removed. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England.

On 24 Dec 1489 [her former step-daughter] Elizabeth Pole Baroness Marshal Baroness Morley 1468-1489 (21) died in Hallingbury Morley.

Before 27 Oct 1492 [her former husband] John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 died. He was buried at Wingfield. Before 27 Oct 1492 Edmund Pole 3rd Duke Suffolk 1471-1513 succeeded 3rd Duke Suffolk 1C 1448, 3rd Marquess Suffolk 1C, 6th Earl Suffolk 3C 1385.

In 1495 [her former step-daughter] Anne Pole Prioress Syon Abbey 1476-1495 (19) died.

On 01 Apr 1495 Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (79) made her last will. It was proved 27 Aug 1495.

Source: A Selection From the Wills of Eminent Persons by Camden Society (Great Britain). Published 1838. Transcribed by John Gough Nichols and John Bruce.

IN the name of allmyghty God, the blessed Trinite, fader and son and the holigost, trusting in the meanes and mediacions of oure blessed Lady Moder, of oure most blessed Saviour Jh'u Crist, and by the intercession of holy Saint John Baptist, and all the saintes of heven: I, CECILLE, wife unto the right noble prince Richard late Duke of Yorke (83), fader unto the most cristen prince my Lord and son King Edward the iiij th (52), the first day of Aprill the yere of our Lord M.CCCC.lxxxxv. after the computacion of the Church of Englond, of hole mynde and body, loving therfore be it to Jh'u, make and ordeigne my testament in fourme and maner ensuyng.

Furst, I bequeath and surrendour my soule in to the mercifull handes of allmyghty God my maker, and in to protecion of the blessed yrgin our lady Saint Mary, and suffrage of Saint John Baptist, and of all other saintes of heven. Also my body to be buried beside the body of my moost entierly best beloved Lord and housbond, fader unto my said lorde and son, and in his tumbe within the collegiate church of Fodringhay, a if myn executours by the sufferaunce of the [her son] King (38) finde goode sufficient therto; and elles at the [her son] Kinges (38) pleasure. And I will that after my deceasse all my dettes sufficiently appering and proved be paid, thanking oure Lord at this tyme of making of this my testament to the knolege of my conscience I am not muche in dett; and if it happen, as I trust to God it shalnot, that there be not found sufficient money aswell to pay my dettes as to enture my body, than in advoiding such charges as myght growe for the same, the whiche God defende, I lymytte and assigne all such parcelles of plate as belongith to my chapell, pantry, cellour, ewry, and squillery, to the perfourmyng of the same, as apperith in the inventary, except such plate as I have bequeithed. Also I geve and bequeith to the Kinges noble grace all such money as is owing to me of the customes, and two cuppes of gold.

Also I geve and bequeith to the [her daughter-in-law] Quene (29) a crosse croslette of diamantes, a sawter with claspes of silver and guilte enameled covered with grene clothe of golde, and a pix with the fleshe of Saint Cristofer.

Also I bequeith to my lady the Kinges moder (51) a portuos with claspes of gold covered with blacke cloth of golde.

Also I geve to my lord Prince (8) a bedde of arres of the Whele of Fortune and testour of the same, a counterpoint of arras and a tappett of arres with the pope.

Also I geve to my lord Henry Duke of Yorke (3) b three tappettes of arres, oon of them of the life of Saint John Baptist, another of Mary Maudeleyn, and the thirde of the passion of our Lord and Saint George.

And if my body be buried at Fodringhay in the colege there with my most entierly best beloved lord and housbond (83), than I geve to the said colege a square canapie of crymeson clothe of gold with iiij. staves, twoo auter clothes of crymeson clothe of gold, twoo copes of crymeson cloth of gold, a chesibull and twoo tenucles of cryinyson clothe of golcrvith iij. abes, c twoo auter clothes of crymeson damaske browdered, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, and iij. copes of blewe velwett brodered, with iij. abes, thre masse bokes, thre grayles, and vij. processioners.

Also I geve to the colege of Stoke Clare a chesibull and twoo tenucles of playn crymyson cloth of gold with iij. abes, twoo auter clothes, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, and fyve coopes of white damaske browdered, with iij. abes, twoo awter clothes of crymeson velwett upon the velwete (sic), a vestement of crymeson playne velvet, iiij. antiphoners, iiij. grayles, and sixe processioners.

