History of Cambridge

1010 Battle of Ringmere

1661 Cavalier Parliament

1665 Great Plague of London

Cambridge is in Cambridgeshire.

Battle of Ringmere

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 1000-1049. 1010. This year came the aforesaid army, after Easter, into East Anglia; and went up at Ipswich, marching continually till they came where they understood Ulfcytel was with his army. This was on the day called the first of the Ascension of our Lord. The East-Angles soon fled. Cambridgeshire stood firm against them. There was slain Athelstan, the king's relative, and Oswy, and his son, and Wulfric, son of Leofwin, and Edwy, brother of Efy, and many other good thanes, and a multitude of the people. Thurkytel Myrehead first began the flight; and the Danes remained masters of the field of slaughter. There were they horsed; and afterwards took possession of East-Anglia, where they plundered and burned three months; and then proceeded further into the wild fens, slaying both men and cattle, and burning throughout the fens. Thetford also they burned, and Cambridge; and afterwards went back southward into the Thames; and the horsemen rode towards the ships. Then went they west-ward into Oxfordshire, and thence to Buckinghamshire, and so along the Ouse till they came to Bedford, and so forth to Temsford, always burning as they went. Then returned they to their ships with their spoil, which they apportioned to the ships. When the king's army should have gone out to meet them as they went up, then went they home; and when they were in the east, then was the army detained in the west; and when they were in the south, then was the army in the north. Then all the privy council were summoned before the king (44), to consult how they might defend this country. But, whatever was advised, it stood not a month; and at length there was not a chief that would collect an army, but each fled as he could: no shire, moreover, would stand by another. Before the feast-day of St. Andrew came the enemy to Northampton, and soon burned the town, and took as much spoil thereabout as they would; and then returned over the Thames into Wessex, and so by Cannings-marsh, burning all the way. When they had gone as far as they would, then came they by midwinter to their ships.

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Chronicle of Gregory 1437. 21 Jan 1437. And that yere the kynge (15) ordaynyde the Parlyment to be holde at Cambridge Caumbryge, but aftyr warde by goode counselle hyt was tornyde and holde att Westemyster; the whyche Parlyment be ganne the xxj day of Janyver. And to that Parlyment come the Byschoppe of Tyrwynne [Thérouanne] ande the counselle of the Erle of Armanacke (40).

On 16 Jun 1514 John Cheke Tutor 1514-1557 was born to Peter Cheke at Cambridge.

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1553. 12 Jul 1553. The xij day [of] July by nyght, was cared to the Towre iij carts [full of all] maner of ordenans, as gret gune and smalle, bowes, bylls, speres, mores-pykes, arnes, arowes, gunpowther, and wetelle, monay, tentes, and all maner of ordenans, gunstones a gret nombur, and a grett nombur of men of armes; and yt had been for a gret army toward Cambryge; and ij days after the duke, and dyvers lordes and knyghts whent with him, and mony gentylmen and gonnars, and mony men of the gard and men of armes toward my lade Mare grace, to destroye here grace, and so to Bury, and alle was agayns ym-seylff, for ys men forsok hym .... and of dyvers maters, and so in dyvers plases .... contres was her grace proclamyd quen of [England.]

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary. 18 Jul 1553. The xviij. daye the duke (49), perceaving howe their succours came not, and also receyving from some of the counsell at the Tower lettres of discomfort, retoumed from Bury, and came back agayn to Cambridge.

