History of Berwick on Tweed

1296 Capture of Berwick

1314 Battle of Bannockburn

1319 Siege of Berwick

1328 Marriage of King David II of Scotland and Princess Joan

1330 Battle of Teba

1333 Battle of Halidon Hill

1463 Siege of Norham Castle

1296 Capture of Berwick

1603 Arrival of Anne of Denmark

Berwick on Tweed is in Northumberland.

Flowers of History by Matthew of Westminster Volume 2 Chapter 1 1066 1087 King William received homage from the king of Scotland. 1071. In the same year, king William (43) invaded Scotland with a great army, and Malcolm, king of Scotland (39), came peaceably to Berwick to meet him, and became his subject. At this time, count Ranulph of Micenis governed the earldom of Carlisle, who had given efficacious assistance to king William in his conquest of England. He began to build the city of Carlisle, and to strengthen the citizens with many privileges. But when king William was returning from Scotland through Cumberland, seeing so royal a city, he took it from count Ranulph, and gave him instead of it the earldom of Chester, which was endowed with many honours and privileges. And king William commanded Carlisle to be fortified with very strong towers and ramparts. Moreover, king William the Conqueror, on his return from Scotland, built a new castle at Durham, to serve as a protection against the irruptions of the Scots.

On 01 Aug 1235 Gilbert Marshal 4th Earl Pembroke 1197-1241 (38) and Marjorie Dunkeld Countess Pembroke 1200-1244 (35) were married at Berwick on Tweed. They were half second cousins once removed. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135. She by marriage Countess Pembroke.

On 25 Oct 1292 Robert Burnell Bishop of Bath and Wells 1239-1292 (53) died at Berwick on Tweed.

1296 Capture of Berwick

On 30 Mar 1296 Robert Clifford 1st Baron Clifford 1274-1314 (21) captured Berwick on Tweed from William "Hardy" Douglas 2nd Lord Douglas 1240-1298 (56). Richard Cornwall 1252-1296 (44) was killed during the course of the siege.'When the town had been taken in this way and its citizens had submitted, Edward spared no one, whatever the age or sex, and for two days streams of blood flowed from the bodies of the slain, for in his tyrannous rage he ordered 7,500 souls of both sexes to be massacred. So that mills could be turned by the flow of their blood.' - Account of the Massacre of Berwick, from Bower's Scotichronicon.

On 20 Sep 1305 Nigel Bruce 1276-1305 (29) was hanged at Berwick on Tweed.

Battle of Bannockburn

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 3 Here the matter speaketh of some of the predecessors of king Edward of England. FIRST, the better to enter into the matter of this honourable and pleasant history of the noble Edward king of England (1), who was crowned at London the year of our Lord God MCCCXXVI., on Christmasday, living the king his father and the queen his mother, it is certain that the opinion of Englishmen most commonly was as then, and oftentimes it was seen in England after the time of king Arthur, how that between two valiant kings of England there was most commonly one between them of less sufficiency both of wit and of prowess: and this was right well apparent by the same icing Edward the third (1); for his grandfather (75), called the good king Edward the first, was right valiant, sage, wise and hardy, adventurous and fortunate jn all feats of war, and had much ado against the Scots, and conquered them three or four times; for the Scots could never have victory nor endure against him: and after his decease his son of his first wife, who was father to the said good king Edward the third, was crowned king and called Edward the second (30), who resembled nothing to his father in wit nor in prowess, but governed and kept his realm right wildly, and ruled himself by sinister counsel of certain persons, whereby at length he had no profit nor land, as ye shall hear after; for anon after he was crowned, Robert Bruce king of Scotland, who had often before given much ado to the said good king Edward the first, conquered again all Scotland, and brent and wasted a great part of the realm of England, a four or five days' journey within the realm at two times, and discomfited the king and all the barons of England at a place in Scotland called Stirling, by battle arranged the day of Saint John Baptist, in the seventh year of the reign of the same king Edward, in the year of our Lord MCCCXIV. The chase of this discomfiture endured two days and two nights, and the king of England (30) went with a small company to London and on mid-lent Sunday in the year of our Lord MCCCXVI. The Scots won again the city of Berwick by treason; but because this is no part of our matter, I will leave speaking thereof.

