Biography of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471

1428 Siege of Orleans

1434 Neville Beauchamp Marriage Alliance

1448 Warwick "Kingmaker" Becomes Earl of Warwick

1455 First Battle of St Albans

1457 John Neville married Isabel Ingaldsthorpe

1458 Loveday

1459 Parliament of the Devils

1459 Battle of Ludford Bridge

1460 January Raid on Sandwich

1460 June Yorkist Landing at Sandwich

1460 Battle of Northampton

1460 Battle of Wakefield

1461 Second Battle of St Albans

1461 Battles of Ferrybridge

1462 Warwick becomes Kingmaker

1463 Siege of Norham Castle

1464 Battle of Hexham

1464 Edward IV announces his marriage at Privy Council

1468 Skirmish of Southampton

1468 Marriage of Charles the Bold and Margaret of York

1469 Marriage of George Duke of Clarence and Isabel Neville

1469 Execution of the Woodvilles

1469 Execution of the Neville Brothers

1470 Welles' Rebellion and Battle of Losecoat Field aka Empingham

1470 Earldom of Northumberland returned to the Percy Family

1470 Angers Agreement

1470 Marriage of Edward of Westminster to Anne Neville

1471 Battle of Barnet

1474 Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead

1483 Death of George Neville

Before 1423 [his father] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 and [his mother] Alice Montagu 5th Countess Salisbury 1407-1462 were married (he was her half fourth cousin). He a Great Grand Son of King Edward III England and 3 x Great Grand Son of Philip "The Fair" IV King France. She a 3 x Great Grand Daughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England. She a 4 x Great Grand Daughter of Philip "Bold" III King France.

On 06 Sep 1425 John "Old Talbot" Talbot 1st Earl Shrewsbury 1st Earl Waterford 1383-1453 (42) and [his future sister-in-law] Margaret Beauchamp Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford 1404-1468 (21) were married (he was her second cousin twice removed). She (21) by marriage Baroness Strange Blackmere, Baron Talbot 1C 1331. He a 3 x Great Grand Son of Edward "Longshanks" I King England. She a 4 x Great Grand Daughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England.

Before 09 Sep 1427 Thomas Ros 8th Baron Ros Helmsley 1407-1430 and [his future sister-in-law] Eleanor Beauchamp Duchess Somerset 1408-1468 were married (he was her fourth cousin). She  by marriage Baroness Ros Helmsley. He a 4 x Great Grand Son of Henry III King England. She a 4 x Great Grand Daughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England.

Siege of Orleans

On 03 Nov 1428 Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche 4th Earl Salisbury 1388-1428 (40) died from wounds received at the Siege of Orleans. His daughter [his mother] Alice Montagu 5th Countess Salisbury 1407-1462 (21) succeeded 5th Earl Salisbury 2C 1337, 7th Baron Montagu, 6th Baron Monthermer. [his father] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (28) by marriage 5th Earl Salisbury 2C 1337.

On 22 Nov 1428 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 was born to [his father] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (28) and [his mother] Alice Montagu 5th Countess Salisbury 1407-1462 (21). He a 2 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III England and 4 x Great Grand Son of Philip "The Fair" IV King France.

1434 Neville Beauchamp Marriage Alliance

In 1434 the Beauchamp and Neville families were joined together by two child marriages, siblings from both families, which would have a far reaching effect since Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (5) would eventually become Earl of Warwick. He a 2 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III England and 4 x Great Grand Son of Philip "The Fair" IV King France. He a 2 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III England. He a 4 x Great Grand Son of Philip "The Fair" IV King France.
Henry Beauchamp 1st Duke Warwick 1425-1446 (8) and [his sister] Cecily Neville Duchess Warwick 1424-1450 (10) were married (he was her third cousin) at Titchfield Abbey.
Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (5) and Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick 1426-1492 (7) were married (he was her third cousin).

In 1435 Edmund Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (29) and [his sister-in-law] Eleanor Beauchamp Duchess Somerset 1408-1468 (26) were married (he was her half fourth cousin). He a Great Grand Son of King Edward III England and 3 x Great Grand Son of Philip "The Fair" IV King France. She a 4 x Great Grand Daughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England.

On 30 Apr 1439 Richard Beauchamp 13th Earl Warwick 1382-1439 (57) died at Rouen. He was buried at St Mary's Church Warwick. His son [his brother-in-law] Henry Beauchamp 1st Duke Warwick 1425-1446 (14) succeeded 14th Earl Warwick 1C 1088, 6th Baron Burghesh 2C 1330. [his sister] Cecily Neville Duchess Warwick 1424-1450 (15) by marriage Countess Warwick.

On 04 Feb 1443 [his niece] Anne Beauchamp 15th Countess Warwick 1443-1448 was born to [his brother-in-law] Henry Beauchamp 1st Duke Warwick 1425-1446 (17) and [his sister] Cecily Neville Duchess Warwick 1424-1450 (19) at Cardiff. She a 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III England.
Her subsequent death aged four (her father died when she was aged three) resulted in Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (14) unexpectedly becoming Earl of Warwick by marriage ie by right of his wife [his wife] Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick 1426-1492 (16) who was the younger Anne's Aunt.

In 1445 [his brother-in-law] Henry Beauchamp 1st Duke Warwick 1425-1446 (19) was created 1st Duke Warwick by his third cousin Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (23). [his sister] Cecily Neville Duchess Warwick 1424-1450 (21) by marriage Duchess Warwick.

On 11 Jun 1446 [his brother-in-law] Henry Beauchamp 1st Duke Warwick 1425-1446 (21) died. His daughter [his niece] Anne Beauchamp 15th Countess Warwick 1443-1448 (3) succeeded 15th Earl Warwick 1C 1088, 7th Baron Burghesh 2C 1330. She was buried at Reading Abbey.

Warwick "Kingmaker" Becomes Earl of Warwick

On 03 Jan 1448 [his niece] Anne Beauchamp 15th Countess Warwick 1443-1448 (4) died at Ewelme aged four whilst in the care of Alice Chaucer Duchess Suffolk 1404-1475 (44).
After a prolonged legal dispute between her three half-aunts, and her full aunt, the courts decided her full aunt [his wife] Anne Beauchamp (21) should succeed. Anne Beauchamp (21) succeeded 16th Countess Warwick. Her husband Richard Neville (19) by marriage 16th Earl Warwick 1C 1088; the first step on his journey to becoming Kingmaker.
The decision of the court was not subscribed to by Edmund Beaufort Earl Somerset (42) who was married to Anne's (21) half-sister [his sister-in-law] Eleanor (39); he wanted his share of the considerable Beauchamp inheritance.

In 1449 John_"Butcher_of_England"_Tiptoft (21) and [his sister] Cecily Neville Duchess Warwick 1424-1450 (25) were married (he was her second cousin). Her second marriage; her first husband [his former brother-in-law] Henry Beauchamp 1st Duke Warwick 1425-1446 had died three years earlier - she was a wealthy widow. She died a year later. He a 4 x Great Grand Son of Edward "Longshanks" I King England. She a 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III England. She a 4 x Great Grand Daughter of Philip "The Fair" IV King France.

