Biography of Samuel Pepys Diarist 1633-1703

In 1626 [his father] John Pepys Tailor 1601-1680 (24) and [his mother] Margaret Kite -1667 were married.

In 1633 Robert Sawyer Attorney General 1633-1692 was born to Edmund Sawyer of Heywood Lodge in White Waltham in Berkshire. He was educated at Magdalene College aka Buckingham where he was a contemporary of Samuel Pepys Diarist 1633-1703.

On 23 Feb 1633 Samuel Pepys Diarist 1633-1703 was born to [his father] John Pepys Tailor 1601-1680 (32) and [his mother] Margaret Kite -1667 in Salisbury Court. He was baptised at St Bride's Church by James Palmer Vicar St Brides 1585-1660 (51).

Samuel Pepys to John Evelyn. 27 Apr 1655.
Sir (34),.
From a letter this day come to my hand from a Shipp of ours (the little Guift) that in a Conflict with a Hollander on the Irish Coast (wherein shoe though much over matched hath acquitted her selfe very well) hath had severall Men wounded, who are putt on shoare for care at Galloway, give me leave to aske you whether any Provision for sick and wounded men is made in Ireland, not with respect to theis Men only, but to the future ocasions in Generall which wee may Probably have of useing it there. You will Pardon this enquiry from one that hath soe little Right to offer you trouble as.
Your humble servant.
S:P (22).
Source: NMM Letter-Book 8, 199.

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Around 1644. Robert Walker Painter 1599-1658. Portrait of John Evelyn Diarist 1620-1706.In 1689 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723. Portrait of John Evelyn Diarist 1620-1706.Around 1650 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of John Evelyn Diarist 1620-1706.

On 01 Dec 1655 Samuel Pepys Diarist 1633-1703 (22) and [his wife] Elizabeth de St Michel 1640-1669 (15) were married at St Margaret's Church by Richard Sherwyn, Esq, a Westminster Justice of the Peace, an arrangement for civil marriages put in place by Cromwell's government.

On 10 Dec 1655 Samuel Pepys Diarist 1633-1703 (22) and [his wife] Elizabeth de St Michel 1640-1669 (15) were remarried in a religious ceremony.

26 Dec is known as Boxing Day. No-one knows why. Samuel Pepys Diarist 1633-1703 (30) in his entry for 19 Dec 1663 "paid all there, and gave something to the boys' box against Christmas." which may provide an indication of the origin of the term Boxing

Calendar of State Papers Charles II 14 Nov 1664. 14 Nov 1664. 103. Commissioner Peter Pett (54) to Sam. Pepys (31). The Triumph has sailed with 70 men from the Kent, and 50 soldiers that came from Hull. Progress of ships. [Adm. Paper.]

On 08 Feb 1665 Thomas Povey Master of Requests 1614-1705 (51) proposed Samuel Pepys Diarist 1633-1703 (31) as a Fellow of the Royal Society.

Around 1657 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Thomas Povey Master of Requests 1614-1705.

Calendar of State Papers Charles II 1665 29 Jun 1665. 29 Jun 1665. 82. Comr. Thos. Middleton to Sam. Pepys (32). Progress and dispatch of ships; 45 carpenters are to be discharged; the ropemakers have discharged themselves for want of money, and gone into the country to make hay. Asks how many sorts of sails shall be made. [Adm. Paper, 1 pages.]

In 1666. John Hayls Painter 1600-1679 (66). Portrait of Samuel Pepys Diarist 1633-1703 (32). See Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 February 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 March 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 March 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 28 March 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 30 March 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 April 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 April 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 11 April 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 April 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 16 May 1666.

In 1666. John Hayls Painter 1600-1679. Portrait of Samuel Pepys Diarist 1633-1703. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 February 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 March 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 March 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 28 March 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 30 March 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 April 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 April 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 11 April 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 April 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 16 May 1666.

On 25 Mar 1667 [his mother] Margaret Kite -1667 died.

Calendar of State Papers Charles II Oct 1667. Oct 1667 101. Sir Wm. Coventry (39) to Pepys (34). Besides the 30,000l. received by Lord Anglesey from the East India Company on the seamen's wages, the Treasury Comrs. are sure of 20,000l. more from them on another assignment before January, which is intended for wages, so are desirous that he should pay in the river as well as at Chatham, as fast as he can, to cut off the growing charge, beginning first with those ships where the least money will cut off the most charge. No day, except Sunday, should be neglected in this work, and the certificates be returned to the Treasury chamber of what money is weekly paid. [Adm. Paper.].

Before 23 Jun 1686 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699. Portrait of William Coventry 1628-1686.

Calendar of State Papers Charles II Oct 1667. Oct 1667. 102. Proposals by Sir Thos. Strickland (45) to the Navy Comrs., to build three third-rate frigates in Foudray Pill, to be completed by 1 Aug. 1671, upon a similar contract to that of Mr. Baylie, of Bristol. [Adm. Paper.] Enclosing,.
102. i. Edward Tyldesley to Sam. Pepys (34). Robt. Withers (49) and the writer have viewed Foudray Pill, where they proposed to build ships for the King's service. Sends a draft sketch thereof, leaving the rest of the business to be transacted by his partners, Sir Thos. Strickland (45) and Mr. Withers (49). Has such timber as all England cannot show. Lodge in the Forest of Meirscough, 01 Oct 1667.
102. ii. Sketch of Walney Island, the pill, bar, &c., in coloured chalks.

