Before 1423 [his father] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 and Alice Montagu 5th Countess Salisbury 1407-1462 were married. They were half fourth cousins. He a great grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 3 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.
On 06 Sep 1425 John "Old Talbot" Talbot 1st Earl Shrewsbury 1st Earl Waterford 1383-1453 (42) and [his future sister-in-law] Margaret Beauchamp Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford 1404-1468 (21) were married. They were second cousins twice removed. He a great x 3 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great x 4 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. [his future sister-in-law] She by marriage Baroness Strange Blackmere, Baron Talbot 1C 1331.
Before 09 Sep 1427 Thomas Ros 8th Baron Ros Helmsley 1407-1430 and [his future sister-in-law] Eleanor Beauchamp Duchess Somerset 1408-1468 were married. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 4 grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She a great x 4 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. [his future sister-in-law] She by marriage Baroness Ros Helmsley.
On 03 Nov 1428 [his grandfather] Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche 4th Earl Salisbury 1388-1428 (40) died from wounds received at the Siege of Orléans. His daughter Alice Montagu 5th Countess Salisbury 1407-1462 (21) succeeded 5th Earl Salisbury 2C 1337, 7th Baron Montagu, 6th Baron Monthermer. Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (28) by marriage 5th Earl Salisbury 2C 1337.
On 22 Nov 1428 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 was born to [his father] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (28) and Alice Montagu 5th Countess Salisbury 1407-1462 (21). He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England.
In 1434 [his future brother-in-law] Henry Beauchamp 1st Duke Warwick 1425-1446 (8) and Cecily Neville Duchess Warwick 1424-1450 (10) were married at Titchfield Abbey. They were third cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England.
In 1435 Edmund Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (29) and [his future sister-in-law] Eleanor Beauchamp Duchess Somerset 1408-1468 (26) were married. They were half fourth cousins. He a great grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.
In 1436 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (7) and [his wife] Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick 1426-1492 (9) were married. They were third cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England. His sister Cecily had previously married her brother Henry.
On 30 Apr 1439 [his father-in-law] Richard Beauchamp 13th Earl Warwick 1382-1439 (57) died at Rouen. He was buried at St Mary's Church Warwick. His son Henry Beauchamp 1st Duke Warwick 1425-1446 (14) succeeded 14th Earl Warwick 1C 1088, 6th Baron Burghesh 2C 1330. Cecily Neville Duchess Warwick 1424-1450 (15) by marriage Countess Warwick.
On 04 Feb 1443 [his niece] Anne Beauchamp 15th Countess Warwick 1443-1448 was born to Henry Beauchamp 1st Duke Warwick 1425-1446 (17) and Cecily Neville Duchess Warwick 1424-1450 (19) at Cardiff. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England.
Her subsequent death aged four (her father died when she was aged three) resulted in Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (14) unexpectedly becoming Earl of Warwick by marriage ie by right of his wife [his wife] Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick 1426-1492 (16) who was [his niece] the younger Anne's Aunt.
On 14 Apr 1445 [his brother-in-law] Henry Beauchamp 1st Duke Warwick 1425-1446 (20) was created 1st Duke Warwick by his third cousin King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (23). Cecily Neville Duchess Warwick 1424-1450 (21) by marriage Duchess Warwick.
On 11 Jun 1446 [his brother-in-law] Henry Beauchamp 1st Duke Warwick 1425-1446 (21) died. His daughter Anne Beauchamp 15th Countess Warwick 1443-1448 (3) succeeded 15th Earl Warwick 1C 1088, 7th Baron Burghesh 2C 1330. She was buried at Reading Abbey.
On 03 Jan 1448 [his niece] Anne Beauchamp 15th Countess Warwick 1443-1448 (4) died at Ewelme aged four whilst in the care of Alice Chaucer Duchess Suffolk 1404-1475 (44).
After a prolonged legal dispute between her three half-aunts, and her full aunt, the courts decided her full aunt [his wife] Anne Beauchamp (21) should succeed. [his wife] Anne Beauchamp (21) succeeded 16th Countess Warwick. Her husband Richard Neville (19) by marriage 16th Earl Warwick 1C 1088; the first step on his journey to becoming Kingmaker.
The decision of the court was not subscribed to by Edmund Beaufort Earl Somerset (42) who was married to [his wife] Anne's (21) half-sister [his sister-in-law] Eleanor (39); he wanted his share of the considerable Beauchamp inheritance.
In 1449 John_"Butcher_of_England"_Tiptoft (21) and [his sister] Cecily Neville Duchess Warwick 1424-1450 (25) were married. They were second cousins. He a great x 4 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England. Her second marriage; her first husband Henry Beauchamp 1st Duke Warwick 1425-1446 (23) had died three years earlier - she was a wealthy widow. She died a year later.
Before 1450 William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel 1417-1487 and [his sister] Joan Neville Countess Arundel 1423-1462 were married. They were third cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his sister] She by marriage Countess Arundel Sussex.
On 28 Jul 1450 [his sister] Cecily Neville Duchess Warwick 1424-1450 (26) died.
On 05 Sep 1451 [his daughter] Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence 1451-1476 was born to Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (22) and Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick 1426-1492 (25) at Warwick Castle. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England.
On 20 Oct 1453 [his brother] John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (22), and his brothers Thomas Neville 1430-1460 (23) and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (24), met with Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland 1393-1455 (60) and to negotiate peace.
On 22 May 1455 the Wars of the Roses commenced with the First Battle of St Albans. Richard 3rd Duke York (43) commanded with Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (26), [his father] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (55), Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham 1415-1464 (40) and Walter Strickland 1411-1467 (44).
The Lancastrians ...
Edmund Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (49) was killed. His son Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (19) succeeded 2nd Duke Somerset 2C 1448. Note his father is frequently incorrectly referred to as the second Duke and Henry as the third Duke. His father's Dukedom, however, was a new creation.
Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland 1393-1455 (62) was killed. His son Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (33) succeeded 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1C 1377, 6th Baron Percy of Alnwick 1C 1299, 14th Baron Percy of Topcliffe. Eleanor Poynings Countess Northumberland 1422-1480 (33) by marriage Countess of Northumberland.
Thomas Clifford 8th Baron Clifford 1414-1455 (41) was killed. His son John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (20) succeeded 9th Baron Clifford, 9th Lord Skipton. Margaret Bromflete Baroness Clifford 1434-1493 (21) by marriage Baroness Clifford.
King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (33), John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 (54) and Edmund Dudley 1425-1483 (30) were captured.
Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (19) was wounded. James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (34) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (55) fought.
Richard Cotton of Hampstall Ridware 1404-1455 (51) and his son William Cotton of Connington in Huntingdonshire 1428-1455 (27) were killed.
After 25 May 1455 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 was appointed Captain Calais.
On 11 Jun 1456 [his daughter] Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 was born to Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (27) and Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick 1426-1492 (29). She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England.
On 25 Apr 1457 [his brother] John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (26) and Isabel Ingaldsthorpe 1441-1476 (16) were married by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (39) at Canterbury Cathedral during the John Neville married Isabel Ingaldsthorpe. They were second cousins once removed. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.
