In May 1406 [his father] Richard of Conisburgh 1st Earl Cambridge 1385-1415 (20) and [his mother] Anne Mortimer 1390-1411 (15) were married. They were first cousins twice removed. He a grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England.. The marriage apparently took place in secret possibly because she was a descendant of King Edward III England (93) although she wasn't at the time Heir to the Throne of England although their issue would become so. She died five years later.
On 21 Sep 1411 Richard 3rd Duke York was born to [his father] Richard of Conisburgh 1st Earl Cambridge 1385-1415 (26) and [his mother] Anne Mortimer 1390-1411 (20). He a great grandson of King Edward III England. His mother died shortly afterwards.
After 21 Sep 1411 [his father] Richard of Conisburgh 1st Earl Cambridge 1385-1415 and [his step-mother] Maud Clifford Countess Cambridge 1389-1466 were married. He a grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.
On 12 Jan 1412 John Mowbray 2nd Duke Norfolk 1392-1432 (20) and [his future sister-in-law] Katherine Neville Duchess Norfolk 1400-1483 (12) were married. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his future sister-in-law] She by marriage Duchess Norfolk.
On 18 Feb 1413 Thomas Grey 1404-1443 (9) and [his sister] Isabel York Countess Eu and Essex 1409-1484 (4) were married. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 4 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great granddaughter of King Edward III England.
Before 1414 Richard Despencer 4th Baron Burghesh 1396-1414 and [his future sister-in-law] Eleanor Neville Countess Northumberland 1397-1472 were married. They were second cousins. He a great grandson of King Edward III England. She a great granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his future sister-in-law] She by marriage Baroness Burghesh.
In 1414 [his father] Richard of Conisburgh 1st Earl Cambridge 1385-1415 (28) was created 1st Earl Cambridge 3C 1414. [his step-mother] Maud Clifford Countess Cambridge 1389-1466 (25) by marriage Countess Cambridge.
On 05 Aug 1415 Henry Scrope 3rd Baron Scrope Masham 1373-1415 (42) and [his father] Richard of Conisburgh 1st Earl Cambridge 1385-1415 (30) were beheaded at the North Gate aka Bargate for their roles in the Southampton Plot.
Richard 3rd Duke York (3) succeeded 2nd Earl Cambridge 3C 1414.
John Scrope 4th Baron Scrope Masham 1388-1455 (27) succeeded 4th Baron Scrope Masham.
Before 08 Jul 1418 Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland 1393-1455 and [his future sister-in-law] Eleanor Neville Countess Northumberland 1397-1472 were married. They were second cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his future sister-in-law] She by marriage Countess of Northumberland.
Before 1423 [his future brother-in-law] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 and Alice Montagu 5th Countess Salisbury 1407-1462 were married. They were half fourth cousins. He a great grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 3 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.
Before 18 Oct 1424 Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham 1402-1460 and [his future sister-in-law] Anne Neville Duchess Buckingham 1408-1480 were married. They were second cousins. He a great grandson of King Edward III England. She a great granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his future sister-in-law] She by marriage Countess Stafford.
Before 25 Apr 1426 Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu 1st Earl Essex 1404-1483 and [his sister] Isabel York Countess Eu and Essex 1409-1484 were married. They were second cousins. He a great grandson of King Edward III England. She a great granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his sister] She by marriage Countess Eu.
In Oct 1429 Richard 3rd Duke York (18) and [his wife] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (14) were married. They were second cousins. He a great grandson of King Edward III England. She a great granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his wife] She by marriage Countess Cambridge Earl Ulster. She was the youngest sister of Richard's brother-in-arms [his brother-in-law] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (29).
On 10 Aug 1439 [his daughter] Anne York Duchess Exeter 1439-1476 was born to Richard 3rd Duke York (27) and [his wife] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (24) at Fotheringay Castle. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England.
On 10 Feb 1441 [his son] Henry of York 1441-1441 was born to Richard 3rd Duke York (29) and [his wife] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (25). He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. He died the same day.
In Oct 1441 John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont 1409-1460 (32) and [his sister-in-law] Katherine Neville Duchess Norfolk 1400-1483 (41) were married. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She a great granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his sister-in-law] She by marriage Viscountess Beaumont.
On 28 Apr 1442 [his son] Edward IV King England 1442-1483 was born to Richard 3rd Duke York (30) and [his wife] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (26) at Rouen. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. He was immediately baptised in a small side chapel at Rouen Cathedral. Some historians suggest the lack of grandeur indicates Edward IV may have been illegitimate whereas others suggest the baptism was typical for a country at war. Some historians also suggest Edward IV was illegitimate since his father Richard 3rd Duke York (30) was away at the siege of Pontoise at the time of conception. Pontoise is some sixty miles from Rouen. There is straight road, an old Roman road known as the Chaussée Jules César, between the Pontoise and Rouen, now known as the D14. Easy for Richard to return to Rouen as and when he chose to.
On 17 May 1443 [his son] Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland 1443-1460 was born to Richard 3rd Duke York (31) and [his wife] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (28) at Rouen. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England.
On 22 Apr 1444 [his daughter] Elizabeth York Duchess Suffolk 1444-1503 was born to Richard 3rd Duke York (32) and [his wife] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (28) at Rouen. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England.
On 28 May 1444 the Treaty of Tours was concluded. The terms included the marriage of Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (22) and Margaret of Anjou (14) in return for which England ceded the strategically important French County of Maine to France; she brought no dowry. The Treaty was negotiated by William de la Pole Duke of Suffolk (47). The cessation of Maine subsequently came as something of surprise to Edmund Beaufort Earl Somerset (38) who was its Governor. He, Somerset (38), was offered the Governorship of Normandy instead leading to a further rift between Somerset (38) and Richard Duke of York (32) who had already been offered Normandy. These seeds of the Wars of the Roses were falling on fertile ground.
On 18 Mar 1445 Richard 3rd Duke York (33) met Margaret of Anjou (14) at Pontoise on his mission to bring her back to Endland for her marriage to Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (23).
On 03 May 1446 [his daughter] Margaret Duchess of Burgundy 1446-1503 was born to Richard 3rd Duke York (34) and [his wife] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (31) at Fotheringay Castle. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England.
In 1447 [his son-in-law] Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (16) and [his daughter] Anne York Duchess Exeter 1439-1476 (7) were married. They were half second cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England.