Before 08 Jan 1694 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696 (attributed). Described as a Portrait of Thomas Strickland 1621-1694.

Calendar of State Papers Charles II 26 Mar 1668. 26 Mar 1668. Woolwich. Ann Pett to Sam. Pepys (35). My husband (47) died last Sunday, and has left me in a mean condition, having spent by losses and sickness my own estate and his, and I have 4 children and am £300. in debt. His sickness has cost, since he came to Woolwich, £700., besides what is now to pay. I intreat you to assist me in obtaining £500. due to my husband, as also money owing in the yard, and to stand my friend to the Navy Commissioners, that I may continue in my house some time longer; my husband always attended to his Majesty’s service, and never looked after his own concerns. [Ibid. No. 71.]

John Evelyn's Diary 10 June 1669. 10 Jun 1669. Came my Lord Cornbury, Sir William Pulteney (45), and others to visit me. I went this evening to London, to carry Mr. Pepys (36) to my brother Richard (46), now exceedingly afflicted with the stone, who had been successfully cut, and carried the stone as big as a tennis ball to show him, and encourage his resolution to go through the operation.

On 10 Nov 1669 [his wife] Elizabeth de St Michel 1640-1669 (29) died of typhoid.

Calendar of State Papers Charles II 30 Sep 1670. 26 Oct 1670. Chatham. Wm. Rand and Ph. Pett to Sir Jer. Smith and Sam. Pepys (37). We send a copy of Sir Wm. Batten’s account, but that wherein Commissioner Pett (69) and Capt. Taylor made that extravagant allowance to themselves is in Mr. Shales’ hands, who also had copies of the documents enclosed, they being letters of more than ordinary importance. We hope Commissioner Cox will be at the Council, and Capt. Brooke and Mr. Mynors waiting upon him, which will make a sufficient number to appear on the chest’s behalf. We cannot send the letters which passed between the Board and our supervisors, they being committed to a chest with 5 locks, whose keys are distributed amongst so many persons that they cannot be readily collected; but we conceive there will be no need of them, the case being so evident by the accounts. [S.P. Dom., Car. IT. 286, No. 64.]

John Evelyn's Diary 19 February 1671. 19 Feb 1671. This day dined with me Mr. Surveyor, Dr. Christopher Wren (47), and Mr. Pepys (37), Clerk of the Acts, two extraordinary, ingenious, and knowing persons, and other friends. I carried them to see the piece of carving which I had recommended to the King (40). Note. Those of Grinling Gibbons Sculptor 1648-1721 (22) - see John Evelyn's Diary 18 January 1671.

John Evelyn's Diary 21 August 1674. 21 Aug 1674. In one of the meadows at the foot of the long Terrace below the Windsor Castle, works were thrown up to show the King (44) a representation of the city of Maestricht, newly taken by the French. Bastians, bulwarks, ramparts, palisadoes, graffs, horn-works, counter-scarps, etc., were constructed. It was attacked by the Duke of Monmouth (25) (newly come from the real siege) and the Duke of York (40), with a little army, to show their skill in tactics. On Saturday night they made their approaches, opened trenches, raised batteries, took the counter-scarp and ravelin, after a stout defense; great guns fired on both sides, grenadoes shot, mines sprung, parties sent out, attempts of raising the siege, prisoners taken, parleys; and, in short, all the circumstances of a formal siege, to appearance, and, what is most strange all without disorder, or ill accident, to the great satisfaction of a thousand spectators. Being night, it made a formidable show. The siege being over, I went with Mr. Pepys (41) back to London, where we arrived about three in the morning.

John Evelyn's Diary 22 May 1676. 22 May 1676. Trinity Monday. A chaplain of my Lord Ossory's (41) preached, after which we took barge to Trinity House in London. Mr. Pepys (43) (Secretary of the Admiralty) succeeded my Lord as Master.

John Evelyn's Diary 26 August 1676. 26 Aug 1676. I dined at the Admiralty with Secretary Pepys (43), and supped at the Lord Chamberlain's (58). Here was Captain Baker, who had been lately on the attempt of the Northwest passage. He reported prodigious depth of ice, blue as a sapphire, and as transparent. The thick mists were their chief impediment, and cause of their return.

Popish Plot

John Evelyn's Diary 04 June 1679. 04 Jun 1679. I dined with Mr. Pepys (46) in the Tower of London, he having been committed by the House of Commons for misdemeanors in the Admiralty when he was secretary; I believe he was unjustly charged. Here I saluted my Lords Stafford (64) and Petre (53), who were committed for the Popish plot.

John Evelyn's Diary 03 July 1679. 03 Jul 1679. Sending a piece of venison to Mr. Pepys (46), still a prisoner, I went and dined with him.

In 1680 [his father] John Pepys Tailor 1601-1680 (78) died.