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary. 19 Jul 1553. Note here, the xlx th day at night he harde howe that quene Mary (37) was proclaymed in London. And the next morning he called for a herolde and proclaymed hir himself.b Within an hower after he had lettresc from the counsell here that he should forthwith dismysse his armye, and not to come within x. myles of London, or els they wolde fight with him. The rumour hereof was no sooner abrode but every man departyd. Then was the duke (49) arested, by the mayre of the towne of Cambridge some say, some say by mr. Thomas Myldemay at the quenes commandement.d At last cam lettres from the counsell of London that all men shoulde go eche his waye. Then saide the duke to certayn that kepte him, " Ye do me wrong to withdrawe my libertye ; se you not the counselles lettres, without exception, that all men should go whether they wolde?" At which wordes they than sett them agayn at libertye, and so contynued they all night ; in so moche that the erle of Warwicke (26) was booted redy to have ryden in the mornynge. Then came the erle of Arundell (41), who had ben with the quene, to the duke into his chamber ; and when the duke knewe therof he came out to mete him ; and assone as ever he sawe the erle of Arundell (41) he fell downe on his knees and desyred him to be goode to him, for the love of God. " And consider (saith he) I have done nothing but by the concentes of you and all the hole counsell." " My lorde (quod he), I am sent hether by the quenes majestic, and in hir name I do arest you." " And I obey it, my lorde (quod he), and I beseeche you, my lorde of Arundell (quod the duke), use mercy towardes me, knowing the case as yt is." "My lorde (quod the erle), ye shoulde have sought for mercy sooner ; I must do according to my commandement." And therwith he commytted the charge of him to diverse of the garde and gentyllmen that stoode by. And so the duke contynued walking up and downe in the utter chamber almost ij howers ; and once or twyce he wolde have gone to the bedd-chamber about some busynes, but he coulde not be sufferyd. Then was Thome and Coxe from him.

Around 1554 Antonis Mor Painter 1517-1577. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558. Around 1556 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558. In 1550 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl Arundel 1512-1580 with the motto Invidia Torquet Autorem meaning Let envy torment its author. Around 1565 Unknown Painter. Anglo-Netherlandish. Portrait of Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl Arundel 1512-1580.

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Diary of Henry Machyn July 1553. 21 Jul 1553. The xxj day of July was taken in Cambryg the duke of Northumberland (49), with dyvers lordes and knyghts; and that day qwen Mare (37) was proclamyd in Cambryg, and [in-]contenent thrugh England.

In 1621 John Hobart 2nd Baronet Hobart 1593-1647 (27) was elected MP Cambridge.

In 1625 Talbot Pepys MP 1583-1666 (42) was elected MP Cambridge.

In 1626 John Coke 1563-1644 (62) was elected MP Cambridge.

Around 1623. Unknown Painter. Portrait of John Coke 1563-1644.

In 1628 John Coke 1563-1644 (64) was elected MP Cambridge.

In 1628 Thomas Jermyn 1573-1645 (55) was elected MP Cambridge.

In 1661 William Compton Master of the Ordnance 1625-1663 (36) was elected MP Cambridge.

Cavalier Parliament

On 08 May 1661 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) summoned his second Parliament.

John Bennet 1st Baron Ossulston 1616-1695 (44) was elected MP Wallingford.

James Thynne 1605-1670 (56) was elected MP Wiltshire.

Adam Browne 2nd Baronet Browne 1626-1690 (35) was elected MP Surrey.

Henry Cavendish 2nd Duke Newcastle upon Tyne 1630-1691 (30) was elected MP Northumberland.

William Compton Master of the Ordnance 1625-1663 (36) was elected MP Cambridge.

Thomas Coventry 1st Earl Coventry 1629-1699 (32) was elected MP Camelford.

Charles Berkeley 2nd Viscount Fitzhardinge 1599-1668 (61) was elected MP Bath and Heytesbury.

Edward Hungerford 1632-1711 (28) was elected MP Chippenham.

Robert Pierrepoint 1636-1681 (24) was elected MP Nottingham.

John Melbury Sampford Strangeways 1585-1666 (75) was elected MP Weymouth.

Giles Strangeways 1615-1675 (45) was elected MP Dorset.

John Strangeways 1636-1676 (24) was elected MP Bridport.

William Wyndham 1st Baronet Wyndham 1632-1683 (29) was elected MP Taunton.

James Herbert 1623-1667 (38) was elected MP Queenborough.

William Alington 3rd Baron Alington 1640-1685 (21) was elected MP Cambridge.

William Bowes 1657-1707 (4) was elected MP Durham.

Robert Brooke 1637-1669 (24) was elected MP Aldeburgh.

Josiah Child Merchant 1631-1699 (30) was elected MP Dartmouth.

Gervase Clifton 1st Baronet Clifton 1587-1666 (73) was elected MP Nottinghamshire.