Before 1450 William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel 1417-1487 and [his sister] Joan Neville Countess Arundel 1423-1462 were married (he was her third cousin). She  by marriage Countess Arundel Sussex. She a 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III England and 4 x Great Grand Daughter of Philip "The Fair" IV King France.

On 28 Jul 1450 [his sister] Cecily Neville Duchess Warwick 1424-1450 (26) died.

On 05 Sep 1451 [his daughter] Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence 1451-1476 was born to Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (22) and [his wife] Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick 1426-1492 (25) at Warwick Castle. She a 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III England.

On 20 Oct 1453 [his brother] John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471, and his brothers [his brother] Thomas Neville 1430-1460 (22) and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (24), met with Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland 1393-1455 (60) and to negotiate peace.

First Battle of St Albans

On 22 May 1455 the Wars of the Roses commenced with the First Battle of St Albans. Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (43) commanded with Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (26), [his father] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (55), Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham 1415-1464 (40) and Walter Strickland 1411-1467 (44).
The Lancastrians ...
Edmund Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (49) was killed. His son Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (19) succeeded 2nd Duke Somerset 2C 1448. Note his father is frequently incorrectly referred to as the second Duke and Henry as the third Duke. His father's Dukedom, however, was a new creation.
Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland 1393-1455 (62) was killed. His son Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (33) succeeded 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1C 1377. Eleanor Poynings Countess Northumberland 1422-1480 (33) by marriage Countess of Northumberland.
Thomas Clifford 8th Baron Clifford 1414-1455 (41) was killed. His son John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (20) succeeded 9th Baron Clifford, 9th Lord Skipton. Margaret Bromflete Baroness Clifford 1436-1493 (19) by marriage Baroness Clifford.
William Cotton 1410-1455 (45) and Richard Fortescue 1414-1455 were killed.
Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham 1402-1460 (52) was wounded and captured.
Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (33), John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 (54) and Edmund Dudley 1425-1483 (30) were captured.
Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (19) was wounded. James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (34) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 fought.

After 25 May 1455 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 was appointed Captain Calais.

On 11 Jun 1456 [his daughter] Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 was born to Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (27) and [his wife] Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick 1426-1492 (29). She a 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III England.

John Neville married Isabel Ingaldsthorpe

On 25 Apr 1457 [his brother] John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 and Isabel Ingaldsthorpe 1441-1476 (16) were married (he was her second cousin once removed) by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (39) at Canterbury Cathedral during the John Neville married Isabel Ingaldsthorpe. He a 2 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III England and 4 x Great Grand Son of Philip "The Fair" IV King France.

Loveday

On 24 Mar 1458 Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (40) presided at Westminster Abbey at a ceremony known as the "Loveday". John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (22), [his father] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (58), Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (29), Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (22), Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (46), Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (36), Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460 (35) and Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England 1430-1482 (28) attended in an attempt to reconcile the Lancastrian and Yorkist factions.

Parliament of the Devils

On 09 Oct 1459 Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 (39) was elected Speaker of the House of Commons at Coventry.  The primary purpose of the Parliament was to attaint the Yorkist leaders:
Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (48), his sons Edward Earl of March (17),Edmund Earl of Rutland (16) were attainted, as were ...
[his father] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (59) and his sons Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (30) and [his brother] John Neville 1431-1471.

Battle of Ludford Bridge

On 12 Oct 1459 the Battle of Ludford Bridge nearly took place at Ludlow. In the event a large number of the Calais garrison led by Andrew Trollope -1461 refused to fight against Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (37) who was present.
The Yorkist Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (48), the future Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (17), Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland 1443-1460 (16), Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (30), [his father] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (59) left overnight before the battle.
John Dynham 1st Baron Dynham 1433-1501 (26) and Thomas Parr 1407-1464 (52) were present.
The Lancastrian army included Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham 1402-1460 (57) and William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel 1417-1487 (41).

1460 January Raid on Sandwich

Patent Rolls Henry VI 1452-1461. Membrane 27d. 30 Oct 1459. Farnham Royal. Commission of array to Richard Wydevyle of Ryvers (54), knight, and the sheriff of Kent in Kent, to resist Richard, duke of York (48), Edward earl of March (17), Richard, earl of Warwick (30), and [his father] Richard, earl of Salisbury (59), and their accomplices, leagued in rebellion against the king and crown and allowed by certain persons having the keeping of the town and castle of Calais to enter the same contrary to the king's mandates, and now preparing to arouse congregations and insur rections in the said county; and appointment of the same to arrest all ships and other vessels late of the said earl of Warwick and all the tackling thereof and to keep the same for the king's use. By K.

Around Nov 1459 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (30), [his father] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (59) and Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (17) fled to Calais.

In Dec 1459 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (31) was attainted.

1460 January Raid on Sandwich

On 15 Jan 1460 Yorkist forces commanded by John Dynham 1st Baron Dynham 1433-1501 (27) and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (31) raided Sandwich capturing a number of Lancastrian ships. In addition, the Woodville family: Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers 1405-1469 (55), his wife Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford 1415-1472 (45) and their son Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (20) were captured.

1460 June Yorkist Landing at Sandwich

On 26 Jun 1460 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (31) landed at Sandwich.

1460 Battle of Northampton

On 10 Jul 1460 the Yorkist army led by the future Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) and including Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (31), [his brother] George Neville Archbishop of York 1432-1476 (28), William Neville 1st Earl Kent 1405-1463 (55), Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent 1416-1490 (43), Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham 1415-1464 (45) and John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope Bolton 1437-1498 (22) defeated the Lancastrian army at the 1460 Battle of Northampton.
Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (38) was captured.
Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham 1402-1460 (57) was killed. His grandson Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (5) succeeded 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1C 1444, 7th Earl Stafford 1C 1351, 8th Baron Stafford 1C 1299.
John Talbot 2nd Earl Shrewsbury 2nd Earl Waterford 1417-1460 (42) was killed. His son John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury 3rd Earl Waterford 1448-1473 (11) succeeded 3rd Earl Shrewsbury 2C 1442, 3rd Earl Waterford, 8th Baron Furnivall 1C 1295, 12th Baron Strange Blackmere 1C 1309, 9th Baron Talbot 1C 1331.
Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460 (37) was killed.
John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont 1409-1460 (50) was killed. His son William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (22) succeeded 2nd Viscount Beaumont, 7th Baron Beaumont.
Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 (40) fought.
William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (22) and William Norreys 1441-1507 (19) were knighted.
Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland -1460 was executed following the battle.

Battle of Wakefield

On 30 Dec 1460 the Lancastrian army took their revenge for the defeats of the First Battle of St Albans and the Battle of Northampton during the Battle of Wakefield at Sandal Castle. The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (30) and Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (39), and included John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 (25) and William Gascoigne 1430-1463 (30), both knighted, and James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40), John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (25), John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1410-1461, Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley 1427-1464 (33), Henry Roos -1504 and Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (20).
The Yorkist army was heavily defeated.
Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (49) was killed. His son Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) succeeded 4th Duke York 1C 1385, 9th Earl Ulster, 3rd Earl Cambridge 3C 1414.
[his brother] Thomas Neville 1430-1460 (29), Thomas Harrington 1400-1460, William Bonville 6th Baron Harington 1442-1460 and Edward Bourchier -1460 were killed. Following the battle [his father] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (60) was beheaded by Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland -1460. William Bonville 1420-1460 (40) was executed. Thomas Parr 1407-1464 (53) fought in the Yorkist army.
Following the battle Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland 1443-1460 (17) was executed on Wakefield by John "Butcher" Clifford (25) by which he gained his sobriquet "Butcher".