John Evelyn's Diary 28 January 1682. 28 Jan 1682. Mr. Pepys (48), late Secretary to the Admiralty, showed me a large folio containing the whole mechanic part and art of building royal ships and men-of-war, made by Sir Anthony Dean (48), being so accurate a piece from the very keel to the lead block, rigging, guns, victualing, manning, and even to every individual pin and nail, in a method so astonishing and curious, with a draught, both geometrical and in perspective, and several sections, that I do not think the world can show the like. I esteem this book as an extraordinary jewel.

John Evelyn's Diary 02 March 1682. 02 Mar 1682. Ash Wednesday. I went to church: our vicar preached on Proverbs, showing what care and vigilance was required for the keeping of the heart upright. The Holy Communion followed, on which I gave God thanks for his gracious dealing with me in my late sickness, and affording me this blessed opportunity of praising him in the congregation, and receiving the cup of salvation with new and serious resolutions.
Came to see and congratulate my recovery, Sir John Lowther (77), Mr. Herbert, Mr. Pepys (49), Sir Anthony Deane (48), and Mr. Hill.

John Evelyn's Diary 20 July 1685. 20 Jul 1685. The Trinity House met this day, which should have ben on ye Monday after Trinity, but was put off by reason of the Royal Charter being so large that it could not be ready before. Some immunities were super-added. Mr. Pepys (52), Secretary to ye Admiralty, was a second time chosen Master. There were present the Duke of Grafton (21), Lord Dartmouth (12), Master of ye Ordnance, the Commissioners of ye Navy, and brethren of the Corporation. We went to Church according to costome, and then took barge to the Trinity House, in London, where we had a great dinner, above 80 at one table.

John Evelyn's Diary 15 September 1685. 15 Sep 1685. I accompanied Mr. Pepys (52) to Portsmouth, whither his Ma* (51) was going the first time since his coming to the Crowne, to see in what state the fortifications were. We tooke coach and six horses, late after dinner, yet got to Bagshot that night. Whilst supper was making ready I went and made a visit to Mrs. Graham (34), some time maid of honour to ye Queene Dowager (46), now wife to James Graham, Esq (36) of the privy purse to the King (55); her house being a walke in the forest, within a little quarter of a mile from Bagshot towne. Very importunate she was that I would sup, and abide there that night, but being obliged by my companion, I return'd to our inn, after she had shew'd me her house, wch was very commodious and well furnish'd, as she was an excellent housewife, a prudent and virtuous lady. There is a parke full of red deere about it. Her eldest son was now sick there of the small-pox, but in a likely way of recovery, and other of her children run about, and among the infected, wnh she said she let them do on purpose that they might whilst young pass that fatal disease she fancied they were to undergo one time or other, and that this would be the best: the severity of this cruell disease so lately in my poore family confirming much of what she affirmed.