Thomas Crew 2nd Baron Crew 1624-1697 (37) was elected MP Brackley.

Richard Jennings 1619-1668 (42) was elected MP St Albans.

Robert Kemp 2nd Baronet Kemp 1628-1710 (33) was elected MP Norfolk.

Edward Phelips 1613-1680 (48) was elected MP Somerset.

Robert Robartes 1634-1682 (27) was elected MP Bossiney.

Hender Robartes 1635-1688 (25) was elected MP Bodmin.

Clement Fisher 2nd Baronet 1613-1683 (48) was elected MP Coventry.

William Portman 6th Baronet 1643-1690 (17) was elected MP Taunton.

John Robinson Lord Mayor of London 1st Baronet 1615-1680 (46) was elected MP Rye.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes. Around 1661 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II In 1676 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699 (attributed). Portrait of Henry Cavendish 2nd Duke Newcastle upon Tyne 1630-1691 wearing the his Garter Collar. Around 1675 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699. Portrait of Thomas Coventry 1st Earl Coventry 1629-1699. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Josiah Child Merchant 1631-1699. Around 1707. Charles D'Agar Painter 1669-1723. Portrait of Thomas Crew 2nd Baron Crew 1624-1697. Before 06 Aug 1658 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Edward Phelips 1613-1680. Around 1662 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of John Robinson Lord Mayor of London 1st Baronet 1615-1680.

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On 19 Mar 1722 Rev Edmund Nelson 1st Earl Nelson 1722-1802 was born in Cambridge.

In 1784 John Mortlock 1755-1816 (29) was elected MP Cambridge.

Around 1779. Possibly John Downman 1750-1824. Portrait of John Mortlock 1755-1816.

The River Cam rises at Ashwell from where it flows past Guilden Morden, Wendy, Barrington and Harston after which it is joined by the River Granta aka Cam.

Thereafter it flows past Grantchester, through Cambridge, past Fen Ditton, Horningsea, Clayhithe, Upware after which it joins the River Great Ouse.

Bear Inn, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire

Diary of Samuel Pepys 19 September 1661. 19 Sep 1661. Up early, and my father and I alone into the garden, and there talked about our business, and what to do therein. So after I had talked and advised with my coz Claxton, and then with my uncle by his bedside, we all horsed away to Cambridge, where my father and I, having left my wife at the Beare with my brother, went to Mr. Sedgewicke, the steward of Gravely, and there talked with him, but could get little hopes from anything that he would tell us; but at last I did give him a fee, and then he was free to tell me what I asked, which was something, though not much comfort.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 19 September 1661. 19 Sep 1661. From thence to our horses, and with my wife went and rode through Sturbridge1 but the fair was almost done. So we did not 'light there at all, but went back to Cambridge, and there at the Beare we had some herrings, we and my brother, and after dinner set out for Brampton, where we come in very good time, and found all things well, and being somewhat weary, after some talk about tomorrow's business with my father, we went to bed.

1. Sturbridge fair is of great antiquity. The first trace of it is found in a charter granted about 1211 by King John to the Lepers of the Hospital of St. Mary Magdalen at Sturbridge by Cambridge, a fair to be held in the close of the hospital on the vigil and feast of the Holy Cross (see Cornelius Walford's "Fairs Past and Present", 1883, p. 54).