On 20 Feb 1447 Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester 1390-1447 (56) was arrested on a charge of treason by John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont 1409-1460 (37), Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham 1402-1460 (44), Edmund Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (41), [his brother-in-law] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (47) and Ralph Boteler 6th Baron Sudeley 1389-1473 (58).
On 23 Feb 1447 Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester 1390-1447 (56) died at Bury St Edmunds. He was possibly poisoned although more likely he died from a stroke. He was buried at St Alban's Cathedral. His death left England with no heir to the throne in a direct line. Richard 3rd Duke York (35) became heir presumptive until the birth of Edward of Westinster Prince of Wales 1453-1471 six years later.
On 07 Jul 1447 [his son] William of York 1447- was born to Richard 3rd Duke York (35) and [his wife] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (32). He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. He died young.
On 30 Jul 1447 Richard Duke of York (35) was appointed Lieutenant Ireland. An attempt by the Council to isolate Richard (35).
On 30 Jul 1447 Richard 3rd Duke York (35) was appointed Lieutenant Ireland.
On 07 Nov 1448 [his son] John of York 1448- was born to Richard 3rd Duke York (37) and [his wife] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (33). He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. He died young.
On 21 Oct 1449 [his son] George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 was born to Richard 3rd Duke York (38) and [his wife] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (34). He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England at Dublin Castle, Dublin.
On 07 Sep 1450 Richard 3rd Duke York (38) landed at Beaumaris.
Around 1451 [his son] Thomas of York -1451 was born to Richard 3rd Duke York (39) and [his wife] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (35). He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. He died young.
On 02 Oct 1452 [his son] Richard III King England 1452-1485 was born to Richard 3rd Duke York (41) and [his wife] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (37) at Fotheringay Castle. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England.
On 27 Mar 1454 Richard 3rd Duke York (42) was appointed Lord Protector. [his brother-in-law] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (54) was appointed Lord Chancellor.
On 22 May 1455 the Wars of the Roses commenced with the First Battle of St Albans. Richard 3rd Duke York (43) commanded with Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (26), [his brother-in-law] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (55), Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham 1415-1464 (40) and Walter Strickland 1411-1467 (44).
The Lancastrians ...
Edmund Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (49) was killed. His son Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (19) succeeded 2nd Duke Somerset 2C 1448. Note his father is frequently incorrectly referred to as the second Duke and Henry as the third Duke. His father's Dukedom, however, was a new creation.
Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland 1393-1455 (62) was killed. His son Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (33) succeeded 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1C 1377, 6th Baron Percy of Alnwick 1C 1299, 14th Baron Percy of Topcliffe. Eleanor Poynings Countess Northumberland 1422-1480 (33) by marriage Countess of Northumberland.
Thomas Clifford 8th Baron Clifford 1414-1455 (41) was killed. His son John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (20) succeeded 9th Baron Clifford, 9th Lord Skipton. Margaret Bromflete Baroness Clifford 1434-1493 (21) by marriage Baroness Clifford.
William Cotton 1410-1455 (45) and Richard Fortescue 1414-1455 (41) were killed.
Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham 1402-1460 (52) was wounded and captured.
Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (33), John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 (54) and Edmund Dudley 1425-1483 (30) were captured.
Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (19) was wounded. James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (34) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (55) fought.
After 25 May 1455 Richard 3rd Duke York was appointed Constable England.
On 22 Jul 1455 [his daughter] Ursula of York 1455- was born to Richard 3rd Duke York (43) and [his wife] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (40). She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England. She died young.
In Nov 1455 Richard 3rd Duke York (44) was appointed Lord Protector. He was buried at Pontefract Priory Pontefract.
Before Feb 1458 [his son-in-law] John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 and [his daughter] Elizabeth York Duchess Suffolk 1444-1503 were married. They were half third cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his daughter] She by marriage Marchioness Suffolk 1C.
On 24 Mar 1458 Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (40) presided at Westminster Abbey at a ceremony known as the "Loveday". John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (22), [his brother-in-law] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (58), Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (29), Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (22), Richard 3rd Duke York (46), Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (36), Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460 (35) and Margaret of Anjou (28) attended in an attempt to reconcile the Lancastrian and Yorkist factions.
Chronicle of Gregory 1451-1460. 24 Mar 1458. Ande thys same yere at Covyntre there was made a pesse [Note. peace] by-twyne the Duke of Somersett Harry (22), and the [his brother-in-law] Erie of Saulysbury (58), and the Erle of Warwycke (29), for the dethe of hys fadyr Duke of Somersette (52), that the Duke of Yorke (46) put to dethe at Synt Albonys. And thys tretys was made at Covyntre, in the holy tyme of Lentyn, by the mene of Kyng Harry the VI. And alle that holy tyme of Lentyn there myght noo mane man that shulde preche by-fore the kynge, but that he shulde shewe hys sarmon in wrytyng, were he docter or other, in so moche the lordys woldys A B C wolde assygne what he schulde say, as for any thynge that longyd unto the comyn wele, and yf he passyd hyr commaundement he schulde lese hys costys, and goo as he come, withowte mete and drynge. But a becheler of holy devynyte come to that cytte, and whenn he come to preche byfore the kyng, as Maystyr Wylliam Saye, Dene of Poulys and Dene of the kyngys chapylle, hadde desyryd and asygnyd, ABC axyd hys name, and hys name was Mayster Wylliam Ive, at that tyme beyng at Wynchester in Wycham ys college. And ABC sayde that they moste nedys se hys sarmon and hys purposse, that he was a vysyd to say by-fore the kynge the Sonday nexte comynge. And he fulle goodly toke them hys papyr; and they seyng and redynge hys papyr, commaundyd to leve owte and put a way many troughtys. But that same Mayster Wylliam Ive sayde but lytylle, but whenn he come to pulpyt he sparyd not to sayd the troughthe, and reportyd by-fore the kyng that ABC made the sarmonys that were sayde fore, and not thoo that prechyd, and that causyd that ]?e men that prechyd hadde but sympylle sarmons, for hyr purposse was alle turnyde upsodowne 3 and that they hadde made love days as Judas made whythe a cosse b with Cryste for they cyste ovyr the mane. The grete rewarde that he hadde for hys labyr was the rydyng of viij xx myle yn and owte for hys travayle, and alle hys frendys fulle sory for hym. But qui veritatem dicit caput fractum kabebit, &c. And that same yere alle thes lordys departyd from the Parlyment, but they come nevyr alle togedyr after that tyme to noo Parlyment nor conselle, but yf hyt were in fylde with spere and schylde.