Chronicle of Gregory 1458. 24 Mar 1458. Ande thys same yere at Covyntre there was made a pesse [Note. peace] by-twyne the Duke of Somersett Harry (22), and the [his father] Earl of Saulysbury (58), and the Erle of Warwycke (29), for the dethe of hys fadyr Duke of Somersette (52), that the Duke of Yorke (46) put to dethe at Synt Albonys. And thys tretys was made at Covyntre, in the holy tyme of Lentyn, by the mene of Kyng Harry the VI. And alle that holy tyme of Lentyn there myght noo mane man that shulde preche by-fore the kynge, but that he shulde shewe hys sarmon in wrytyng, were he docter or other, in so moche the lordys woldys A B C wolde assygne what he schulde say, as for any thynge that longyd unto the comyn wele, and yf he passyd hyr commaundement he schulde lese hys costys, and goo as he come, withowte mete and drynge. But a becheler of holy devynyte come to that cytte, and whenn he come to preche byfore the kyng, as Maystyr Wylliam Saye, Dene of Poulys and Dene of the kyngys chapylle, hadde desyryd and asygnyd, ABC axyd hys name, and hys name was Mayster Wylliam Ive, at that tyme beyng at Wynchester in Wycham ys college. And ABC sayde that they moste nedys se hys sarmon and hys purposse, that he was a vysyd to say by-fore the kynge the Sonday nexte comynge. And he fulle goodly toke them hys papyr; and they seyng and redynge hys papyr, commaundyd to leve owte and put a way many troughtys. But that same Mayster Wylliam Ive sayde but lytylle, but whenn he come to pulpyt he sparyd not to sayd the troughthe, and reportyd by-fore the kyng that ABC made the sarmonys that were sayde fore, and not thoo that prechyd, and that causyd that ]?e men that prechyd hadde but sympylle sarmons, for hyr purposse was alle turnyde upsodowne 3 and that they hadde made love days as Judas made whythe a cosse b with Cryste for they cyste ovyr the mane. The grete rewarde that he hadde for hys labyr was the rydyng of viij xx myle yn and owte for hys travayle, and alle hys frendys fulle sory for hym. But qui veritatem dicit caput fractum kabebit, &c. And that same yere alle thes lordys departyd from the Parlyment, but they come nevyr alle togedyr after that tyme to noo Parlyment nor conselle, but yf hyt were in fylde with spere and schylde.
On 24 Mar 1458 Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (40) presided at Westminster Abbey at a ceremony known as the "Loveday". John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (22), [his father] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (58), Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (29), Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (22), Richard 3rd Duke York (46), Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (36), Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460 (35) and Margaret of Anjou (28) attended in an attempt to reconcile the Lancastrian and Yorkist factions.
Richard 3rd Duke York (48), his sons Edward Earl of March (17),Edmund Earl of Rutland (16) were attainted, as were [his father] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (59) and his sons Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (30) and John Neville 1431-1471 (28).
Chronicle of Gregory 1459. 12 Oct 1459. Ande thys same yere there was a grete afray at Lodlowe by twyne the kynge and the Duke of Yorke (48), the [his father] Erle of Salusbury (59), the Erle of Warwyke (30), the Erle of Marche (17). The Duke of Yorke lete make a grete depe dyche and fortefyde it with gonnys, cartys, and stakys, but hys party was ovyr weke, for the kyng was mo thenn xxxM [Note. 3000] of harneysyd men, by-syde nakyd men that were compellyd for to come with the kynge. And thenne the duke (48) fledde fro place to place in Walys, and breke downe the bryggys aftyr hym that the kyngys mayny schulde not come aftyr hym. And he wente unto Monde. And there he taryd tylle the jornay was endyd at Northehampton. And he made newe grotys of a newe kune in Irlonde; in on syde of the grote was a crowne and in that othyr syde a crosse. And there he made many newe statutys, and hys yong sonys were sende by yende the see unto the Duke of Burgayne, and they were fulle welle ande worschypfully ressayvyd.
On 12 Oct 1459 the Battle of Ludford Bridge nearly took place at Ludlow. In the event a large number of the Calais garrison led by Andrew Trollope -1461 refused to fight against King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (37) who was present.
The Yorkist Richard 3rd Duke York (48), the future King Edward IV (17), Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland 1443-1460 (16), Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (30), [his father] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (59) left overnight before the battle.
Chronicle of Gregory 1459. 12 Oct 1459. The [his father] Erle of Saulysbury (59), the Erle of Warwycke (30), the Erle of Marche (17), Syr John Wenlocke (59), alle thes come unto Devynschyre to Syr John Denham, and alle thes by the conveynge of Syr John Denham; and they bought a smalle vesselle in that contray, an they were conveyde unto Garnesey, ande from Garnesaye unto Calys, for fere of dethe that they sayde was ymagenyde by the kyng and hys lordys, and of hyr owne housolde mayny for hyr dystruccyon, the counselle and con of King Harry the VI. Thes lordys departyd owte of Ingelonde on Synt Edwarde ys evyn, Synt Edwarde bothe kynge and confessoure, the xij day of Octobera, and they taryd at Calys xxxvj wekys. But the Erle of Warwycke (30) come unto Sondewyche, and there he toke the Lord Ryvers (54) with hys ladye (44), the lady and Duchyes of Bedfordeb and brought hem to Calys, for he was commaundyd to have londyd at C[a]]ys by the kynge, but he was brought there sonner then hym lekyd.
a. This is really the date of the breaking up of their camp at Ludlow, not of their leaving England.
b. Jaquetta (44), widow of the Regent Bedford (70). She was the daughter of Peter of Luxemburg, Count of St. Pol (69), and soon after her first husband's death married Sir Richard Woodville (54), who was created Baron Rivers by Henry VI. in 1448, and Earl Rivers by Edward IV. (who was his son-in law) in 1466.
Patent Rolls Henry VI 1452-1461. Membrane 27d. 30 Oct 1459. Farnham Royal. Commission of array to Richard Wydevyle of Ryvers (54), knight, and the sheriff of Kent in Kent, to resist Richard, duke of York (48), Edward earl of March (17), Richard, earl of Warwick (30), and [his father] Richard, earl of Salisbury (59), and their accomplices, leagued in rebellion against the king and crown and allowed by certain persons having the keeping of the town and castle of Calais to enter the same contrary to the king's mandates, and now preparing to arouse congregations and insur rections in the said county; and appointment of the same to arrest all ships and other vessels late of the said earl of Warwick and all the tackling thereof and to keep the same for the king's use. By K.
On 15 Jan 1460 Yorkist forces commanded by John Dynham 1st Baron Dynham 1433-1501 (27) and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (31) raided Sandwich capturing a number of Lancastrian ships. In addition, the Woodville family: Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers 1405-1469 (55), his wife Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford 1415-1472 (45) and their son Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (20) were captured.