In Jan 1461 [his brother] John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 was created 1st Baron Montagu 4C 1461.

Second Battle of St Albans

On 17 Feb 1461 the Lancastrian army defeated the Yorkist army at Second Battle of St Albans and rescued Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (39). The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (30) and included Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (39), John Mowbray 3rd Duke Norfolk 1415-1461 (45), Henry Grey 7th Baron Grey Codnor 1435-1496 (26), Henry Roos -1504 and Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby Eresby 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (33).
Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley 1427-1464 (33), William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme 1415-1464 (46), John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury 3rd Earl Waterford 1448-1473 (12) and Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 (41) were knighted.
The Yorkist army included Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (32), William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel 1417-1487 (43), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 and Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu 1st Earl Essex 1404-1483 (57). [his brother] John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 was captured. Robert Poynings 1419-1461 (42) and James Luttrell Baron Dunster 1427-1461 were killed.
John Grey 1432-1461 (29) was killed fighting for Lancaster. A death that was to have far reaching consequences; his widow Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (24) subsequently married Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18).

During the battle William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville 1392-1461 (68) and Thomas Kyriell 1396-1461 (65) were assigned to the protection of the King Henry VI (39). After the battle both were beheaded against all decent laws of battle.
William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville 1392-1461 (68) was beheaded. His great granddaughter Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset 1460-1529 succeeded 7th Baron Harington, 2nd Baron Bonville.
Thomas Kyriell 1396-1461 (65) was beheaded.

Gregory's Chronicle 1461-1469. Ande the xvij day nexte folowynge Kyng Harry (39) roode to Synt Albonys, and the Duke of Northefolke (45) with hym, the Erle of Warwycke (32), the Erle of Arundelle (43), the [his brother] Lorde Bouser, the Lorde Bonvyle (68), with many grete lordys, knyghtys, and squyers, and commyns of an C [Hundred] Mlmen. And there they hadde a grete batayle whythe the Quene (30), for she come ever on fro the jornaye of Wackefylde tylle sche come to Synt Albonys, with alle the lordys a fore sayde; and hyr mayny and every lorde ys men bare hyr lordys leverey, that every man myghte knowe hys owne feleschippe by hys lyverey. And be-syde alle that, every man and lorde bare the Pryncys (7) levery, that was a bende of crymesyn and blacke with esteryge ys fetherys. The substance that gate that fylde were howseholde men and feyd men. I wene there were not v Mlmen that fought in the Quenys party, for [t]emoste parte of Northeryn men fledde a-way, and sum were take and spoylyd owte of hyr harnysse by the way as they fledde. And sum of them robbyd evyr as they yede, a petyffulle thynge hit ys to hyre hit. But the day before that batayle there was a jornay at Dunstapyl; but the kyngys mayny lackyd good gydyng, for sum were but newe men of warre, for the chevyste captayne was a boucher of the same towne; and there were the kyngys mayny ovyr throughe only by the Northeryn men. And sone aftyr the bocher, for schame of hys sympylle gydynge and loste of the men, the nombyr of viij C, for very sorowe as hyt ys sayde, hynge hym selfe; and sum men sayde that hyt was for loste of hys goode, but dede he ys—God knowythe the trought.

Gregory's Chronicle 1461-1469. Alle soo the xxvj day of Februer nexte folowyng Edwarde Erle of Marche (18) com to London owt of Walys and the Erle of Warwycke (32) with hym, and xl Mlmen with hem bothe, and they enteryd unto the cytte of London, and there he toke uppon hym the crowne of Inglond by the avysse of the lordys spyrytual and temporalle, and by the elexyon of the comyns. And so he be-gan hys rayne the iiij day of Marche, in the yere of oure Lorde God MlCCCC lxj, the Sondy letter D as for that yere.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 12 Mar 1461. Westminster Palace. Commission to the king's kinsman Richard, earl of Warwick (32), to receive deserters from the party of Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (39) and to cause proclamations to be made to the effect, and to seize the possessions of all recusants. By K (18) by word of mouth.

Gregory's Chronicle 1461-1469. The xiij day of Marche the kynge, owre newe Kynge Edwarde (18), toke hys jornaye unto the Northe, and the Duke of Northefolke (45) with hym. The Erle of Warwycke (32) and the Lorde Fauconbrygge (32), with many knyghtes, squyers, and comyns, to the nombyr of ii c Mlmen.

Battles of Ferrybridge

On 27 Mar 1461 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (32) fought at Ferrybridge West Yorkshire with John Radclyffe Baron Fitzwalter 1426-1461 (35) capturing the bridge.
On 28 Mar 1461 a further skirmish occurred near Ferrybridge West Yorkshire. Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (32) fought. John Radclyffe Baron Fitzwalter 1426-1461 (35) was killed. For Lancaster John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (25) and John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1410-1461.
On 28 Mar 1461 John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (25) was killed at Dintingdale West Yorkshire during a skirmish. William Neville 1st Earl Kent 1405-1463 (56) fought for York. His son Henry "Shepherd Lord" Clifford 10th Baron Clifford 1454-1523 (7) succeeded 10th Baron Clifford, 10th Lord Skipton.

Gregory's Chronicle 1461-1469. And the xxviij day of Marche, that was [t]ePalme Sunday evyn, the Lorde Fewater (35) was slayne at Ferybryge, and many with (fn. 6) hym was slayne and drownyd. And the Erle of Warwycke (32) was hurte yn hys legge with an arowe at the same jornaye.