Also I geve to the house of Sion two of the best coopes of crymyson clothe of gold.

Note. These next four people refer to her grand-daughters, children of Edward IV.

Also I geve to my doughter Brigitte (14) the boke of Legenda Aurea in velem, a boke of the life of Saint Kateryn of Sene, a boke of Saint Matilde.

Also I geve to my doughter Cecill (26) a portuous with claspes silver and gilte covered with purple velvet, and a grete portuous without note.

Also I geve to my doughter Anne (19) the largest bedde of bawdekyn, withe countrepoint of the same, the barge with bailies, tilde, and ores belonging to the same.

Also I geve to my doughter Kateryn (15) a traves of blewe satten.

Also I geve to my doughter of Suffolke (50) a the chare with the coveryng, all the quoshons, horses, and harneys belonging to the same, and all my palfreys.

Note. The next people are her grand-children, children of her daughter Elizabeth York Duchess Suffolk 1444-1503 (50).

Also I geve to my son of [her former step-son] Suffolke (24) b a clothe of estate and iij. quoschons of purpull damaske cloth of gold.

Also I geve to my son [her former step-son] Humfrey (21) c two awter clothes of blewe damaske brawdered and a vestyment of crymeson satten for Jh'us masse.

Also I geve to my son [her former step-son] William (17) d a traves of white sarcenet, twoo beddes of downe, and twoo bolsters to the same.

Also I geve to my doughter [her former step-daughter] Anne priores of Sion (19), a boke of Bonaventure and Hilton in the same in Englishe, and a boke of the Revelacions of Saint Burgitte.

Also I woll that all my plate not bequeithed be sold, and the money thereof be putte to the use of my burying, that is to sey, in discharging of suche costes and expensis as shalbe for carying of my body from the castell of Barkehampstede unto the colege of Fodringhey. And if any of the said plate be lefte unexpended I woll the said colege have it.

Also I geve to the colege of saint Antonies in London an antiphoner with the ruelles of musik in the later ynd.

Also I geve unto Master Richard Lessy all suche money as is owing unto me by obligations what soever they be, and also all such money as is owing unto me by the Shirfe of Yorkeshire, to helpe to bere his charges which he has to pay to the Kinges grace, trusting he shall the rather nyghe the said dettes by the help and socour of his said grace.

Also I geve to Master William Croxston a chesibull, stoles, and fanons of blake velwett, with an abe.

Also I geve to Master Eichard Henmershe a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of crymyson damaske, with an abe; and a chesibill, stoles and fanons of crymeson saten, with an abe.

Also I geve to Sir John More a frontell of purpull cloth of gold, a legend boke, and a colett boke.

Also I give to Sir Kandall Brantingham a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of white damaske, orfreys of crymson velvet, with an abe, the better of bothe.

Also I geve to Sir William Grave a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of white damaske, orfreys of crymeson velvett, with an abe; a masse-boke that servith for the closett, a prymour with claspes silver and gilt, covered with blewe velvett, and a sawter that servith for the closett covered with white ledder.

Also I geve to Sir John Blotte a gospell boke, a pistill covered with ledder, and a case for a corporax of grene playne velvett. Also I geve to Sir Thomas Clerk a chesibill, twoo tenucles, stoles, fanons, of rede bawdeken, with iij. abes.

Also I geve to Sir William Tiler twoo coopes of rede bawdekyn.

Also I geve to Robert Claver iij. copes of white damaske brawdered, and a gowne of the Duchie b facion of playne blake velvett furred with ermyns.

Also I geve to John Bury twoo old copes of crymysyn satten cloth of gold, a frontell of white bawdekyn, twoo curteyns of rede sarcenett fringed, twoo curteyns of whit sarcenet fringed, a feder bed, a bolstour to the same, the best of feders, and two whit spervers of lynyn.

Also I geve to John Poule twoo auter clothes, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, stoles, and fanons of white bawdekyn, with iij. abes; a short gowne of purple playne velvett furred with ermyns, the better of ij. and a kirtill of damaske with andelettes of silver and gilt furred.

Also I geve to John Smyth twoo auter clothes, a chesibill, twoo tenucles, stoles, and fanons of blew bawdekyn, with iij. abes. Also I geve to John Bury twoo copes of crymysyn clothe of gold that servith for Sondays.