On 10 Jul 1460 the Yorkist army led by the future King Edward IV (18) and including Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (31), [his brother] George Neville Archbishop of York 1432-1476 (28), William Neville 1st Earl Kent 1405-1463 (55), Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent 1416-1490 (43), Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham 1415-1464 (45) and John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope of Bolton 1437-1498 (22) defeated the Lancastrian army at the 1460 Battle of Northampton.
King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (38) was captured.
Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham 1402-1460 (57) was killed. His grandson Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (5) succeeded 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1C 1444, 7th Earl Stafford 1C 1351, 8th Baron Stafford 1C 1299.
John Talbot 2nd Earl Shrewsbury 2nd Earl Waterford 1417-1460 (42) was killed. His son John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury 3rd Earl Waterford 1448-1473 (11) succeeded 3rd Earl Shrewsbury 2C 1442, 3rd Earl Waterford, 8th Baron Furnivall 1C 1295, 12th Baron Strange Blackmere 1C 1309, 9th Baron Talbot 1C 1331.
Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 (40) fought.
Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland -1460 was executed following the battle.
The battle was fought south of the Northampton River Nene in the grounds of Delapré Abbey.
Chronicle of Gregory 1460. 10 Jul 1460 And there they mete with the kynge and foughte manly with the kyngys lordys and mayny, but there was moche favyr in that fylde unto the Erle of Warwycke (31). And there they toke the kynge (38), and made newe offycers of the londe, as the chaunceler and tresyrar and othyr, but they occupy de not fo[r]thewith, but abode a seson of the comyng of Duke of York (48) owte of Irlonde. And in that fylde was slayne the Duke of Bokyngham (57), stondyng stylle at hys tente, the Erle of Schrovysbury (42), the Lord Bemond (50), and the Lord Egremond (37), with many othyr men. Ande many men were drownyd by syde the fylde in the revyr at a mylle. And that goode knyght Syr Wylliam Lucy (56) that dwellyd besyde Northehampton hyrde the gonne schotte, and come unto the fylde to have holpyn the kynge, but the fylde was done or that he come; an one of the Staffordys was ware of hys comynge, and lovyd that knyght ys wyffe (21) and hatyd hym, and a-non causyd hys dethe.
On 30 Dec 1460 the Lancastrian army took their revenge for the defeats of the First Battle of St Albans and the Battle of Northampton during the Battle of Wakefield at Sandal Castle. The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (30), Henry Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1436-1464 (24) and Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (39), and included John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 (25) and William Gascoigne XIII 1430-1463 (30), both knighted, and James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40), John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (25), John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1410-1461 (50), Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley 1427-1464 (33), Henry Roos -1504 and Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (20).
The Yorkist army was heavily defeated.
[his brother] Thomas Neville 1430-1460 (30), Thomas Harrington 1400-1460 (60), William Bonville 6th Baron Harington 1442-1460 (18) and Edward Bourchier -1460 were killed.
On 08 Feb 1461 King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (39) created four Garter Knights two of whom would be killed nine days later at the Second Battle of St Albans:
183rd Thomas Kyriell 1396-1461 (65).
184th John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (61).
On 17 Feb 1461 the Lancastrian army defeated the Yorkist army at Second Battle of St Albans and rescued King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (39). The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (30) and included Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (39), John Mowbray 3rd Duke Norfolk 1415-1461 (45), Henry Grey 4th or 7th Baron Grey Codnor 1435-1496 (26), Henry Roos -1504 and Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (33).
Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley 1427-1464 (33), William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme 1415-1464 (46), John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury 3rd Earl Waterford 1448-1473 (12) and Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 (41) were knighted.
The Yorkist army included Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (32), William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel 1417-1487 (43), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (61) and Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu 1st Earl Essex 1404-1483 (57). [his brother] John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (30) was captured. Robert Poynings 1419-1461 (42) and James Luttrell Baron Dunster 1427-1461 (34) were killed.
John Grey 1432-1461 (29) was killed fighting for Lancaster. A death that was to have far reaching consequences; his widow Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (24) subsequently married King Edward IV (18).
During the battle William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville 1392-1461 (68) and Thomas Kyriell 1396-1461 (65) were assigned to the protection of the King Henry VI (39). After the battle both were beheaded against all decent laws of battle.
Thomas Kyriell 1396-1461 (65) was beheaded.
William Cotton 1440-1461 (21) was killed.
Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Ande the xvij day nexte folowynge Kyng Harry (39) roode to Synt Albonys, and the Duke of Northefolke (45) with hym, the Erle of Warwycke (32), the Erle of Arundelle (43), the [his brother] Lorde Bouser (30), the Lorde Bonvyle (68), with many grete lordys, knyghtys, and squyers, and commyns of an C [Hundred] Mlmen. And there they hadde a grete batayle whythe the Quene (30), for she come ever on fro the jornaye of Wackefylde tylle sche come to Synt Albonys, with alle the lordys a fore sayde; and hyr mayny and every lorde ys men bare hyr lordys leverey, that every man myghte knowe hys owne feleschippe by hys lyverey. And be-syde alle that, every man and lorde bare the Pryncys (7) levery, that was a bende of crymesyn and blacke with esteryge ys fetherys. The substance that gate that fylde were howseholde men and feyd men. I wene there were not v Mlmen that fought in the Quenys party, for [t]emoste parte of Northeryn men fledde a-way, and sum were take and spoylyd owte of hyr harnysse by the way as they fledde. And sum of them robbyd evyr as they yede, a petyffulle thynge hit ys to hyre hit. But the day before that batayle there was a jornay at Dunstapyl; but the kyngys mayny lackyd good gydyng, for sum were but newe men of warre, for the chevyste captayne was a boucher of the same towne; and there were the kyngys mayny ovyr throughe only by the Northeryn men. And sone aftyr the bocher, for schame of hys sympylle gydynge and loste of the men, the nombyr of viij C, for very sorowe as hyt ys sayde, hynge hym selfe; and sum men sayde that hyt was for loste of hys goode, but dede he ys—God knowythe the trought.
Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Alle soo the xxvj day of Februer nexte folowyng Edwarde Erle of Marche (18) com to London owt of Walys and the Erle of Warwycke (32) with hym, and xlMl men with hem bothe, and they enteryd unto the cytte of London, and there he toke uppon hym the crowne of Inglond by the avysse of the lordys spyrytual and temporalle, and by the elexyon of the comyns. And so he began hys rayne the iiij day of Marche, in the yere of oure Lorde God MlCCCC lxj, the Sondy letter D as for that yere.
Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 12 Mar 1461. Westminster Palace. Commission to the king's kinsman Richard, earl of Warwick (32), to receive deserters from the party of King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (39) and to cause proclamations to be made to the effect, and to seize the possessions of all recusants. By K (18) by word of mouth.
Chronicle of Gregory 1461. The xiij day of Marche the kynge, owre newe Kynge Edwarde (18), toke hys jornaye unto the Northe, and the Duke of Northefolke (45) with hym. The Erle of Warwycke (32) and the Lorde Fauconbrygge (32), with many knyghtes, squyers, and comyns, to the nombyr of iic Mlmen.
