Biography of Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199

1137 Marriage of Prince Louis and Eleanor of Aquitaine

1152 Marriage of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine

1154 Death of King Stephen

1189 Death of Henry II

1189 Coronation of Richard I

1189 Richard I Appoints his Bishops

1190 Richard I Takes Messina

1191 Richard I arrives Limasol

1191 Wedding of King Richard I and Berengaria of Navarre

1191 Richard I Lands at Acre

1192 Attempt of Jerusalem

1192 Capture of Richard I

1194 Richard I Released

1194 Richard Lionheart Returns to England

1194 Richard I Re-crowned

1194 Richard I's Ransom

1199 Death of Richard I

1230 Death of Berengaria of Navarre

On 09 Apr 1137 [his grandfather] William "Saint" Poitiers X Duke Aquitaine 1099-1137 (38) died. His daughter Eleanor of Aquitaine (15) succeeded XI Duke Aquitaine.

Marriage of Prince Louis and Eleanor of Aquitaine

On 25 Jul 1137 [his step-father] Louis VII King Franks 1120-1180 (17) and Eleanor of Aquitaine (15) were married. They were fourth cousins. Her father William "Saint" Poitiers X Duke Aquitaine 1099-1137 (38) had died some three months previously leaving Eleanor of Aquitaine (15) as a ward of Louis's father Louis "Fat" VI King France 1081-1137 (55) who quickly married her to his son Louis with a view to the Duchy of Aquitaine becoming joined with the Kingdom of France. A week later Louis "Fat" VI King France 1081-1137 (55) died and his son Louis and Eleanor became King and Queen of France.

In 1150 [his father] Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (16) was created as Duke Normandy by Louis VII King Franks 1120-1180 (30).

Marriage of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine

On 18 May 1152 Whit Sunday [his father] Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (19) and Eleanor of Aquitaine (30) were married at Poitiers Cathedral. They were half third cousins. He a grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135. They were more closely related than Eleanor and her previous husband Louis VII King Franks 1120-1180 (32). The marriage would bring the Kingdom of England, and the Duchies of Normandy and Aquitaine under the control of [his father] Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (19).

Death of King Stephen

On 25 Oct 1154 Stephen I King England 1094-1154 (60) died at Priory of St Martin Dover. His first cousin once removed [his father] Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (21) succeeded II King England.

In Apr 1156 [his brother] William Plantagenet IX Count Poitiers 1153-1156 (2) died at Wallingford Castle. He was buried at Reading Abbey at the feet of his great-grandfather King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135 (88).

On 08 Sep 1157 Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 was born to [his father] Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (24) and Eleanor of Aquitaine (35) at Beaumont Palace Oxford.

In 1164 Theobald "Good" Blois V Count Blois 1130-1191 (34) and [his half-sister] Alix Capet Countess Blois 1150-1197 (13) were married. They were fourth cousins. He a great grandson of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087. [his half-sister] She by marriage Countess Blois.

In 1164 Henry Blois I Count Champagne 1127-1181 (36) and [his half-sister] Marie Capet Countess Champagne 1145-1198 (19) were married. They were fourth cousins. He a great grandson of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087. [his half-sister] She by marriage Countess Champagne.

On 01 Feb 1168 Henry "Lion" Welf XII Duke Saxony III Duke Bavaria 1129-1195 (39) and [his sister] Matilda Plantagenet Duchess Saxony 1156-1189 (12) were married. She a daughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She by marriage Duchess Bavaria, Duke Saxony.

In Jan 1169 Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (11) and Alys Capet Countess Ponthieu 1160-1220 (8) were engaged to be married as part of a peace treaty. Alys Capet Countess Ponthieu 1160-1220 (8) was sent to England to be a ward of [his father] Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (35).

In 1177 Cardinal Peter of Saint Chrysogonus, on behalf of the Pope, threatened to place England's continental possessions under an interdict if Henry did not proceed with the marriage. Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (19) was somewhat reluctant given the rumours that Alys Capet Countess Ponthieu 1160-1220 (16) had become the mistress of his father [his father] Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (43) and, possibly, had a child by him.

Before 17 Sep 1177 Alfonso VIII King Castile 1155-1214 and [his sister] Eleanor Plantagenet Queen Consort Castile 1161-1214 were married. They were half fourth cousins. She a daughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. [his sister] She by marriage Queen Consort Castile.