After 28 Mar 1461 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 was appointed 181st Knight of the Garter by his half second cousin Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 07 May 1461. Middleham Castle. The like (Grant for life) to the said earl (32) of the office of Master of the King's Mews and Falcons and a messuage called 'le Mewehous' at Charryng by Westminster, co Middlesex, with all houses and other profits pertaining to the same, in the same manner as John, duke of Bedford, deceased; and appointment of him to take the king's right prises of falcons, goshawks, sakers, sakrets, lanners, lannerets and ger-falcons sold within the realm, paying the accustomed price viz 20s for each tercel of goshawk, saker, lanner or lanneret. By other latters patent.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 07 May 1461. Middleham Castle. Appointment for life of the said earl (32) as great chamberlain of England, with the accustomed fees. By other latters patent.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 07 May 1461. Middleham Castle. The like (Grant for life) to the said earl (32) of the offices of steward of the manor or lordship of Fekenham, co Worcester, and master forester and rider of the kings forst of Fekenham with the custody of the king's park of Fekenham and the stank there, with the accustomed fees. By other latters patent.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 07 May 1461. Middleham Castle. Grant to the king's (19) kinsman Richard, earl of Warwick (32), of the custody of all lordships, manors and lands with knight's fees and advowsons held by the king's uncle George Neville (54), knight, lord Latymer, within the county of York or elsewhere, during the idiotcy of the latter, even though no inquisition has been taken. By other letters patent.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 07 May 1461. Middleham Castle. Grant for life to the king's kinsman Richard (32), earl of Warwick, of the office of constable of the king's castle of Dover, and al rents and services called 'castelwarde', and herbage and advowsons pertaining to the same, and the wardenship of the Cinque Ports and all forfeitures, 'shares', wreck of sea and other profits; and also 300l yearly for the sustenances of himself and priests, servants, watchmen, and other officers there, in the same manner as Humphey, late Duke of Gloucester, viz 146l frin the wards pertaining to the castle and 154l from the fee farm of the town of Southampton. By other latters patent.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 03 Dec 1461. Westminster Palace. Appointment of the king's (19) kinsman Richard, earl of Warwick (33), to execute the office of steward of England at the trial of Henry VI and other rebels who murdered the King's father Richard, duke of York, at Wakefield.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1462. 26 Jun 1462. Westminster Palace. Licence for the king's kinsman Richard, earl of Warwick and Salisbury (33), to grant castles, manors, lordships, lands, rents and services, of the yearly value of 1,000/., held in chief, although the reversion of the same may belong to the crown on his death without issue, to George, bishop of Exeter, John, earl of Worcester, John Markham, Robert Dauby, Walter Blounte, James Strangwais, Walter Wrottesley, knights, Thomas Witham (42), Thomas Colte, Henry Sotehill (44) and William Kelsy in fee simple to pay his debts and fulfil his will alter his de»th. By K.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1462. 26 Jun 1462. Westminster Palace. Appointment of W. archbishop of York, Richard, earl of Warwick (33), John Neville of Muntague, knight, Robert Danby, knight, Robert Constable, knight, the mayor of York, Thomas Wytham (42), Brian Rouclyff, Henry Sotehill (44), Guy Fairefax, John Grenefeld, Richard Pygote, Henry Thwaites, Nicholas Girlyiigton, John Wencelagh, John Thirske, Nicholas Holgate, John Marton, William Bradford and John Shirwode as justices of the survey and custody of the rivers in the county of York pursuant to the statutes of 24 Edward III., 4o Edward III., and 1 Henry IV., concerning the erection of weirs, mills, stanks, pales and kiddles.

On 09 Sep 1462 [his sister] Joan Neville Countess Arundel 1423-1462 (39) died.

Warwick becomes Kingmaker

Before 09 Dec 1462 [his mother] Alice Montagu 5th Countess Salisbury 1407-1462 died. Her son Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 succeeded 6th Earl Salisbury 2C 1337, 8th Baron Montagu, 7th Baron Monthermer adding to the earldom of Warwick he had already acquired through his wife some fourteen years previously. The combined earldoms of Warwick and Salisbury made Warwick the second most powerful man in the Kingdom making him Kingmaker.

On 28 Feb 1463 John Lovell 8th Baron Lovel 5th Baron Holand 1433-1463 (30) died. On 28 Feb 1463 His son Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell 1456-1488 (7) succeeded 9th Baron Lovel of Titchmarsh, 6th Baron Holand at around eight years of age. He became a ward of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (20) who gave his wardship to Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (34) spending his childhood at Middleham Castle with the young (future) Richard III King England 1452-1485 (10).

1463 Siege of Norham Castle

Around Jun 1463 a Scottish and Lancastrian force, including James III King Scotland 1451-1488 (11), his mother Mary of Guelders Queen Consort Scotland 1434-1463 (29), Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (41) and his wife Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England 1430-1482 (33), laid siege to Norham Castle. They held Norham for eighteen days until a force led by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (34) and his brother [his brother] John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 advanced to Norham Castle at which time the Scottish and Lancastrian force fled in panic pursued by the Yorkist army. Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England 1430-1482 (33) and her son Edward of Westinster Prince of Wales 1453-1471 (9) escaped to Berwick on Tweed and then to the continent. Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (41) remained in Scotland - he and his wife never saw each other again.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1463. 23 Jun 1463. Inspeximus and confirmation to the mayor, bailiffs and burgesses of Clyfton, Dertmuth and Hardenesse of (1) letters patent dated 14 December, 2 Richard II. inspecting and confirming a charter dated at the Tower of London, 14 April, 15 Edward III. [Charter Roll, 15 Edward III. No. 18,] and (2) a charter dated at Westminster, 5 November, 17 Richard II. [Charter Noll, 15-17 Richard II. No. 10]; and grant that the adjoining township of Southtouudertemouth shall henceforth be annexed to the said borough of Cliftondertemouth Hardenasse, in consideration of the fact that the burgesses keep watches against invaders on the confines of the township and beyond at a place called 'Galions Boure' but the inhabitants of the township contribute nothing because they do not enjoy the liberties of the borough. Th« mayor and bailiffs shall have return of writs and execu- tion thereof within the said township and the liberty of the borough, saving always the right of the lord of the fee of the township, and all pleas real and personal and attachments and fines and amercements, and also view of frauk-pledge and all that peitains to it. And they may acquire, in mortmain, after inquisition, lands, tenements, rents and other possessions, not held in chief, to the value of 201. yearly. Witnesses: Th. archbishop of Canterbury (45), W. archbishop of York, [his brother] G. bishop of Exeter (31), the chancellor, J. bishop of Carlisle, the king's brothers George, duke of Clarence (13), and Richard, duke of Gloucester (10), the king's kinsmen Richard, earl of Warwick (34), and John, earl of Worcester (36), treasurer of England, Robert Styllyngton (43), king's clerk, keeper of the privy seal, and William Hastynges of Hastynges (32), the king's chamberlain, and John Wenlok of Wenlok, knights.

Battle of Hexham

On 27 May 1464 [his brother] John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 was created 1st Earl of Northumberland 3C 1464 as a reward for successfully suppressing the Lancastrian resistance in the North. The Ealdom of Northumberland traditionally held by the Percy family with whom the Neville family had been feuding for generations.

Edward IV announces his marriage at Privy Council

In Sep 1464 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (22) announced his recent marriage at Privy Council to the astonishment of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (35) who had until recently been actively seeking a French Princess as Edward's future wife.

On 17 Feb 1466 [his nephew] Thomas Fitzalan 17th Earl Arundel 1450-1524 (16) and Margaret Woodville Countess Arundel 1454-1490 (12) were married. He a 3 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III England.

On 06 Mar 1468 [his sister-in-law] Eleanor Beauchamp Duchess Somerset 1408-1468 (59) died at Baynard's Castle.

Skirmish of Southampton

Before 10 May 1468 John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 sat in judgement on the Earl of Warwick's men who had attempted to steal the ship Trinity for the Earl of Warwick. In addition to the usual punishment of hanging, drawing and quartering Tiptoft also subjected the men's corpses to being impaled, perhaps unique in English punishments, but usual for pirates in Europe. His actions were described as cruel and unmerited by the common people and resulted in Tiptoft being known as 'Butcher'.

On 14 Jun 1468 [his sister-in-law] Margaret Beauchamp Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford 1404-1468 (64) died.