On 27 Mar 1461 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (32) fought at Ferrybridge with John Radclyffe Baron Fitzwalter 1426-1461 (35) capturing the bridge.
On 28 Mar 1461 a further skirmish occurred near Ferrybridge. Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (32) fought. John Radclyffe Baron Fitzwalter 1426-1461 (35) was killed. For Lancaster John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (25) and John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1410-1461 (51).
On 28 Mar 1461 John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (25) was killed at Dintingdale during a skirmish. [his uncle] William Neville 1st Earl Kent 1405-1463 (56) fought for York. His son Henry "Shepherd Lord" Clifford 10th Baron Clifford 1454-1523 (7) succeeded 10th Baron Clifford, 10th Lord Skipton.
Chronicle of Gregory 1461. And the xxviij day of Marche, that was Palme Sunday evyn, the Lorde Fewater (35) was slayne at Ferybryge, and many with hym was slayne and drownyd. And the Erle of Warwycke (32) was hurte yn hys legge with an arowe at the same jornaye.
Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 07 May 1461. Middleham Castle. The like (Grant for life) to the said earl (32) of the offices of steward of the manor or lordship of Fekenham, co Worcester, and master forester and rider of the kings forst of Fekenham with the custody of the king's park of Fekenham and the stank there, with the accustomed fees. By other latters patent.
Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 07 May 1461. Middleham Castle. Grant to the king's (19) kinsman Richard, earl of Warwick (32), of the custody of all lordships, manors and lands with knight's fees and advowsons held by the king's uncle [his uncle] George Neville (54), knight, lord Latymer, within the county of York or elsewhere, during the idiotcy of the latter, even though no inquisition has been taken. By other letters patent.
Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 07 May 1461. Middleham Castle. Grant for life to the king's kinsman Richard (32), earl of Warwick, of the office of constable of the king's castle of Dover, and al rents and services called 'castelwarde', and herbage and advowsons pertaining to the same, and the wardenship of the Cinque Ports and all forfeitures, 'shares', wreck of sea and other profits; and also 300l yearly for the sustenances of himself and priests, servants, watchmen, and other officers there, in the same manner as Humphey (70), late Duke of Gloucester, viz 146l frin the wards pertaining to the castle and 154l from the fee farm of the town of Southampton. By other latters patent.
Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 07 May 1461. Middleham Castle. The like (Grant for life) to the said earl (32) of the office of Master of the King's Mews and Falcons and a messuage called 'le Mewehous' at Charryng by Westminster, co Middlesex, with all houses and other profits pertaining to the same, in the same manner as John, duke of Bedford (71), deceased; and appointment of him to take the king's right prises of falcons, goshawks, sakers, sakrets, lanners, lannerets and ger-falcons sold within the realm, paying the accustomed price viz 20s for each tercel of goshawk, saker, lanner or lanneret. By other latters patent.
Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 03 Dec 1461. Westminster Palace. Appointment of the king's (19) kinsman Richard, earl of Warwick (33), to execute the office of steward of England at the trial of Henry VI and other rebels who murdered the King's father Richard, duke of York, at Wakefield.
Patent Rolls Edward IV 1462. 26 Jun 1462. Westminster Palace. Licence for the king's kinsman Richard, earl of Warwick and Salisbury (33), to grant castles, manors, lordships, lands, rents and services, of the yearly value of 1,000/., held in chief, although the reversion of the same may belong to the crown on his death without issue, to George, bishop of Exeter, John, earl of Worcester, John Markham, Robert Dauby, Walter Blounte, James Strangwais, Walter Wrottesley, knights, Thomas Witham (42), Thomas Colte, Henry Sotehill (44) and William Kelsy in fee simple to pay his debts and fulfil his will alter his de»th. By K.
Patent Rolls Edward IV 1462. 26 Jun 1462. Westminster Palace. Appointment of W. archbishop of York, Richard, earl of Warwick (33), John Neville of Muntague, knight, Robert Danby, knight, Robert Constable, knight, the mayor of York, Thomas Wytham (42), Brian Rouclyff, Henry Sotehill (44), Guy Fairefax, John Grenefeld, Richard Pygote, Henry Thwaites, Nicholas Girlyiigton, John Wencelagh, John Thirske, Nicholas Holgate, John Marton, William Bradford and John Shirwode as justices of the survey and custody of the rivers in the county of York pursuant to the statutes of 24 Edward III., 4o Edward III., and 1 Henry IV., concerning the erection of weirs, mills, stanks, pales and kiddles.
On 09 Sep 1462 [his sister] Joan Neville Countess Arundel 1423-1462 (39) died.
Before 09 Dec 1462 [his mother] Alice Montagu 5th Countess Salisbury 1407-1462 died. Her son Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 succeeded 6th Earl Salisbury 2C 1337, 8th Baron Montagu, 7th Baron Monthermer adding to the earldom of Warwick he had already acquired through his wife some fourteen years previously. The combined earldoms of Warwick and Salisbury made Warwick the second most powerful man in the Kingdom making him Kingmaker.
On 28 Feb 1463 John Lovell 8th Baron Lovel 5th Baron Holand 1433-1463 (30) died. On 28 Feb 1463 His son Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell 1456-1488 (7) succeeded 9th Baron Lovel of Titchmarsh, 6th Baron Holand at around eight years of age. He became a ward of King Edward IV (20) who gave his wardship to Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (34) spending his childhood at Middleham Castle with the young (future) [his future son-in-law] Richard III King England 1452-1485 (10).
Around Jun 1463 a Scottish and Lancastrian force, including King James III of Scotland 1451-1488 (11), his mother Mary of Guelders Queen Consort Scotland 1434-1463 (29), King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (41) and his wife Margaret of Anjou (33), laid siege to Norham Castle. They held Norham for eighteen days until a force led by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (34) and his brother [his brother] John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (32) advanced to Norham Castle at which time the Scottish and Lancastrian force fled in panic pursued by the Yorkist army. Margaret of Anjou (33) and her son Edward of Westinster Prince of Wales 1453-1471 (9) escaped to Berwick on Tweed and then to the continent. King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (41) remained in Scotland - he and his wife never saw each other again.
