Biography of Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426

1359 Double Royal Wedding

1362 Edward III Creates two sons as Dukes

1396 Marriage of John of Gaunt and Katherine Roet

1397 Legitimation of the Beauforts

1397 Richard II Rewards his Supporters

1399 Death of John of Gaunt

1399 Epiphany Rising

1400 Creation of Garter Knights

1403 Marriage of Henry IV and Joanna of Navarre

1405 Northern Rising

1406 John II King Castile Succeeds

1413 Death of King Henry IV Accession of Henry V

1414 Henry V awards his brothers Dukedoms

1415 Siege of Harfleur

1417 Execution of Lollard John Oldcastle

1418 Siege of Rouen

1420 Treaty of Troyes

1420 Marriage of Henry V and Catherine of Valois

1421 Battle of Baugé

1422 Death of Henry V

1424 Marriage of James I of Scotland and Joan Beaufort

In 1342 [his father] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (1) was created 1st Earl Richmond 5C 1342. It isn't clear whether his older brothers Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376 (11) and Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (3) had been created Earls before this time.

Double Royal Wedding

On 19 May 1359 , or thereabouts, a double-royal wedding celebration took place at Reading Abbey whereby two children of [his grandfather] King Edward III England (46) were married:

[his father] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (19) and Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (14) were married. They were half second cousins once removed. He a son of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She by marriage Countess Richmond.

John Hastings 2nd Earl Pembroke 1347-1375 (11) and [his aunt] Margaret Plantagenet Countess of Pembroke 1346-1361 (12) were married. They were half fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216. She a daughter of King Edward III England. At the time John Hastings 2nd Earl Pembroke 1347-1375 (11) was a ward of [his grandfather] King Edward III England (55) who would enjoy the benefit of the substantial revenue of the Earldom of Pembroke until John came of age nine years later on 12 Sep 1368. She died two or so years later probably of plague.

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Edward III Creates two sons as Dukes

On 13 Nov 1362, his fiftieth birthday, [his grandfather] King Edward III England (50) created two sons as Dukes ...

[his uncle] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 (23) was created 1st Duke Clarence 1C 1362. Elizabeth Burgh Duchess of Clarence 1332-1363 (30) by marriage Duchess Clarence.

[his father] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (22) was created 1st Duke Lancaster 2C 1362. Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (17) by marriage Duchess Lancaster.

On 21 Sep 1371 [his father] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (31) and Constance of Castile (17) were married at Roquefort, Landes He a son of King Edward III England. She by marriage Duchess Lancaster. His younger brother Edmund of Langley (30) married Constance's sister in July 1372.

Around Jan 1377 Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 was born illegitimately to [his father] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (36) and Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403 (26). He a grandson of King Edward III England.

On 24 Jun 1380 John Hastings 3rd Earl Pembroke 1372-1389 (7) and [his half-sister] Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter 1363-1426 (17) were married at Kenilworth Castle. They were half third cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his half-sister] She by marriage Countess Pembroke.

On 05 Feb 1381 [his half-brother] Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (13) and Mary Bohun 1368-1394 (13) were married at Arundel Castle. They were second cousins. He a grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.

On 24 Jun 1386 John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (34) and [his half-sister] Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter 1363-1426 (23) were married at Plymouth. They were half second cousins once removed. He a great grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England.

On 02 Feb 1387 John "Good Great" I King Portugal 1357-1433 (29) and [his half-sister] Philippa Lancaster Queen Consort Portugal 1360-1415 (26) were married. They were half fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his half-sister] She by marriage Queen Consort Portugal.

Before 17 Sep 1388 Henry III King Castile 1379-1406 and [his half-sister] Catherine of Lancaster were married at Palencia Cathedral. They were half second cousins. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his half-sister] She by marriage Queen Consort Castile.

In 1391 Robert Ferrers 2nd Baron Ferrers Wem 1373-1393 (18) and [his illegitimate sister] Joan Beaufort Countess Westmoreland 1379-1440 (12) were married at Beaufort en Vallée. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his illegitimate sister] She by marriage Baroness Ferrers Wem.