Chronicle of Gregory 1451-1460. 23 Sep 1459. Ande thys yere was done a grete jornaye at the Blowre Hethe by the [his brother-in-law] Erle of Saulysbury (59) ande the Quenys galentys. And that day the kynge made vij knyghtys, fyrste, Syr Robert Molyners, Syr John Daune, Syr Thomas Uttyng, Syr John Brembly, Syr Jon Stanley, Syr John Grysly, and Syr Rychard Hardon; and v of thes knyghtys were slayne fulle manly in the fylde, and many men of yemonry soore hurte, and a fulle nobylle knyght, the Lorde Audeley (61), and Syr Thomas Hamdon, knyght, was the getynge of the fylde, and Thomas Squyer and Counteroller of the Pryncys house fulle sore hurte. And [the] batayle or jornay lastyd alle the aftyr none, fro one of the clocke tylle v aftyr non, and the chasse lastyd unto vij at the belle in the mornynge. And men were maymyd many one in the Quenys party. There were in the Quenys party vM [Note. 5000], and in that othyr party vC [Note. 500], a grete wondyr that evyr they myght stonde the grete multytude not ferynge, the kynge beyng with yn x myle and the quene (29) with yn v myle at the castelle of Egyllyssale. But the [his brother-in-law] Erle of Saulysbury (59) hadde ben i-take, save only a Fryer Austyn schot gonnys [Note. shot guns] alle that nyght in a parke that was at the backe syde of the fylde, and by thys mene the erle come to Duke of Yorke (48). And in the morowe they founde nothyr man ne ehylde in that parke but the fryer, and he sayde that for fere he a-bode in that parke alle that nyght. But in the mornyng, by-twyne the fylde and Chester, Syr John Dawne ys sone that was at home in hys fadyrs place hadde worde that hys fadyr was slayne; a-non he raysyd hys tenantys and toke by-syde a lytyl towne i-namyd Torperlay Syr Thomas Nevyle (29), Syr John Nevyle (28), and Syr Thomas Haryngdon (59), and brought hem unto the castelle of Chester, ande there they a-boode tylle the batayle of Northehampton was done, &c.
On 09 Oct 1459 Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 (39) was elected Speaker of the House of Commons at Coventry. The primary purpose of the Parliament was to attaint the Yorkist leaders:
Richard 3rd Duke York (48), his sons [his son] Edward Earl of March (17),[his son] Edmund Earl of Rutland (16) were attainted, as were ...
[his brother-in-law] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (59) and his sons Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (30) and John Neville 1431-1471 (28).
Chronicle of Gregory 1451-1460. After 09 Oct 1459. Also that same yere the [his wife] Duchyes of Yorke (44) com unto Kyng Harry (37) and submyttyd hyr unto hys grace, and she prayde for hyr husbonde (48) that he myght come to hys answere and to be ressayvyd unto hys grace; and the kynge fulle humbely grauntyde hyr grace, and to alle hyrs that wolde come with hyr, and to alle othyr that wolde com yn with yn viij dayes. And after viij days to done the execusyon of the lawe as hit requyryd. And many men, bothe knyghtys and squyers, come whythe Syr Water Deverose (72), in hyr schyrtys and halters in hyr hondys, fallynge by-fore the kynge, and alle hadde grace and marcy bothe of lyffe and lym.
On 12 Oct 1459 the Battle of Ludford Bridge nearly took place at Ludlow. In the event a large number of the Calais garrison led by Andrew Trollope -1461 refused to fight against Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (37) who was present.
The Yorkist Richard 3rd Duke York (48), the future [his son] Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (17), [his son] Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland 1443-1460 (16), Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (30), [his brother-in-law] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (59) left overnight before the battle.
John Dynham 1st Baron Dynham 1433-1501 (26) and Thomas Parr 1407-1464 (52) were present.
The Lancastrian army included Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham 1402-1460 (57) and William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel 1417-1487 (41).
Chronicle of Gregory 1451-1460. 12 Oct 1459. Ande thys same yere there was a grete afray at Lodlowe by twyne the kynge and the Duke of Yorke (48), the [his brother-in-law] Erle of Salusbury (59), the Erle of Warwyke (30), the [his son] Erle of Marche (17). The Duke of Yorke lete make a grete depe dyche and fortefyde it with gonnys, cartys, and stakys, but hys party was ovyr weke, for the kyng was mo thenn xxxM [Note. 3000] of harneysyd men, by-syde nakyd men that were compellyd for to come with the kynge. And thenne the duke (48) fledde fro place to place in Walys, and breke downe the bryggys aftyr hym that the kyngys mayny schulde not come aftyr hym. And he wente unto Monde. And there he taryd tylle the jornay was endyd at Northehampton. And he made newe grotys of a newe kune in Irlonde; in on syde of the grote was a crowne and in that othyr syde a crosse. And there he made many newe statutys, and hys yong sonys were sende by yende the see unto the Duke of Burgayne, and they were fulle welle ande worschypfully ressayvyd.
Patent Rolls Henry VI 1452-1461. Membrane 27d. 30 Oct 1459. Farnham Royal. Commission of array to Richard Wydevyle of Ryvers (54), knight, and the sheriff of Kent in Kent, to resist Richard, duke of York (48), [his son] Edward earl of March (17), Richard, earl of Warwick (30), and [his brother-in-law] Richard, earl of Salisbury (59), and their accomplices, leagued in rebellion against the king and crown and allowed by certain persons having the keeping of the town and castle of Calais to enter the same contrary to the king's mandates, and now preparing to arouse congregations and insur rections in the said county; and appointment of the same to arrest all ships and other vessels late of the said earl of Warwick and all the tackling thereof and to keep the same for the king's use. By K.
Chronicle of Gregory 1451-1460. 10 Jul 1460 And there they mete with the kynge and foughte manly with the kyngys lordys and mayny, but there was moche favyr in that fylde unto the Erle of Warwycke (31). And there they toke the kynge (38), and made newe offycers of the londe, as the chaunceler and tresyrar and othyr, but they occupy de not fo[r]thewith, but abode a seson of the comyng of Duke of York (48) owte of Irlonde. And in that fylde was slayne the Duke of Bokyngham (57), stondyng stylle at hys tente, the Erle of Schrovysbury (42), the Lord Bemond (50), and the Lord Egremond (37), with many othyr men. Ande many men were drownyd by syde the fylde in the revyr at a mylle. And that goode knyght Syr Wylliam Lucy (56) that dwellyd besyde Northehampton hyrde the gonne schotte, and come unto the fylde to have holpyn the kynge, but the fylde was done or that he come; an one of the Staffordys was ware of hys comynge, and lovyd that knyght ys wyffe (21) and hatyd hym, and a-non causyd hys dethe.
