History of Bristol

1051 Banishment of the Godwins

1399 Epiphany Rising

1690 Glorious Revolution

Bristol is in Gloucestershire.

Banishment of the Godwins

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 1050-1065. 1051. This year came Archbishop Robert hither over sea with his pall from Rome, one day before St. Peter's eve: and he took his archiepiscopal seat at Christ-church on St. Peter's day, and soon after this went to the king. Then came Abbot Sparhawk to him with the king's writ and seal, to the intent that he should consecrate him Bishop o[oe] London; but the archbishop refused, saying that the pope had forbidden him. Then went the abbot to the archbishop again for the same purpose, and there demanded episcopal consecration; but the archbishop obstinately refused, repeating that the pope had forbidden him. Then went the abbot to London, and sat at the bishopric which the king had before given him, with his full leave, all the summer and the autumn. Then during the same year came Eustace (36), who had the sister (47) of King Edward (48) to wife, from beyond sea, soon after the bishop, and went to the king; and having spoken with him whatever he chose, he then went homeward. When he came to Canterbury eastward, there took he a repast, and his men; whence he proceeded to Dover. When he was about a mile or more on this side Dover, he put on his breast-plate; and so did all his companions: and they proceeded to Dover. When they came thither, they resolved to quarter themselves wherever they lived. Then came one of his men, and would lodge at the house of a master of a family against his will; but having wounded the master of the house, he was slain by the other. Then was Eustace (36) quickly upon his horse, and his companions upon theirs; and having gone to the master of the family, they slew him on his own hearth; then going up to the boroughward, they slew both within and without more than twenty men. The townsmen slew nineteen men on the other side, and wounded more, but they knew not how many. Eustace (36) escaped with a few men, and went again to the king (48), telling him partially how they had fared. The king (48) was very wroth with the townsmen, and sent off Earl Godwin (50), bidding him go into Kent with hostility to Dover. For Eustace (36) had told the king that the guilt of the townsmen was greater than his. But it was not so: and the earl (50) would not consent to the expedition, because he was loth to destroy his own people. Then sent the king after all his council, and bade them come to Gloucester nigh the after-mass of St. Mary. Meanwhile Godwin (50) took it much to heart, that in his earldom such a thing should happen. Whereupon be began to gather forces over all his earldom, and Earl Sweyne (30), his son, over his; and Harold (29), his other son, over his earldom: and they assembled all in Gloucestershire, at Langtree, a large and innumerable army, all ready for battle against the king; unless Eustace (36) and his men were delivered to them handcuffed, and also the Frenchmen that were in the castle. This was done seven nights before the latter mass of St. Mary, when King Edward (48) was sitting at Gloucester. Whereupon he sent after Earl Leofric, and north after Earl Siward (41), and summoned their retinues. At first they came to him with moderate aid; but when they found how it was in the south, then sent they north over all their earldom, and ordered a large force to the help of their lord. So did Ralph also over his earldom. Then came they all to Gloucester to the aid of the king (48), though it was late. So unanimous were they all in defence of the king (48), that they would seek Godwin's (50) army if the king (48) desired it. But some prevented that; because it was very unwise that they should come together; for in the two armies was there almost all that was noblest in England. They therefore prevented this, that they might not leave the land at the mercy of our foes, whilst engaged in a destructive conflict betwixt ourselves. Then it was advised that they should exchange hostages between them. And they issued proclamations throughout to London, whither all the people were summoned over all this north end in Siward's (41) earldom, and in Leofric's, and also elsewhere; and Earl Godwin (50) was to come thither with his sons to a conference; They came as far as Southwark, and very many with them from Wessex; but his army continually diminished more and more; for they bound over to the king (48) all the thanes that belonged to Earl Harold (29) his son, and outlawed Earl Sweyne (30) his other son. When therefore it could not serve his purpose to come to a conference against the king (48) and against the army that was with him, he went in the night away. In the morning the king (48) held a council, and proclaimed him (50) an outlaw, with his whole army; himself (50) and his wife, and all his three sons — Sweyne (30) and Tosty (25) and Grith (19). And he went south to Thorney, (67) with his wife, and Sweyne (30) his son, and Tosty (25) and his wife (18), a cousin of Baldwin of Bruges (38) [Note. Judith Flanders Duchess Bavaria 1033-1094 (18) was a sister of Baldwin "The Good" V Count Flanders 1012-1067 (38)], and his son Grith (19). Earl Harold (29) with Leofwine (16) went to Bristol in the ship that Earl Sweyne (30) had before prepared and provisioned for himself; and the king (48) sent Bishop Aldred from London with his retinue, with orders to overtake him ere he came to ship. But they either could not or would not: and he then went out from the mouth of the Avon; but he encountered such adverse weather, that he got off with difficulty, and suffered great loss. He then went forth to Ireland, as soon as the weather permitted. In the meantime the Welshmen had wrought a castle in Herefordshire, in the territory of Earl Sweyne (30), and brought as much injury and disgrace on the king's (48) men thereabout as they could. Then came Earl Godwin (50), and Earl Sweyne (30), and Earl Harold (29), together at Beverstone, and many men with them; to the intent that they might go to their natural lord, and to all the peers that were assembled with him; to have the king's (48) counsel and assistance, and that of all the peers, how they might avenge the insult offered to the king (48), and to all the nation. But the Welshmen were before with the king (48), and betrayed the earls, so that they were not permitted to come within the sight of his eyes; for they declared that they intended to come thither to betray the king (48). There was now assembled before the king (48) (68) Earl Siward (41), and Earl Leofric, and much people with them from the north: and it was told Earl Godwin (50) and his sons, that the king (48) and the men who were with him would take counsel against them; but they prepared themselves firmly to resist, though they were loth to proceed against their natural lord. Then advised the peers on either side, that they should abstain from all hostility: and the king (48) gave God's peace and his full friendship to each party. Then advised the king (48) and his council, that there should be a second time a general assembly of all the nobles in London, at the autumnal equinox: and the king (48) ordered out an army both south and north of the Thames, the best that ever was. Then was Earl Sweyne (30) proclaimed an outlaw; and Earl Godwin (50) and Earl Harold (29) were summoned to the council as early as they could come. When they came thither and were cited to the council, then required they security and hostages, that they might come into the council and go out without treachery. The king (48) then demanded all the thanes that the earls had; and they put them all into his hands. Then sent the king (48) again to them, and commanded them to come with twelve men to the king's (48) council. Then desired the earl again security and hostages, that he might answer singly to each of the things that were laid to his charge. But the hostages were refused; and a truce of five nights was allowed him to depart from the land. Then went Earl Godwin (50) and Earl Sweyne (30) to Bosham, and drew out their ships, and went beyond sea, seeking the protection of Baldwin (38); and there they abode all the winter. Earl Harold (29) went westward to Ireland, and was there all the winter on the king's (48) security. It was from Thorney (69) that Godwin (50) and those that were with him went to Bruges, to Baldwin's (38) land, in one ship, with as much treasure as they could lodge therein for each man. Wonderful would it have been thought by every man that was then in England, if any person had said before this that it would end thus! For he was before raised to such a height, that he ruled the king (48) and all England; his sons were earls, and the king's (48) darlings; and his daughter (25) wedded and united to the king (48). Soon after this took place, the king (48) dismissed the lady (25) who had been consecrated his queen, and ordered to be taken from her all that she had in land, and in gold, and in silver, and in all things; and committed her to the care of his sister at Wherwell. Soon after came Earl William (23) from beyond sea with a large retinue of Frenchmen; and the king (48) entertained him and as many of his companions as were convenient to him, and let him depart again. Then was Abbot Sparhawk driven from his bishopric at London; and William (23) the king's priest was invested therewith. Then was Oddy appointed earl over Devonshire, and over Somerset, and over Dorset, and over Wales; and Algar, the son of Earl Leofric, was promoted to the earldom which Harold (29) before possessed.