Marriage of John of Gaunt and Katherine Roet

On 13 Jan 1396 [his father] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (55) and Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403 (45) were married at Lincoln Cathedral. He a son of King Edward III England. She by marriage Duchess Lancaster.

Before 29 Nov 1396 Ralph Neville 1st Earl Westmoreland 1364-1425 and [his illegitimate sister] Joan Beaufort Countess Westmoreland 1379-1440 were married. He a great x 5 grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his illegitimate sister] She by marriage Baroness Neville Raby.

In Feb 1397 Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 (20) legitimised.

Legitimation of the Beauforts

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: Legitimation of Beaufort. 28. Be it remembered that on Tuesday, the fifteenth day of the parliament [4 February 1397], the chancellor (53), by order of the king (30), declared that our holy father the pope, in reverence of the most excellent person of the king (30) and his honourable uncle the [his father] duke of Guyenne and of Lancaster (56), and of his blood, has enabled and legitimized my lord John Beaufort (24), his brothers [Note. Cardinal Henry Beaufort 1375-1447 (22) and Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 (20)], and his sister (18). And therefore our lord the king, as sole ruler of his kingdom of England, for the honour of his blood, willed and enabled of his abundant royal power, and legitimized, of his own authority, the said John, his said brothers, and sister. And he also pronounced and published the ability and legitimation, according to the form of the charter of the king made thereon.

Richard II Rewards his Supporters

On 29 Sep 1397 King Richard II (30) rewarded his relations with Dukedoms possibly for their part in the arrest, trial and execution of Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel 1346-1397 (51) ...

His older half-brother John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (45) was created 1st Duke Exeter 1C 1397. [his half-sister] Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter 1363-1426 (34) by marriage Duchess Exeter.

His nephew Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey 1374-1400 (23) was created 1st Duke Surrey.

His second cousin once removed Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke Norfolk 1368-1399 (29) was created 1st Duke Norfolk 1C 1397 probably for arranging the murder of [his uncle] Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355-1397 (42). Elizabeth Fitzalan Duchess Norfolk 1366-1425 (31) by marriage Duchess Norfolk.

His first cousin Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 (24) was created 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2C 1397. Beatrice Burgundy Countess Rutland Countess Cork 1373-1408 (24) by marriage Duchess Albemarle aka Aumale.

His illegitimate first cousin [his illegitimate brother] John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset Dorset 1373-1410 (24) was created 1st Marquess Somerset 2C 1397, 1st Marquess Dorset 1C 1397. Margaret Holland Duchess Clarence 1385-1439 (12) by marriage Marchioness Somerset.

Ralph Neville 1st Earl Westmoreland 1364-1425 (33) was created 1st Earl Westmoreland 1C 1397. [his illegitimate sister] Joan Beaufort Countess Westmoreland 1379-1440 (18) by marriage Countess Westmoreland.

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On 27 Nov 1397 [his illegitimate brother] John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset Dorset 1373-1410 (24) and Margaret Holland Duchess Clarence 1385-1439 (12) were married. They were half third cousins. He a grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She by marriage Countess Somerset.

Before 1399 Richard Vere 11th Earl Oxford 1385-1417 and [his niece] Alice Holland Countess Oxford 1392-1406 were married. He a great x 5 grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189. She a great granddaughter of King Edward III England.

In 1399 [his nephew] King Henry V of England 1386-1422 (12) was created Prince of Wales.

Death of John of Gaunt

On 03 Feb 1399 [his father] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (58) died at Leicester Castle. Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403 (48) was by his side. He was buried at St Paul's Cathedral.

He was buried in the Choir of St Paul's Cathedral with his first wife Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (53).

[his half-brother] Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (31) succeeded 2nd Duke Lancaster 2C 1362, 7th Earl of Leicester 2C 1265.

King Richard II of England 1367-1400 (32) witheld [his half-brother] the future Henry IV's (31) inheritance from him giving [his half-brother] Henry (31) reason to return to England to claim his lands and titles.

On 10 Nov 1399 [his nephew] King Henry V of England 1386-1422 (13) was created 1st Duke Lancaster 3C 1399 by Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (32).

In 1400 John Cornwall 1st Baron Fanhope 1st Baron Milbroke 1364-1443 (36) and [his half-sister] Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter 1363-1426 (36) were married. He a great x 3 grandson of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England.