Chronicle of Gregory 1451-1460. 09 Sep 1460. Ande thys same yere the Duke of Yorke (48) come owte of Yrlonde, and londyd at the Redde Clyffe in Loncaschyre, and hys lyvery was whyte and brewe in hyr clothyng, and i-brawderyd a-bove with fetyrlockys. And thys he come forthe towarde London; ande then hys [his wife] lady the duchyes (45) met with hym in a chare i-coveryd with blewe felewette, and iiij pore coursserys theryn. And so he come to Habyngdon, and there he sende for trompeters and claryners to bryng hym to London, and there he gave them baners with the hole armys of Inglonde with owte any dyversyte, and commaundyd hys swerde to ben borne uppe ryghte be-fore hym; and soo he rode forthe unto Lundon tylle he come to Westemyster to Kyng Harrys palys ande there he claymyde the crowne of Inglonde.
On 10 Oct 1460 Richard 3rd Duke York (49) claimed the Kingdom of England in Westminster Hall witnessed by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (42).
On 25 Oct 1460 Parliament enacted the Act of Accord 39 Hen VI by which Richard 3rd Duke York (49) was declared heir to Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (38) disinheriting Edward of Westminster (7). At the same Parliament on 31 Oct 1460 Richard 3rd Duke York (49) was created Prince of Wales, Earl Chester, Duke Cornwall and Lord Protector.
Chronicle of Gregory 1451-1460. Then the Quene (30) havynge knowelechynge of thys praty whyle sche sende unto the Duke of Somersett (24), at that tyme beynge in Dorset schyre at the Castelle of Corffe, and for the Erle of Devyschyre (28), and for Elysaundyr Hody, and prayde hem to com to hyr as hastely as they myght, with hyr tenantys as stronge in hyr harnys as men of warre, for the Lorde Rosse (33), the Lorde Clyfforde (25), the Baron of Grestocke (46), the Lorde Nevyle (50), the [his brother-in-law] Lorde Latymer (53), were waytyng a-pon the [his son-in-law] Duke of Excete[r] (30) to mete with hyr at Hulle. And thys mater was not taryd but fulle prevely i-wrought; and she sende letters unto alle hyr ehyffe offycers that they wold doo the same, and that they shulde warne alle the servantys that lovyd hyr or purposyd to kepe and rejoyse hyr ofYysce, to wayte a-pon hyr at Hulle by that day as hit a-poyntyd by hyr. Alle thes pepylle were gaderyd and conveyde so prevely that they wer hole in nombyr of xvM [Note. 15000] or any man wolde be-leve hyt; in so moche yf any man sayde, or tolde, or talkyd of suche gaderyng, he shulde be schende, and sum were in grete donger, for the comyn pepylle sayde by thoo that tolde the, troughthe, "Ye talke ryght ye wolde hit were," and gave noo credens of hyr sayynge. But the laste the lordys purposyd to knowe the troughthe. And the ix day of December nexte folowyng the Duke of Yorke (49), the [his brother-in-law] Erle of Salysbury (60), the [his son] Erle Rutlond (17) (he was the Duke of Yorke ys secunde sone, one the beste dysposyd lorde in thys londe), and Syr Thomas Haryngdon (60), whythe many mo knyghtys and quyers and grete pepylle with hem, and soo departyd owte of London towarde Yorke, &c.
On 16 Dec 1460 a Lancastrian force ambushed the forces of the Richard 3rd Duke York (49) near Worksop. Andrew Trollope -1461 fought for the Lancastrians. The only source for the battle is William of Worcester's book Annales rerum Anglicarum: "In December Parliament adjourned. And the Duke of York, with the Earl of Salisbury and many thousand armed men, were going from London to York, in December 1460, when a portion of his men, the van, as is supposed, or perhaps the scouts were cut off by the people of the Duke of Somerset (24) at Worsop"".
On 30 Dec 1460 the Lancastrian army took their revenge for the defeats of the First Battle of St Albans and the Battle of Northampton during the Battle of Wakefield at Sandal Castle. The Lancastrian army was commanded by [his son-in-law] Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (30), Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (24) and Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (39), and included John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 (25) and William Gascoigne 1430-1463 (30), both knighted, and James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40), John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (25), John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1410-1461 (50), Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley 1427-1464 (33), Henry Roos -1504 and [his future son-in-law] Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (20).
The Yorkist army was heavily defeated.
Richard 3rd Duke York (49) was killed. His son [his son] Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) succeeded 4th Duke York 1C 1385, 9th Earl Ulster, 3rd Earl Cambridge 3C 1414.
Thomas Neville 1430-1460 (30), Thomas Harrington 1400-1460 (60), William Bonville 6th Baron Harington 1442-1460 (18) and [his nephew] Edward Bourchier -1460 were killed.
Thomas Parr 1407-1464 (53) fought in the Yorkist army.
Following the battle [his brother-in-law] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (60) was beheaded by Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland -1460. William Bonville 1420-1460 (40) was executed.
[his son] Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland 1443-1460 (17) was executed on Wakefield Bridge by John "Butcher" Clifford (25) by which he gained his sobriquet "Butcher".
Chronicle of Gregory 1451-1460. 30 Dec 1460. Ande the same yere, the xxx day of December, the [his son-in-law] Duke of Exceter (30), the Duke of Somersett (24), the Erle of Northehomberlond (39), the Lorde Roos (33), the Lorde Nevyle (50), the Lorde ClyfForde (25), with many mo lordys, knyghtys, squyers, and gentyllys, and the commyns of the Quenys party, met with the Duke of Yorke (49) at Wakefylde, and there they made a grete jorney a-pon the Lorde and Duke of Yorke, and toke hym and the [his brother-in-law] Erle of Saulysbury (60), the [his son] Erle of Rutlond (17), and the Lorde Haryngdon (18), and Syr Thomas Nevyle (30), and Syr Thomas Haryngdon (60), and many mo knyghtys were take a slayne by syde alle the comyns. But thys good Duke of Yorke with hys lordys a-fore sayde loste hyr heddys; God have marcy on there soulys, for they loste in that jorneys the nombyr of xxvc men. And in the Quenys party were slay but iic men, &c.