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In Jun 1319 Ralph Neville 2nd Baron Neville Raby 1291-1367 (28) was captured at Berwick on Tweed.

In Jun 1319 Robert "Peacock of the North" Neville 1287-1319 (32) was killed by James "Black" Douglas 1286-1330 (33) in single combat at Berwick on Tweed. He was buried at St Brandon's Church Brancepeth.

Siege of Berwick

In Sep 1319 Goronwy ap Tudur Hen Tudor -1331 fought at Berwick on Tweed during the Siege of Berwick.

Marriage of King David II of Scotland and Princess Joan

On 17 Jul 1328 David II King Scotland 1324-1371 (4) and Joan of the Tower Queen Consort Scotland 1321-1362 (7) were married at Berwick on Tweed. She a daughter of King Edward II of England.

Battle of Teba

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 20 How king Robert of Scotland died. 25 Aug 1330. Battle of Teba. And within a while after that this knight sir William Douglas (44) was come to the king of Spain (19), on a day the king issued out into the field to approach near to his enemies. And the king of Granade issued out in like wise on his part, so that each king might see other with all their banners displayed. Then they arranged their battles each against other. Then sir William Douglas (44) drew out on the one side with all his company, to the intent to shew his prowess the better. And when he saw these battles thus ranged on both parties, and saw that the battle of the king of Spain (19) began somewhat to advance toward their enemies, he thought then verily that they should soon assemble together to fight at hand strokes; and then he thought rather to be with the foremost than with the hindermost, and strake his horse with the spurs, and all his company also, and dashed into the battle of the king of Granade, crying, 'Douglas! Douglas !' weening to him the king of Spain (19) and his host had followed, but they did not; wherefore he was deceived, for the Spanish host stood still. And so this gentle knight (44) was enclosed, and all his company, with the Saracens, whereas he did marvels in arms, but finally he could not endure, so that he and all his company were slain. The which was great damage, that the Spaniards would not rescue them. Also in this season there were certain lords that treated for peace between England and Scotland. So that at the last there was a marriage made and solemnised between the young king of Scotland (4) and dame Joan of the Tower (7), sister to king Edward of England (15), at Berwick, as the English chronicle saith, on Mary Maudlin day [Note. the Feast of Mary Magdalen is 22 Jul?], the year 'of our Lord MCCCXXVIII., against the assent of many of the nobles of the realm. But queen Isabel (35) the king's mother and the earl Mortimer (43) made that marriage; at the which, as mine author saith, there was great feast made on both parties.

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Battle of Halidon Hill

On 19 Jul 1333 King Edward III England (20) defeated the Scots army at the Battle of Halidon Hill near Berwick on Tweed. John of Eltham 1st Earl Cornwall 1316-1336 (16) commanded.
English archers, just as at the Battle of Dupplin Moor one year previously, had a significant impact on the massed ranks of Scottish schiltrons. Edward's army included: Thomas of Brotherton 1st Earl Norfolk 1300-1338 (33), who commanded the right wing, Hugh Courtenay 9th Earl Devon 1276-1340 (56), Robert Pierrepoint -1334, Hugh Courtenay 10th Earl Devon 1303-1377 (30), Henry Beaumont 4th Earl Buchan 1279-1340 (54) and John Sully 1283-1388 (50). One of the few English casualties was John Neville 1299-1333 (34) who was killed.