67. The ancient name of Westminster; which came into disuse because there was another Thorney in Cambridgeshire.

68. i.e. at Gloucester, according to the printed Chronicle; which omits all that took place in the meantime at London and Southwark.

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Around 1125 Harding Fitzharding 1048-1125 (77) died at Bristol.

On 05 Feb 1171 Robert Fitzharding 1st Baron Berkeley 1096-1171 (75) died at Bristol. His son Maurice Berkeley 2nd Baron Berkeley 1120-1190 (51) succeeded 2nd Baron Berkeley Feudal. Alice Berkeley Baroness Berkeley 1135-1190 (36) by marriage Baroness Berkeley Feudal.

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 11 How the queen of England besieged the king her husband in the town of Bristow. Oct 1326. AND then this tiding spread about the realm so much, that at the last it came to the knowledge of the lords by whom the queen (31) was called again into England. And they apparelled them in all haste to come to Edward (13) her son, whom they would have to their sovereign lord. And the first that came and gave them most comfort was Henry earl of Lancaster (45) with the wry neck, called Tort Col, who was brother to Thomas earl of Lancaster (48), beheaded as ye have heard herebefore, who was a good knight and greatly recommended, as ye shall hear after in this history. This earl Henry (45) came to the queen (31) with great company of men of war, and after him came from one part and other earls, barons, knights and squires, with so much people that they thought them clean out of perils, and always increased their power as they went forward. Then they took counsel among them that they should ride straight to the town of Bristow, whereas the king (42) was, and with him the Spencers. The which was a good town and a strong, and well closed, standing on a good port of the sea, and a strong castle, the sea beating round about it. And therein was the king (42) and Sir Hugh Spencer the elder (65), who was about ninety of age, and Sir Hugh Spencer (40) his son, who was chief governour of the king (42) and counselled him in all his evil deeds. Also there was the earl of Arundel (20), who had wedded the daughter (14) of sir Hugh Spencer (40), and di at Bristow, and besieged the town round about as near as they might: and the king (42) and sir Hugh Spencer the younger (40) held them in the castle, and the old sir Hugh Spencer (65) and the earl of Arundel (20) held them in the town. And when the people of the town saw the great power that the queen (31) was of (for almost all England was of her accord), and perceived what peril and danger evidently they were in, they took counsel among themselves and determined that they would yield up the town to the queen (31), so that their lives and goods might be saved. And so they sent to treat with the queen and her council in this matter; but the queen nor her council would not agree thereto without she might do with sir Hugh Spencer (65) and with the earl of Arundel (20) what it pleased her. When the people of the town saw they could have no peace otherwise, nor save the town nor their goods nor their lives, in that distress they accorded to the queen (31) and opened the gates, so that the queen (31) and sir John of Hainault (38), and all her barons, knights and squires, entered into the town and took their lodgings within, as many as might, and the residue without. Then sir Hugh Spencer (65) and the earl of Arundel (20) were taken and brought before the queen (31), to do her pleasure with them. Then there was brought to the queen her own children, John her son (10) and her two daughters [Note. Eleanor of Woodstock Plantagenet 1318-1355 (8) and Joan of the Tower Queen Consort Scotland 1321-1362 (5)], the which were found there in the keeping of the said sir Hugh Spencer (65), whereof the queen had great joy, for she had not seen them long 'before. Then the king (42) might have great sorrow and sir Hugh Spencer the younger (40), who were fast enclosed in the strong castle, and the most part of all the realm turned to the queen's part and to Edwar (13) her eldest son.

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On 27 Oct 1326 Hugh "Elder" Despencer 1st Earl Winchester 1261-1326 (65) was hanged at Bristol.

Epiphany Rising

On 13 Jan 1400 Thomas Despencer 1st Earl Gloucester 1373-1400 (26) was beheaded at Bristol.

Around 1495 Jane Carew 1460-1495 (35) died at Bristol.

In 1606 William Child Composer 1606-1697 was born at Bristol.

John Evelyn's Diary 20 May 1639. 20 May 1639. Accompanied with one Mr. J. Crafford (who afterward being my fellow-traveler in Italy, there changed his religion), I took a journey of pleasure to see the Somersetshire baths, Bristol, Cirencester, Malmesbury, Abington, and divers other towns of lesser note; and returned the 25th.

Glorious Revolution

John Evelyn's Diary 02 December 1688. 02 Dec 1688. Dr. Tenison (52) preached at St. Martin's on Psalm xxxvi. 5, 6, 7, concerning Providence. I received the blessed Sacrament. Afterward, visited my Lord Godolphin (43), then going with the Marquis of Halifax (55) and Earl of Nottingham (41) as Commissioners to the Prince of Orange (38); he told me they had little power. Plymouth declared for the Prince (38). Bath, York, Hull, Bristol, and all the eminent nobility and persons of quality through England, declare for the Protestant religion and laws, and go to meet the Prince (38), who every day sets forth new Declarations against the Papists. The great favorites at Court, Priests and Jesuits, fly or abscond. Everything, till now concealed, flies abroad in public print, and is cried about the streets. Expectation of the Prince (38) coming to Oxford. The Prince of Wales and great treasure sent privily to Portsmouth, the Earl of Dover (52) being Governor. Address from the Fleet not grateful to his Majesty (55). The Papists in offices lay down their commissions, and fly. Universal consternation among them; it looks like a revolution.