Patent Rolls Edward IV 1463. 23 Jun 1463. Inspeximus and confirmation to the mayor, bailiffs and burgesses of Clyfton, Dertmuth and Hardenesse of (1) letters patent dated 14 December, 2 Richard II. inspecting and confirming a charter dated at the Tower of London, 14 April, 15 Edward III. [Charter Roll, 15 Edward III. No. 18,] and (2) a charter dated at Westminster, 5 November, 17 Richard II. [Charter Noll, 15-17 Richard II. No. 10]; and grant that the adjoining township of Southtouudertemouth shall henceforth be annexed to the said borough of Cliftondertemouth Hardenasse, in consideration of the fact that the burgesses keep watches against invaders on the confines of the township and beyond at a place called 'Galions Boure' but the inhabitants of the township contribute nothing because they do not enjoy the liberties of the borough. Th« mayor and bailiffs shall have return of writs and execu- tion thereof within the said township and the liberty of the borough, saving always the right of the lord of the fee of the township, and all pleas real and personal and attachments and fines and amercements, and also view of frauk-pledge and all that peitains to it. And they may acquire, in mortmain, after inquisition, lands, tenements, rents and other possessions, not held in chief, to the value of 201. yearly. Witnesses: Th. archbishop of Canterbury (45), W. archbishop of York (75), [his brother] G. bishop of Exeter (31), the chancellor, J. bishop of Carlisle, the king's brothers George, duke of Clarence (13), and Richard, duke of Gloucester (10), the king's kinsmen Richard, earl of Warwick (34), and John, earl of Worcester (36), treasurer of England, Robert Styllyngton (43), king's clerk, keeper of the privy seal, and William Hastynges of Hastynges (32), the king's chamberlain, and John Wenlok of Wenlok (63), knights.
Chronicle of Gregory 1463. Dec 1463. Ande thenn the kynge, owre soverayne lorde Edward the iiij, hadde knowleche of hys fals dysposyscyon of thys fals Duke Harry of Somersett (27). The kynge sende a grete feleschippe of hys housolde men to kepe the towne of Newecastelle, and made the Lorde Scrope of Bolton (26) captayne of the towne; and soo they kepte hyt surely alle that wyntyr. Ande a-boute Ester nexte aftyr the Schottys sewyd unto oure soverayne lorde the kynge for pes. And the kynge ordaynyde Commyssourys to mete whythe [t]e Schottys. The names of the Commyssyonourys be wretyn here aftyr folowyng: The [his brother] Chaunceler of Ingelond (31), the Lorde Montegewe (32), the Erle of Warwycke (35), and many othyr for the Englysche partye, to brynge hyt to a conclusyon.
On 27 May 1464 [his brother] John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (33) was created 1st Earl of Northumberland 3C 1464 as a reward for successfully suppressing the Lancastrian resistance in the North. The Ealdom of Northumberland traditionally held by the Percy family with whom the Neville family had been feuding for generations.
Chronicle of Gregory 1464. Around Jul 1464. Alle so the same somer my Lorde of Warwycke (35) and hys brether the [his brother] Lorde Mountegewe (33), that was made Erle of Northehumberlond by the kynge, they ij layde a sege unto the castelle of Anwyke a gate hyt by a-poyntement. And in the same wyse and forme they gate the castelle of Dunsterborowe by the same mene. And thenne they layd sege to the castelle of Bamborowe, and layde grete ordynans and gonnys [Note. guns] there too. And manly they gate hyt by fors, and toke there yn that fals traytur Syr Raffe Gray (32), and brought hym unto the kynge to the castelle of Pomfrete. And fro thens he was ladde to Dankester, and there hys hedde was smete of and sent to London, and hyt was sette a-pon Londyn Bryge.
In Sep 1464 King Edward IV (22) announced his recent marriage at Privy Council to the astonishment of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (35) who had until recently been actively seeking a French Princess as Edward's future wife.
On 06 Mar 1468 [his sister-in-law] Eleanor Beauchamp Duchess Somerset 1408-1468 (59) died at Baynard's Castle.
Before 10 May 1468 John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 sat in judgement on the Earl of Warwick's men who had attempted to steal the ship Trinity for the Earl of Warwick. In addition to the usual punishment of hanging, drawing and quartering Tiptoft also subjected the men's corpses to being impaled, perhaps unique in English punishments, but usual for pirates in Europe. His actions were described as cruel and unmerited by the common people and resulted in Tiptoft being known as 'Butcher'.
On 11 Jul 1469 [his son-in-law] George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (19) and Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence 1451-1476 (17) were married by George Neville Archbishop of York 1432-1476 (37) at the Église Notre-Dame de Calais witnessed by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (40). They were first cousins once removed. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England. She by marriage Duchess Clarence.
On 12 Aug 1469 Woodvilles father and son were beheaded at Kenilworth Castle by supporters of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (40).
Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers 1405-1469 (64) was beheaded. His son Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (29) succeeded 2nd Earl Rivers 1C 1466. Elizabeth Scales Countess Rivers -1473 by marriage Countess Rivers.
John Woodville 1445-1469 (24) was beheaded.
On 10 Sep 1469 King Edward IV (27) was released by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (40) afer Warwick realised he didn't have sufficient support for an alternative regime.
On 29 Sep 1469 brothers Humphrey Neville of Brancepeth (30) and Charles Neville of Brancepeth were beheaded at York in the presence of King Edward IV (27) and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (40) bringing to an end the Neville-Neville fued that arose as a consequence of the senior line being dis-inherited.
On 12 Mar 1470 King Edward IV (27) commanded at the Battle of Losecoat Field (Empingham). The battle apparently didn't take place since the army of Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 8th Baron Welles -1470 fled in the face of the Royal army. The name 'Losecoat' not contemporary; Battle of Empingham may be. Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 8th Baron Welles -1470 was captured with documents describing the fomenting of rebellion by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (41) and [his son-in-law] George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (20).
On 27 Mar 1470 [his brother] John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (39) revoked his title of Earl of Northumberland 3C 1464 so that the Earldom could be given to Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland 1449-1489 (21) of the Percy family who were its traditional holders. A deeply unpopular move with the Neville family who had been longstanding enemies of the Percies in the North. [his brother] He was created 1st Marquess Montagu instead. Possibly a consequence of the defection of Warwick the Kingmaker (41) to the Lancastrian cause as evidenced by the Welles Rebellion earlier in the year.
On 27 Mar 1470 [his nephew] George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (9) was created 1st Duke Bedford 3C 1470 by King Edward IV (27) in preparation for his marriage to Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (4) which didn't, in the end, take place. He, George, was nephew to Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (41) whose defection to the Lancastrian side may have caused the King to change his mind about his daughter's marriage. The attainder of John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471, if it was enacted, would have resulted in the King appropriating the estate of John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471. Eight
On 22 Jul 1470 Warwick the Kingmaker (41), King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (48) and Margaret of Anjou (40) signed the Angers Agreement at Angers Cathedral. The agreement had been brokered by King Louis XI of France (47). [his future son-in-law] Edward of Westinster Prince of Wales 1453-1471 (16) and Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (14) were betrothed as part of the Agreement.
On 13 Dec 1470 [his son-in-law] Edward of Westinster Prince of Wales 1453-1471 (17) and Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (14) were married at Angers Cathedral. They were half third cousins. He a son of King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England. Anne Neville Queen Consort England 1456-1485 (14) by marriages Princess of Wales.
On 14 Apr 1471 Edward IV (28) commanded at the Battle of Barnet supported by his brothers [his son-in-law] George (21) and Richard (18), John Babington 1423-1485 (48), Wiliam Hastings (40) (commanded), Ralph Hastings -1495, William Norreys 1441-1507 (30), William Parr KG 1434-1483 (37), John Savage 1422-1495 (49), Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (31), John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley of Heighley 3rd Baron Tuchet 1426-1490 (45), Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh 1431-1496 (40), John Scott Comptroller 1423-1485 (48) and Thomas Strickland -1494.