Letter XXXVIII. Margaret of Anjou Queen of Henry IV to the Citizens of London. 1461. Letter XXXVII. Margaret of Anjou (30) Queen of Henry IV to the Citizens of London.
Right trusty and well-beloved, we greet you heartily well.
And whereas the late Duke of N. (49) of extreme malice, long hid under colours, imagined by divers and many ways and means the destruction of my lord's (39) good grace, whom God of his mercy ever preserve, hath now late, upon an untrue pretence, feigned a title to my lord's crown, and royal estate, and pre-eminence, contrary to his allegiance and divers solemn oaths of his own offer made, uncompelled or constrained, and fully proposed to have deposed him of his regality, he had been (had it not been for) the sad (firm) unchangeable and true dispositions of you and others, his true liegemen, for the which your worshipful dispositions we thank you as heartily as we can. And howbeit, that the same untrue, unsad, and unadvised person, of very pure malice, disposed to continue in his cruelness, to the utterest undoing, if he might, of us, and of my lord's son and ours the prince, which, with God's mercy, he shall not be of power to perform, by the help of you and all other my lord's faithful disposed subjects, hath thrown among you, as we be certainly informed, divers untrue and feigned matters and surmises; and in especial, that we and my lord's said son and ours should newly draw toward you with an unseen power of strangers, disposed to rob and to despoil you of your goods and havings (property); we will that you know for certain that, at such time as we or our said son shall be disposed to see my lord, as our duty is and so binds us to do, you, nor none of you, shall be robbed, despoiled, nor wronged by any person that at that time we or our said son shall be accompanied with, or any other sent in our or his name, praying you, in our most hearty and desirous wise, that [above] all earthly things you will diligently intend (attend) to the surety of my lord's royal person in the mean time; so that through malice of his said enemy he be no more troubled, vexed, nor jeoparded. And, so doing, we shall be unto you such lady as of reason you shall be largely content. Given under our signet, &c.
On 29 Jul 1476 Edward I's paternal grand-father [his uncle] Edward of York, his father Richard of York (64) and and his younger brother [his son] Edmund (33) were reburied at St Mary and All Saints in Fotheringhay in a ceremony attended by [his son] Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (34), [his son] George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (26), Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (21), William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (45), Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (36).
On 01 Apr 1495 [his wife] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (79) made her last will. It was proved 27 Aug 1495.
Source: A Selection From the Wills of Eminent Persons by Camden Society (Great Britain). Published 1838. Transcribed by John Gough Nichols and John Bruce.
IN the name of allmyghty God, the blessed Trinite, fader and son and the holigost, trusting in the meanes and mediacions of oure blessed Lady Moder, of oure most blessed Saviour Jh'u Crist, and by the intercession of holy Saint John Baptist, and all the saintes of heven: I, CECILLE, wife unto the right noble prince Richard late Duke of Yorke (83), fader unto the most cristen prince my Lord and son [his son] King Edward the iiij th (52), the first day of Aprill the yere of our Lord M.CCCC.lxxxxv. after the computacion of the Church of Englond, of hole mynde and body, loving therfore be it to Jh'u, make and ordeigne my testament in fourme and maner ensuyng.
Furst, I bequeath and surrendour my soule in to the mercifull handes of allmyghty God my maker, and in to protecion of the blessed yrgin our lady Saint Mary, and suffrage of Saint John Baptist, and of all other saintes of heven. Also my body to be buried beside the body of my moost entierly best beloved Lord and housbond, fader unto my said lorde and son, and in his tumbe within the collegiate church of Fodringhay, a if myn executours by the sufferaunce of the King (38) finde goode sufficient therto; and elles at the Kinges (38) pleasure. And I will that after my deceasse all my dettes sufficiently appering and proved be paid, thanking oure Lord at this tyme of making of this my testament to the knolege of my conscience I am not muche in dett; and if it happen, as I trust to God it shalnot, that there be not found sufficient money aswell to pay my dettes as to enture my body, than in advoiding such charges as myght growe for the same, the whiche God defende, I lymytte and assigne all such parcelles of plate as belongith to my chapell, pantry, cellour, ewry, and squillery, to the perfourmyng of the same, as apperith in the inventary, except such plate as I have bequeithed. Also I geve and bequeith to the Kinges noble grace all such money as is owing to me of the customes, and two cuppes of gold.
Also I geve and bequeith to the Quene (29) a crosse croslette of diamantes, a sawter with claspes of silver and guilte enameled covered with grene clothe of golde, and a pix with the fleshe of Saint Cristofer.
Also I bequeith to my lady the Kinges moder (51) a portuos with claspes of gold covered with blacke cloth of golde.
Also I geve to my lord Prince (8) a bedde of arres of the Whele of Fortune and testour of the same, a counterpoint of arras and a tappett of arres with the pope.
Also I geve to my lord Henry Duke of Yorke (3) b three tappettes of arres, oon of them of the life of Saint John Baptist, another of Mary Maudeleyn, and the thirde of the passion of our Lord and Saint George.
And if my body be buried at Fodringhay in the colege there with my most entierly best beloved lord and housbond (83), than I geve to the said colege a square canapie of crymeson clothe of gold with iiij. staves, twoo auter clothes of crymeson clothe of gold, twoo copes of crymeson cloth of gold, a chesibull and twoo tenucles of cryinyson clothe of golcrvith iij. abes, c twoo auter clothes of crymeson damaske browdered, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, and iij. copes of blewe velwett brodered, with iij. abes, thre masse bokes, thre grayles, and vij. processioners.
Also I geve to the colege of Stoke Clare a chesibull and twoo tenucles of playn crymyson cloth of gold with iij. abes, twoo auter clothes, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, and fyve coopes of white damaske browdered, with iij. abes, twoo awter clothes of crymeson velwett upon the velwete (sic), a vestement of crymeson playne velvet, iiij. antiphoners, iiij. grayles, and sixe processioners.
Also I geve to the house of Sion two of the best coopes of crymyson clothe of gold.
Note. These next four people refer to her grand-daughters, children of Edward IV.
Also I geve to my doughter Brigitte (14) the boke of Legenda Aurea in velem, a boke of the life of Saint Kateryn of Sene, a boke of Saint Matilde.