Also I geve to John Walter a case for corporax of purple playne velvett, twoo cases for corporax of blewe bawdekyn, twoo auter clothes, a chesibill of rede and grene bawdekyn, a canapie of white sarcenett, iij. abes for children, and iiij. pair of parrours of white bawdekyn, twoo pair parrours of crymsyn velvett, twoo pair parrours of rede bawdekyn, a housling towell that servith for my selfe, twoo corteyns of blewe sarcenett fringed, a sudory of crymy-syn and white, the egges blak, a crose cloth and a cloth of Saint John Baptist of sarcenett painted, a long lantorn, a dext standing doble, twoo grete stondardes and ij. litill cofers.

Also I geve to John Peit-wynne twoo vestimentes of white damaske, a white bedde of lynnyn, a federbedde and a bolstour, and a short gowne of purple playne velvet furred with sabilles. Also I geve to Thomas Lentall six auter clothes of white sarcenett, with crosses of crymsyn velvet.

Also I geve to John Long iij. peces of bawdekyn of the lengur sorte. Also I geve to Sir [John] Verney knighte and Margarett his wiffe a a crosse [of] silver and guilte and berall, and in the same a pece of the holy crosse and other diverse reliques.

Also I geve to Dame Jane Pesemershe, widue, myne Inne that is called the George in Grauntham, during terme of her life; and after her decesse I woll that the reversion therof be unto the college of Fodringhay for evermore, to find a prest to pray for my Lord my housbond (83) and me.

Also I geve to Nicholas Talbott and Jane his wife a spone of gold with a sharp diamount in the ende, a dymy-sent of gold with a collumbine and a diamont in the same, a guirdill of blewe tissue harnessed with gold, a guirdill of gold with a bokull and a pendaunt and iiij. barres of gold, a hoke of gold with iij. roses, a pomeamber of gold garnesshed with a diamont, sex rubies and sex perles, and the surnap and towell to the same.

Also I geve to Richard Boyvile and Gresild his wife my charrett and the horses with the harnes that belongith therunto, a gowne with a dymy trayn of purpull saten furred with ermyns, a shorte gowne of purple saten furred with jennetes, a kirtill of white damaske with aunde lettes silver and gilte, a spone of gold, a dymysynt of gold with a columbyne garnesshed with a diainant, a saphour, an amatist, and viij. perles, a pomeamber of gold enameled, a litell boxe with a cover of gold and a diamant in the toppe.

Also I geve to Richard Brocas and Jane his wife a long gown of purpull velvett upon velvet furred with ermyns, a greate Agnus of gold with the Trinite, Saint Erasmus, and the Salutacion of our Lady; an Agnus of gold with our Lady and Saint Barbara; a litell goblett with a cover silver and part guild; a pair of bedes of white amber gauded with vj. grete stones of gold, part aneled, with a pair of bedes of x. stones of gold and v. of corall; a cofor with a rounde lidde bonde with iron, which the said Jane hath in her keping, and all other thinges that she hath in charge of keping.

Also I geve to Anne Pinchbeke all other myne Agnus unbequeithed, that is to sey, ten of the Trinite, a litell malmesey pott with a cover silver and parte guilte, a possenett with a cover of silver, a short gowne of playne russett velvett furred with sabilles, a short gowne of playne blewe velvett furred with sabilles, a short gowne of purple playn velvet furred with grey, a tester, a siler, and a countrepoint of bawdekyn, the lesser of ij.

Also I geve to Jane Lessy a dymysent of gold with a roos, garnisshed with twoo rubies, a guirdell of purple tissue with a broken bokull, and a broken pendaunt silver and guilte, a guirdill of white riband with twoo claspes of gold with a columbyne, a guirdell of blewe riband with a bokell and a pendaunt of gold, a litell pair of bedes of white amber gaudied with vij. stones of gold, an haliwater stope with a strynkkill silver and gilte, and a laier silver and part guilte.

Also I geve to John Metcalfe and Alice his wife all the ringes that I have, except such as hang by my bedes and Agnus, and also except my signet, a litell boxe of golde with a cover of golde, a pair of bedes of Ixj. rounde stones of golde gaudied with sex square stones of golde enemeled, with a crosse of golde, twoo other stones, and a scalop shele of geete honging by.