Diary of Samuel Pepys 10 October 1662. 10 Oct 1662. Up, and between eight and nine mounted again; but my feet so swelled with yesterday's pain, that I could not get on my boots, which vexed me to the blood, but was forced to pay 4s. for a pair of old shoes of my landlord's, and so rid in shoes to Cambridge; but the way so good that but for a little rain I had got very well thither, and set up at the Beare: and there being spied in the street passing through the town my cozen Angier came to me, and I must needs to his house, which I did; and there found Dr. Fairbrother, with a good dinner, a barrel of good oysters, a couple of lobsters, and wine. But, above all, telling me that this day there is a Congregation for the choice of some officers in the University, he after dinner gets me a gown, cap, and hood, and carries me to the Schooles, where Mr. Pepper, my brother's tutor, and this day chosen Proctor, did appoint a M.A. to lead me into the Regent House, where I sat with them, and did [vote] by subscribing papers thus: "Ego Samuel Pepys eligo Magistrum Bernardum Skelton, (and which was more strange, my old schoolfellow and acquaintance, and who afterwards did take notice of me, and we spoke together), alterum e taxatoribus hujus Academiae in annum sequentem". The like I did for one Biggs, for the other Taxor, and for other officers, as the Vice-Proctor (Mr. Covell), for Mr. Pepper, and which was the gentleman that did carry me into the Regent House.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 October 1662. 14 Oct 1662. So my father and I home with great content to dinner; my mind now as full against the afternoon business, which we sat upon after dinner at the Court, and did sue out a recovery, and cut off the intayle; and my brothers there, to join therein. And my father and I admitted to all the lands; he for life, and I for myself and my heirs in reversion, and then did surrender according to bargain to Prior, Greene, and Shepheard the three cottages with their appurtenances that they have bought of us, and that being done and taken leave of the steward, I did with most compleat joy of mind go from the Court with my father home, and in a quarter of an hour did get on horseback, with my brother Tom (28), Cooke, and Will, all mounted, and without eating or drinking, take leave of father, mother, Pall, to whom I did give 10s., but have shown no kindness since I come, for I find her so very ill-natured that I cannot love her, and she so cruel a hypocrite that she can cry when she pleases, and John and I away, calling in at Hinchingbroke, and taking leave in three words of my Lady, and the young ladies; and so by moonlight most bravely all the way to Cambridge, with great pleasure, whither we come at about nine o'clock, and took up at the Bear, but the house being full of guests we had very ill lodging, which troubled me, but had a supper, and my mind at good ease, and so to bed. Will in another bed in my chamber.

Cambridge University

Caxton Gibbet, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire

Caxton Gibbet is the location of a gibbet on a small knoll on Ermine Street in Cambridgeshire.

Ermine Street 2b Braughing to Durobrivae. From Braughing Ermine Street continues north through Buntingford. 1.6km north of Buntingford the road make a change of alignment before heading to Royston where it again changes aligment before passing through Caxton Gibbet, Durovigutum, Huntingdon, Great Stukeley, Alconbury and Sawtry, Chesterton before reaching Durobrivae.

Carlton, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire

Church of St Mary the Great Cambridge, Cambridgeshire

On 28 Feb 1551 Martin Bucer Protestant 1491-1551 (59) died. He was buried at the Church of St Mary the Great Cambridge.

Diary of Henry Machyn January 1557. 26 Jan 1557. [The xxvj day of January went to Cambridge, Watson (42) bishop elect of Lincoln, Scot bishop of Chester, and Christopherson bishop elect of Chichester,] comyssyoners to the [lord cardinal, to the] chyrche of sant Mares, and thay toke up on Martin [Bucer] (65) that was bered ther, and Paulus Phagius (53) [was] taken up at Sant Myghelle cherche that was [buried there,] and after brentt [burned] boyth.

John Evelyn's Diary 31 August 1654. 31 Aug 1654. Through part of Huntingdonshire, we passed that town, fair and ancient, a river running by it. The country about it so abounds in wheat that, when any King of England passes through it, they have a custom to meet him with a hundred plows.

This evening, to Cambridge; and went first to St. John's College, well built of brick, and library, which I think is the fairest of that University. One Mr. Benlowes has given it all the ornaments of pietra commessa, whereof a table and one piece of perspective is very fine; other trifles there also be of no great value, besides a vast old song-book, or Service, and some fair manuscripts. There hangs in the library the picture of John Williams (72), Archbishop of York, sometime Lord Keeper, my kinsman, and their great benefactor.

Trinity College is said by some to be the fairest quadrangle of any university in Europe; but in truth is far inferior to that of Christ Church, in Oxford; the hall is ample and of stone, the fountain in the quadrangle is graceful, the chapel and library fair. There they showed us the prophetic manuscript of the famous Grebner, but the passage and emblem which they would apply to our late King, is manifestly relating to the Swedish; in truth, it seems to be a mere fantastic rhapsody, however the title may bespeak strange revelations. There is an office in manuscript with fine miniatures, and some other antiquities, given by the Countess of Richmond, mother of Henry VIII, and the before-mentioned Archbishop Williams (72), when Bishop of Lincoln. The library is pretty well stored. The Greek Professor had me into another large quadrangle cloistered and well built, and gave us a handsome collation in his own chamber.