Marriage of Charles the Bold and Margaret of York

Before 03 Jul 1468 Charles "Bold" Valois Burgundy Duke Burgundy 1433-1477 and Margaret Duchess of Burgundy 1446-1503 were married (he was her half second cousin) at Bruges. He a 2 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III England and 2 x Great Grand Son of John "The Good" II King France. She a 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III England. She a 4 x Great Grand Daughter of Philip "The Fair" IV King France.
John Paston 1444-1504 and John Scott Comptroller 1423-1485 travelled with Margaret. The marriage re-enforced Edward's connection with the Low Countries. After Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 rebelled against Edward IV King England 1442-1483 escaped to the Low Countries.

Marriage of George Duke of Clarence and Isabel Neville

On 11 Jul 1469 George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (19) and [his daughter] Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence 1451-1476 (17) were married (he was her first cousin once removed) by [his brother] George Neville Archbishop of York 1432-1476 (37) at the Église Notre-Dame de Calais in Calais witnessed by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (40). She (17) by marriage Duchess Clarence. He a 2 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III England and 4 x Great Grand Son of Philip "The Fair" IV King France. She a 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III England.

Execution of the Woodvilles

On 12 Aug 1469 Woodvilles father and son were beheaded at Kenilworth Castle by supporters of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (40).
Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers 1405-1469 (64) was beheaded. His son Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (29) succeeded 2nd Earl Rivers 1C 1466. Elizabeth Scales Countess Rivers -1473 by marriage Countess Rivers.
John Woodville 1445-1469 (24) was beheaded.

On 10 Sep 1469 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (27) was released by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (40) afer Warwick realised he didn't have sufficient support for an alternative regime.

Execution of the Neville Brothers

On 29 Sep 1469 brothers Humphrey Neville of Brancepeth (30) and Charles Neville of Brancepeth were beheaded at York in the presence of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (27) and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (40) bringing to an end the Neville-Neville fued that arose as a consequence of the senior line being dis-inherited.

Welles' Rebellion and Battle of Losecoat Field aka Empingham

On 12 Mar 1470 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (27) commanded at the Battle of Losecoat Field (Empingham). The battle apparently didn't take place since the army of Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby Eresby 8th Baron Welles -1470 fled in the face of the Royal army. The name 'Losecoat' not contemporary; Battle of Empingham may be. Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby Eresby 8th Baron Welles -1470 was captured with documents describing the fomenting of rebellion by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (41) and George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (20).

Earldom of Northumberland returned to the Percy Family

On 27 Mar 1470 [his nephew] George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (9) was created 1st Duke Bedford 3C 1470 by his first cousin once removed Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (27) in preparation for his marriage to Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (4) which didn't, in the end, take place. He, George, was nephew to Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (41) whose defection to the Lancastrian side may have caused the King to change his mind about his daughter's marriage. The attainder of John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471, if it was enacted, would have resulted in the King appropriating the estate of John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471. Eight

Around 1675 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500.

On 27 Mar 1470 [his brother] John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 revoked his title of Earl of Northumberland 3C 1464 so that the Earldom could be given to Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland 1449-1489 (21) of the Percy family who were its traditional holders. A deeply unpopular move with the Neville family who had been longstanding enemies of the Percies in the North. He was created 1st Marquess Montagu instead. Possibly a consequence of the defection of Warwick the Kingmaker (41) to the Lancastrian cause as evidenced by the Welles Rebellion earlier in the year.

Angers Agreement

On 22 Jul 1470 Warwick the Kingmaker (41), Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (48) and Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England 1430-1482 (40) signed the Angers Agreement at Angers Cathedral. The agreement had been brokered by King Louis XI of France (47). Edward of Westinster Prince of Wales 1453-1471 (16) and [his daughter] Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (14) were betrothed as part of the Agreement.

Marriage of Edward of Westminster to Anne Neville

On 13 Dec 1470 Edward of Westinster Prince of Wales 1453-1471 (17) and [his daughter] Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (14) were married (he was her half third cousin) at Angers Cathedral. Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (14) was appointed Princess Wales. He a Son of Henry VI King England II King France and Son of Henry VI King England II King France. She a 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III England.

Battle of Barnet

On 14 Apr 1471 Edward IV (28) commanded at the Battle of Barnet supported by his brothers George (21) and Richard (18), John Babington 1423-1485 (48), Wiliam Hastings (40) (commanded), Ralph Hastings -1495, William Norreys 1441-1507 (30), William Parr KG 1434-1483 (37), John Savage 1422-1495 (49), Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (31), John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley Heighley 3rd Baron Tuchet 1426-1490 (45), Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh 1431-1496 (40), John Scott Comptroller 1423-1485 (48) and Thomas Strickland -1494.
The Yorkists William Blount -1471, Humphrey Bourchier 1431-1471, Humphrey Bourchier 1435-1471 and Thomas Parr -1471 were killed. Henry Stafford 1425-1471 (46) was killed making his wife Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (27) a widow for the second time.
The Lancastrians Warwick the Kingmaker (42), [his brother] John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 and William Tyrrell -1471 were killed.
William Fiennes 2nd Baron Saye and Sele 1428-1471 (43) was killed. His son Henry Fiennes 3rd Baron Saye and Sele 1446-1476 (25) succeeded 3rd Baron Saye and Sele. Anne Harcourt Baroness Saye and Sele by marriage Baroness Saye and Sele.
Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (40) commanded the left flank, was badly wounded and left for dead, Henry Stafford 1425-1471 (46) and John Paston 1444-1504 (27) were wounded, John Vere 13th Earl Oxford 1442-1513 (28) commanded, and John Paston 1442-1479 (29) and William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (33) fought.
Robert Harleston 1435-1471 (36) was killed.
Thomas Hen Salusbury 1409-1471 (62) was killed.
Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 (51) escaped but was subsequently captured and executed on 06 May 1471.

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525. Portrait of Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 in the Masters Lodge St John's College. Commissioned by John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535. Note the Beaufort Arms on the wall beneath which is the Beafort Portcullis. Repeated in the window. She is wearing widow's clothes, or possibly that of a convent; Gabled Headress with Lappets. On 29 Mar 2019, St John's College, Cambridge, which she founded, announced the portrait was original work by Wewyck.

After 14 Apr 1471 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 was buried at Bisham Priory Bisham.

Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead

In 1474 Parliament declared [his wife] Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick 1426-1492 (47) legally dead (she lived until 1492) so that Edward IV's (31) two younger brothers George (24) and the Richard (21), who had married Anne Beauchamp's (47) daughters, [his daughter] Isabel (22) and [his daughter] Anne (17) respectively, could enjoy the significant Beauchamp inheritance after her husband Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 had been killed at the Battle of Barnet in 1471.
Some of the inhertance should have been given to [his nephew] George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (13) but he was only thirteen at the time; his father [his brother] John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471, younger brother of Warwick the Kingmaker, had also been killed at the Battle of Barnet. He, George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (13), died in 1483 aged twenty-one somewhat conveniently after the death of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (31) and before Richard III King England 1452-1485 (21) acceded to the throne. Curiously the Act of Parliament described Richard III King England 1452-1485 (21) enjoying the inheritance as long as there were Neville living heirs male. Upon the death of George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (13) the Neville heir male was Richard Neville 2nd Baron Latimer Snape 1468-1530 (6) born 1468 whose wardship was held by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (56).