Also I geve to my doughter Cecill (26) a portuous with claspes silver and gilte covered with purple velvet, and a grete portuous without note.
Also I geve to my doughter Anne (19) the largest bedde of bawdekyn, withe countrepoint of the same, the barge with bailies, tilde, and ores belonging to the same.
Also I geve to my doughter Kateryn (15) a traves of blewe satten.
Also I geve to my doughter of [his daughter] Suffolke (50) a the chare with the coveryng, all the quoshons, horses, and harneys belonging to the same, and all my palfreys.
Note. The next people are her grand-children, children of her daughter [his daughter] Elizabeth York Duchess Suffolk 1444-1503 (50).
Also I geve to my son of Suffolke (24) b a clothe of estate and iij. quoschons of purpull damaske cloth of gold.
Also I geve to my son Humfrey (21) c two awter clothes of blewe damaske brawdered and a vestyment of crymeson satten for Jh'us masse.
Also I geve to my son William (17) d a traves of white sarcenet, twoo beddes of downe, and twoo bolsters to the same.
Also I geve to my doughter Anne priores of Sion (19), a boke of Bonaventure and Hilton in the same in Englishe, and a boke of the Revelacions of Saint Burgitte.
Also I woll that all my plate not bequeithed be sold, and the money thereof be putte to the use of my burying, that is to sey, in discharging of suche costes and expensis as shalbe for carying of my body from the castell of Barkehampstede unto the colege of Fodringhey. And if any of the said plate be lefte unexpended I woll the said colege have it.
Also I geve to the colege of saint Antonies in London an antiphoner with the ruelles of musik in the later ynd.
Also I geve unto Master Richard Lessy all suche money as is owing unto me by obligations what soever they be, and also all such money as is owing unto me by the Shirfe of Yorkeshire, to helpe to bere his charges which he has to pay to the Kinges grace, trusting he shall the rather nyghe the said dettes by the help and socour of his said grace.
Also I geve to Master William Croxston a chesibull, stoles, and fanons of blake velwett, with an abe.
Also I geve to Master Eichard Henmershe a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of crymyson damaske, with an abe; and a chesibill, stoles and fanons of crymeson saten, with an abe.
Also I geve to Sir John More a frontell of purpull cloth of gold, a legend boke, and a colett boke.
Also I give to Sir Kandall Brantingham a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of white damaske, orfreys of crymson velvet, with an abe, the better of bothe.
Also I geve to Sir William Grave a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of white damaske, orfreys of crymeson velvett, with an abe; a masse-boke that servith for the closett, a prymour with claspes silver and gilt, covered with blewe velvett, and a sawter that servith for the closett covered with white ledder.
Also I geve to Sir John Blotte a gospell boke, a pistill covered with ledder, and a case for a corporax of grene playne velvett. Also I geve to Sir Thomas Clerk a chesibill, twoo tenucles, stoles, fanons, of rede bawdeken, with iij. abes.
Also I geve to Sir William Tiler twoo coopes of rede bawdekyn.
Also I geve to Robert Claver iij. copes of white damaske brawdered, and a gowne of the Duchie b facion of playne blake velvett furred with ermyns.
Also I geve to John Bury twoo old copes of crymysyn satten cloth of gold, a frontell of white bawdekyn, twoo curteyns of rede sarcenett fringed, twoo curteyns of whit sarcenet fringed, a feder bed, a bolstour to the same, the best of feders, and two whit spervers of lynyn.
Also I geve to John Poule twoo auter clothes, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, stoles, and fanons of white bawdekyn, with iij. abes; a short gowne of purple playne velvett furred with ermyns, the better of ij. and a kirtill of damaske with andelettes of silver and gilt furred.
Also I geve to John Smyth twoo auter clothes, a chesibill, twoo tenucles, stoles, and fanons of blew bawdekyn, with iij. abes. Also I geve to John Bury twoo copes of crymysyn clothe of gold that servith for Sondays.
Also I geve to John Walter a case for corporax of purple playne velvett, twoo cases for corporax of blewe bawdekyn, twoo auter clothes, a chesibill of rede and grene bawdekyn, a canapie of white sarcenett, iij. abes for children, and iiij. pair of parrours of white bawdekyn, twoo pair parrours of crymsyn velvett, twoo pair parrours of rede bawdekyn, a housling towell that servith for my selfe, twoo corteyns of blewe sarcenett fringed, a sudory of crymy-syn and white, the egges blak, a crose cloth and a cloth of Saint John Baptist of sarcenett painted, a long lantorn, a dext standing doble, twoo grete stondardes and ij. litill cofers.
Also I geve to John Peit-wynne twoo vestimentes of white damaske, a white bedde of lynnyn, a federbedde and a bolstour, and a short gowne of purple playne velvet furred with sabilles. Also I geve to Thomas Lentall six auter clothes of white sarcenett, with crosses of crymsyn velvet.
Also I geve to John Long iij. peces of bawdekyn of the lengur sorte. Also I geve to Sir [John] Verney knighte and Margarett his wiffe a a crosse [of] silver and guilte and berall, and in the same a pece of the holy crosse and other diverse reliques.
Also I geve to Dame Jane Pesemershe, widue, myne Inne that is called the George in Grauntham, during terme of her life; and after her decesse I woll that the reversion therof be unto the college of Fodringhay for evermore, to find a prest to pray for my Lord my housbond (83) and me.
Also I geve to Nicholas Talbott and Jane his wife a spone of gold with a sharp diamount in the ende, a dymy-sent of gold with a collumbine and a diamont in the same, a guirdill of blewe tissue harnessed with gold, a guirdill of gold with a bokull and a pendaunt and iiij. barres of gold, a hoke of gold with iij. roses, a pomeamber of gold garnesshed with a diamont, sex rubies and sex perles, and the surnap and towell to the same.
Also I geve to Richard Boyvile and Gresild his wife my charrett and the horses with the harnes that belongith therunto, a gowne with a dymy trayn of purpull saten furred with ermyns, a shorte gowne of purple saten furred with jennetes, a kirtill of white damaske with aunde lettes silver and gilte, a spone of gold, a dymysynt of gold with a columbyne garnesshed with a diainant, a saphour, an amatist, and viij. perles, a pomeamber of gold enameled, a litell boxe with a cover of gold and a diamant in the toppe.