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John Evelyn's Diary 02 October 1685. 02 Oct 1685. Having a letter sent me by Mr. Pepys (52) with this expression at the foote of it, "I have something to shew you that I may not have another time", and that I would not faile to dine with him, I accordingly went. After dinner he had me and Mr. Houblon (a rich and considerable merchant, whose father had fled out of Flanders on the persecution of the Duke of Alva) into a private roome, and told us that being lately alone with his Ma*, and upon some occasion of speaking concerning my late Lord Arlington (67) dying a Roman Catholic, who had all along seem'd to profess himselfe a Protestant, taken all the tests, &c. till the day (I think) of his death, his Ma* sayd that as to his inclinations he had known him long wavering, but from feare of looseing his places he did not think it convenient to declare himself. There are, says the King (55), those who believe the Church of Rome gives dispensations for going to church, and many like things, but that is not so; for if that might have ben had, he himselfe had most reason to make use of it. Indeede, he said, as to some matrimonial cases, there are now and then dispensations, but hardly in any cases else. This familiar discourse encourag'd Mr. Pepys to beg of his Ma*, if he might ask it without offence, and for that his Ma* could not but observe how it was whisper'd among many, whether his late Ma* bad ben reconcil'd to ye Church of Rome; he againe humbly besought his Ma* to pardon his presumption if he had touch'd upon a thing which did not befit him to looke into: the King (55) ingenuously told him that he both was and died a Roman Catholic, and that he had not long since declar'd it was upon some politic and state reasons, best known to himselfe (meaning the King (55) his brother) but that he was of that persuasion: he bid him follow him into his closet, where opening a cabinet, he shew'd him two papers, containing about a quarter of a sheete, on both sides written, in the late King's owne hand, severall arguments opposite to the doctrine of the Church of England, charging her with heresy, novelty and ye fanaticism of other Protestants, the cheif whereof was, as I remember, our refusing to acknowledge the Primacy and Infallibility of the Church of Rome; how impossible it was that so many ages should never dispute it, till of late; how unlikely our Saviour would leave his Church without a visible head and guide to resort to, during his absence; with the like usual topics; so well penn'd as to the discourse as did by no means seeme to me to have ben put together by the late King, yet written all with his owne hand, blotted and interlin'd, so as, if indeede it was not given him by some priest, they might be such arguments and reasons as had ben inculcated from time to time, and here recollected; and in the conclusion shewing his looking on the Protestant Religion (and by name the Church of England) to be without foundation, and consequently false and unsafe. When his Ma* had shewn him these originals, he was pleas'd to lend him the copies of those two papers, attested at the bottome in 4 or 5 lines, under his owne hand.
These were the papers I saw and read. This nice and curious passage I thought fit to set downe. Tho' all the arguments and objections were altogether weake, and have a thousand times ben answer'd by our Divines; they are such as their Priests insinuate among their proselites, as if nothing were Catholiq but the Church of Rome, no salvation out of that, no reformation sufferable, bottoming all their errors on St. Peter's successors unerrable dictatorship, but proving nothing with any reason, or taking notice of any objection which could be made against it. Here all was taken for granted, and upon it a resolution and preference implied. I was heartily sorry to see all this, tho' it was no other than was to be suspected, by his late Ma*s too greate indiffer ence, neglect, and course of life, that he had ben perverted, and for secular respects onely profess'd to be of another beliefe, and thereby giving greate advantage to our adversaries, both the Court and generaly the youth and greate persons of the Nation becoming dissolute and highly profane. God was incens'd to make his reign very troublesome and unprosperous, by warrs, plagues, fires, losse of reputation by an universal neglect of the publique for the love of a voluptuous and sensual life, wc?? a vlcions?? Court had brought into credit. I think of it with sorrow and pity when I consider of how good and debonaire a nature that unhappy Prince was, what opportunities he had to have made himselfe the most renown'd King that ever sway'd the British scepter, had he ben firm to that Church for wch his martyr'd and blessed father suffer'd; and had he ben gratefull to Almighty God, who so miraculously restor'd him, with so excellent a Religion; had he endeavour'd to owne and propagate it as he should have don, not onely for the good of his Kingdom, but of all the Reformed Churches in Christendom, now weaken'd and neere ruin'd thro' our remissnesse and suffering them to be suplanted, persecuted and destroy'd, as in France, which we tooke no notice of. The consequence of this time will shew, and I wish it may proceed no further. The emissaries and instruments of the Church of Rome will never rest till they have crush'd the Church of England, as knowing that alone to be able to cope with them, and that they can never answer her fairly, but lie aboundantly open to the irresistable force of her arguments, antiquity and purity of her doctrine, so that albeit it may move God, for the punishment of a Nation so unworthy, to eclipse againe the profession of her here, and darknesse and superstition prevaile, I am most confident the doctrine of the Church of England will never be extinguish'd, but remaine visible, if not eminent, to ye consummation of the world. I have innumerable reasons that confirm me in this opinion, which I forbear to mention here. In the mean time as to the discourse of his Ma* with Mr. Pepys, and those papers, as I do exceedingly prefer his Majesty's (55) free and in genuous profession of what his own Religion is, beyond concealment upon any politic accounts, so I thinke him of a most sincere and honest nature, one on whose word one may relie, and that he makes a con science of what he promises, to performe it. In this confidence I hope that the Church of England may yet subsist, and when it shall please God to open his eyes and turne his heart (for that is peculiarly in the Lord's hands) to flourish also. In all events whatever do become of the Church of England, it is certainely, of all the Christian professions on the earth, the most primitive, apostolical and excellent.

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John Evelyn's Diary 13 December 1685. 13 Dec 1685. Dr Patrick, Dean of Peterborough (59), preach'd at Whitehall before ye Princesse of Denmark (20); who since his Ma* (52) came to the Crown, allways sate in the King's (55) closet, and had the same bowings and ceremonies applied to the place where she was, as his Ma* had when there in person.
Dining at Mr. Pepys's (52), Dr. Slayer shewed us an experiment of a wonderful nature, pouring first a very cold liquor into a glass, and super-fusing on it another, to appearance cold and cleare liquor also; it first produced a white cloud, then boiling, divers cormscations and actual flames of fire mingled with the liquor, which being a little shaken together, fixed divers sunns and starrs of real fire, perfectly globular, on the sides of the glasse, and which there stuck like so many constellations, burning most vehemently, and resembling starrs and heavenly bodies, and that for a long space. It seemed to exhiblte a theorie of the eduction of light out of the chaos, and the fixing or gathering of the universal light into luminous bodys. This matter or phosphorus was made out of human blood and urine, elucidating the vital flame or heate in animal bodys. A very noble experiment.

John Evelyn's Diary 19 April 1687. 19 Apr 1687. I heard the famous singer, Cifaccio, esteemed the best in Europe. Indeed, his holding out and delicateness in extending and loosing a note with incomparable softness and sweetness, was admirable; for the rest I found him a mere wanton, effeminate child, very coy, and proudly conceited, to my apprehension. He touched the harpsichord to his voice rarely well. This was before a select number of particular persons whom Mr. Pepys (54) invited to his house; and this was obtained by particular favor and much difficulty, the Signor much disdaining to show his talent to any but princes.

Calendar of State Papers Charles II 30 Jan 1668. 30 Jan 1688. Woolwich. Wm. Acworth to Sam. Pepys (54). Desires that his coming up to the Woolwich. Board on Clayford’s complaint may be deferred till after the survey by Col. Middleton of the provisions in the stores; wants a copy of Clayford’s petition, and his Royal Highmess’s reference, that he may have time to clear himself; is receiving 100 tons of hemp from Sir John Shaw, and 40 from Mr. Hayle. [Ibid. No. 124.]