Parliament Rolls.Edward IV Oct 1472.Second Roll. 06 Jun 1474. Westminster Palace. Exemplification at the request of Richard Duke of Gloucester (21), of the tenour of an act (English) in the Parliament summoned at Westminster, 6 October, 12 Edward IV, and continued to 9 May, 14 Edward IV, ordaining that George Duke Clarence (24), and [his daughter] Isabel (22) his wife and Richard Duke of Gloucester, and [his daughter] Anne (17) his wife, daughters and heirs to Richard Nevyle, late Earl of Warwick, and daughters and heirs apparent to [his wife] Anne Beauchamp (47), his wife should possess and enjoy as in the right of the said wives all possessions belonging to the said Countess as though she were naturally dead and that she should be barred and excluded therefrom, that they should make partition of the premises and the same partition should be good in law, that the said Dukes should enjoy for life all the possessions of their wives if they should outlive the latter, that the said George (24) and Isabel (22) should not make any alienation, grant, fine or recovery of any of the premises to the hurt of the said Richard (21) and Anne (17) or the latter to the hurt of the former, that if the said Richard and Anne be divorced and afterwards married this Act should hold good, that if they be divorced and he do his effectual diligence to be married to her and during her life be not wedded to any other woman he should enjoy as much of the premises as should appertain to her during his life, and that notwithstanding the restraint of alienation or recovery above specified the lordship, manor and wappentake of Chesterfield and Scarvesdale with the appurtenances and all the lands and tenements in Chesterfield and Scarvesdale sometime of [his mother] Ales, late Countess of Salisbury, might be given to the King and his heirs in exchange for other lands and tenements, which shall however be subject of this Act.Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead.

Death of George Neville

On 04 May 1483 [his nephew] George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (22) died. He being the son of [his brother] John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471, the nephew of Warwick the Kingmaker who should, perhaps, have inherited the Earldoms of Warwick and Salisbury from his mother that had been appropriated by George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (22) and Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30). The timing somewhat suspicious. The future Richard III would now enjoy the whole of the Warwick inheritance.

On 20 Sep 1492 [his wife] Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick 1426-1492 (66) died.

Gregory's Chronicle 1461-1469. Ande thys same yere a-boute Crystysmas that fals Duke of Somersett, with owte any leve of the kyng, stale owte of Walys with a prevy mayny towarde the Newecastelle, for he and hys men were confeteryde for to have be-trayde the sayde Newecastelle. And in [t]ewey thedyrwarde he was aspyde, and lyke to have ben takyn be syde Dereham in hys bedde. Notwithstondynge he a schapyde a-way in hys schyrt and barefote, and ij of hys men were take. And they toke with hem that fals dukys caskette and hys harneys. And whenn that hys men knewe that he was aschapyd, and hys fals treson aspyde, hys men stale from the Newecastelle as very fals traytourys, and sum of hem were take and loste hyr heddys for hyr labur, &c.
Ande thenn the kynge, owre soverayne lorde Edward the iiij, hadde knowleche of hys fals dysposyscyon of thys fals Duke Harry of Somersett. The kynge sende a grete feleschippe of hys housolde men to kepe the towne of Newecastelle, and made the Lorde Scrope of Bolton captayne of the towne; and soo they kepte hyt surely alle that wyntyr. Ande a-boute Ester nexte aftyr the Schottys sewyd unto oure soverayne lorde the kynge for pes. And the kynge ordaynyde Commyssourys to mete whythe [t]e Schottys. The names of the Commyssyonourys be wretyn here aftyr folowyng: The [his brother] Chaunceler of Ingelond, the [his brother] Lorde Montegewe, the Erle of Warwycke, and many othyr for the Eng lysche partye, to brynge hyt to a conclusyon.

The History of King Richard the Third. The Duchess, with these words nothing appeased, and seeing the King so set thereon that she could not pull him back, so highly she disdained it that under pretext of her duty to God, she devised to disturb this marriage, and rather to help that he should marry one Dame Elizabeth Lucy, whom the King had also not long before gotten with child. Wherefore the King's mother objected openly against his marriage, as it were in discharge of her conscience, that the King was betrothed to Dame Elizabeth Lucy, and her husband before God. By reason of which words, such obstacle was made in the matter that either the bishops dared not, or the King would not, proceed to the solemnizing of this wedding till these same matters were clearly purged and the truth well and openly testified.
Whereupon Dame Elizabeth Lucy was sent for. And although she was by the King's mother and many others filled with good encouragement—to affirm that she was betrothed unto the King—yet when she was solemnly sworn to say the truth, she confessed that they were never betrothed. However, she said his Grace spoke so loving words unto her that she verily hoped he would have married her, and that if it had not been for such kind words, she would never have showed such kindness to him, to let him so kindly get her with child.
This examination solemnly taken, when it was clearly perceived that there was no impediment, the King, with great feast and honorable solemnity, married Dame Elizabeth Gray and her crowned queen that was his enemy's wife, who many times had prayed full heartily for his loss. In which God loved her better than to grant her petition.
But when the Earl of Warwick understood of this marriage, he took it so highly that his embassy was deceived by mockery that, for very anger and disdain, he assembled a great power against the King at his return, and came so fast upon him, before he could be able to resist, that the King was glad to leave the realm and flee into Holland for assistance, where he remained for the space of two years, leaving his new wife in Westminster in sanctuary, where she was delivered of Edward the Prince, of whom we before have spoken. In the meantime, the Earl of Warwick took out of prison and set up again Henry the Sixth, who was before by King Edward deposed and that, much by the power of the Earl of Warwick, who was a wise man and a courageous warrior and of such strength—what for his lands, his alliances, and favor with all the people—that he made kings and put down kings almost at his pleasure; and it was not impossible to have attained the crown himself, if he had not reckoned it a greater thing to make a king than to be a king. But nothing lasts always, for, in conclusion, King Edward returned, and with much less number than Warwick had, at Barnet on the Easter Day field, slew the Earl of Warwick with many other great lords of that party, and so stably attained the crown again that he peaceably enjoyed it until his dying day; and in such plight he left the crown that it could not be lost but by the discord of his very friends, or falsehood of his feigned friends.
I have rehearsed this business about this marriage somewhat the more at length because it might thereby the better appear how slippery a ground the Protector built his pretext, by which he pretended King Edward's children to be bastards. But that invention, simple as it was, it liked them to whom it sufficed to have something to say, while they were sure to be compelled to no larger proof than they themselves pleased to make.

Gregory's Chronicle 1461-1469. There the Erle of Warwycke informyd hym of the gydynge and dysposyscyon of Kyng Harry, and of the Quene, and of the love and favyr that the comyns hadde unto hym, and by ryght to occupy the crowne of Inglonde, and soo hys hert was sum what made gladde and comfortyd. But he was sory that he was soo pore, for he hadde no mony, but the substance of hys mayny come at hyr owne coste.