Epiphany Rising

On 16 Jan 1400 John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (48) was executed at Pleshy Castle. His son [his nephew] John Holland 2nd Duke Exeter 1395-1447 (4) succeeded 2nd Earl Huntingdon 4C 1388. He was captured by Joan Fitzalan Countess Essex Hereford and Northampton 1347-1419 (53) whose brother Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel 1346-1397 (54) John Holland had had executed three years before. She arranged for the children of her dead brother to witness the execution of John Holland 1st Duke Exeter 1352-1400 (48) at Pleshy Castle; her primary seat.

1400 Creation of Garter Knights

Around Apr 1400 the newly crowned [his half-brother] Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (32) created a number of new Garter Knights, including his children, to replace those of who had been executed during the Epiphany Rising.

95th [his nephew] John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford 1389-1435 (10).

96th [his nephew] Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester 1390-1447 (9).

97th Thomas Fitzalan 10th Earl Surrey 12th Earl Arundel 1381-1415 (18).

98th Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 (23).

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In 1402 Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 (24) was appointed Captain Ludlow Castle.

Before 01 Jun 1402 Thomas Mowbray 4th Earl Norfolk 2nd Earl Nottingham 1385-1405 and [his niece] Constance Holland Countess Norfolk Countess Nottingham 1387-1437 were married. They were third cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his niece] She by marriage Countess Norfolk, Earl Nottingham 2C 1383.

In 1403 Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 (25) was appointed Admiral of the Fleet.

Marriage of Henry IV and Joanna of Navarre

On 07 Feb 1403 [his half-brother] Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (35) and Joanna of Navarre Queen Consort England 1370-1437 (33) were married at Winchester. They were third cousins. He a grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272. Joanna of Navarre Queen Consort England 1370-1437 (33) was crowned Queen Consort England. His third marriage, her second. She had eight children with her first husband but, despite ten years of marriage, none with Henry.

On 10 May 1403 [his mother] Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403 (52) died. She was buried in Lincoln Cathedral.

Before 15 Feb 1404 Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 and [his wife] Margaret Neville Countess Dorest 1384-1413 were married. He a grandson of King Edward III England.

Northern Rising

On 03 Jun 1405 Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 (28) arrived at York. The King denied the accused trial by their peers. Thomas Fitzalan 10th Earl Surrey 12th Earl Arundel 1381-1415 (23) and Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 (28) sat in judgement of Richard Scrope Archbishop of York 1350-1405 (55) and Thomas Mowbray 4th Earl Norfolk 2nd Earl Nottingham 1385-1405 (19). William Gascoigne Chief Justice 1350-1419 (55) refused to pronounce sentence on Richard Scrope Archbishop of York 1350-1405 (55) and Thomas Mowbray 4th Earl Norfolk 2nd Earl Nottingham 1385-1405 (19) asserting their right to be tried by their peers.

Around 1406 [his niece] Alice Holland Countess Oxford 1392-1406 (14) died.

On 26 Oct 1406 Eric King Norway King Denmark King Sweden 1381-1459 (25) and [his niece] Philippa Lancaster Queen Consort Denmark 1394-1430 (12) were married. She a daughter of Henry IV King England 1367-1413.

John II King Castile Succeeds

On 25 Dec 1406 Henry III King Castile 1379-1406 (27) died. His son [his nephew] John II King Castile 1405-1454 (1) succeeded II King Castile.

Around 1410 John Grey 1387-1439 (23) and [his niece] Constance Holland Countess Norfolk Countess Nottingham 1387-1437 (23) were married. He a great x 4 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his niece] She by marriage Baroness Grey Ruthyn 1324.

On 31 Jan 1410 Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 (33) was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer which position he held until 1411.

On 16 Mar 1410 [his illegitimate brother] John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset Dorset 1373-1410 (37) died at Hospital of St Katharine's by the Tower Tower Hill. He was buried at St Michael's Chapel. His son Henry Beaufort 2nd Earl Somerset 1401-1418 (9) succeeded 2nd Earl Somerset 2C 1397.