In 1689 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723 (42). Portrait of Samuel Pepys Diarist 1633-1703 (55).

In 1689 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723. Portrait of Samuel Pepys Diarist 1633-1703.

John Evelyn's Diary 27 January 1689. 27 Jan 1689. I dined at the Admiralty, where was brought in a child not twelve years old, the son of one Dr. Clench, of the most prodigious maturity of knowledge, for I cannot call it altogether memory, but something more extraordinary. Mr. Pepys (55) and myself examined him, not in any method, but with promiscuous questions, which required judgment and discernment to answer so readily and pertinently. There was not anything in chronology, history, geography, the several systems of astronomy, courses of the stars, longitude, latitude, doctrine of the spheres, courses and sources of rivers, creeks, harbors, eminent cities, boundaries and bearings of countries, not only in Europe, but in any other part of the earth, which he did not readily resolve and demonstrate his knowledge of, readily drawing out with a pen anything he would describe. He was able not only to repeat the most famous things which are left us in any of the Greek or Roman histories, monarchies, republics, wars, colonies, exploits by sea and land, but all the sacred stories of the Old and New Testament; the succession of all the monarchies, Babylonian, Persian, Greek, Roman, with all the lower Emperors, Popes, Heresiarchs, and Councils, what they were called about, what they determined, or in the controversy about Easter, the tenets of the Gnostics, Sabellians, Arians, Nestorians; the difference between St. Cyprian and Stephen about re-baptism, the schisms. We leaped from that to other things totally different, to Olympic years, and synchronisms; we asked him questions which could not be resolved without considerable meditation and judgment, nay of some particulars of the Civil Laws, of the Digest and Code. He gave a stupendous account of both natural and moral philosophy, and even in metaphysics.
Having thus exhausted ourselves rather than this wonderful child, or angel rather, for he was as beautiful and lovely in countenance as in knowledge, we concluded with asking him if, in all he had read or heard of, he had ever met with anything which was like this expedition of the Prince of Orange (38), with so small a force to obtain three great kingdoms without any contest. After a little thought, he told us that he knew of nothing which did more resemble it than the coming of Constantine the Great out of Britain, through France and Italy, so tedious a march, to meet Maxentius, whom he overthrew at Pons Milvius with very little conflict, and at the very gates of Rome, which he entered and was received with triumph, and obtained the empire, not of three kingdoms only, but of all the then known world. He was perfect in the Latin authors, spoke French naturally, and gave us a description of France, Italy, Savoy, Spain, ancient and modernly divided; as also of ancient Greece, Scythia, and northern countries and tracts: we left questioning further. He did this without any set or formal repetitions, as one who had learned things without book, but as if he minded other things, going about the room, and toying with a parrot there, and as he was at dinner (tanquam aliua agens, as it were) seeming to be full of play, of a lively, sprightly temper, always smiling, and exceedingly pleasant, without the least levity, rudeness, or childishness.
His father assured us he never imposed anything to charge his memory by causing him to get things by heart, not even the rules of grammar; but his tutor (who was a Frenchman) read to him, first in French, then in Latin; that he usually played among other boys four or five hours every day, and that he was as earnest at his play as at his study. He was perfect in arithmetic, and now newly entered into Greek. In sum (horresco referens), I had read of divers forward and precocious youths, and some I have known, but I never did either hear or read of anything like to this sweet child, if it be right to call him child who has more knowledge than most men in the world. I counseled his father not to set his heart too much on this jewel, "Immodicis brevis est ætas, et rara senectus", as I myself learned by sad experience in my most dear child Richard (36), many years since, who, dying before he was six years old, was both in shape and countenance and pregnancy of learning, next to a prodigy.

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John Evelyn's Diary 08 July 1689. 08 Jul 1689. I sat for my picture to Mr. Kneller (42), for Mr. Pepys (56), late Secretary to the Admiralty, holding my "Sylva" in my right hand. It was on his long and earnest request, and is placed in his library. Kneller (42) never painted in a more masterly manner.