Gregory's Chronicle 1461-1469. But within schorte tyme aftyr the sayde Syr Raffe Percy by fals colysyon and treson he lete the Fraynysche men take the castelle of Bamborowe fro hym nolens volo [Note. voluntarily]. As for the castelle of Anwyke alle the men of werre that were of worschip brake owte of the castelle by fors and warre and rescuyd Syr Perys de Brasylle (fn. 9) on xij day by [v] (fn. 9) the morne, and they that were with yn the castelle gaffe hit uppe by a-poyntement, &c. And then Kyng Edward made Syr John Ascheley, the knyght that fought so manly in Smethefylde with an alyon that calengyd, he was made captayne of the castelle, and Syr Raffe Gray constabylle of the sayde castelle of Anwycke. And withyn iij or iiij monythys aftyr that fals knyght and traytoure, Syr Raffe Graye, by fals treson toke the sayde Syr John Ascheley presoner, and delyveryd hym to Quene Margarete, and thenn delyveryde the castelle to the Lorde Hungerforde and unto the Fraynysche men accompanyd whythe hym; and by thys mene he put the kyng owre soverayne lorde owte of possessyon. And thenne aftyr that come Kyng Harry that was, and the Quene to the Kynge of Schottys, Syr Perys de Brasylle, (fn. 9) with iiijxxMl Schottys, and layde a sege unto the castelle of Norham, and lay there xviij dayes. And thenn my Lorde of Warwycke and hys brother the [his brother] Lorde Montegewe put them in devyr to rescewe [t]e sayde castelle of Norham, and soo they dyd, and put bothe Kynge Harry and the Kyng of Schotys to flyghte. And Quene Margarete whythe alle hir consayle, and Syr Perys de Brasey whythe the Fraynysche men, fledde a-wey by water with iiij balynggarys; and they londyd at the Scluse in Flaundyrs, and lefte Kyng Harry that was be hynde hem, and alle hyr hors and hyr harneys, they were so hastyd by my Lorde of Warwycke, and hys brother the Lorde Mountegewe, and by hyr feleschippe with them accompanyde. And at the departynge of Syr Perys de Brasyl and hys feleschippe was on manly man that purposyd to mete with my Lorde of Warwycke, that was a taberette, for he stode a-pon an hylle with hys tabyr and hys pype, taberyng and pyping as merely as any man myght, stondyng by hym selfe, tylle my lorde come unto hym he wold not lesse hys grownd; and there he be-come my lordys man; ande yet he ys with hym fulle good and to hys lorde.

Gregory's Chronicle 1461-1469. And in the myddys of the batayle Kynge Harry wente unto hys Quene and for-soke alle hys lordys, ande truste better to hyr party thenne unto hys owne lordys. And thenn thoroughe grete labur the Duke of Northefolke and the Erle of Warwycke a schapyd a-waye; the [his brother] Byschoppe of Exceter, that tyme Chaunceler of Ingelond, and brother unto the Erle of Warwycke, the [his brother] Lorde Bouser, whythe many othyr knyghtys, squyers, and comyns fledde, and many men slayne in bothe partys. And the Lorde Bonevyle was be-heddyd, the comyn sayynge that hys longage causyd hym to dye. The Prynce was jugge ys owne sylfe. Ande ther was slayne that manly knyght Syr Thomas Keryel. The nomber of ded men was xxxv C an moo [t]at were slayne. The lordys in Kyng Harrys party pycchyd a fylde and fortefyd hyt fulle stronge, and lyke unwyse men brake hyr raye and fyld and toke a-nothyr, and or that they were alle sette a buskyd to batayle, the Quenys parte was at hond whythe hem in towne of Synt Albonys, and then alle [t]yng was to seke and owte of ordyr, for hyr pryckyers come not home to bryng no tydyng howe ny that the Quene was, save one come and sayd that she was ix myle of. And ar the goners and borgeners couthe levylle hyr gonnys they were besely fyghtyng, and many a gynne of wer was ordaynyd that stode in lytylle a-vayle or nought; for the burgeners hadde suche instrumentys that wolde schute bothe pellettys of ledde and arowys of an elle of lenghthe with vj fetherys, iij in myddys and iij at the othyr ende, with a grete myghty hedde of yryn at the othyr ende, and wylde fyre with alle. Alle thes iij thyngys they myght schute welle and esely at onys, but in tyme of nede they couthe not schut not one of thes, but the fyre turnyd backe a-pon them that wold schute thys iij thyngys. Also they hadde nettys made of grete cordys of iiij fethem of lengthe and of iiij fote brode, lyke unto an haye, and at every ij knott there was an nayl stondyng uppe ryght, that there couthe no man passe ovyr hyt by lyckely hode but he shulde be hurte. Alle so they hadde pavysse bore as a dore i-made with a staffe foldynge uppe and downe to sette the pavys where the lykyd, and loupys with schyttyng wyndowys to schute owte at, they stondyng by hynde [t]e pavys, and the pavys as fulle of iijdnayle aftyr ordyr as they myght stonde. And whenn hyr schotte was spende and done they caste the pavysse by-fore hem, thenn there myght noo man come unto them ovyr the pavysse for the naylys that stode up-ryghte, but yf he wolde myschyffe hym sylfe. Alle so they hadde a thynge made lyke unto a latysse fulle of naylys as the net was, but hit wolde be mevyd as a man wolde; a man myght bryse hyt to-gedyr that the lengythe wolde be more then ij yerdys long, and yf he wolde he myght hale hyt a brode, thenn hit wolde be iiij square. And that servyd to lye at gappys there at horsemen wolde entyr yn, and many a caltrappe. And as the substaunce of men of worschyppe that wylle not glose nor cory favyl for no parcyallyte, they cowthe not undyrstond that alle thys ordenaunce dyd any goode or harme but yf hyt were a mong us in owre parte with Kyng Harry. There fore hyt ys moche lefte, and men take hem to mallys of ledde, bowys, swyrdys, gleyvys, and axys. As for speremen they ben good to ryde be-fore the foote men and ete and drynke uppe hyr vetayle, and many moo suche prety thyngys they doo, holde me excusyd thoughe I say the beste, for in the fote men ys alle the tryste.