The Scottish army included David II King Scotland 1324-1371 (9). Alexander Bruce -1333, Alan Stewart -1333, James Stewart 1276-1333 (57), John Stewart -1333, William Douglas 1st Earl Atholl -1333, Archibald Douglas 1297-1333 (35) and Hugh Ross 4th Earl Ross 1296-1333 (36) who were all killed.
Malcolm Lennox 2nd Earl Lennox -1333 was killed. His son Domhnall Lennox Earl Lennox -1365 succeeded Earl Lennox 1C 12th Century.
Kenneth de Moravia Sutherland 4th Earl Sutherland -1333 was killed. His son William de Moravia Sutherland 5th Earl Sutherland -1370 succeeded 5th Earl Sutherland. Johanna Menteith Countess Sutherland by marriage Countess Sutherland.

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In 1419 William Clifford 1375-1419 (44) died at Berwick on Tweed.

1463 Siege of Norham Castle

Around Jun 1463 a Scottish and Lancastrian force, including James III King Scotland 1451-1488 (11), his mother Mary of Guelders Queen Consort Scotland 1434-1463 (29), Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (41) and his wife Margaret of Anjou (33), laid siege to Norham Castle. They held Norham for eighteen days until a force led by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (34) and his brother John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (32) advanced to Norham Castle at which time the Scottish and Lancastrian force fled in panic pursued by the Yorkist army. Margaret of Anjou (33) and her son Edward of Westinster Prince of Wales 1453-1471 (9) escaped to Berwick on Tweed and then to the continent. Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (41) remained in Scotland - he and his wife never saw each other again.

Capture of Berwick

On 24 Aug 1482 Edward Stanley 1st Baron Monteagle 1462-1524 (20) was knighted by Richard III King England 1452-1485 (29) at Berwick on Tweed during the Capture of Berwick.

On 01 Aug 1503 Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 (13) crossed the border into Scotland at Berwick on Tweed.

Around 1525 Unknown Painter. French. Portrait of an Unknown Woman formerly known as Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541.

Around 1514 Mary Hastings 1514-1532 was born to George Hastings 1st Earl Huntingdon 1487-1544 (27) and Anne Stafford Countess Huntingdon 1483-1544 (31) at Berwick on Tweed.

1535. Ambrosius Benson Painter 1495-1550. Portrait of Anne Stafford Countess Huntingdon 1483-1544.

On 07 Nov 1523 Thomas Gerard 1488-1523 (35) was killed during the Battle of Berwick at Berwick on Tweed.

Diary of Henry Machyn August 1557. 03 Aug 1557. [The iij day of August, in the afternoon, came from the Exchequer about seventeen horses laden with money towards Berwick, and divers men riding with it with javelins and pole-axes, on horseback, and] bowes and sheyffes of arowes, be-twyn viij and [ix of the clock.]

Before 10 Sep 1559 James Hamilton 3rd Earl Arran 1532-1609 travelled to France at Berwick on Tweed.

In 1560 Arthur Grey 14th Baron Grey Wilton 1536-1593 (24) was knighted at Berwick on Tweed.

In 1572 Valentine Browne -1589 was elected MP Berwick on Tweed.

On 25 Jun 1601 Peregrine Bertie 13th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 1555-1601 (45) died at Berwick on Tweed. His son Robert Bertie 1582 1642 (18) succeeded 14th Baron Willoughby de Eresby. He was buried at St James' Church Spilsby.
On 15 Feb 1610 Catherine Bertie 1595-1610 (15) died in childbirth. She was buried at St James' Church Spilsby.
Monument Elizabethan Recumbent. Tall Sideboard Tomb with reclining hooded figure of Lady Katherine, daughter of Peregrine, with Chrisom Child in the crib at her feet. Above a standing figure of Peregrine Bertie 13th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 1555-1601 (45) in a niche, with strapwork embellishments, all supported on composite columns with a dentilated cornice.

Around 1597 Robert "The Elder" Peake Painter 1551-1619. Portrait of Peregrine Bertie 13th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 1555-1601.Before 27 Jun 1641 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Robert Bertie 1582 1642.