Thence to Caius, and afterward to King's College, where I found the chapel altogether answered expectation, especially the roof, all of stone, which for the flatness of its laying and carving may, I conceive, vie with any in Christendom. The contignation of the roof (which I went upon), weight, and artificial joining of the stones is admirable. The lights are also very fair. In one aisle lies the famous Dr. Collins, so celebrated for his fluency in the Latin tongue. From this roof we could descry Ely, and the encampment of Sturbridge fair now beginning to set up their tents and booths; also Royston, Newmarket, etc., houses belonging to the King. The library is too narrow.

Clare-Hall is of a new and noble design, but not finished.

Peter-House, formerly under the government of my worthy friend, Dr. Joseph Cosin (59) [Note. Joseph appears to be a mistake for John?], Dean of Peterborough; a pretty neat college, having a delicate chapel. Next to Sidney, a fine college.

Catherine-Hall, though a mean structure, is yet famous for the learned Bishop Andrews (99), once Master. Emanuel College, that zealous house, where to the hall they have a parlor for the Fellows. The chapel is reformed, ab origine, built north and south, and meanly erected, as is the library.

Jesus College, one of the best built, but in a melancholy situation. Next to Christ-College, a very noble erection, especially the modern part, built without the quadrangle toward the gardens, of exact architecture.

The Schools are very despicable, and Public Library but mean, though somewhat improved by the wainscoting and books lately added by the Bishop Bancroft's library and MSS. They showed us little of antiquity, only King James's Works, being his own gift, and kept very reverently.

The market place is very ample, and remarkable for old Hobson, the pleasant carrier's beneficence of a fountain. But the whole town is situate in a low, dirty, unpleasant place, the streets ill-paved, the air thick and infected by the fens, nor are its churches, (of which St. Mary's is the best) anything considerable in compare to Oxford.

From Cambridge, we went to Audley-End, and spent some time in seeing that goodly place built by Howard (93), Earl of Suffolk, once Lord Treasurer. It is a mixed fabric, between antique and modern, but observable for its being completely finished, and without comparison is one of the stateliest palaces in the kingdom. It consists of two courts, the first very large, winged with cloisters. The front had a double entrance; the hall is fair, but somewhat too small for so august a pile. The kitchen is very large, as are the cellars, arched with stone, very neat and well disposed; these offices are joined by a wing out of the way very handsomely. The gallery is the most cheerful and I think one of the best in England; a fair dining-room, and the rest of the lodgings answerable, with a pretty chapel. The gardens are not in order, though well inclosed. It has also a bowling-alley, a noble well-walled, wooded and watered park, full of fine collines and ponds: the river glides before the palace, to which is an avenue of lime trees, but all this is much diminished by its being placed in an obscure bottom. For the rest, is a perfectly uniform structure, and shows without like a diadem, by the decorations of the cupolas and other ornaments on the pavilions; instead of rails and balusters, there is a border of capital letters, as was lately also on Suffolk House, near Charing-Cross, built by the same Lord Treasurer (93).

This house stands in the parish of Saffron Walden, famous for the abundance of saffron there cultivated, and esteemed the best of any foreign country.

Before 1634 Gilbert Jackson Painter 1595-1648. Portrait of John Williams Archbishop of York 1582-1650. Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525. Portrait of Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 in the Masters Lodge St John's College. Commissioned by John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535. Note the Beaufort Arms on the wall beneath which is the Beafort Portcullis. Repeated in the window. She is wearing widow's clothes, or possibly that of a convent; Gabled Headress with Lappets. On 29 Mar 2019, St John's College, Cambridge, which she founded, announced the portrait was original work by Wewyck. In 1598 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Thomas Howard 1st Earl Suffolk 1561-1626.