Also I geve to Anne Lownde a litell bokull and a litell pendaunt of golde for a guirdill, a litell guirdell of golde and silke with a bokill and a pendaunt of golde, a guirdell of white riband with aggelettes of golde enameled, a hoke of golde playne, a broken hoke of golde enameled, and a litell rounde bottumed basyn of silver.

Also I geve to the house of Asshe-rugge a chesibull and ij. tenucles of crymysyn damaske embrawdered, with thre abes.

Also I geve to the house of Saint Margaretes twoo auter clothes with a crucifix and a vestiment of grete velvet.

Also I geve to the parish church of Stoundon a coope of blewe bawdekyn, the orffreys embrawdered.

Also I geve to the parishe church of Much Barkehampstede a coope of blewe bawdekyn, the orffreys embrawdered.

Also I geve to the parish church of Compton by sides Guilford a eorporax case of blake cloth of gold and iiij. auter clothes of white sarcenett embrawdered with garters.

Also I geve to Alisaunder Cressener my best bedde of downe and a bolster to the same.

Also I geve to Sir Henry Haidon knyght a tablett and a cristall garnesshed with ix. stones and xxvij. perles, lacking a stone and iij. perles.

Also I geve to Gervase Cressy a long gown of playn blewe velvet furred with sabilles.

Also I geve to Edward Delahay twoo gownes of musterdevilers furred with mynckes, and iiij u of money.

Also I geve to Thomas Manory a short gowne of crymesyn playn velvet lyned, purfilled with blake velvet, and iiij ll in money.

Also I geve to John Broune all such stuf as belongith to the kechyn in his keping at my place at Baynardcastell in London, and iiij u in money.

Also I geve to William Whitington a short gown of russett cloth furred with matrons and calabour wombes, a kirtill of purpull silke chamblett with awndelettes silver and gilte, all such floures of brawdery werke and the cofer that they be kept in, and xls. in money.

Also I geve to all other gentilmen that be daily a waiting in my houshold with Mr. Richard Cressy and Robert Lichingham everich of theime iiij u in money.

Also I geve to every yoman that be daily ad waiting in my houshold with John Otley xls. in money.

Also I geve to every grome of myne xxvj s. viij d. in money. And to every page of myne xiij s. iiij d. in money.

Also I geve to Robert Harison xls. in money and all the gootes.

And if ther be no money founde in my cofers to perfourme this my will and bequest, than I will that myne executours, that is to sey the reverend fader in God Master Olyver King bisshop of Bath (63), Sir Reignolde Bray (55) knight, Sir Thomas Lovell, councellours to the Kinges grace, Master William Pikinham doctour in degrees dean of the colege of Stoke Clare, Master William Felde master of the colege of Fodringhey, and Master Richard Lessy dean of my chapell, havyng God in reverence and drede, unto whome I geve full power and auctorite to execute this my will and testament, make money of such goodes as I have not geven and bequeithed, and with the same to content my dettes and perfourme this my will and testament.

And the foresaid reverend fader in God, Sir Rignold Bray knyght, Sir Thomas Lovell knyght, Master William Pikenham, and Master William Felde, to be rewarded of suche thinges as shalbe delivered unto theme by my commaundement by the hondes of Sir Henry Haidon knyght stieward of my houshold and Master Richard Lessy, humbly beseching the Kinges habundant grace in whome is my singuler trust to name such supervisour as shalbe willing and favorabull diligently to se that this my present testament and will be perfittely executed and perfourmyd, gevyng full power also to my said executours to levey and receyve all my dettes due and owing unto me at the day of my dethe, as well of my receyvours as of all other officers, except such dettes as I have geven and bequeathed unto Master Richard Lessy aforesaid, as is above specified in this present will and testament.

And if that Master Richard Lessy cannot recover such money as I have geven to hym of the Shirffes of Yorkeshire and of my obligacions, than I will he be recompensed of the revenues of my landes to the sume of v c. marcs at the leest.

IN WITTENESSE HEROF I have setto my signet and signemanuell at my castell of Berkehamstede the last day of May the yere of our Lord abovesaid, being present Master Richard Lessy, Sir William Grant my confessour, Richard Brocas clerc of my kechyn, and Gervays Cressy. Proved at "Lamehithe" the 27 th day of August, A.D. 1495, and commission granted to Master Richard Lessy the executor in the said will mentioned to administer, &c. &c.