Arrival of Anne of Denmark

On 03 Jun 1603 a number of English noble ladies selected by the Privy Council greeted Anne of Denmark (28) at Berwick on Tweed with two-hudred horse including ...
Frances Howard Countess Kildare -1628
Elizabeth Hastings Countess Worcester 1546-1621 (57)
Philadelphia Carey Baroness Scrope Bolton -1627
Penelope Devereux Countess Devonshire 1563-1607 (40).
Anne Lady Herbert 1583-1640 (20)
Audrey Shelton Lady Walsingham 1568-1624 (34).

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Around 1605 John Critz Painter 1551-1642. Portrait of Anne of Denmark.

In 1638 John Berkeley 1st Baron Berkeley 1602-1678 (36) was knighted at Berwick on Tweed.

On 27 Jul 1639 Vivian Molyneux 1596-1642 (43) was knighted by Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (38) at Berwick on Tweed.

In 1633 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 known as Charles I with M.De St Antoine.Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649.

On 23 Jun 1679 James Thynne 1605-1670 (74) was knighted at Berwick on Tweed.

In 1715 John Shute aka Barrington 1st Viscount Barrington 1678-1734 (37) was elected MP Berwick on Tweed.

In 1722 John Shute aka Barrington 1st Viscount Barrington 1678-1734 (44) was elected MP Berwick on Tweed.

In 1740 John Barrington 1717-1764 (22) was elected MP Berwick on Tweed.

In 1740 William Wildman Barrington 2nd Viscount Barrington 1717-1793 (22) was elected MP Berwick on Tweed.

In 1754 John Delaval 1st Baron Delaval 1728-1808 (25) was elected MP Berwick on Tweed.

In 1765 John Delaval 1st Baron Delaval 1728-1808 (36) was elected MP Berwick on Tweed.

In 1780 John Delaval 1st Baron Delaval 1728-1808 (51) was elected MP Berwick on Tweed.

In 1796 George Carpenter 2nd Earl Tyrconnel 1750-1805 (46) was elected MP Berwick on Tweed.

In 1820 Charles Augustus Bennet 5th Earl Tankerville 1776-1859 (43) was elected MP Berwick on Tweed.

Berwick Castle, Berwick on Tweed, Northumberland

In 1412 Ralph Eure 1412-1461 was born to William Eure 1396-1465 (16) and Maud Fitzhugh 1391-1467 (21) at Berwick Castle.

Around 18 Feb 1440 William Eure 1440-1484 was born to Ralph Eure 1412-1461 (28) and Eleanor Greystoke 1416- (24) at Berwick Castle. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III England.

In 1539 William Eure 1st Baron Eure 1483-1548 (56) was appointed Governor of Berwick on Tweed.

On 25 Aug 1568 Henry Carey 1st Baron Hunsdon 1526-1596 (42) was appointed Governor of Berwick on Tweed.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. In which time of his latter days, this realm was in quiet and prosperous estate: no fear of outward enemies, no war in hand, nor none toward, but such as no man looked for; the people toward the Prince, not in a constrained fear, but in a willing and loving obedience; among themselves, the commons in good peace. The lords whom he knew at variance, he himself in his deathbed appeased. He had left all gathering of money (which is the only thing that withdraws the hearts of Englishmen from the prince), nor anything he intended to take in hand by which he should be driven thereunto, for his tribute out of France he had obtained before, and the year foregoing his death he had obtained Berwick Castle. And although throughout his reign he was with his people so benign, courteous and so familiar that no part of his virtues was more esteemed, yet that condition in the end of his days (in which many princes by a long continued sovereignty decline into a proud port from their debonair behavior at the beginning) marvelously in him grew and increased so far forth that, in the summer, the last that ever he saw, his Highness, being at Windsor hunting, sent for the Mayor and Aldermen of London to him—for no other errand but to have them hunt and be merry with him. Here he treated them not so stately but so friendly and of so familiar cheer, and sent venison from there so freely into the city, that no one thing in many days before got him either more hearts or more hearty favor among the common people, who oftentimes more esteem and take for greater kindness a little courtesy than a great benefit.

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John Conyers 3rd Baron Conyers 1524-1557 was appointed Governor of Berwick on Tweed.