Petty Cury, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire

Falcon Inn, Cambridge, Petty Cury, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire

Diary of Samuel Pepys 25 February 1660. 25 Feb 1660. Saturday. To the Falcon, in the Petty Cury1, where we found my father (59) and brother (19) very well. After dressing myself, about ten o'clock, my father, brother, and I to Mr. Widdririgton, at Christ's College, who received us very civilly, and caused my brother to be admitted, while my father, he, and I, sat talking. After that done, we take leave. My father and brother went to visit some friends, Pepys's, scholars in Cambridge, while I went to Magdalene College, to Mr. Hill, with whom I found Mr. Zanchy, Burton, and Hollins, and was exceeding civilly received by them. I took leave on promise to sup with them, and to my Inn again, where I dined with some others that were there at an ordinary. After dinner my brother to the College, and my father and I to my Cozen Angier's, to see them, where Mr. Fairbrother came to us. Here we sat a while talking. My father he went to look after his things at the carrier's, and my brother's chamber, while Mr. Fairbrother, my Cozen Angier, and Mr. Zanchy, whom I met at Mr. Merton's shop (where I bought 'Elenchus Motuum', having given my former to Mr Downing (35) when he was here), to the Three Tuns, where we drank pretty hard and many healths to the King (29), &c., till it began to be darkish: then we broke up and I and Mr. Zanchy went to Magdalene College, where a very handsome supper at Mr. Hill's chambers, I suppose upon a club among them, where in their discourse I could find that there was nothing at all left of the old preciseness in their discourse, specially on Saturday nights. And Mr. Zanchy told me that there was no such thing now-a-days among them at any time. After supper and some discourse then to my Inn, where I found my father in his chamber, and after some discourse, and he well satisfied with this day's work, we went to bed, my brother lying with me, his things not being come by the carrier that he could not lie in the College.

1. The old Falcon Inn is on the south side of Petty Cury. It is now divided into three houses, one of which is the present Falcon Inn, the other two being houses with shops. The Falcon yard is but little changed. From the size of the whole building it must have been the principal inn of the town. The room said to have been used by Queen Elizabeth for receptions retains its original form.—M. B. The Petty Cury. The derivation of the name of his street, so well known to all Cambridge men, is a matter of much dispute among antiquaries. (See "Notes and Queries".) The most probable meaning of it is the Parva Cokeria, or little cury, where the cooks of the town lived, just as "The Poultry", where the Poulters (now Poulterers) had their shops. "The Forme of Cury", a Roll of Antient English Cookery, was compiled by the principal cooks of that "best and royalest viander of all Christian Kings", Richard the Second, and edited with a copious Index and Glossary by Dr. Samuel Pegge, 1780.—M. B.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes. Around 1661 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II

Rose Tavern, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire

Diary of Samuel Pepys 15 July 1661. 15 Jul 1661. Then with Dr. Fairbrother (whom I met there) to the Rose tavern, and called for some wine, and there met fortunately with Mr. Turner of our office, and sent for his wife, and were very merry (they being come to settle their son here), and sent also for Mr. Sanchy, of Magdalen, with whom and other gentlemen, friends of his, we were very merry, and I treated them as well as I could, and so at noon took horse again, having taken leave of my cozen Angier, and rode to Impington, where I found my old uncle (78)1 sitting all alone, like a man out of the world: he can hardly see; but all things else he do pretty livelyly.

1. Talbot Pepys (78), sixth son of John Pepys of Impington -1589, was born 1583, and therefore at this time he was seventy-eight years of age. He was educated at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and called to the bar at the Middle Temple in 1605. He was M.P. for Cambridge in 1625, and Recorder of Cambridge from 1624 to 1660, in which year he was succeeded by his son Roger (44). He died of the plague, March, 1666, aged eighty-three.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 03 August 1661. 03 Aug 1661. Then parted, and I went to the Rose, and there with Mr. Pechell, Sanchy, and others, sat and drank till night and were very merry, only they tell me how high the old doctors are in the University over those they found there, though a great deal better scholars than themselves; for which I am very sorry, and, above all, Dr. Gunning (47).