The History of King Richard the Third. Now was it so devised by the Protector and his Council that the same day in which the Lord Chamberlain was beheaded in the Tower of London, and about the same hour, was there—not without his assent—beheaded at Pomfret the before mentioned lords and knights that were taken from the King at Northampton and Stony Stratford. Which thing was done in the presence and by the order of Sir Richard Radcliff, knight, whose service the Protector specially used in the Council and in the execution of such lawless enterprises, as a man that had been long secret with him, having experience of the world and a shrewd wit, short and rude in speech, rough and boisterous of behavior, bold in mischief, as far from pity as from all fear of God. This knight, bringing them out of the prison to the scaffold, and showing to the people about that they were traitors, not suffering them to speak and declare their innocence lest their words might have inclined men to pity them and to hate the Protector and his part, caused them hastily, without judgment, process, or manner of order to be beheaded, and without other earthly guilt, but only that they were good men, too true to the King and too close to the Queen.
Now when the Lord Chamberlain and these other lords were thus beheaded and rid out of the way, then thought the Protector that, while men mused what the matter meant, while the lords of the realm were about him out of their own strengths, while no man knew what to think nor whom to trust, before ever they should have space to dispute and digest the matter and make parties, it were best hastily to pursue his purpose and put himself in possession of the crown, before men could have time to devise any ways to resist. But now was all the study by what means this matter, being of itself so heinous, might be first broken to the people, in such a way that it might be well taken. To this counsel, they took diverse opinions, such as those thought suitable to be trusted, likely to be induced to the part, and able to stand them in position, either by power or policy.
Among whom, they made of counsel Edmund Shaa, knight, then Mayor of London, who upon trust of his own advancement, whereof he was of a proud heart highly desirous, should frame the city to their appetite. Of clergy men they took such as had intelligence and were in authority among the people for opinion of their learning, and had no scrupulous conscience.
Among these had they John Shaa, clerk, brother to the Mayor, and Friar Penker, Provincial of the Augustine Friars, both doctors of divinity, both great preachers, both of more learning than virtue, of more fame than learning. For they were before greatly esteemed among the people, but after that never.
Of these two, the one had a sermon in praise of the Protector before the coronation, the other after; both so full of tedious flattery that no man's ears could abide them. Penker in his sermon so lost his voice that he was glad to leave off and come down in the midst. Doctor Shaa by his sermon lost his honesty and soon after his life, for very shame of the world, into which he dared never after come abroad. But the friar cared not for shame, and so it harmed him the less. However, some doubt and many think that Penker was not of counsel of the matter before the coronation, but after the common manner fell to flattery afterwards; namely, because his sermon was not immediately after it, but at Saint Mary's Hospital on the Easter after. But certain is it that Doctor Shaa was of counsel in the beginning so far forth that they determined he should first break the matter in a sermon at Paul's Cross, in which he should, by the authority of his preaching, incline the people to the Protector's ghostly purpose.
But now was all the labor and study in the device of some appropriate pretext for which the people should be content to depose the Prince and accept the Protector for king, for which diverse things they devised. But the chief thing, and the most weighty of all that invention, rested in this: they should allege bastardy, either in King Edward himself, or in his children, or both, so that he should seem unable to inherit the crown by the Duke of York, and the Prince by him. To lay bastardy in King Edward sounded openly to the rebuke of the Protector's own mother, who was mother to them both; for in that point could be none other color, but to pretend that his own mother was one adulteress, which, not withstanding, to further his purpose he omitted not; but nevertheless, he would the point should be less and more favorably handled, not even fully plain and directly, but that the matter should be touched upon, craftily, as though men spared, in that point, to speak all the truth for fear of his displeasure. But the other point, concerning the bastardy that they devised to surmise in King Edward's children, that would he be openly declared and enforced to the uttermost. The color and pretext whereof cannot be well perceived but if we first repeat to you some things long before done about King Edward's marriage.
After King Edward the Fourth had deposed King Henry the Sixth and was in peaceful possession of the realm, determining himself to marry, as it was requisite both for himself and for the realm, he sent over in embassy the Earl of Warwick with other noble men in his company unto Spain to entreat and conclude a marriage between King Edward and the king's daughter of Spain. In which thing the Earl of Warwick found the parties so toward and willing that he speedily, according to his instructions, without any difficulty brought the matter to a very good conclusion.
Now it happened in the meanwhile that there came to make a suit by petition to the King, Dame Elizabeth Gray, who was after his Queen, at that time a widow born of noble blood, specially by her mother, who was Duchess of Bedford before she married the Lord Woodville, Elizabeth's father. However, this Dame Elizabeth, herself being in service with Queen Margaret, wife unto King Henry the Sixth, was married unto one John Gray, a squire, whom King Henry made knight upon the battlefield where he had fought on Shrove Tuesday at Saint Albans against King Edward. And little while enjoyed he that knighthood, for he was at the same field slain. After he had died, and the Earl of Warwick being in his embassy about the before mentioned marriage, this poor lady made humble suit unto the King that she might be restored unto such small lands as her late husband had given her during their marriage. Whom when the King beheld and heard her speak, as she was both fair, of a good favor, moderate of stature, well made and very wise, he not only pitied her, but also grew enamored with her. And taking her afterward secretly aside, began to enter into talking more familiarly. Whose appetite, when she perceived it, she virtuously denied him. But that did she so wisely, and with so good manner, and words so well set, that she rather kindled his desire than quenched it. And finally after many a meeting, much wooing, and many great promises, she well spied the King's affection toward her so greatly increased that she dared somewhat the more boldly say her mind, as to him whose heart she perceived more firmly set than to fall off for a word. And in conclusion she showed him plain that as she knew herself too simple to be his wife, so thought she herself too good to be his concubine. The King, much marveling at her constancy, as he that had not been wont elsewhere to be so stiffly told nay, so much esteemed her continence and chastity that he set her virtue in the place of possession and riches. And thus taking counsel of his desire, determined in all possible haste to marry her. And after he was thus resolved, and there had between them an agreement been assured, then asked he counsel of his other friends, and in such manner, as they might easily perceive it remedied not greatly to say nay.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 when Duke of York.Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Samuel Pepys' Diary 24 March 1666.Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701.

The History of King Richard the Third. Notwithstanding, the Duchess of York, his mother, was so sore moved therewith that she argued against the marriage as much as she possibly might, alleging that it was in his honor, profit, and surety also, to marry in a noble progeny out of his realm, whereupon depended great strength to his estate by the affinity and great possibility of increase of his possessions, and that he could not well otherwise do because the Earl of Warwick had so far moved already, who was not likely to take it well, if all his voyage were in such ways frustrated and his agreements dashed. And she said also that it was not princely to marry his own subject, no great occasion leading thereunto, no possessions, or other commodities depending thereupon, but only, as it were, a rich man that would marry his maid only for a little wanton dotage upon her person. In which marriage many more commend the maiden's fortune than the master's wisdom. And yet therein she said was more honesty than honor in this marriage, forasmuch as there is between no merchant and his own maid so great difference, as between the King and this widow. In whose person, although there was nothing to be disliked, "yet was there," she said, "nothing so excellent, but it might be found in diverse others that were more suitable," said she, "for your estate, and maidens also, whereas the widowhood of Elizabeth Gray alone, though she were in all other things convenient for you, should yet suffice, it seems to me, to restrain you from marriage, since it is an improper thing and a very blemish and high disparagement to the sacred majesty of a prince, who ought as nigh to approach priesthood in purity as he does in dignity, to be defouled with bigamy in his first marriage."

Battle of Wakefield

Gregory's Chronicle 1461-1469. Then come tydyngys of the comynge of [t]e (fn. 5) Erle of Marche unto London; thenn alle the cytte were fayne, and thonkyd God, and sayde that
He that had Londyn for sake
Wolde no more to hem take,
and sayde, "Lette us walke in a newe wyne yerde, and lette us make us a gay gardon in the monythe of Marche with thys fayre whyte ros and herbe, the Erle of Marche." And the Erle of Warwycke mette with the Erle of Marche by-syde Oxforde, x myle owte of hit, at a towne of hys owne i-namyd Burford a-pon the Wolde; for the Erle of Marche come fro Walys, and was fulle sore a-ferde of the loste of the ij fyldys that were loste by-fore, Wakefylde that one, and Synt Albonys that othyr, and he sorowde sore for hys fadyr the Duke of Yorke, and for hys good brother the Erle of Rutlond, and for alle othyr lordys and comyns, &c.