On 05 Jul 1411 Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 (34) was created 1st Earl Dorset 2C 1411. [his wife] Margaret Neville Countess Dorest 1384-1413 (27) by marriage Countess Dorset.

In Nov 1411 [his nephew] Thomas Lancaster 1st Duke Clarence 1388-1421 (23) and Margaret Holland Duchess Clarence 1385-1439 (26) were married. They were first cousins once removed. He a son of Henry IV King England 1367-1413. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.

In or before 1412 [his son] Henry Beaufort 1412- was born to Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 (34) and Margaret Neville Countess Dorest 1384-1413 (27). He a great grandson of King Edward III England.

In 1412 [his nephew] Thomas Lancaster 1st Duke Clarence 1388-1421 (23) was created 1st Duke Clarence 2C 1412 by Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (44). Margaret Holland Duchess Clarence 1385-1439 (27) by marriage Duchess Clarence.

On 12 Jan 1412 John Mowbray 2nd Duke Norfolk 1392-1432 (20) and [his illegitimate niece] Katherine Neville Duchess Norfolk 1400-1483 (12) were married. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his illegitimate niece] She by marriage Duchess Norfolk.

Around 1413 [his wife] Margaret Neville Countess Dorest 1384-1413 (29) died.

In 1413 Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 (35) was appointed Lieutenant of Aquitaine.

Death of King Henry IV Accession of Henry V

On 20 Mar 1413 [his half-brother] Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (45) died in the Jerusalem Chamber Cheyneygates Westminster Abbey in Westminster Abbey confirming a prophesy that he would die in Jerusalem. His son King Henry V of England 1386-1422 (26) succeeded V King England. His sons King Henry V of England 1386-1422 (26) and Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester 1390-1447 (22) were present. He [his half-brother] Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (45) was buried in the Chancel of Canterbury Cathedral.

Before 1414 Richard Despencer 4th Baron Burghesh 1396-1414 and [his illegitimate niece] Eleanor Neville Countess Northumberland 1397-1472 were married. They were second cousins. He a great grandson of King Edward III England. She a great granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his illegitimate niece] She by marriage Baroness Burghesh.

Henry V awards his brothers Dukedoms

On 16 May 1414 [his nephew] King Henry V of England 1386-1422 (27) created Dukedoms for his two brothers:

[his nephew] Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester 1390-1447 (23) was created 1st Duke Gloucester 2C 1414, 1st Earl Pembroke 5C 1414.

[his nephew] John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford 1389-1435 (24) was created 1st Duke Bedford 1C 1414, 1st Earl Richmond 6C 1414, 1st Earl Kendal 1C 1414.

In 1415 Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 (37) was appointed Captain Harfleur.

On 12 Jun 1415 Alfonso V King Aragon 1396-1458 (19) and [his niece] Maria Trastámara Queen Consort Aragon 1401-1458 (13) were married. They were first cousins. She a great granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his niece] She by marriage Queen Consort Aragon.

On 19 Jul 1415 [his half-sister] Philippa Lancaster Queen Consort Portugal 1360-1415 (55) died at Sacavém.