On 16 Mar 1181 Henry Blois I Count Champagne 1127-1181 (53) died. His son [his nephew] Henry Blois II Count Champagne 1166-1197 (14) succeeded II Count Champagne.

In Jul 1181 [his brother] Geoffrey Plantagenet 2nd Duke Brittany 1158-1186 (22) and Constance Penthièvre Duchess Brittany 1161-1201 (20) were married. They were half second cousins once removed. He a son of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135. She by marriage Duchess Brittany. [his brother] She by marriage Duke Brittany.

On 19 Aug 1186 [his brother] Geoffrey Plantagenet 2nd Duke Brittany 1158-1186 (27) died at Paris.

In 1189 Geoffrey Chateaudun III Count Perche -1202 and [his niece] Matilda Welf Countess Perche 1172-1204 (17) were married at Rouen. They were third cousins once removed. He a great x 2 grandson of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087. She a granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. [his niece] She by marriage Countess Perche.

On 28 Jun 1189 [his sister] Matilda Plantagenet Duchess Saxony 1156-1189 (33) died. She was buried at Brunswick Cathedral.

Death of Henry II

On 06 Jul 1189 [his father] Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (56) died at Chinon Castle. William Mandeville 3rd Earl Essex Count Aumale -1189 was present. He was buried at Fontevraud Abbey. His heart was buried at Rouen Cathedral, Rouen. His son Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (31) succeeded I King England.

On 29 Aug 1189 [his brother] John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 (22) and Isabella Fitzrobert 3rd Countess Gloucester and Essex 1173-1217 (16) were married at Marlborough Castle. They were half second cousins. He a son of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She a great granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135. [his brother] She by marriage Earl Gloucester 1C 1121.

Coronation of Richard I

On 03 Sep 1189 Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (31) was crowned I King England by Baldwin Avigo Archbishop of Canterbury 1125-1190 (64) at Westminster Abbey. William Mandeville 3rd Earl Essex Count Aumale -1189 carried the Crown. The Coronation of Richard I was marred by violence against London's Jewish population. Prior to his Coronation Richard had issued a proclamation forbidding Jews to attend. When some did a riot broke out, which spread.

Richard I Appoints his Bishops

On 15 Sep 1189 Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (32) held a Council meeting at Pipewell at which he appointed a number of Bishops:

William Longchamp Bishop of Ely -1197 was elected Bishop of Ely.

Godfrey Lucy Bishop of Winchester -1204 was elected Bishop of Winchester.

Richard Fitzneal Bishop of London 1130-1198 (59) was elected Bishop of London.

Hubert Walter Archbishop of Canterbury 1160-1205 (29) was elected Bishop of Salisbury.

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Richard I Takes Messina

On 04 Oct 1190 Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (33) attacked and captured Messina.

On 20 Jan 1191 Theobald "Good" Blois V Count Blois 1130-1191 (61) died. His son [his nephew] Louis Blois I Count Blois 1172-1205 (19) succeeded I Count Blois.

Richard I arrives Limasol

On 01 May 1191 Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (33) arrived in Limassol where he met with Guy I King Jerusalem 1150-1194 (41).

Wedding of King Richard I and Berengaria of Navarre

On 12 May 1191 Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (33) and [his wife] Berengaria of Navarre Queen Consort England 1165-1230 (26) were married at Chapel of St George at Limassol Castle. They were half fourth cousins. He a son of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. [his wife] She was crowned Queen Consort England.

Richard's sister [his sister] Joan Plantagenet Queen Consort Sicily 1165-1199 (25) was present.

Richard I Lands at Acre

On 08 Jun 1191 Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (33) landed at Acre.

1192 Letter VI Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England 1122 1204 to Pope Celestine. 1192. Letter VI. [his mother] Eleanor of Aquitaine (70) to Pope Celestine.

To the reverend father and lord Celestine, by God's grace highest pontiff, Eleanora the miserable, and I would I could add the commiserated, queen of England, duchess of Normandy, countess of Anjou, entreating him to shew himself a father of mercy to a miserable mother.

I am prevented, O holiest pope, by the great distance which parts us, from addressing you personally$1 yet I must bewail my grief a little, and who shall assist me to write my words?.