The Lancastrians Warwick the Kingmaker (42), ![his brother] John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (40) and William Tyrrell -1471 were killed.
William Fiennes 2nd Baron Saye and Sele 1428-1471 (43) was killed. His son Henry Fiennes 3rd Baron Saye and Sele 1446-1476 (25) succeeded 3rd Baron Saye and Sele. Anne Harcourt Baroness Saye and Sele by marriage Baroness Saye and Sele.
Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (40) commanded the left flank, was badly wounded and left for dead, Henry Stafford 1425-1471 (46) and John Paston 1444-1504 (27) were wounded, John Vere 13th Earl Oxford 1442-1513 (28) commanded, and John Paston 1442-1479 (29) and William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (33) fought.
Robert Harleston 1435-1471 (36) was killed.
Thomas Hen Salusbury 1409-1471 (62) was killed.
Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 (51) escaped but was subsequently captured and executed on 06 May 1471.
After 14 Apr 1471 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 was buried at Bisham Priory Bisham.
In 1474 Parliament declared [his wife] Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick 1426-1492 (47) legally dead (she lived until 1492) so that Edward IV's (31) two younger brothers George (24) and the Richard (21), who had married [his wife] Anne Beauchamp's (47) daughters, Isabel (22) and Anne (17) respectively, could enjoy the significant Beauchamp inheritance after her husband Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (45) had been killed at the Battle of Barnet in 1471.
Some of the inhertance should have been given to [his nephew] George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (13) but he was only thirteen at the time; his father John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (43), younger brother of Warwick the Kingmaker (45), had also been killed at the Battle of Barnet. He, [his nephew] George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (13), died in 1483 aged twenty-one somewhat conveniently after the death of King Edward IV (31) and before Richard III King England 1452-1485 (21) acceded to the throne. Curiously the Act of Parliament described Richard III King England 1452-1485 (21) enjoying the inheritance as long as there were Neville living heirs male. Upon the death of [his nephew] George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (13) the Neville heir male was Richard Neville 2nd Baron Latimer of Snape 1468-1530 (6) born 1468 whose wardship was held by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (56).
Parliament Rolls.Edward IV Oct 1472.Second Roll. 06 Jun 1474. Westminster Palace. Exemplification at the request of [his son-in-law] Richard Duke of Gloucester (21), of the tenour of an act (English) in the Parliament summoned at Westminster, 6 October, 12 Edward IV, and continued to 9 May, 14 Edward IV, ordaining that George Duke Clarence (24), and Isabel (22) his wife and Richard Duke of Gloucester, and Anne (17) his wife, daughters and heirs to Richard Nevyle (45), late Earl of Warwick, and daughters and heirs apparent to Anne Beauchamp (47), his wife should possess and enjoy as in the right of the said wives all possessions belonging to the said Countess as though she were naturally dead and that she should be barred and excluded therefrom, that they should make partition of the premises and the same partition should be good in law, that the said Dukes should enjoy for life all the possessions of their wives if they should outlive the latter, that the said George (24) and Isabel (22) should not make any alienation, grant, fine or recovery of any of the premises to the hurt of the said [his son-in-law] Richard (21) and Anne (17) or the latter to the hurt of the former, that if the said Richard and Anne be divorced and afterwards married this Act should hold good, that if they be divorced and he do his effectual diligence to be married to her and during her life be not wedded to any other woman he should enjoy as much of the premises as should appertain to her during his life, and that notwithstanding the restraint of alienation or recovery above specified the lordship, manor and wappentake of Chesterfield and Scarvesdale with the appurtenances and all the lands and tenements in Chesterfield and Scarvesdale sometime of Ales (67), late Countess of Salisbury, might be given to the King and his heirs in exchange for other lands and tenements, which shall however be subject of this Act.Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead.
On 04 May 1483 [his nephew] George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (22) died. He being the son of John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (52), the nephew of Warwick the Kingmaker (54) who should, perhaps, have inherited the Earldoms of Warwick and Salisbury from his mother that had been appropriated by [his nephew] George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (22) and Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30). The timing somewhat suspicious. The future Richard III would now enjoy the whole of the Warwick inheritance.
Chronicle of Gregory 1461. And in the myddys of the batayle Kynge Harry wente unto hys Quene and for-soke alle hys lordys, ande truste better to hyr party thenne unto hys owne lordys. And thenn thoroughe grete labur the Duke of Northefolke and the Erle of Warwycke a schapyd a-waye; the [his brother] Byschoppe of Exceter, that tyme Chaunceler of Ingelond, and brother unto the Erle of Warwycke, the Lorde Bouser, whythe many othyr knyghtys, squyers, and comyns fledde, and many men slayne in bothe partys. And the Lorde Bonevyle was be-heddyd, the comyn sayynge that hys longage causyd hym to dye. The Prynce was jugge ys owne sylfe. Ande ther was slayne that manly knyght Syr Thomas Keryel. The nomber of ded men was xxxv C an moo [t]at were slayne. The lordys in Kyng Harrys party pycchyd a fylde and fortefyd hyt fulle stronge, and lyke unwyse men brake hyr raye and fyld and toke a-nothyr, and or that they were alle sette a buskyd to batayle, the Quenys parte was at hond whythe hem in towne of Synt Albonys, and then alle [t]yng was to seke and owte of ordyr, for hyr pryckyers come not home to bryng no tydyng howe ny that the Quene was, save one come and sayd that she was ix myle of. And ar the goners and borgeners couthe levylle hyr gonnys they were besely fyghtyng, and many a gynne of wer was ordaynyd that stode in lytylle a-vayle or nought; for the burgeners hadde suche instrumentys that wolde schute bothe pellettys of ledde and arowys of an elle of lenghthe with vj fetherys, iij in myddys and iij at the othyr ende, with a grete myghty hedde of yryn at the othyr ende, and wylde fyre with alle. Alle thes iij thyngys they myght schute welle and esely at onys, but in tyme of nede they couthe not schut not one of thes, but the fyre turnyd backe a-pon them that wold schute thys iij thyngys. Also they hadde nettys made of grete cordys of iiij fethem of lengthe and of iiij fote brode, lyke unto an haye, and at every ij knott there was an nayl stondyng uppe ryght, that there couthe no man passe ovyr hyt by lyckely hode but he shulde be hurte. Alle so they hadde pavysse bore as a dore i-made with a staffe foldynge uppe and downe to sette the pavys where the lykyd, and loupys with schyttyng wyndowys to schute owte at, they stondyng by hynde [t]e pavys, and the pavys as fulle of iijdnayle aftyr ordyr as they myght stonde. And whenn hyr schotte was spende and done they caste the pavysse by-fore hem, thenn there myght noo man come unto them ovyr the pavysse for the naylys that stode up-ryghte, but yf he wolde myschyffe hym sylfe. Alle so they hadde a thynge made lyke unto a latysse fulle of naylys as the net was, but hit wolde be mevyd as a man wolde; a man myght bryse hyt to-gedyr that the lengythe wolde be more then ij yerdys long, and yf he wolde he myght hale hyt a brode, thenn hit wolde be iiij square. And that servyd to lye at gappys there at horsemen wolde entyr yn, and many a caltrappe. And as the substaunce of men of worschyppe that wylle not glose nor cory favyl for no parcyallyte, they cowthe not undyrstond that alle thys ordenaunce dyd any goode or harme but yf hyt were a mong us in owre parte with Kyng Harry. There fore hyt ys moche lefte, and men take hem to mallys of ledde, bowys, swyrdys, gleyvys, and axys. As for speremen they ben good to ryde be-fore the foote men and ete and drynke uppe hyr vetayle, and many moo suche prety thyngys they doo, holde me excusyd thoughe I say the beste, for in the fote men ys alle the tryste.