Siege of Harfleur

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 16 Aug 1415. and the xvj day of the same monythe he londyd at Kytkawys, and the Satyrday he leyde sege unto the towne of Arflewe, and that was the Satyrday nexte aftyr of the Assompsyon of oure Lady; and the sege contynuyd unto the Sonday nexte be fore the feste of Synt Mychelle, on the whiche Sonday the towne of Arflewe was delyveryd uppe to the kyng, that was xxij day of Septembre. But hit ys to wyte that the Tewysday before, that ys to saye the xvj day of the same monythe, at xij of the clocke whytheynne nyght, the lordys that were the capytaynys and governowrys of the towne, that ys to wete the Lorde Gawcorte14, the Lorde Tutvyle, and moo othyr lordys, sende owte herodys of armys unto the [his nephew] Duke of Clarens (26), prayng hym at the reverens of God that he wolde of hys hyghe lordeschippe that he wolde graunte them lyve and leve for to trete whythe what personys that the kyng wolde a-sygne unto hem; and the kyng at the reverens of God and at hyre requeste he assygnyde the Duke of Exceter [Note. Unclear as to who this is? Possibly Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 (38) who was created Duke the following year?], the Lorde Fehewe, and Syr Thomas Erpyngham (60), to hyre whatt they wolde say and desyre. And they desyryd that the kyng wolde nought warre on them fro that oure of mydnyght unto the Sonday nexte aftyr the feste of Synt Mychell, and but hyt were rescwyd by batayle by that day by the Frenysche kyng or by the Dolfynne, ellys at that daye to delyver the towne unto the kynge, and they to have hyr lyvys and hyr goodys. Ande the kyng sende hem worde yf that they wolde delivery the towne on the morne aftyr, be the oure of mydnyght a bove sayde, with owte any condyscyon, he wolde accepte hyt, and in non othyr wyse he bade hem for to trete. Ande yette the Fraynysche lordys prayde our lordys that they wolde fochesave to be-seche the kynge at the reverens of God and of oure Lady that he wolde graunte them respyte fro the same Twysday at nyght unto the Sonday nexte aftyr tylle one owre aftyr none; and in the mayne tyme the lordys that were captaynys of the towne to come to the kynge whithe xxiiij knyghtys and squyers with hem, of the moste suffycyent men whithe in the towne, and they to be sworne on Goddys body opynly before alle the pepylle. But yf15 hit soo were that the Fraynysche kynge or the Dolfynne rescwyde hem by that Sonday by the owre of none, othyr ellys a-non aftyr none, they for to delyvery the towne to the kyng and alle hyr bodys and goodys to don whythe hem what so hem evyr lyste, whythe16 any condiscyon. Whythe that the kynge sufferde hem to sende unto Frauns viij personys owte of the towne lettyng hym wytte in what plytte that they stode yn, and the kyng grauntyd hem; and uppe the Wanysday by [th]e mone the lordys come owte, and xxij knyghtys and squyers whythe hem; and thenne come the prosessyon solempny and stately, whithe xxiiij copys of clothe of golde by-fore Goddys body, whythe many worschipfulle lordys, knyhtis, and squyers, and othyr multytude of pepylle from [th]e kyngys tente, solempny and stately as evyr was done suche a thyng be-for tyme. But the kyng was nott here present. And the Franysche lordys made thare hyr othys a-pon the sacrament; and, the othys done, the Fraynysche lordys were brought unto the kyngys tente, and there they dynyd in the kyngys halle, but in alle thys tyme they sawe nought the kynge. And whanne that they hadde etyn they departyd and delyveryd to sartayne for to kepe yn ostage tylle the Sonday on none, as hyt was a cordyment i-made before tyme whenne that they toke hyr othys. And the Sonday at the same owre a-signyd the kyng hadde a tente phyght a-pone a hylle be-fore the towne, and there he sate in his estate, ryally, and alle hys lordys aboute hym. And thenne come the Fraynysche lordys, with lxiiij whythe hem of the moste suffycyentt men that were whythe yn the towne, to the kyngys owne propyr person, and delyveryd uppe the keyes of the towne and hyr boodys and hyr goodys to the kynges grace, whithe owte any condyscyon. And thys was the xxij day of Septembre, the yere of our Lorde Ml cccc xv.

Note 14. Sawcortein our MS. by a misreading; Gawcourte in Vit.

Note 15. But if, i. e. unless.

Note 16. whythe. withoute, Vit.

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On 18 Nov 1416 Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 (39) was created 1st Duke Exeter 2C 1416 by [his nephew] King Henry V of England 1386-1422 (30) for the remainder of his natural life for 'his service to the king and the realm on both sides of the seas'. At the time the only other dukes were the King's brothers.

Execution of Lollard John Oldcastle

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. Dec 1417. Alle so the same yere Syr Johnne Oldecastelle was take in the Marche of Walys and brought unto Westemyster in a chare, and there he was juggyde to the dethe; and thys was hys juggement, that he shulde be ladde thorowe London in the same chare unto Towre Hylle, and there to be layde on a hyrdylle and drawe to Syn Gylys galowys, and there to be hanggyd and brent. And so he was hanggyd by a stronge chayne. For there was the [his nephew] Duke of Bedforde (28), the Duke of Exceter (40), and alle the lordys of thys londe that were [th]at tyme a-bowte London, tylle that they hadde sene hys juggement.