I am all anxiety, internally and externally, whence my very words are full of grief. Without are fears, within contentions; nor have I a moment wherein to breathe freely from the tribulation of evils, and the grief occasioned by the troubles which ever find me out. I am all defiled with grief, and my bones cleave to my skin, for my flesh is wasted away. My years pass away in groanings, and 1 would they were altogether passed away. O that the whole blood of my body would now die, that the brain of my head and the marrow of my bones were so dissolved into tears that I might melt away in weeping! My very bowels are torn away from me; I have lost the light of my eyes, the staff of my old age: and, would God accede to my wishes, he would condemn me to perpetual blindness, that my wretched eyes might no longer behold the woes of my people. Who will grant me the boon of dying for thee, my son? O mother of mercy! look upon a mother so wretched; or if thy Son, the inexhausted fount of mercy, is avenging the sins of the mother on the son, let him exact vengeance from her who has alone sinned: let him punish me, the wicked one, and not amuse himself with the punishment of an innocent person. Let him who hath begun the task, who now bruises me, take away his hand and slay me; and this shall be my consolation, that, afflicting me with grief, he spares me not. O wretched me, yet pitied by none! why have I, the mistress of two kingdoms, the mother of two kings, reached the ignominy of a detested old age?.

My bowels are torn away, my very race is destroyed and passing away from me. The [his brother] young king (36) and the Earl of Bretagne (33) sleep in the dust, and their most unhappy mother is compelled to live that she may be ever tortured with the memory of the dead. Two sons yet survived to my solace, who now survive only to distress me, a miserable and condemned creature: King Richard (34) is detained in bonds, and John (25), his brother, depopulates the captive's kingdom with the sword, and lays it waste with fire. In all things the Lord is become cruel towards me, and opposes me with a heavy hand. Truly his anger fights against me, when my very sons fight against each other, if, indeed, that can be called a fight in which one party languishes in bonds, and the other, adding grief to grief, tries, by cruel tyranny to usurp the exile's kingdom to himself.

O good Jesus! who will grant me thy protection, and hide me in hell itself till thy fury passes away, and till thy arrows whiqh are in me, by whose vehemence my very spirit is drunk up, shall cease? I long for death, I am weary of life; and though I thus die incessantly, I yet desire to die more fally; I am reluctantly compelled to live, that my life may be the food of death and a means of torture. O happy ye who pass away by a fortunate abortion, without experiencing the waywardness of this life and the unexpected events of an uncertain condition! What do I? why do I remain? why do I wretched, delay? why do I not go, that I may see him whom my soul loves, bound in beggary and irons? as though, at such a time, a mother could forget the son of her womb! Affection to their young softens tigers, nay, even the fiercer sorceresses.

Yet I fluctuate in doubt: for, if I go away, deserting my son's kingdom, which is laid waste on all sides with fierce hostility, it will in my absence be destitute of all counsel and solace; again, if I stay, I shall not see the face of my son, that face which I so long for. There will be none who will study to procure the liberation of my son, and, what 1 fear still more, the most delicate youth (34) will be tormented for an impossible quantity of money, and, impatient of so much affliction, will easily be brought to the agonies of death. Oh, impious, cruel, and dreadful tyrant! who hast not feared to lay sacrilegious hands on the anointed of the Lord! nor has the royal unction, nor the reverence due to a holy life, nor the fear of God, restrained thee from such inhumanity!