Before 1684. Circle of Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Peter Gunning Bishop 1614-1684.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 October 1667. 08 Oct 1667. Up pretty betimes, though not so soon as we intended, by reason of Murford's not rising, and then not knowing how to open our door, which, and some other pleasant simplicities of the fellow, did give occasion to us to call him. Sir Martin Marrall, and W. Hewer (25) being his helper and counsellor, we did call him, all this journey, Mr. Warner, which did give us good occasion of mirth now and then.

At last, rose, and up, and broke our fast, and then took coach, and away, and at Newport did call on Mr. Lowther (26), and he and his friend, and the master of the house, their friend, where they were, a gentleman, did presently get a-horseback and overtook us, and went with us to Audley-End, and did go along with us all over the house and garden: and mighty merry we were. The house indeed do appear very fine, but not so fine as it hath heretofore to me; particularly the ceilings are not so good as I always took them to be, being nothing so well wrought as my Chancellor's (58) are; and though the figure of the house without be very extraordinary good, yet the stayre-case is exceeding poor; and a great many pictures, and not one good one in the house but one of Harry the Eighth, done by Holben; and not one good suit of hangings in all the house, but all most ancient things, such as I would not give the hanging-up of in my house; and the other furniture, beds and other things, accordingly1. Only the gallery is good, and, above all things, the cellars, where we went down and drank of much good liquor; and indeed the cellars are fine: and here my wife and I did sing to my great content.

And then to the garden, and there eat many grapes, and took some with us and so away thence, exceeding well satisfied, though not to that degree that, by my old esteem of the house, I ought and did expect to have done, the situation of it not pleasing me. Here we parted with Lowther (26) and his friends, and away to Cambridge, it being foul, rainy weather, and there did take up at the Rose, for the sake of Mrs. Dorothy Drawwater, the vintner's daughter, which is mentioned in the play of Sir Martin Marrall. Here we had a good chamber, and bespoke a good supper; and then I took my wife, and W. Hewer (25), and Willet, it holding up a little, and shewed them Trinity College and St. John's Library, and went to King's College Chapel, to see the outside of it only; and so to our inne, and with much pleasure did this, they walking in their pretty morning gowns, very handsome, and I proud to find myself in condition to do this; and so home to our lodging, and there by and by, to supper, with much good sport, talking with the Drawers concerning matters of the town, and persons whom I remember, and so, after supper, to cards; and then to bed, lying, I in one bed, and my wife and girl in another, in the same room, and very merry talking together, and mightily pleased both of us with the girl. Saunders, the only violin in my time, is, I hear, dead of the plague in the late plague there.

1. Mr. George T. Robinson, F.S.A., in a paper on "Decorative Plaster Work", read before the Society of Arts in April, 1891, refers to the ceilings at Audley End as presenting an excellent idea of the state of the stuccoer's art in the middle of James I's reign, and adds, "Few houses in England can show so fine a series of the same date ... The great hall has medallions in the square portions of the ceiling formed by its dividing timber beams. The large saloon on the principal floor-a room about 66 feet long by 30 feet wide-has a very remarkable ceiling of the pendentive type, which presents many peculiarities, the most notable of which, that these not only depend from the ceiling, but the outside ones spring from the walls in a natural and structural manner. This is a most unusual circumstance in the stucco work of the time, the reason for the omission of this reasonable treatment evidently being the unwillingness of the stuccoer to omit his elaborate frieze in which he took such delight" ("Journal Soc. of Arts", vol. xxxix., p. 449).

In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of William Hewer 1642-1715. Around 1643. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674. 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 25 May 1668. 25 May 1668. Waked betimes, and lay long.... [Note. Missing text "hazendo doz con mi moher con grande pleasure to me and ella;"] and there fell to talking, and by and by rose, it being the first fair day, and yet not quite fair, that we have had some time, and so up, and to walk with my father again in the garden, consulting what to do with him and this house when Pall (27) and her husband (28) go away; and I think it will be to let it, and he go live with her, though I am against letting the house for any long time, because of having it to retire to, ourselves. So I do intend to think more of it before I resolve.