In 1418 [his nephew] John II King Castile 1405-1454 (12) and Maria Trastámara Queen Consort Castile 1396-1445 (22) were married. They were first cousins. He a great grandson of King Edward III England. She by marriage Queen Consort Castile.

On 02 Jun 1418 [his half-sister] Catherine of Lancaster (45) died at Valladolid. She was buried at Capilla de los Reyes Nuevos, Cathedral of Toledo.

Before 08 Jul 1418 Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland 1393-1455 and [his illegitimate niece] Eleanor Neville Countess Northumberland 1397-1472 were married. They were second cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his illegitimate niece] She by marriage Countess of Northumberland.

Siege of Rouen

On 29 Jul 1418 the English forces commenced the Siege of Rouen with the city being taken on 19 Jan 1419. Robert Willoughby 6th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 1385-1452 (33) fought. John Blount 1388-1418 (30) died. William Harrington 1373-1440 (45), the King's Standard Bearer, was wounded.

Walter Hungerford 1st Baron Hungerford 1378-1449 (40) fought.

[his illegitimate nephew] Henry Beaufort 2nd Earl Somerset 1401-1418 (17) was killed. His brother John Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1403-1444 (15) succeeded 3rd Earl Somerset 2C 1397.

In 1419 Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 (41) was captured at Château Gaillard.

In 1419 Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 (41) was appointed Captain of Rouen.

Around 1420 Thomas Courtenay 13th Earl Devon 1414-1458 (6) and [his illegitimate niece] Margaret Beaufort Countess Devon 1409-1449 (11) were married. They were third cousins. He a great x 4 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great granddaughter of King Edward III England.

Treaty of Troyes

On 21 May 1420 the Treaty of Troyes was signed at Troyes. Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 (43) and Ralph Cromwell 3rd Baron Cromwell 1403-1456 (17) negotiated the terms which included the marriage of [his nephew] Henry V (33) and Catherine of Valois (18), daughter of Charles VI (51), and the acknowledgement of [his nephew] King Henry V of England 1386-1422 (33) as Charles V's (51) heir disinheriting the Dauphin (17).

Marriage of Henry V and Catherine of Valois

On 02 Jun 1420 [his nephew] Henry V (33) and Catherine of Valois (18) were married at Troyes Cathedral. They were half third cousins once removed. He a son of Henry IV King England 1367-1413. She a great x 5 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272.

Battle of Baugé

On 23 Mar 1421 the Dauphin's (18) French army and a Scottish army heavily defeated the English army at the Battle of Baugé. On the French side Étienne Vignolles "La Hire" -1443 fought. On the Scottish side John Stewart 2nd Earl Buchan 1381-1424 (40) and John Stewart of Darnley 1st Count Évreux 1380-1429 (41) fought. William Douglas 1384-1421 (37) was killed.

On the English side [his illegitimate nephew] John Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1403-1444 (18), Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 (44), Thomas Beaufort Count Perche 1405-1431 (16) and John Holland 2nd Duke Exeter 1395-1447 (26) were captured. [his illegitimate nephew] John Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1403-1444 (18) would be captive for the next seventeen years. Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 (44) was released in 1422. Thomas Beaufort Count Perche 1405-1431 (16) was release around 1427 in a prisoner exchange.

[his nephew] Thomas Lancaster 1st Duke Clarence 1388-1421 (32) was killed in battle. Duke Clarence 2C 1412 extinct.

John Lumley 1383-1421 (38) was killed in battle.

John Ros 7th Baron Ros Helmsley 1397-1421 (24) was killed in battle. His brother Thomas Ros 8th Baron Ros Helmsley 1407-1430 (13) succeeded 8th Baron Ros Helmsley.

William Ros 1397-1421 (24), and Gilbert V Umfraville -1421 were killed.

John Grey 1st Earl Tankerville 1384-1421 (37) was killed in battle. His son Henry Grey 2nd Earl Tankerville 1418-1450 (3) succeeded 2nd Earl Tankerville 1C 1418.

William Douglas 1st Lord Drumlanrig -1427 was present.

Around 1575 Unknown Painter. Portrait of John Lumley 1383-1421.