Yet the prince of the apostles still rules and reigns in the apostolic seat, and his judicial rigour is set up as a means of resort: this one thing remains, that you, O father, draw against these evildoers the sword of Peter, which for this purpose is set over people and kingdoms. The cross of Christ excels the eagles of Ceasar, the sword of Peter the sword of Constantine, and the apostolic seat is placed above the imperial power. Is your power of God or of men? Has not the God of gods spoken to you by the Apostle Peter, that whatsoever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatsoever you loose on earth shall be loosed also in heaven? Wherefore, then, do you so long negligently, nay, cruelly, delay to free my son (34), or rather do not dare to do it? You will, perhaps, say that this power is given to you over souls, not over bodies: be it so; it will certainly suffice me if you will bind their souls who hold my son bound in prison. It is your province to loose my son, unless the fear of God has given way to human fear. Restore my son to me, then, O man of God, if indeed thou art a man of God and not a man of blood; for know that, if thou art sluggish in the liberation of my son, from thy hand will the Most High require his blood. Alas, alas for us, when the chief shepherd has become a mercenary, when he flies from the face of the wolf, when he leaves the little sheep committed to him, or rather the elect ram, the leader of the Lord's flock, in the jaws of the bloody beast of prey! The good Shepherd instructs and informs other shepherds not to fly when they see the wolf coming, but to lay down their lives for the sheep. Save, therefore, I entreat thee, thine own soul, whilst, by urgent embassies, by salutary advice, by the thunders of excommunication, by general interdicts, by terrible sentences, thou endeavourest to procure the liberation, I will not say of thy sheep merely, but of thy son. Though late, you ought to give your life for him, for whom, as yet, you have refused to write or speak a single word. The Son of God, as testifies the prophet, came down from heaven that he might bring up them that were bound from the pit in which was no water. Now, would not that which was fitting for God to do become the servant of God? My son is tormented in bonds, yet you go not down to him, nor send, nor are moved by the sorrow of Joseph. Christ sees this and is silent; yet at the last there shall be fearful retribution for those who do the work of God negligently. Ambassadors have been promised to us three times, but never sent; so that« to speak the truth, they are bound rather than sent. If my son were in prosperity, they would eagerly hasten at his lightest call, because they would expect rich handfuls for their embassy from his great munificence and the public profit of the kingdom. But what profit could be more glorious to them than to liberate a captive king, to restore peace to the people, quiet to the religious, and joy to all? Now, truly, the sons of Ephraim, who bent and sent forth the bow, have turned round in the day of battle; and in the time of distress when the wolf comes upon the prey, they are dumb dogs who either cannot or will not bark. Is this the promise you made me at the castle of Ralph with such protestations of favour and good faith? What availed it to give words only to my simplicity, and to illude by a fond trust the wishes of the innocent? So, in olden time, was King Ahab forbidden to make alliance with Ben-hadad, and we have heard the fatal issue of their mutual love.*^ A heavenly providence prospered the wars of Judas, John, and Simon, the Maccabsean brothers, under happy auspices; but when they sent an embassy to secure the friendship of the Romans, they lost the help of God, and, not once alone, but often was their venal intimacy cause of bitter regret.* You alone, who were my hope after God, and the trust of my people, force me to despair. Cursed be he who trusteth in man. Where is now my refuge?.

Thou, O Lord my God. To thee, O Lord, who considerest my distress, are the eyes of thine handmaid lifted up. Thou, O King of kings and Lord of lords, look upon the face of thine Anointed, give empire to thy Son, and save the son of thine handmaid, nor visit upon him the crimes of his father or the wickedness of his mother!

We know by certain and public relation that the emperor, after the death of the Bishop of Liege (26) (whom he is said to have slain with a fiital sword, though wielded by a remote hand (42)), miserably imprisoned the Bishop of Ostia and four other provincials, the Bishop of Salerno, and the Archbishop of Treves; and the apostolic authority cannot deny that, to the perpetual prejudice of the Roman church, he has, in spite of embassies, supplications, and threats of the apostolic seat, taken possession of Sicily, which from the times of Constantine has been the patrimony of St. Peter. Yet with all this his fury is not yet turned away, but yet is his hand stretched forth. Fearful things he has already done, but worse are still certainly to be expected; for those who ought to be the Pillars of the church are swayed with reed-like lightness by every wind. Oh, would they but remember that it was through the negligence of Eli, the priest ministering in Shiloh, that the glory of the Lord passed away from Israel I. Nor is that a mere parable of the past, but of the present. For the Lord drove from Shiloh the tabernacle, his tabernacle, where he had dwelt amongst men, and gave their strength into captivity and, their beauty into the hands of the enemy.