John Evelyn's Diary 07 March 1690. 07 Mar 1690. I dined with Mr. Pepys (57), late Secretary to the Admiralty, where was that excellent shipwright and seaman (for so he had been, and also a Commission of the Navy), Sir Anthony Deane (56). Among other discourse, and deploring the sad condition of our navy, as now governed by inexperienced men since this Revolution, he mentioned what exceeding advantage we of this nation had by being the first who built frigates, the first of which ever built was that vessel which was afterward called "The Constant Warwick", and was the work of Pett of Chatham, for a trial of making a vessel that would sail swiftly; it was built with low decks, the guns lying near the water, and was so light and swift of sailing, that in a short time he told us she had, ere the Dutch war was ended, taken as much money from privateers as would have laden her; and that more such being built, did in a year or two scour the Channel from those of Dunkirk and others which had exceedingly infested it. He added that it would be the best and only infallible expedient to be masters of the sea, and able to destroy the greatest navy of any enemy if, instead of building huge great ships and second and third rates, they would leave off building such high decks, which were for nothing but to gratify gentlemen-commanders, who must have all their effeminate accommodations, and for pomp; that it would be the ruin of our fleets, if such persons were continued in command, they neither having experience nor being capable of learning, because they would not submit to the fatigue and inconvenience which those who were bred seamen would undergo, in those so otherwise useful swift frigates. These being to encounter the greatest ships would be able to protect, set on, and bring off, those who should manage the fire ships, and the Prince who should first store himself with numbers of such fire ships, would, through the help and countenance of such frigates, be able to ruin the greatest force of such vast ships as could be sent to sea, by the dexterity of working those light, swift ships to guard the fire ships. He concluded there would shortly be no other method of seafight; and that great ships and men-of-war, however stored with guns and men, must submit to those who should encounter them with far less number. He represented to us the dreadful effect of these fire ships; that he continually observed in our late maritime war with the Dutch that, when an enemy's fire ship approached, the most valiant commander and common sailors were in such consternation, that though then, of all times, there was most need of the guns, bombs, etc., to keep the mischief off, they grew pale and astonished, as if of a quite other mean soul, that they slunk about, forsook their guns and work as if in despair, every one looking about to see which way they might get out of their ship, though sure to be drowned if they did so. This he said was likely to prove hereafter the method of seafight, likely to be the misfortune of England if they continued to put gentlemen-commanders over experienced seamen, on account of their ignorance, effeminacy, and insolence.

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John Evelyn's Diary 10 June 1690. 10 Jun 1690. Mr. Pepys (57) read to me his Remonstrance, showing with what malice and injustice he was suspected with Sir Anthony Deane (56) about the timber, of which the thirty ships were built by a late Act of Parliament, with the exceeding danger which the fleet would shortly be in, by reason of the tyranny and incompetency of those who now managed the Admiralty and affairs of the Navy, of which he gave an accurate state, and showed his great ability.

Battle of the Boyne

John Evelyn's Diary 24 June 1690. 24 Jun 1690. Dined with Mr. Pepys (57), who the next day was sent to the Gatehouse, and several great persons to the Tower, on suspicion of being affected to King James (56); among them was the Earl of Clarendon, the Queen's (28) uncle. King William (39) having vanquished King James (56) in Ireland, there was much public rejoicing. It seems the Irish in King James's (56) army would not stand, but the English-Irish and French made great resistance. Schomberg (74) was slain, and Dr. Walker (72), who so bravely defended Londonderry. King William (39) received a slight wound by the grazing of a cannon bullet on his shoulder, which he endured with very little interruption of his pursuit. Hamilton (55), who broke his word about Tyrconnel (60), was taken. It is reported that King James (56) is gone back to France. Drogheda and Dublin surrendered, and if King William (39) be returning, we may say of him as Cæsar said, "Veni, vidi, vici". But to alloy much of this, the French fleet rides in our channel, ours not daring to interpose, and the enemy threatening to land.

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John Evelyn's Diary 30 July 1690. 30 Jul 1690. I dined with Mr. Pepys (57), now suffered to return to his house, on account of indisposition.

Battle of the Boyne

John Evelyn's Diary 15 August 1690. 15 Aug 1690. I was desired to be one of the bail of the Earl of Clarendon, for his release from the Tower, with divers noblemen. The Bishop of St. Asaph (62) expounds his prophecies to me and Mr. Pepys (57), etc. The troops from Blackheath march to Portsmouth. That sweet and hopeful youth, Sir Charles Tuke (19), died of the wounds he received in the fight of the Boyne, to the great sorrow of all his friends, being (I think) the last male of that family, to which my wife (55) is related. A more virtuous young gentleman I never knew; he was learned for his age, having had the advantage of the choicest breeding abroad, both as to arts and arms; he had traveled much, but was so unhappy as to fall in the side of his unfortunate King (56).
The unseasonable and most tempestuous weather happening, the naval expedition is hindered, and the extremity of wet causes the Siege of Limerick to be raised, King William (39) returned to England. Lord Sidney (41) left Governor of what is conquered in Ireland, which is near three parts [in four].

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John Evelyn's Diary 23 November 1690. 23 Nov 1690. Carried Mr. Pepys's (57) memorials to Lord Godolphin (45), now resuming the commission of the Treasury, to the wonder of all his friends.

John Evelyn's Diary 11 July 1691. 11 Jul 1691. I dined with Mr. Pepys (58), where was Dr. Cumberland (59), the new Bishop of Norwich [Note. Should be John Moore Bishop 1646-1707], Dr. Lloyd (54) having been put out for not acknowledging the Government. Cumberland [Note. John Moore Bishop 1646-1707] is a very learned, excellent man. Possession was now given to Dr. Tillotson (60), at Lambeth, by the Sheriff; Archbishop Sancroft was gone (74), but had left his nephew to keep possession; and he refusing to deliver it up on the Queen's message (29), was dispossessed by the Sheriff, and imprisoned. This stout demeanor of the few Bishops who refused to take the oaths to King William (40), animated a great party to forsake the churches, so as to threaten a schism; though those who looked further into the ancient practice, found that when (as formerly) there were Bishops displaced on secular accounts, the people never refused to acknowledge the new Bishops, provided they were not heretics. The truth is, the whole clergy had till now stretched the duty of passive obedience, so that the proceedings against these Bishops gave no little occasion of exceptions; but this not amounting to heresy, there was a necessity of receiving the new Bishops, to prevent a failure of that order in the Church. I went to visit Lord Clarendon in the Tower, but he was gone into the country for air by the Queen's (29) permission, under the care of his warden.