Around 1678 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699. Portrait of George Savile 1st Marquess Halifax 1633-1695. Around 1680 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 wearing his Garter Collar. Around 1698. Francois de Troy Painter 1645-1730. Portrait of James Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King James II when Duke of York. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II wearing his Garter Robes. Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of King James II.

On 05 Sep 1724 William Daines 1647-1724 (77) died in Bristol.

On 13 Apr 1769 Thomas Lawrence 1769-1830 was born in Bristol.

In 1844 Edward Clifford Painter 1844-1907 was born at Bristol.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle William The Conqueror. Then it was told the king, that the people in the North had gathered themselves together, and would stand against him if he came. Whereupon he went to Nottingham, and wrought there a castle; and so advanced to York, and there wrought two castles; and the same at Lincoln, and everywhere in that quarter. Then Earl Gospatric and the best men went into Scotland. Amidst this came one of Harold's sons from Ireland with a naval force into the mouth of the Avon unawares, and plundered soon over all that quarter; whence they went to Bristol, and would have stormed the town; but the people bravely withstood them. When they could gain nothing from the town, they went to their ships with the booty which they had acquired by plunder; and then they advanced upon Somersetshire, and there went up; and Ednoth, master of the horse, fought with them; but he was there slain, and many good men on either side; and those that were left departed thence.

The Gloucester Gloucestershire River Avon rises near Acton Turville after which it flows past Luckington, Sherston, Easton Grey, Malmesbury, Great Somerford, Christian Malford, Chippenham, Melksham, Bradford on Avon, under the Dundas Aquaduct, through Bath, past Keynsham, through Bristol under the Clifton Suspension Bridge to Avonmouth where it joins the Severn Estuary.

Bristol Castle

Bristol Cathedral

Bristol Floating Harbour, Gloucestershire

The River Frome rises in Dodington Park after which it flows past Westerleigh, Iron Acton, Frampton Coterrel then into Bristol where is covered for a long stretch emerging into Bristol Floating Harbour before joining the Gloucestershire River Avon.

Bristol Grammar School Bristol, Gloucestershire

Around 1767 Benjamin Hobhouse 1st Baronet Hobhouse 1757-1831 (10) educated at Bristol Grammar School Bristol.

Clifton Bristol, Gloucestershire

Clifton College Bristol, Clifton Bristol, Gloucestershire

On 06 May 1861 Charles Michael Edgeworth Brinkley 1861-1903 was born at Knockmaroon. He was educated at Clifton College Bristol, Jesus College and the Royal Military College Sandhurst.

Clifton Suspension Bridge, Clifton Bristol, Gloucestershire

In 1864 the Clifton Suspension Bridge ovre the Gloucestershire River Avon opened.

Hot Wells Bristol, Gloucestershire

On 28 Dec 1795 Briggs Cary 1772-1795 died at Hot Wells Bristol. He was buried at All Saints Church Narborough.

St James Priory Bristol, Gloucestershire

In 1129 St James Priory Bristol was founded by Robert Normandy 1st Earl Gloucester 1099-1147 (30).

On 10 Aug 1241 Eleanor "Fair Maid of Britanny" Plantagenet 1184-1241 (57) died at Bristol Castle. She was initially buried at St James Priory Bristol then reburied at Amesbury Abbey.

St Thomas Parish Bristol, Gloucestershire

On 23 Apr 1621 Admiral William Penn 1621-1670 was born to Captain Giles Penn 1572-1642 (49) and Joan Gilbert in St Thomas Parish Bristol.

Sun Tavern, Bristol, Gloucestershire

Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 June 1668. 13 Jun 1668. Saturday. Up at four o'clock, being by appointment called up to the Cross Bath, where we were carried one after one another, myself, and wife, and Betty Turner (15), Willet, and W. Hewer (26). And by and by, though we designed to have done before company come, much company come; very fine ladies; and the manner pretty enough, only methinks it cannot be clean to go so many bodies together in the same water. Good conversation among them that are acquainted here, and stay together. Strange to see how hot the water is; and in some places, though this is the most temperate bath, the springs so hot as the feet not able to endure. But strange to see, when women and men herein, that live all the season in these waters, that cannot but be parboiled, and look like the creatures of the bath! Carried away, wrapped in a sheet, and in a chair, home; and there one after another thus carried, I staying above two hours in the water, home to bed, sweating for an hour; and by and by, comes musick to play to me, extraordinary good as ever I heard at London almost, or anywhere: 5s. Up, to go to Bristol, about eleven o'clock, and paying my landlord that was our guide from Chiltern, 10s., and the serjeant of the bath, 10s., and the man that carried us in chairs, 3s. 6d. Set out towards Bristoll, and come thither (in a coach hired to spare our own horses); the way bad, but country good, about two o'clock, where set down at the Horse'shoe, and there, being trimmed by a very handsome fellow, 2s., walked with my wife and people through the city, which is in every respect another London, that one can hardly know it, to stand in the country, no more than that. No carts, it standing generally on vaults, only dog-carts1.