It is imputed to your pusillanimity that the church is trampled upon, the faith perilled, liberty oppressed, deceit encouraged by patience, iniquity by impunity. Where is the promise of God when be said to his church, 'Thou shalt suck the milk of the Gentiles, and shalt suck the breasts of kings? I will make thee the pride of ages, and a joy from generation to generation. Once the church, by its own strength, trod upon the necks of the proud and the lofty, and the laws of emperors obeyed the' sacred canons. But things are changed, and not only the canons, but the very formers of the canons, are restrained by base laws and execrable customs. The detestable crimes of the powerful are borne with. None dare murmur, and canonical rigour falls on the sins of the poor alone. Therefore, not without reason did Anachar^is the philosopher compare laws and canons to spiders' webs, which reti^in weaker animals but let the stronger go. ^* The kings of the earth have set themselves, and the rulers have taken counsel together/*^ against my son, the anointed of the Lord. One binds him in chains, another devastates his lands with cruel hostility, or, to use a vulgar phrase. One clips and another plunders; one holds the foot and another skins it. The highest pontiff sees these things, and yet bids the sword of Peter slumber in its scabbard; so he adds boldness to the sinner, his silence being presumed to indicate consent. He who corrects^ not when he can and ought seems even to consent, and his dissimulating patience shall not want the scruple of hidden companionship.'* The time of dissension predicted by the apostle draws on, when the son of perdition shall be revealed; dangerous times are at hand, when the seamless garment of Christ is cut, the net of Peter is broken, and the solidity of Catholic unity dissolved. These are the beginnings of sorrows. We feel bad things; we fear worse. I am no prophetess, nor the daughter of a prophet, but grief has suggested many things about future disturbances; yet it steals away the very words which it suggests. A sob intercepts my breath, and absorbing grief shutS' up by its anxieties the vocal passages of my soul. Farewell.

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Attempt of Jerusalem

In Jun 1192 Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (34) and the crusader army advanced on Jerusalem coming within sight of it before factionalism caused the army to retreat.

Capture of Richard I

On 09 Oct 1192 Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (35) left the Holy Land for England. Bad weather forced him to land at Corfu. Richard sailed from Corfu but his ship was wrecked at Aquileia from where he travelled overland.

In 1193 [his niece] Eleanor "Fair Maid of Britanny" Plantagenet 1184-1241 (9) was engaged to Duke Frederick I of Austria 1175-1198 (18), son of Leopold V Duke of Austria 1157-1194 (36). Leopold had imprisoned King Richard (35) when he was returning from the crusade. Leopold demanded the marriage of King Richard's niece [his niece] Eleanor (9) to his son Frederick (18), as part of the ransom for Richard's (35) release. Leopold V Duke of Austria 1157-1194 (36) died the following year so the marriage didn't take place. [his niece] Eleanor "Fair Maid of Britanny" Plantagenet 1184-1241 (9) was travelling to Austria, accompanied by Baldwin Béthune Count Aumale 1158-1212 (35), when Leopold died. She returned with her grandmother Eleanor of Aquitaine (71).

Capture of Richard I

On 28 Mar 1193 Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (35) was handed over to Henry Hohenstaufen VI Holy Roman Emperor 1165-1197 (27) who imprisoned him in Trifels Castle.

Richard I Released

On 04 Feb 1194 Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (36) was released from his captivity; his mother [his mother] Eleanor of Aquitaine (72) having brought the ransom of 100,000 pounds of silver. On release King Philip II of France 1165-1223 (28) is said to have sent a message to the future King John (27) "Look to yourself; the devil is loose".

Richard Lionheart Returns to England

On 04 Mar 1194 Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (36) and his mother [his mother] Eleanor of Aquitaine (72) sailed from Antwerp on board the Trenchemer. The royal admiral, Stephen of Turnham, who was commanding in person, had to employ experienced pilots to take her through the coastal islets and out into the estuary of the Scheldt. It was a long crossing, perhaps deliberately so, to avoid ambush. The Trenchemer was escorted by a large cog from the Cinque port of Rye.

On 13 Mar 1194 Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (36) and his mother [his mother] Eleanor of Aquitaine (72) landed in England at Sandwich.

Richard I Re-crowned

In Apr 1194 Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (36) was re-crowned I King England at Winchester Cathedral. William de Vere Bishop of Hereford -1198 was present.

On 27 Jun 1194 [his father-in-law] Sancho "Wise" King Navarre 1132-1194 (62) died at Pamplona. His son Sancho "Strong" VII King Navarre 1154-1234 (40) succeeded VII King Navarre.

Richard I's Ransom

In Dec 1194 [his mother] Eleanor of Aquitaine (72) left Orford with her son Richard's (37) ranson of 100,000 marks in silver and 200 hostages. She was accompanied by Walter de Coutances -1207 and William Longchamp Bishop of Ely -1197. Hubert Walter Bishop of Salisbury (34) was Regent of England in her absence.

In 1195 [his brother-in-law] Sancho "Strong" VII King Navarre 1154-1234 (40) and Constance Rouerge Queen Consort Navarre 1180-1260 (15) were married. They were half third cousins once removed. She by marriage Queen Consort Navarre.