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John Evelyn's Diary 25 July 1692. 25 Jul 1692. To Mr. Hewer's (50) at Clapham, where he has an excellent, useful, and capacious house on the Common, built by Sir Den. Gauden, and by him sold to Mr. Hewer, who got a very considerable estate in the Navy, in which, from being Mr. Pepys's (59) clerk, he came to be one of the principal officers, but was put out of all employment on the Revolution, as were all the best officers, on suspicion of being no friends to the change; such were put in their places, as were most shamefully ignorant and unfit. Mr. Hewer (50) lives very handsomely and friendly to everybody. Our fleet was now sailing on their long pretense of a descent on the French coast; but, after having sailed one hundred leagues, returned, the admiral and officers disagreeing as to the place where they were to land, and the time of year being so far spent,—to the great dishonor of those at the helm, who concerted their matters so indiscreetly, or, as some thought, designedly.
This whole summer was exceedingly wet and rainy, the like had not been known since the year 1648; while in Ireland they had not known so great a drought.

John Evelyn's Diary 30 May 1698. 30 May 1698. I dined at Mr. Pepys's (65), where I heard the rare voice of Mr. Pule, who was lately come from Italy, reputed the most excellent singer we had ever had. He sung several compositions of the late Dr. Purcell.

John Evelyn's Diary 06 August 1698. 06 Aug 1698. I dined with Pepys (65), where was Captain Dampier (46), who had been a famous buccaneer, had brought hither the painted Prince Job, and printed a relation of his very strange adventure, and his observations. He was now going abroad again by the King's (47) encouragement, who furnished a ship of 290 tons. He seemed a more modest man than one would imagine by the relation of the crew he had assorted with. He brought a map of his observations of the course of the winds in the South Sea, and assured us that the maps hitherto extant were all false as to the Pacific Sea, which he makes on the south of the line, that on the north end running by the coast of Peru being extremely tempestuous.

John Evelyn's Diary 23 September 1700. 23 Sep 1700. I went to visit Mr. Pepys (67) at Clapham, where he has a very noble and wonderfully well-furnished house, especially with Indian and Chinese curiosities. The offices and gardens well accommodated for pleasure and retirement.

1703 Death of Samuel Pepys

John Evelyn's Diary 26 May 1703. 26 May 1703. This day died Mr. Samuel Pepys (70), a very worthy, industrious and curious person, none in England exceeding him in knowledge of the navy, in which he had passed through all the most considerable offices, Clerk of the Acts and Secretary of the Admiralty, all which he performed with great integrity. When King James II went out of England, he laid down his office, and would serve no more; but withdrawing himself from all public affairs, he lived at Clapham with his partner, Mr. Hewer (61), formerly his clerk, in a very noble house and sweet place, where he enjoyed the fruit of his labors in great prosperity. He was universally beloved, hospitable, generous, learned in many things, skilled in music, a very great cherisher of learned men of whom he had the conversation. His library and collection of other curiosities were of the most considerable, the models of ships especially. Besides what he published of an account of the navy, as he found and left it, he had for divers years under his hand the History of the Navy, or Navalia, as he called it; but how far advanced, and what will follow of his, is left, I suppose, to his [his half-sister] sister's (62) son, Mr. Jackson (30), a young gentleman, whom Mr. Pepys had educated in all sorts of useful learning, sending him to travel abroad, from whence he returned with extraordinary accomplishments, and worthy to be heir. Mr. Pepys had been for near forty years so much my particular friend, that Mr. Jackson sent me complete mourning, desiring me to be one to hold up the pall at his magnificent obsequies; but my indisposition hindered me from doing him this last office.

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On 26 May 1703 Samuel Pepys Diarist 1633-1703 (70) died.

John Evelyn's Diary Introduction. Museums, nevertheless, have their uses, and Evelyn's comparatively jejune record has laid us under no small obligation. But for Pepys's amazing indiscretion and garrulity, qualities of which one cannot have too little in life, or too much in the record of it, Evelyn would have been esteemed the first diarist of his age. Unable for want of these qualifications to draw any adequate picture of the stirring life around him, he has executed at least one portrait admirably, his own. The likeness is, moreover, valuable, as there is every reason to suppose it typical, and representative of a very important class of society, the well-bred and well-conducted section of the untitled aristocracy of England. We may well believe that these men were not only the salt but the substance of their order. There was an ill-bred section exclusively devoted to festivity and sport. There was an ill-conducted section, plunged into the dissipations of court life. But the majority were men like Evelyn: not, perhaps, equally refined by culture and travel, or equally interested in literary research and scientific experiment, but well informed and polite; no strangers to the Court, yet hardly to be called courtiers, and preferring country to town; loyal to Church and King but not fanatical or rancorous; as yet but slightly imbued with the principles of civil and religious liberty, yet adverse to carry the dogma of divine right further than the right of succession; fortunate in having survived all ideas of serfdom or vassalage, and in having few private interests not fairly reconcilable with the general good. Evelyn was made to be the spokesman of such a class, and, meaning to speak only for himself, he delivers its mind concerning the Commonwealth and the Restoration, the conduct of the later Stuart Kings and the Revolution.