Chronicle of Gregory 1462. And thenn my Lorde of Warwycke and hys brother the [his brother] Lorde Montegewe put them in devyr to rescewe [t]e sayde castelle of Norham, and soo they dyd, and put bothe Kynge Harry and the Kyng of Schotys to flyghte. And Quene Margarete whythe alle hir consayle, and Syr Perys de Brasey whythe the Fraynysche men, fledde a-wey by water with iiij balynggarys; and they londyd at the Scluse in Flaundyrs, and lefte Kyng Harry that was be hynde hem, and alle hyr hors and hyr harneys, they were so hastyd by my Lorde of Warwycke, and hys brother the Lorde Mountegewe, and by hyr feleschippe with them accompanyde. And at the departynge of Syr Perys de Brasyl and hys feleschippe was on manly man that purposyd to mete with my Lorde of Warwycke, that was a taberette, for he stode a-pon an hylle with hys tabyr and hys pype, taberyng and pyping as merely as any man myght, stondyng by hym selfe, tylle my lorde come unto hym he wold not lesse hys grownd; and there he be-come my lordys man; ande yet he ys with hym fulle good and to hys lorde.
The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. Notwithstanding, the Duchess of York, his mother, was so sore moved therewith that she argued against the marriage as much as she possibly might, alleging that it was in his honor, profit, and surety also, to marry in a noble progeny out of his realm, whereupon depended great strength to his estate by the affinity and great possibility of increase of his possessions, and that he could not well otherwise do because the Earl of Warwick had so far moved already, who was not likely to take it well, if all his voyage were in such ways frustrated and his agreements dashed. And she said also that it was not princely to marry his own subject, no great occasion leading thereunto, no possessions, or other commodities depending thereupon, but only, as it were, a rich man that would marry his maid only for a little wanton dotage upon her person. In which marriage many more commend the maiden's fortune than the master's wisdom. And yet therein she said was more honesty than honor in this marriage, forasmuch as there is between no merchant and his own maid so great difference, as between the King and this widow. In whose person, although there was nothing to be disliked, "yet was there," she said, "nothing so excellent, but it might be found in diverse others that were more suitable," said she, "for your estate, and maidens also, whereas the widowhood of Elizabeth Gray alone, though she were in all other things convenient for you, should yet suffice, it seems to me, to restrain you from marriage, since it is an improper thing and a very blemish and high disparagement to the sacred majesty of a prince, who ought as nigh to approach priesthood in purity as he does in dignity, to be defouled with bigamy in his first marriage."
The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. Now was it so devised by the Protector and his Council that the same day in which the Lord Chamberlain was beheaded in the Tower of London, and about the same hour, was there—not without his assent—beheaded at Pomfret the before mentioned lords and knights that were taken from the King at Northampton and Stony Stratford. Which thing was done in the presence and by the order of Sir Richard Radcliff, knight, whose service the Protector specially used in the Council and in the execution of such lawless enterprises, as a man that had been long secret with him, having experience of the world and a shrewd wit, short and rude in speech, rough and boisterous of behavior, bold in mischief, as far from pity as from all fear of God. This knight, bringing them out of the prison to the scaffold, and showing to the people about that they were traitors, not suffering them to speak and declare their innocence lest their words might have inclined men to pity them and to hate the Protector and his part, caused them hastily, without judgment, process, or manner of order to be beheaded, and without other earthly guilt, but only that they were good men, too true to the King and too close to the Queen.
Now when the Lord Chamberlain and these other lords were thus beheaded and rid out of the way, then thought the Protector that, while men mused what the matter meant, while the lords of the realm were about him out of their own strengths, while no man knew what to think nor whom to trust, before ever they should have space to dispute and digest the matter and make parties, it were best hastily to pursue his purpose and put himself in possession of the crown, before men could have time to devise any ways to resist. But now was all the study by what means this matter, being of itself so heinous, might be first broken to the people, in such a way that it might be well taken. To this counsel, they took diverse opinions, such as those thought suitable to be trusted, likely to be induced to the part, and able to stand them in position, either by power or policy.
Among whom, they made of counsel Edmund Shaa, knight, then Mayor of London, who upon trust of his own advancement, whereof he was of a proud heart highly desirous, should frame the city to their appetite. Of clergy men they took such as had intelligence and were in authority among the people for opinion of their learning, and had no scrupulous conscience.
Among these had they John Shaa, clerk, brother to the Mayor, and Friar Penker, Provincial of the Augustine Friars, both doctors of divinity, both great preachers, both of more learning than virtue, of more fame than learning. For they were before greatly esteemed among the people, but after that never.
Of these two, the one had a sermon in praise of the Protector before the coronation, the other after; both so full of tedious flattery that no man's ears could abide them. Penker in his sermon so lost his voice that he was glad to leave off and come down in the midst. Doctor Shaa by his sermon lost his honesty and soon after his life, for very shame of the world, into which he dared never after come abroad. But the friar cared not for shame, and so it harmed him the less. However, some doubt and many think that Penker was not of counsel of the matter before the coronation, but after the common manner fell to flattery afterwards; namely, because his sermon was not immediately after it, but at Saint Mary's Hospital on the Easter after. But certain is it that Doctor Shaa was of counsel in the beginning so far forth that they determined he should first break the matter in a sermon at Paul's Cross, in which he should, by the authority of his preaching, incline the people to the Protector's ghostly purpose.
But now was all the labor and study in the device of some appropriate pretext for which the people should be content to depose the Prince and accept the Protector for king, for which diverse things they devised. But the chief thing, and the most weighty of all that invention, rested in this: they should allege bastardy, either in King Edward himself, or in his children, or both, so that he should seem unable to inherit the crown by the Duke of York, and the Prince by him. To lay bastardy in King Edward sounded openly to the rebuke of the Protector's own mother, who was mother to them both; for in that point could be none other color, but to pretend that his own mother was one adulteress, which, not withstanding, to further his purpose he omitted not; but nevertheless, he would the point should be less and more favorably handled, not even fully plain and directly, but that the matter should be touched upon, craftily, as though men spared, in that point, to speak all the truth for fear of his displeasure. But the other point, concerning the bastardy that they devised to surmise in King Edward's children, that would he be openly declared and enforced to the uttermost. The color and pretext whereof cannot be well perceived but if we first repeat to you some things long before done about King Edward's marriage.