Around Jul 1195 King Philip II of France 1165-1223 (29) proposed [his niece] Eleanor "Fair Maid of Britanny" Plantagenet 1184-1241 (11) marry his son Louis "Lion" VIII King France 1187-1226 (7) as part of peace negotiations with Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (37).

In 1196 [his illegitimate half-brother] William "Longsword" Longespee 3rd Earl Salisbury 1176-1226 (20) and Ela Longespee 3rd Countess Salisbury 1187-1261 (9) were married. He a son of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. [his illegitimate half-brother] She by marriage 3rd Earl Salisbury 1C 1149.

In Oct 1196 Raymond Rouerge Marquess Provence 1156-1222 (39) and [his sister] Joan Plantagenet Queen Consort Sicily 1165-1199 (31) were married at Rouen. They were third cousins once removed. She a daughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. [his sister] She by marriage Countess Toulose.

In 1197 Alfonso IX King Leon 1171-1230 (25) and [his niece] Berengaria Ivrea I Queen Castile 1179-1246 (18) were married. They were first cousins once removed. She a granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. [his niece] She by marriage Queen Consort Leon.

In 1197 [his half-sister] Alix Capet Countess Blois 1150-1197 (46) died.

In 1197 [his nephew] Henry Blois II Count Champagne 1166-1197 (30) died.

On 11 Mar 1198 [his half-sister] Marie Capet Countess Champagne 1145-1198 (53) died.

Death of Richard I

On 06 Apr 1199 Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (41) was besieging Châlus-Chabrol Castle, Domfront. During the course of the evening Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (41) was shot by a crossbow. The wound quickly became gangrenous; Richard died in the arms of his mother [his mother] Eleanor of Aquitaine (77). His brother John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216 (32) succeeded I King England.

There was a brother between Richard and John named [his brother] Geoffrey Duke of Brittany (40) who had a son [his nephew] Arthur (12), who was around twelve, and a daughter [his niece] Eleanor (15), who was around fifteen, whose mother was Constance Penthièvre Duchess Brittany 1161-1201 (38).

King Philip II of France 1165-1223 (33) had planned for [his niece] Eleanor "Fair Maid of Britanny" Plantagenet 1184-1241 (15) to marry his son, probably to bring Brittany into the French Royal family, possibly to pursue a claim on England.

King Philip II of France 1165-1223 (33), and Brittany, supported [his nephew] Arthur's (12) claim to the English throne. In the resulting war [his nephew] Arhur (12) was captured, imprisoned and never seen again. [his niece] Eleanor (15) was captured, probably around the same time as Arthur, and imprisoned, more or less, for the remainder of her life, even after King John's death through the reign of King Henry III since she represented a threat to Henry's succession.

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Death of Berengaria of Navarre

On 23 Dec 1230 [his wife] Berengaria of Navarre Queen Consort England 1165-1230 (65) died. She the widow of Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 (73) who she had married in 1191 in Cyprus whilst he was on Crusade. She had been brought to Cyprus by his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine who was near seventy at the time. Their marriage started with his taking Jerusalem then being captured and held hostage for three years. There were no children of the marriage. She is believed to have never set foot in England. She didn't marry again.

Capture of Richard I

Around 25 Dec 1992 Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199 was captured near Vienna by Leopold V Duke of Austria 1157-1194 who blamed Richard for the death of his cousin Conrad of Montferrat. Further, Richard had offended Leopold by casting down his standard from the walls of Acre. Leopold imprisoned Richard at Dürnstein Castle. Leopold was excommunicated by Pope Celestine III for having imprisoned a crusader. He had travelled from Aquileia which suggests he was taking an easterly route around the Alps rather than travelling westerly through Lombardy, or acress the Alps, both of which would have been shorter.

Baldwin IX Count Flanders VI Count Hainault 1171-1205 and [his niece] Marie Blois Countess Flanders -1204 were married. They were fourth cousins. She a great x 2 granddaughter of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087. [his niece] She by marriage Countess Flanders, Count Flanders.

James I King Aragon 1208-1276 and [his niece] Eleanor Ivrea Queen Consort Aragon -1244 were married. They were half second cousins. She a granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. [his niece] She by marriage Queen Consort Aragon.

[his son] Philip Plantagenet was born to Richard "Lionheart" I King England 1157-1199.