Around 1500. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Arthur Tudor Prince of Wales 1486-1502. 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547.

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Death of Jasper Tudor Duke Bedford

On 21 Dec 1495 [her former brother-in-law] Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (64) died at Thornbury Manor without legitimate issue. Duke Bedford 5C 1485 extinct.

Before 10 Oct 1496 [her former step-son] Edmund Pole 3rd Duke Suffolk 1471-1513 and Margaret Scrope Duchess Suffolk -1515 were married. They were half second cousins once removed. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III England. She by marriage Duchess Suffolk.

Around 1497 [her former step-son] William Pole 1478-1539 (19) and Katherine Stourton Baroness Grey Codnor 1455-1521 (42) were married. They were third cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III England.

On 09 Feb 1498 [her half-brother] John Welles 1st Viscount Welles 1450-1498 (48) died in London. His will reads ...

In the name of oure Lorde Jeshu, Amen. I, [her half-brother] John, Viscounte lorde Wellis (48), uncle to the [her son] Kynge (41), oure soveraigne lorde, and brodre to the right noble prynces, Margaret, countes of Richemond (54), naturall and dere modre to oure said soveregne lord, beyng of goode and hole memory, ye viij daie of February, the yere of oure Lorde God 1498, and in the xiiij yere of the regne of our saide soverayne lorde, make this my testament. My bodie to be buried in suche place as [to] the [her son] kynge (41), the quene (31), my lady, his moder (54), and my lady, my wife (28), shalbe thought, most convenyent, and the costis and charge of the same burying, the obsequyes, masses, funeralles and all oder thynges therto convenyent and necessarie. And also I remyt the makyng of my tumbe to the ordre and discrecionn of my saide soverayne lady the quene (31), my lady his modre, and my wife (28). And after these charges and costis aforesaid had and done, I will that all the dettis nowe by me dewe or to be dewe be treuly contented and paied. And I will that to the honour of Almighty God in the aulter afore which my bodie shall next lie my executors shall delyver a pair of candelstickes of silver, a masse booke covered with clothe of goolde, a chales of silver and gilte, a vestament of blewe velvet enbrodered with my armes, a pair of litle cruettes of silver and parcellis gilte, and a crosse of silver p[arcell] gilt, which 1 will do remayne there to serve Almyghty God with for ever and in noo oder place. Also I geve and bequethe to my dere beloved lady and wife Cecille (28), for terme of her life, all my castelles, manors, landes and tenements, aswell suche as I have purchased as all odre duryng only her life, whome I trust above all oder, that if my goodes and catallis wilnot suffice for the performance of this my laste will, that she will thenne of the revenues of the profittes of my inheritance perform this my laste will. Also I will that a preste be founde for ever after my said wifes decease to sey masse daily for my sowle and all Cristen sowles at the said aulter of the yerely revenues of my purchased landes, and over which my saide lady hath promysed me faithfully to purchase to the same entent if my saide purchased landes suffice not therto. And I will yt suche residue as shall fortune to be of my goodes that my saide dere beloved lady aud wife have theym to her owne use. And I make executors the saide Cecill (28), my dere beloved wife, and Sr Raynold Bray (58), knyght, and in my mooste humble wise beseche my said soverayne lorde the kyng and the quenes grace, my lady the kynges modre, to be supervisours.

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In 1499 Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (55) took a vow of chastity in the presence of Richard FitzJames, Bishop of London with, apparently, the permission of her husband; it was always a marriage of convenience. Thereafter the Countess (55) lived at Collyweston.

On 21 Feb 1499 Edmund Tudor 1st Duke Somerset 1499-1500 was born to [her son] Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (42) and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (33) at the Palace of Placentia being their sixth child. On 24 Feb 1499 he was christened at the Church of the Observant Friars. His godparents were Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (55), Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham 1478-1521 (21) and Richard Foxe Bishop 1448-1528 (51), then Bishop of Durham. He is believed to have been created 1st Duke Somerset 3C 1499 on the same day although there is no documentation. On 19 Jun 1500 he died at the Royal Palace, Hatfield; possibly of plague of which an outbreak was occuring. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.