Also I geve to Richard Brocas and Jane his wife a long gown of purpull velvett upon velvet furred with ermyns, a greate Agnus of gold with the Trinite, Saint Erasmus, and the Salutacion of our Lady; an Agnus of gold with our Lady and Saint Barbara; a litell goblett with a cover silver and part guild; a pair of bedes of white amber gauded with vj. grete stones of gold, part aneled, with a pair of bedes of x. stones of gold and v. of corall; a cofor with a rounde lidde bonde with iron, which the said Jane hath in her keping, and all other thinges that she hath in charge of keping.
Also I geve to Anne Pinchbeke all other myne Agnus unbequeithed, that is to sey, ten of the Trinite, a litell malmesey pott with a cover silver and parte guilte, a possenett with a cover of silver, a short gowne of playne russett velvett furred with sabilles, a short gowne of playne blewe velvett furred with sabilles, a short gowne of purple playn velvet furred with grey, a tester, a siler, and a countrepoint of bawdekyn, the lesser of ij.
Also I geve to Jane Lessy a dymysent of gold with a roos, garnisshed with twoo rubies, a guirdell of purple tissue with a broken bokull, and a broken pendaunt silver and guilte, a guirdill of white riband with twoo claspes of gold with a columbyne, a guirdell of blewe riband with a bokell and a pendaunt of gold, a litell pair of bedes of white amber gaudied with vij. stones of gold, an haliwater stope with a strynkkill silver and gilte, and a laier silver and part guilte.
Also I geve to John Metcalfe and Alice his wife all the ringes that I have, except such as hang by my bedes and Agnus, and also except my signet, a litell boxe of golde with a cover of golde, a pair of bedes of Ixj. rounde stones of golde gaudied with sex square stones of golde enemeled, with a crosse of golde, twoo other stones, and a scalop shele of geete honging by.
Also I geve to Anne Lownde a litell bokull and a litell pendaunt of golde for a guirdill, a litell guirdell of golde and silke with a bokill and a pendaunt of golde, a guirdell of white riband with aggelettes of golde enameled, a hoke of golde playne, a broken hoke of golde enameled, and a litell rounde bottumed basyn of silver.
Also I geve to the house of Asshe-rugge a chesibull and ij. tenucles of crymysyn damaske embrawdered, with thre abes.
Also I geve to the house of Saint Margaretes twoo auter clothes with a crucifix and a vestiment of grete velvet.
Also I geve to the parish church of Stoundon a coope of blewe bawdekyn, the orffreys embrawdered.
Also I geve to the parishe church of Much Barkehampstede a coope of blewe bawdekyn, the orffreys embrawdered.
Also I geve to the parish church of Compton by sides Guilford a eorporax case of blake cloth of gold and iiij. auter clothes of white sarcenett embrawdered with garters.
Also I geve to Alisaunder Cressener my best bedde of downe and a bolster to the same.
Also I geve to Sir Henry Haidon knyght a tablett and a cristall garnesshed with ix. stones and xxvij. perles, lacking a stone and iij. perles.
Also I geve to Gervase Cressy a long gown of playn blewe velvet furred with sabilles.
Also I geve to Edward Delahay twoo gownes of musterdevilers furred with mynckes, and iiij u of money.
Also I geve to Thomas Manory a short gowne of crymesyn playn velvet lyned, purfilled with blake velvet, and iiij ll in money.
Also I geve to John Broune all such stuf as belongith to the kechyn in his keping at my place at Baynardcastell in London, and iiij u in money.
Also I geve to William Whitington a short gown of russett cloth furred with matrons and calabour wombes, a kirtill of purpull silke chamblett with awndelettes silver and gilte, all such floures of brawdery werke and the cofer that they be kept in, and xls. in money.
Also I geve to all other gentilmen that be daily a waiting in my houshold with Mr. Richard Cressy and Robert Lichingham everich of theime iiij u in money.
Also I geve to every yoman that be daily ad waiting in my houshold with John Otley xls. in money.
Also I geve to every grome of myne xxvj s. viij d. in money. And to every page of myne xiij s. iiij d. in money.
Also I geve to Robert Harison xls. in money and all the gootes.
And if ther be no money founde in my cofers to perfourme this my will and bequest, than I will that myne executours, that is to sey the reverend fader in God Master Olyver King bisshop of Bath (63), Sir Reignolde Bray (55) knight, Sir Thomas Lovell, councellours to the Kinges grace, Master William Pikinham doctour in degrees dean of the colege of Stoke Clare, Master William Felde master of the colege of Fodringhey, and Master Richard Lessy dean of my chapell, havyng God in reverence and drede, unto whome I geve full power and auctorite to execute this my will and testament, make money of such goodes as I have not geven and bequeithed, and with the same to content my dettes and perfourme this my will and testament.
And the foresaid reverend fader in God, Sir Rignold Bray knyght, Sir Thomas Lovell knyght, Master William Pikenham, and Master William Felde, to be rewarded of suche thinges as shalbe delivered unto theme by my commaundement by the hondes of Sir Henry Haidon knyght stieward of my houshold and Master Richard Lessy, humbly beseching the Kinges habundant grace in whome is my singuler trust to name such supervisour as shalbe willing and favorabull diligently to se that this my present testament and will be perfittely executed and perfourmyd, gevyng full power also to my said executours to levey and receyve all my dettes due and owing unto me at the day of my dethe, as well of my receyvours as of all other officers, except such dettes as I have geven and bequeathed unto Master Richard Lessy aforesaid, as is above specified in this present will and testament.
And if that Master Richard Lessy cannot recover such money as I have geven to hym of the Shirffes of Yorkeshire and of my obligacions, than I will he be recompensed of the revenues of my landes to the sume of v c. marcs at the leest.
IN WITTENESSE HEROF I have setto my signet and signemanuell at my castell of Berkehamstede the last day of May the yere of our Lord abovesaid, being present Master Richard Lessy, Sir William Grant my confessour, Richard Brocas clerc of my kechyn, and Gervays Cressy. Proved at "Lamehithe" the 27 th day of August, A.D. 1495, and commission granted to Master Richard Lessy the executor in the said will mentioned to administer, &c. &c.
On 31 May 1495 [his wife] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (80) died. She was buried at St Mary and All Saints Fotheringhay.