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Before 1422 [his illegitimate nephew] William Neville 1st Earl Kent 1405-1463 and Joan Fauconberg Countess Kent 1406-1490 were married. He a great grandson of King Edward III England.

Death of Henry V

On 31 Aug 1422 [his nephew] King Henry V of England 1386-1422 (36) died at Château de Vincennes, Vincennes possibly from dysentery, possibly from heatstroke. John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 (21) brought the body back to England. His son King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 succeeded VI King England.

Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 (45) was appointed Governor to King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471.

Before 1423 [his illegitimate nephew] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 and Alice Montagu 5th Countess Salisbury 1407-1462 were married. They were half fourth cousins. He a great grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 3 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307.

Around 1423 [his nephew] Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester 1390-1447 (32) and Jacqueline Wittelsbach Duchess Brabant and Gloucester 1401-1436 (21) were married. They were third cousins. He a son of Henry IV King England 1367-1413. She a great x 4 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. The marriage was annulled in 1428.

On 13 May 1423 [his nephew] John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford 1389-1435 (33) and Anne Valois Duchess of Bedford 1404-1432 (18) were married at Troyes. They were third cousins. He a son of Henry IV King England 1367-1413. She a great x 4 granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She by marriage Duchess Bedford

Marriage of James I of Scotland and Joan Beaufort

On 12 Feb 1424 King James I of Scotland 1394-1437 (29) and [his illegitimate niece] Joan Beaufort Queen Consort Scotland 1404-1445 (20) were married at Southwark Cathedral. He a great x 5 grandson of John "Lackland" King England 1166-1216. She a great granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his illegitimate niece] She by marriage Queen Consort Scotland.

Before 18 Oct 1424 Humphrey Stafford 6th Earl Stafford and [his illegitimate niece] Anne Neville Duchess Buckingham 1408-1480 were married. They were second cousins. He a great grandson of King Edward III England. She a great granddaughter of King Edward III England. [his illegitimate niece] She by marriage Countess Stafford.

On 24 Nov 1426 [his half-sister] Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter 1363-1426 (63) died. She was buried at St Mary's Church Burford.

On 31 Dec 1426 Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 (49) died at Greenwich. Some sources say 27 Dec 1426 and 01 Jan 1427. Duke Exeter 2C 1416 and Earl Dorset 2C 1411 extinct.

After 18 Nov 1434. St Mary's Church Ewelme. Monument to Thomas Chaucer 1367-1434 and Maud Burghesh 1379-1437.

The Arms in two rows left to right ...

Top Row 1 Beaufort 2 Possibly [his illegitimate niece] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495; possibly Edward York 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale 2nd Duke York 1373-1415 who married Philippa Mohun Duchess Albemarle aka Aumale, Duchess York -1431, impaled Neville 3 Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 4 Thomas of Brotherton 1st Earl Norfolk 1300 1338 impaled Neville 5 Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter 1377-1426 (again?) 6 Stafford impaled Neville 7 Montacute and Monthermer impaled Chaucer Modern.

Bottom Row 1 Beauchamp quartered with Newburgh; Earl Warwick reflecting the Beauchamp family having inherited the Earldom of Warwick through marriage to Isabel Maudit who was the sister of William Maudit 8th Earl Warwick 1220-1268 who died without issue. Isabel Maudit and William Maudit 8th Earl Warwick 1220-1268 were the children of William Maudit and Alice Beaumont -1262. Alice Beaumont -1262 inherited the Earldom of Warwick when her half-niece Margaret Beaumont 7th Countess Warwick -1253 died. 2 Unknown impaled Beaufort 3 Montacute and Monthermer impaled Mohun 4 Montacute and Monthermer quartered Neville 5 De La Pole quartered Chaucer Modern 6 Despencer impaled Chaucer Modern 7 Mohun impaled Chaucer Modern. John Mohun 2nd Baron Mohun Dunster 1320-1375 and Joan Burghesh Baroness Mohun Dunster 1319-1404.