Before Nov 1501 [her step-son] Edward Stanley 1st Baron Monteagle 1462-1524 and Anne Harrington 1463-1501 were married. They were half second cousins once removed. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III England.

In 1502 Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (58) founded the Lady Margaret's Professor of Divinity; the oldest professorship at the University of Cambridge.

Before 29 Jul 1504 [her step-son] George Stanley 9th Baron Strange Knockin 5th Baron Mohun Dunster 1460-1504 died.

On 29 Jul 1504 [her husband] Thomas Stanley 1st Earl Derby 1435-1504 (69) died. Thomas Stanley 2nd Earl Derby 1485-1521 (19) succeeded 2nd Earl Derby 3C 1485, 10th Baron Strange Knockin 2C 1299, 6th Baron Mohun Dunster, 3rd Baron Stanley.

In 1505 Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (61) founded Corpus Christi College.

Before 1507 [her former step-son] Edward Stanley 1st Baron Monteagle 1462-1524 and Elizabeth Vaughan Baroness Grey Wilton 1463-1514 were married. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III England.

Before 1509 Christopher Urswick 1448-1522 was appointed priest and confessor to Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509.

Death of Henry VII

On 21 Apr 1509 [her son] Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (52) died of tuberculosis at Richmond Palace. Henry VIII (17) succeeded VIII King England.

Funeral of Henry VII

On 11 May 1509 [her son] Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (52) was buried in the Henry VII Chapel Westminster Abbey. Henry Willoughby 1451-1528 (58) and Anthony Wingfield 1487-1552 (22) attended. The ladies given mantelets and kerchiefs were as follows:

Household of Mary Tudor:

Mary Tudor Queen Consort France 1496-1533 (13).

Catherine York Countess Devon 1479-1527 (29).

Elizabeth Stafford Countess Sussex 1479-1532 (30). Possibly Margaret Whetehill.

Anne Percy 1444-1522 (65) or Anne Percy Countess Arundel 1485-1552 (23).

Elizabeth Hussey Countess Kent -1516.

Eleanor Pole 1462- (47).

Mary Brandon.

Elizabeth Empson.

Mary Scrope 1476-1548 (33).

Jane Popincourt -1516.

Alice Vaux -1543.

Household of the Princess of Wales Catherine of Aragon:

Catherine of Aragon (23).

Agnes or Inez Vanegas.

María de Salinas Baroness Willoughby Eresby 1490-1539 (19).

Household of Margaret Beaufort the King's Mother:

Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (65).

Joan Vaux "Mother Guildford" 1463-1538 (46).

Mary Hussey Baroness Willoughby Eresby 1484- (25).

In 1544 Master John Painter. Portrait of Mary Tudor Queen Consort France 1496-1533. Around 1497. Juan de Flandes Painter 1440-1519. Portrait of Catherine of Aragon or Joanna Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Catherine of Aragon.

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On 29 Jun 1509 Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (66) died in the Deanery Westminster Abbey. She was buried at Henry VII Chapel Westminster Abbey. Her tomb was created by Pietro Torrigiano. The gilded bronze sculpture on the tomb depicts Margaret with her head resting on pillows and her hands raised in prayer, wearing garments characteristic of widowhood; the face was probably sculpted from a death mask. The black marble tomb is embellished with heraldic bronze insignia, including a Yale, her heraldic badge, at her feet.

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525 (50). Portrait of Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (66) in the Masters Lodge St John's College. Commissioned by John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535 (40). Note the Beaufort Arms on the wall beneath which is the Beafort Portcullis. Repeated in the window. She is wearing widow's clothes, or possibly that of a convent; Gabled Headress with Lappets. On 29 Mar 2019, St John's College, Cambridge, which she founded, announced the portrait was original work by Wewyck.

John Evelyn's Diary 31 August 1654. 31 Aug 1654. Through part of Huntingdonshire, we passed that town, fair and ancient, a river running by it. The country about it so abounds in wheat that, when any King of England passes through it, they have a custom to meet him with a hundred plows.

This evening, to Cambridge; and went first to St. John's College, well built of brick, and library, which I think is the fairest of that University. One Mr. Benlowes has given it all the ornaments of pietra commessa, whereof a table and one piece of perspective is very fine; other trifles there also be of no great value, besides a vast old song-book, or Service, and some fair manuscripts. There hangs in the library the picture of John Williams (72), Archbishop of York, sometime Lord Keeper, my kinsman, and their great benefactor.