Chronicle of Gregory 1461-1469. Ande the [his son] Kynge taryd in the Northe a grette whyle, a made grete inquerens of the rebellyens a-gayne hys fadyr. And toke downe hys fadyrs hedde fro the walle of Yorke. And made alle the contray to ben sworne unt hym and to hys lawys. And then he returnyd unto Lundon agayne. And there he made xviij knyghtys and many lordys. And then he rode to Westemyster. And there he was crounyd the xxviij day of June, and the yere of oure Lorde MlCCCC lxj, blessyd be God of hys grete grace, etc.
Chronicle of Gregory 1451-1460. And that same nyght the kynge remevyde unto London a-gayne hys wylle, to the byschoppe ys palys of London, and the Duke of Yorke com unto hym that same nyght by the torchelyght and toke a-pon hym as kyng, and sayde in many placys that thys ys owrys by very ryght. Ande thenn the quene hyrynge thys she voydyde unto Walys, but she was met with be-syde the Castelle of Malepas, and a servand of hyr owne that she hadde made bothe yeman and gentylman, and aftyr a-poyntyd for to be in offysce with hyr sone the prynce, spoylyde hyr and robbyde hyr, and put hyr soo in dowt of hyr lyffe and sonys lyffe also. And thenn she com to the Castelle of Hardelowe [Probably Denbigh Castle, Possibly Hawarden] in Walys, and she hadde many grete gyftys and gretely comfortyd, for she hadde nede there of, for she hadde a fulle esy many a-boute hyr, the nombyr of iiij personnys. And moste comynly she rode by-hynde a yonge poore gentylle-man of xiiij yere age, hys name was Jon Combe, i-borne at Amysbery in Wyltschyre. And there hens she remevyd fulle prevely unto the Lorde Jesper, Lorde and Erle of Penbroke, for she durste not a byde in noo place that [was] a opyn but in pryvatt. The cause was that conter fete tokyns were sende unto hyr as thoughe that they hadde come from hyr moste dradde lorde the Kyng Harry the VI; but hyt was not of hys sendyng, nothyr of [his] a doynge, but forgyd thyngys, for they that brought the tokyns were of the kyngys howse, and sum of the pryncys howse, and sum of hyr owne howse, and bade hyr beware of the tokyns, that she gave noo credans there too; for at the kyngys departynge fro Covyntre towarde the fylde of Northehampton, he kyste hyr and blessyd the prynce, and commaundyd hyr that she shulde not com unto hym tylle that [he] a sende a specyalle tokyn unto hyr that no man knewe but the kynge and she. For the lordys wolde fayne hadde hyr unto Lundon, for they knewe welle that alle the workyngys that were done growe by hyr, for she was more wyttyer then the kynge, and that apperythe by hys dedys, &c.
Chronicle of Gregory 1451-1460. Also alle that seson the Erle of Warwyke with sowdyers of Calysse were comynge unto the Duke of Yorke, and he come ovyr-wharte Colsylle be-syde Covyntre, and the Duke of Somerset whythe hys men rode a-longe thoroughe the towne, and yet non of hem mette whythe othyr as hyt happyd, or by lyckely hode they wold have made a newe fraye. Ande the same day Androwe Throllope consayvyd [Note. conceived] that the Erle of Warwyke was goyng unto the Duke of Yorke and not unto the kynge, and utterly forsoke hym and come unto the kynge and was pardonyd; and that made the duke fulle sore a-frayde when he wyste that sum olde soudyers went from hym unto the kynge, &c.
The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. "For as that worshipful man thoroughly made clear to you, the children of King Edward the Fourth were never lawfully begotten, forasmuch as the King (while his true wife, Dame Elizabeth Lucy, was still living) was never lawfully married unto the Queen, their mother, whose blood, except that he set voluptuous pleasure before his honor, was fully unsuitable to be matched with his; and the mingling of their bloods together has been the effusion of the greater part of the noble blood of this realm. Whereby it may well seem that the marriage was not well made, out of which there is so much mischief grown. For lack of such lawful coupling, and also of other things which the said worshipful Doctor rather signified than fully explained, and which things shall not be spoken by me as the things wherein every man forbears to say because he knows to avoid the displeasure of my noble [his son] Lord Protector, who bears, as nature requires, a filial reverence to the Duchess his mother, for these causes before mentioned, I say, that is, for lack of other issue lawfully coming of the late noble Prince Richard, Duke of York, to whose royal blood the crown of England and of France is by the high authority of Parliament entailed, the right and title of the same is by the just course of inheritance, according to the common law of this land, handed down and come unto the most excellent Prince, the [his son] Lord Protector, as the very lawfully begotten son of the remembered noble Duke of York.
The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. Richard, Duke of York, a noble man and a mighty, had begun not by war but by law to challenge the crown, putting his claim into the Parliament. There his cause was either for right or favor so far forth advanced that King Henry (although he had a goodly prince utterly rejected his own blood; the crown was by authority of Parliament entailed unto the Duke of York, and his male issue in remainder, immediately after the death of King Henry. But the Duke, not enduring so long to tarry, but intending under pretext of dissension and debate arising in the realm, to reign before his time and to take upon him the rule in King Henry's life, was with many nobles of the realm at Wakefield slain, leaving three sons — [his son] Edward, [his son] George, and [his son] Richard.
All three, as they were great states of birth, so were they great and stately of stomach, greedy and ambitious of authority, and impatient of partners. [his son] Edward, revenging his father's death, deprived King Henry and attained the crown.
Manners Augmented. Manners in chief England Henry IV. The augmentation was granted by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 at the time of his creation as Earl of Rutland in recognition of his descent in the maternal line from Richard 3rd Duke York.
Chronicle of Gregory 1461-1469. Then come tydyngys of the comynge of [t]e [his son] Erle of Marche unto London; thenn alle the cytte were fayne, and thonkyd God, and sayde that
He that had Londyn for sake
Wolde no more to hem take,
and sayde, "Lette us walke in a newe wyne yerde, and lette us make us a gay gardon in the monythe of Marche with thys fayre whyte ros and herbe, the [his son] Erle of Marche." And the Erle of Warwycke mette with the Erle of Marche by-syde Oxforde, x myle owte of hit, at a towne of hys owne i-namyd Burford a-pon the Wolde; for the Erle of Marche come fro Walys, and was fulle sore a-ferde of the loste of the ij fyldys that were loste by-fore, Wakefylde that one, and Synt Albonys that othyr, and he sorowde sore for hys fadyr the Duke of Yorke, and for hys good brother the [his son] Erle of Rutlond, and for alle othyr lordys and comyns, &c.