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John Evelyn's Diary Editor's Introduction. Mr. Evelyn's employment as a Commissioner for the care of the Sick and Wounded was very laborious; and, from the nature of it, must have been extremely unpleasant. Almost the whole labor was in his department, which included all the ports between the river Thames and Portsmouth; and he had to travel in all seasons and weathers, by land and by water, in the execution of his office, to which he gave the strictest attention. It was rendered still more disagreeable by the great difficulty which he found in procuring money for support of the prisoners. In the library at Wotton, are copies of numerous letters to the Lord Treasurer and Officers of State, representing, in the strongest terms, the great distress of the poor men, and of those who had furnished lodging and necessaries for them. At one time, there were such arrears of payment to the victuallers, that, on landing additional sick and wounded, they lay some time in the streets, the publicans refusing to receive them, and shutting up their houses. After all this trouble and fatigue, he found as great difficulty in getting his accounts settled.2 In January 1665-6, he formed a plan for an Infirmary at Chatham, which he sent to Mr. Pepys, to be laid before the Admiralty, with his reasons for recommending it; but it does not appear that it was carried into execution.

John Evelyn's Diary Introduction. There is little else in the Diary equally striking, though Evelyn's description of Whitehall on the eve of the death of Charles the Second ranks among the memorable passages of the language. It is nevertheless full of interesting anecdotes and curious notices, especially of the scientific research which, in default of any adequate public organization, was in that age more efficaciously promoted by students than by Professors. De Quincey censures Evelyn for omitting to record the conversation of the men with whom he associated, but he does not consider that the Diary in its present shape is a digest of memoranda made long previously, and that time failed at one period and memory at the other. De Quincey, whose extreme acuteness was commonly evinced on the negative side of a question, saw the weak points of the Diary upon its first publication much more clearly than his contemporaries did, and was betrayed into illiberality by resentment at what he thought its undeserved vogue. Evelyn has in truth been fortunate; his record, which his contemporaries would have neglected, appeared (1818) just in time to be a precursor of the Anglican movement, a tendency evinced in a similar fashion by the vindication, no doubt mistaken, of the Caroline authorship of the "Icon Basilike". Evelyn was a welcome encounter to men of this cast of thought, and was hailed as a model of piety, culture, and urbanity, without sufficient consideration of his deficiencies as a loyalist and a patriot. It also conduced to his reputation that all his other writings should have virtually perished except his "Sylva", like his Diary a landmark in the history of improvement, though in a widely different department. But for his lack of diplomatic talent, he might be compared with an eminent and much applauded, but in our times somewhat decrescent, contemporary, Sir William Temple. Both these eminent persons would have aroused a warmer feeling in posterity, and have effected more for its instruction and entertainment, if they could occasionally have dashed their dignity with an infusion of the grotesqueness, we will not say of Pepys, but of Roger North. To them, however, their dignity was their character, and although we could have wished them a larger measure of geniality, we must feel indebted to them for their preservation of a refined social type.
Richard Garnett.

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John Evelyn's Diary Editor's Introduction. Dr. Campbell took some pains to vindicate Mr. Evelyn's book, entitled, "Navigation and Commerce, their Origin and Progress", from the charge of being an imperfect work, unequal to the expectation excited by the title. But the Doctor, who had not the information which this Journal so amply affords on this subject, was not aware that what was so printed was nothing more than an Introduction to the History of the Dutch War; a work undertaken by Evelyn at the express command of King Charles II, and the materials for which were furnished by the Officers of State. The completion of this work, after considerable progress had been made in it, was put a stop to by the King himself, for what reason does not appear; but perhaps it was found that Evelyn was inclined to tell too much of the truth concerning a transaction, which it will be seen by his Journal that he utterly reprobated. His copy of the History, as far as he had proceeded, he put into the hands of his friend, Mr. Pepys, of the Admiralty, who did not return it; but the books and manuscripts belonging to Mr. Pepys passed into the possession of Magdalen College, Cambridge.

John Evelyn's Diary Introduction. The two chief diarists of the age of Charles the Second are, mutatis mutandis, not ill characterized by the remark of a wicked wit upon the brothers Austin. "John Austin", it was said, "served God and died poor: Charles Austin served the devil, and died rich. Both were clever fellows. Charles was much the cleverer of the two". Thus John Evelyn and Samuel Pepys, the former a perfect model of decorum, the latter a grievous example of indecorum, have respectively left us diaries, of which the indecorous is to the decorous as a zoölogical garden is to a museum: while the disparity between the testamentary bequests of the two Austins but imperfectly represents the reputation standing to Pepys's account with posterity in comparison with that accruing to his sedate and dignified contemporary.