After King Edward the Fourth had deposed King Henry the Sixth and was in peaceful possession of the realm, determining himself to marry, as it was requisite both for himself and for the realm, he sent over in embassy the Earl of Warwick with other noble men in his company unto Spain to entreat and conclude a marriage between King Edward and the king's daughter of Spain. In which thing the Earl of Warwick found the parties so toward and willing that he speedily, according to his instructions, without any difficulty brought the matter to a very good conclusion.
Now it happened in the meanwhile that there came to make a suit by petition to the King, Dame Elizabeth Gray, who was after his Queen, at that time a widow born of noble blood, specially by her mother, who was Duchess of Bedford before she married the Lord Woodville, Elizabeth's father. However, this Dame Elizabeth, herself being in service with Queen Margaret, wife unto King Henry the Sixth, was married unto one John Gray, a squire, whom King Henry made knight upon the battlefield where he had fought on Shrove Tuesday at Saint Albans against King Edward. And little while enjoyed he that knighthood, for he was at the same field slain. After he had died, and the Earl of Warwick being in his embassy about the before mentioned marriage, this poor lady made humble suit unto the King that she might be restored unto such small lands as her late husband had given her during their marriage. Whom when the King beheld and heard her speak, as she was both fair, of a good favor, moderate of stature, well made and very wise, he not only pitied her, but also grew enamored with her. And taking her afterward secretly aside, began to enter into talking more familiarly. Whose appetite, when she perceived it, she virtuously denied him. But that did she so wisely, and with so good manner, and words so well set, that she rather kindled his desire than quenched it. And finally after many a meeting, much wooing, and many great promises, she well spied the King's affection toward her so greatly increased that she dared somewhat the more boldly say her mind, as to him whose heart she perceived more firmly set than to fall off for a word. And in conclusion she showed him plain that as she knew herself too simple to be his wife, so thought she herself too good to be his concubine. The King, much marveling at her constancy, as he that had not been wont elsewhere to be so stiffly told nay, so much esteemed her continence and chastity that he set her virtue in the place of possession and riches. And thus taking counsel of his desire, determined in all possible haste to marry her. And after he was thus resolved, and there had between them an agreement been assured, then asked he counsel of his other friends, and in such manner, as they might easily perceive it remedied not greatly to say nay.
Chronicle of Gregory 1459. Also alle that seson the Erle of Warwyke with sowdyers of Calysse were comynge unto the Duke of Yorke, and he come ovyr-wharte Colsylle be-syde Covyntre, and the Duke of Somerset whythe hys men rode a-longe thoroughe the towne, and yet non of hem mette whythe othyr as hyt happyd, or by lyckely hode they wold have made a newe fraye. Ande the same day Androwe Throllope consayvyd [Note. conceived] that the Erle of Warwyke was goyng unto the Duke of Yorke and not unto the kynge, and utterly forsoke hym and come unto the kynge and was pardonyd; and that made the duke fulle sore a-frayde when he wyste that sum olde soudyers went from hym unto the kynge, &c.
Chronicle of Gregory 1461. There the Erle of Warwycke informyd hym of the gydynge and dysposyscyon of Kyng Harry, and of the Quene, and of the love and favyr that the comyns hadde unto hym, and by ryght to occupy the crowne of Inglonde, and soo hys hert was sum what made gladde and comfortyd. But he was sory that he was soo pore, for he hadde no mony, but the substance of hys mayny come at hyr owne coste.
He that had Londyn for sake
Wolde no more to hem take,
and sayde, "Lette us walke in a newe wyne yerde, and lette us make us a gay gardon in the monythe of Marche with thys fayre whyte ros and herbe, the Erle of Marche." And the Erle of Warwycke mette with the Erle of Marche by-syde Oxforde, x myle owte of hit, at a towne of hys owne i-namyd Burford a-pon the Wolde; for the Erle of Marche come fro Walys, and was fulle sore a-ferde of the loste of the ij fyldys that were loste by-fore, Wakefylde that one, and Synt Albonys that othyr, and he sorowde sore for hys fadyr the Duke of Yorke, and for hys good brother the Erle of Rutlond, and for alle othyr lordys and comyns, &c.
The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. The Duchess, with these words nothing appeased, and seeing the King so set thereon that she could not pull him back, so highly she disdained it that under pretext of her duty to God, she devised to disturb this marriage, and rather to help that he should marry one Dame Elizabeth Lucy, whom the King had also not long before gotten with child. Wherefore the King's mother objected openly against his marriage, as it were in discharge of her conscience, that the King was betrothed to Dame Elizabeth Lucy, and her husband before God. By reason of which words, such obstacle was made in the matter that either the bishops dared not, or the King would not, proceed to the solemnizing of this wedding till these same matters were clearly purged and the truth well and openly testified.
Whereupon Dame Elizabeth Lucy was sent for. And although she was by the King's mother and many others filled with good encouragement—to affirm that she was betrothed unto the King—yet when she was solemnly sworn to say the truth, she confessed that they were never betrothed. However, she said his Grace spoke so loving words unto her that she verily hoped he would have married her, and that if it had not been for such kind words, she would never have showed such kindness to him, to let him so kindly get her with child.
This examination solemnly taken, when it was clearly perceived that there was no impediment, the King, with great feast and honorable solemnity, married Dame Elizabeth Gray and her crowned queen that was his enemy's wife, who many times had prayed full heartily for his loss. In which God loved her better than to grant her petition.
But when the Earl of Warwick understood of this marriage, he took it so highly that his embassy was deceived by mockery that, for very anger and disdain, he assembled a great power against the King at his return, and came so fast upon him, before he could be able to resist, that the King was glad to leave the realm and flee into Holland for assistance, where he remained for the space of two years, leaving his new wife in Westminster in sanctuary, where she was delivered of Edward the Prince, of whom we before have spoken. In the meantime, the Earl of Warwick took out of prison and set up again Henry the Sixth, who was before by King Edward deposed and that, much by the power of the Earl of Warwick, who was a wise man and a courageous warrior and of such strength—what for his lands, his alliances, and favor with all the people—that he made kings and put down kings almost at his pleasure; and it was not impossible to have attained the crown himself, if he had not reckoned it a greater thing to make a king than to be a king. But nothing lasts always, for, in conclusion, King Edward returned, and with much less number than Warwick had, at Barnet on the Easter Day field, slew the Earl of Warwick with many other great lords of that party, and so stably attained the crown again that he peaceably enjoyed it until his dying day; and in such plight he left the crown that it could not be lost but by the discord of his very friends, or falsehood of his feigned friends.
I have rehearsed this business about this marriage somewhat the more at length because it might thereby the better appear how slippery a ground the Protector built his pretext, by which he pretended King Edward's children to be bastards. But that invention, simple as it was, it liked them to whom it sufficed to have something to say, while they were sure to be compelled to no larger proof than they themselves pleased to make.