So to the Three Crowns Tavern I was directed; but, when I come in, the master told me that he had newly given over the selling of wine; it seems, grown rich; and so went to the Sun; and there Deb. going with W. Hewer (26) and Betty Turner (15) to see her uncle [Butts], and leaving my wife with the mistress of the house, I to see the quay, which is a most large and noble place; and to see the new ship building by Bally, neither he nor Furzer being in town. It will be a fine ship. Spoke with the foreman, and did give the boys that kept the cabin 2s. Walked back to the Sun, where I find Deb. come back, and with her, her uncle, a sober merchant, very good company, and so like one of our sober, wealthy, London merchants, as pleased me mightily. Here we dined, and much good talk with him, 7s. 6d.: a messenger to Sir John Knight, who was not at home, 6d. Then walked with him [Butts] and my wife and company round the quay, and to the ship; and he shewed me the Custom-house, and made me understand many things of the place, and led us through Marsh Street, where our girl was born. But, Lord! the joy that was among the old poor people of the place, to see Mrs. Willet's daughter, it seems her mother being a brave woman and mightily beloved! And so brought us a back way by surprize to his house, where a substantial good house, and well furnished; and did give us good entertainment of strawberries, a whole venison-pasty, cold, and plenty of brave wine, and above all Bristoll milk2, where comes in another poor woman, who, hearing that Deb. was here, did come running hither, and with her eyes so lull of tears, and heart so full of joy, that she could not speak when she come in, that it made me weep too: I protest that I was not able to speak to her, which I would have done, to have diverted her tears. His wife a good woman, and so sober and substantiall as I was never more pleased anywhere. Servant-maid, 2s. So thence took leave, and he with us through the city, where in walking I find the city pay him great respect, and he the like to the meanest, which pleased me mightily. He shewed us the place where the merchants meet here, and a fine Cross yet standing, like Cheapside. And so to the Horseshoe, where paid the reckoning, 2s. 6d. We back, and by moonshine to the Bath again, about ten-o'clock: bad way; and giving the coachman 1s., went all of us to bed.

1. "They draw all their heavy goods here on sleds, or sledges, which they call 'gee hoes,' without wheels, which kills a multitude of horses". Another writer says, "They suffer no carts to be used in the city, lest, as some say, the shake occasioned by them on the pavement should affect the Bristol milk (the sherry) in the vaults, which is certainly had here in the greatest perfection". An order of Common Council occurs in 1651 to prohibit the use of carts and waggons-only suffering drays. "Camden in giving our city credit for its cleanliness in forming 'goutes,' says they use sledges here instead of carts, lest they destroy the arches beneath which are the goutes".-Chilcott's New Guide to Bristol, &c.,.

2. A sort of rum punch (milk punch), which, and turtle, were products of the trade of Bristol with the West Indies. So Byron says in the first edition of his "English Bards and Scotch Reviewers" "Too much in turtle Bristol's sons delight, Too much oer bowls of rack prolong the night". These lines will not be found in the modern editions; but the following are substituted: "Four turtle feeder's verse must needs he flat, Though Bristol bloat him with the verdant fat". Lord Macaulay says of the collations with which the sugar-refiners of Bristol regaled their visitors: "The repast was dressed in the furnace, And was accompanied by a rich brewage made of the best Spanish wine, and celebrated over the whole kingdom as Bristol milk" ("Hist. of England", vol. i., p. 335) B.

In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of William Hewer 1642-1715.