Trinity College is said by some to be the fairest quadrangle of any university in Europe; but in truth is far inferior to that of Christ Church, in Oxford; the hall is ample and of stone, the fountain in the quadrangle is graceful, the chapel and library fair. There they showed us the prophetic manuscript of the famous Grebner, but the passage and emblem which they would apply to our late King, is manifestly relating to the Swedish; in truth, it seems to be a mere fantastic rhapsody, however the title may bespeak strange revelations. There is an office in manuscript with fine miniatures, and some other antiquities, given by the Countess of Richmond, mother of Henry VIII, and the before-mentioned Archbishop Williams (72), when Bishop of Lincoln. The library is pretty well stored. The Greek Professor had me into another large quadrangle cloistered and well built, and gave us a handsome collation in his own chamber.

Thence to Caius, and afterward to King's College, where I found the chapel altogether answered expectation, especially the roof, all of stone, which for the flatness of its laying and carving may, I conceive, vie with any in Christendom. The contignation of the roof (which I went upon), weight, and artificial joining of the stones is admirable. The lights are also very fair. In one aisle lies the famous Dr. Collins, so celebrated for his fluency in the Latin tongue. From this roof we could descry Ely, and the encampment of Sturbridge fair now beginning to set up their tents and booths; also Royston, Newmarket, etc., houses belonging to the King. The library is too narrow.

Clare-Hall is of a new and noble design, but not finished.

Peter-House, formerly under the government of my worthy friend, Dr. Joseph Cosin (59) [Note. Joseph appears to be a mistake for John?], Dean of Peterborough; a pretty neat college, having a delicate chapel. Next to Sidney, a fine college.

Catherine-Hall, though a mean structure, is yet famous for the learned Bishop Andrews (99), once Master. Emanuel College, that zealous house, where to the hall they have a parlor for the Fellows. The chapel is reformed, ab origine, built north and south, and meanly erected, as is the library.

Jesus College, one of the best built, but in a melancholy situation. Next to Christ-College, a very noble erection, especially the modern part, built without the quadrangle toward the gardens, of exact architecture.

The Schools are very despicable, and Public Library but mean, though somewhat improved by the wainscoting and books lately added by the Bishop Bancroft's library and MSS. They showed us little of antiquity, only King James's Works, being his own gift, and kept very reverently.

The market place is very ample, and remarkable for old Hobson, the pleasant carrier's beneficence of a fountain. But the whole town is situate in a low, dirty, unpleasant place, the streets ill-paved, the air thick and infected by the fens, nor are its churches, (of which St. Mary's is the best) anything considerable in compare to Oxford.

From Cambridge, we went to Audley-End, and spent some time in seeing that goodly place built by Howard (93), Earl of Suffolk, once Lord Treasurer. It is a mixed fabric, between antique and modern, but observable for its being completely finished, and without comparison is one of the stateliest palaces in the kingdom. It consists of two courts, the first very large, winged with cloisters. The front had a double entrance; the hall is fair, but somewhat too small for so august a pile. The kitchen is very large, as are the cellars, arched with stone, very neat and well disposed; these offices are joined by a wing out of the way very handsomely. The gallery is the most cheerful and I think one of the best in England; a fair dining-room, and the rest of the lodgings answerable, with a pretty chapel. The gardens are not in order, though well inclosed. It has also a bowling-alley, a noble well-walled, wooded and watered park, full of fine collines and ponds: the river glides before the palace, to which is an avenue of lime trees, but all this is much diminished by its being placed in an obscure bottom. For the rest, is a perfectly uniform structure, and shows without like a diadem, by the decorations of the cupolas and other ornaments on the pavilions; instead of rails and balusters, there is a border of capital letters, as was lately also on Suffolk House, near Charing-Cross, built by the same Lord Treasurer (93).

This house stands in the parish of Saffron Walden, famous for the abundance of saffron there cultivated, and esteemed the best of any foreign country.

Before 1634 Gilbert Jackson Painter 1595-1648. Portrait of John Williams Archbishop of York 1582-1650. In 1598 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Thomas Howard 1st Earl Suffolk 1561-1626.

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