By and by comes Mr. Cooke to see me and so spent the morning, and he gone by and by at noon to dinner, where Mr. Shepley come and we merry, all being in good humour between my wife and her people about her, and after dinner took horse, I promising to fetch her away about fourteen days hence, and so calling all of us, we men on horseback, and the women and my father, at Goody Gorum's, and there in a frolic drinking I took leave, there going with me and my boy, my two brothers, and one Browne, whom they call in mirth Colonell, for our guide, and also Mr. Shepley, to the end of Huntingdon, and another gentleman who accidentally come thither, one Mr. Castle (39); and I made them drink at the Chequers, where I observed the same tapster, Tom, that was there when I was a little boy and so we, at the end of the town, took leave of Shepley and the other gentleman, and so we away and got well to Cambridge, about seven to the Rose, the waters not being now so high as before. And here 'lighting, I took my boy and two brothers, and walked to Magdalene College: and there into the butterys, as a stranger, and there drank my bellyfull of their beer, which pleased me, as the best I ever drank: and hear by the butler's man, who was son to Goody Mulliner over against the College, that we used to buy stewed prunes of, concerning the College and persons in it; and find very few, only Mr. Hollins and Pechell, I think, that were of my time. But I was mightily pleased to come in this condition to see and ask, and thence, giving the fellow something, away walked to Chesterton, to see our old walk, and there into the Church, the bells ringing, and saw the place I used to sit in, and so to the ferry, and ferried over to the other side, and walked with great pleasure, the river being mighty high by Barnewell Abbey: and so by Jesus College to the town, and so to our quarters, and to supper, and then to bed, being very weary and sleepy and mightily pleased with this night's walk.

Three Tuns Cambridge, Cambridgeshire

Diary of Samuel Pepys 25 February 1660. 25 Feb 1660. Saturday. To the Falcon, in the Petty Cury1, where we found my father (59) and brother (19) very well. After dressing myself, about ten o'clock, my father, brother, and I to Mr. Widdririgton, at Christ's College, who received us very civilly, and caused my brother to be admitted, while my father, he, and I, sat talking. After that done, we take leave. My father and brother went to visit some friends, Pepys's, scholars in Cambridge, while I went to Magdalene College, to Mr. Hill, with whom I found Mr. Zanchy, Burton, and Hollins, and was exceeding civilly received by them. I took leave on promise to sup with them, and to my Inn again, where I dined with some others that were there at an ordinary. After dinner my brother to the College, and my father and I to my Cozen Angier's, to see them, where Mr. Fairbrother came to us. Here we sat a while talking. My father he went to look after his things at the carrier's, and my brother's chamber, while Mr. Fairbrother, my Cozen Angier, and Mr. Zanchy, whom I met at Mr. Merton's shop (where I bought 'Elenchus Motuum', having given my former to Mr Downing (35) when he was here), to the Three Tuns, where we drank pretty hard and many healths to the King (29), &c., till it began to be darkish: then we broke up and I and Mr. Zanchy went to Magdalene College, where a very handsome supper at Mr. Hill's chambers, I suppose upon a club among them, where in their discourse I could find that there was nothing at all left of the old preciseness in their discourse, specially on Saturday nights. And Mr. Zanchy told me that there was no such thing now-a-days among them at any time. After supper and some discourse then to my Inn, where I found my father in his chamber, and after some discourse, and he well satisfied with this day's work, we went to bed, my brother lying with me, his things not being come by the carrier that he could not lie in the College.

1. The old Falcon Inn is on the south side of Petty Cury. It is now divided into three houses, one of which is the present Falcon Inn, the other two being houses with shops. The Falcon yard is but little changed. From the size of the whole building it must have been the principal inn of the town. The room said to have been used by Queen Elizabeth for receptions retains its original form.—M. B. The Petty Cury. The derivation of the name of his street, so well known to all Cambridge men, is a matter of much dispute among antiquaries. (See "Notes and Queries".) The most probable meaning of it is the Parva Cokeria, or little cury, where the cooks of the town lived, just as "The Poultry", where the Poulters (now Poulterers) had their shops. "The Forme of Cury", a Roll of Antient English Cookery, was compiled by the principal cooks of that "best and royalest viander of all Christian Kings", Richard the Second, and edited with a copious Index and Glossary by Dr. Samuel Pegge, 1780.—M. B.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes. Around 1661 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II