Three Crowns Tavern, Bristol, Gloucestershire

Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 June 1668. 13 Jun 1668. Saturday. Up at four o'clock, being by appointment called up to the Cross Bath, where we were carried one after one another, myself, and wife, and Betty Turner (15), Willet, and W. Hewer (26). And by and by, though we designed to have done before company come, much company come; very fine ladies; and the manner pretty enough, only methinks it cannot be clean to go so many bodies together in the same water. Good conversation among them that are acquainted here, and stay together. Strange to see how hot the water is; and in some places, though this is the most temperate bath, the springs so hot as the feet not able to endure. But strange to see, when women and men herein, that live all the season in these waters, that cannot but be parboiled, and look like the creatures of the bath! Carried away, wrapped in a sheet, and in a chair, home; and there one after another thus carried, I staying above two hours in the water, home to bed, sweating for an hour; and by and by, comes musick to play to me, extraordinary good as ever I heard at London almost, or anywhere: 5s. Up, to go to Bristol, about eleven o'clock, and paying my landlord that was our guide from Chiltern, 10s., and the serjeant of the bath, 10s., and the man that carried us in chairs, 3s. 6d. Set out towards Bristoll, and come thither (in a coach hired to spare our own horses); the way bad, but country good, about two o'clock, where set down at the Horse'shoe, and there, being trimmed by a very handsome fellow, 2s., walked with my wife and people through the city, which is in every respect another London, that one can hardly know it, to stand in the country, no more than that. No carts, it standing generally on vaults, only dog-carts1.

So to the Three Crowns Tavern I was directed; but, when I come in, the master told me that he had newly given over the selling of wine; it seems, grown rich; and so went to the Sun; and there Deb. going with W. Hewer (26) and Betty Turner (15) to see her uncle [Butts], and leaving my wife with the mistress of the house, I to see the quay, which is a most large and noble place; and to see the new ship building by Bally, neither he nor Furzer being in town. It will be a fine ship. Spoke with the foreman, and did give the boys that kept the cabin 2s. Walked back to the Sun, where I find Deb. come back, and with her, her uncle, a sober merchant, very good company, and so like one of our sober, wealthy, London merchants, as pleased me mightily. Here we dined, and much good talk with him, 7s. 6d.: a messenger to Sir John Knight, who was not at home, 6d. Then walked with him [Butts] and my wife and company round the quay, and to the ship; and he shewed me the Custom-house, and made me understand many things of the place, and led us through Marsh Street, where our girl was born. But, Lord! the joy that was among the old poor people of the place, to see Mrs. Willet's daughter, it seems her mother being a brave woman and mightily beloved! And so brought us a back way by surprize to his house, where a substantial good house, and well furnished; and did give us good entertainment of strawberries, a whole venison-pasty, cold, and plenty of brave wine, and above all Bristoll milk2, where comes in another poor woman, who, hearing that Deb. was here, did come running hither, and with her eyes so lull of tears, and heart so full of joy, that she could not speak when she come in, that it made me weep too: I protest that I was not able to speak to her, which I would have done, to have diverted her tears. His wife a good woman, and so sober and substantiall as I was never more pleased anywhere. Servant-maid, 2s. So thence took leave, and he with us through the city, where in walking I find the city pay him great respect, and he the like to the meanest, which pleased me mightily. He shewed us the place where the merchants meet here, and a fine Cross yet standing, like Cheapside. And so to the Horseshoe, where paid the reckoning, 2s. 6d. We back, and by moonshine to the Bath again, about ten-o'clock: bad way; and giving the coachman 1s., went all of us to bed.

1. "They draw all their heavy goods here on sleds, or sledges, which they call 'gee hoes,' without wheels, which kills a multitude of horses". Another writer says, "They suffer no carts to be used in the city, lest, as some say, the shake occasioned by them on the pavement should affect the Bristol milk (the sherry) in the vaults, which is certainly had here in the greatest perfection". An order of Common Council occurs in 1651 to prohibit the use of carts and waggons-only suffering drays. "Camden in giving our city credit for its cleanliness in forming 'goutes,' says they use sledges here instead of carts, lest they destroy the arches beneath which are the goutes".-Chilcott's New Guide to Bristol, &c.,.

2. A sort of rum punch (milk punch), which, and turtle, were products of the trade of Bristol with the West Indies. So Byron says in the first edition of his "English Bards and Scotch Reviewers" "Too much in turtle Bristol's sons delight, Too much oer bowls of rack prolong the night". These lines will not be found in the modern editions; but the following are substituted: "Four turtle feeder's verse must needs he flat, Though Bristol bloat him with the verdant fat". Lord Macaulay says of the collations with which the sugar-refiners of Bristol regaled their visitors: "The repast was dressed in the furnace, And was accompanied by a rich brewage made of the best Spanish wine, and celebrated over the whole kingdom as Bristol milk" ("Hist. of England", vol. i., p. 335) B.

In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of William Hewer 1642-1715.