Legitimation of the Beauforts

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: Legitimation of Beaufort. 29. Which charter was read in full parliament, and delivered to the said [his father] duke, father of the said John, and his said brothers and sister; the tenor of which charter follows:

Richard, by the grace of God, king of England and France and lord of Ireland, to our most beloved kinsmen the noble [his illegitimate brother] John, knight, Henry, cleric, Thomas, donzel, and our beloved noblewoman Joan Beaufort, lady-in-waiting, our most beloved cousins born of our uncle that noble man [his father] John duke of Lancaster, our lieges, greeting and the goodwill of our royal majesty. While inwardly considering how endlessly and with how many honours of parental and sincere affection of our aforementioned uncle and of his mature counsel we are on all sides blessed, we have judged it appropriate and worthy that in consideration of his merits, and in contemplation of the grace of persons, we should endow you, who are resplendent with probity and virtuous life and conduct, and are born of royal stock and divinely marked with many virtues and gifts, with the protection of grace and favour by special prerogative. Thus it is that, yielding to the prayers of our said uncle, your [his father] father, we grant to you who, so it is claimed, have suffered such defect of birth, that, notwithstanding this defect, which, together with its various consequences, we wish to be fully included in these presents, you may nevertheless receive all honours, dignities, preferments, estates, degrees, and public and private offices, both perpetual and temporal, and feudal and noble rights, by whatsoever name they are called, such as duchies, lordships, earldoms, baronies, or whatsoever other fiefs they be, whether they be dependent upon or held of us mediately or intermediately, which may be preferred, promoted, elected, taken up and allowed, and received, retained, performed and exercised prudently, freely and lawfully, as if you were born in wedlock, notwithstanding any statutes or customs of our kingdom of England decreed or observed to the contrary; and we dispense you [from this defect] by the tenor of these presents, by the plenitude of our royal power and with the assent of our parliament; and we restore you and each of you to legitimacy.

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Transactions of Shropshire Archaeological Society 3rd Series Volume VIII 1908 Documents Relating to Tong College. And in addition, since the same Isabel, Walter, and William fired by the ardour of their devotion, and desiring and longing at the same time to increase and enlarge the praise and honour of God, after the said acquisition of the advovvson and patronage of the same has been thus carried out, with our permission acting as a medium, propose to erect, make and found the aforesaid Church of Tong into a certain permanent College; we, observing their dutiful and praiseworthy intention in this respect, of our special favour and from our certain knowledge, and in order that we may have a share in the rewards of so much merit, and of a work so perfect, agree and give permission on our own behalf, and as far as is in our power on that of our heirs, to the said Isabel, Walter, and William, and to any one of them ; that she or he, their heirs, or assignees, when they themselves have been put into possession of the advowson and patronage of the same, may erect and change the same Church of Tong into a certain College, permanent and incorporated, and may have power to found, make and establish for ever the same College for five chaplains (or more or less) for the service of the Most High God (of whom one is to be appointed by Isabel, Walter, and William, their heirs or assignees as Warden of the same College, and put over the rest) ; and for the celebration of Divine Services every day for our prosperity while we are alive, and that of Thomas Beaufort, our brother, and the aforesaid Isabel while they are alive; and moreover for our souls when we have migrated from this light, and those of our ancestors, and that of the aforesaid Fulk; and moreover for the souls of Margaret once his wife, and of Thomas Peytevyne1, knight, and of John Ludlow, knight, and also the souls of the parents and all the ancestors of the aforesaid Isabel, and of all the faithful departed, according to the regulation of the aforesaid Isabel, Walter, and William, their heirs or assignees, to be made for this purpose.

1. Isabel Pembrugge was married three times, i.e., to (i) Thomas Peytevyne, Knight. (2) John Ludlow, Knight. (3) Fulke Penbrugge, of Tong, who crenellated Tong Castle 1381, died May 24, 1409.

Fulke Penbrugge was married twice, to (1) Margaret, daughter and heiress of William Trussel, Knight, and widow of Nicholas de Whyston, of Weston-under-Lizard, who had died 1502 [Note. 1502 must be a mistake since Margaret died in 1399?]. Margaret Penbrugge died 1399, s. p. (2) Isabel, daughter of Ralph Lingen, Knight, and widow of John Ludlow, Knight. Isabel Penbrugge died 1446-7, s.p.

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