History of Cock Pit

1648 Treaty of Newport

1665 Great Plague of London

Cock Pit is in Whitehall Palace.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 January 1660. 23 Jan 1660. Monday. In the morning called out to carry £20 to Mr Downing (35), which I did and came back, and finding Mr. Pierce, the surgeon, I took him to the Axe and gave him his morning draft. Thence to my office and there did nothing but make up my balance. Came home and found my wife dressing of the girl's head, by which she was made to look very pretty. I went out and paid Wilkinson [Note. Landlord of the Crown Tavern] what I did owe him, and brought a piece of beef home for dinner. Thence I went out and paid Waters [Note. Landlord of The Sun, King Street], the vintner, and went to see Mrs. Jem, where I found my Lady Wright, but Scott was so drunk that he could not be seen. Here I staid and made up Mrs. Ann's bills, and played a game or two at cards, and thence to Westminster Hall, it being very dark. I paid Mrs. Michell, my bookseller, and back to Whitehall, and in the garden, going through to the Stone Gallery [Note. The Stone Gallery was a long passage between the Privy Garden and the river. It led from the Bowling Green to the Court of the Palace] I fell into a ditch, it being very dark. At the Clerk's chamber I met with Simons and Luellin, and went with them to Mr. Mount's chamber at the Cock Pit, where we had some rare pot venison, and ale to abundance till almost twelve at night, and after a song round we went home. This day the Parliament sat late, and resolved of the declaration to be printed for the people's satisfaction, promising them a great many good things.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 February 1660. 20 Feb 1660. Monday. In the morning at my lute. Then to my office, where my partner and I made even our balance. Took him home to dinner with me, where my brother John (19) came to dine with me. After dinner I took him to my study at home and at my Lord's, and gave him some books and other things against his going to Cambridge. After he was gone I went forth to Westminster Hall, where I met with Chetwind, Simons, and Gregory. And with them to Marsh's at Whitehall to drink, and staid there a pretty while reading a pamphlet1 well writ and directed to General Monk (51), in praise of the form of monarchy which was settled here before the wars. They told me how the Speaker Lenthall (68) do refuse to sign the writs for choice of new members in the place of the excluded; and by that means the writs could not go out to-day. In the evening Simons and I to the Coffee Club, where nothing to do only I heard Mr. Harrington (49), and my Lord of Dorset (37) and another Lord, talking of getting another place as the Cockpit, and they did believe it would come to something. After a small debate upon the question whether learned or unlearned subjects are the best the Club broke up very poorly, and I do not think they will meet any more. Hence with Vines, &c. to Will's, and after a pot or two home, and so to bed.

Note 1. This pamphlet is among the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts (British Museum), and dated in MS. this same day, February 20th— "A Plea for Limited Monarchy as it was established in this Nation before the late War. In an Humble Address to his Excellency General Monck. By a Zealot for the good old Laws of his Country, before any Faction or Caprice, with additions". "An Eccho to the Plea for Limited Monarchy, &c"., was published soon afterwards.

Before 03 Jan 1670  Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670. Before 03 Jan 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670 in his Garter Robes. Around 1650. Robert Walker Painter 1599-1658. Portrait of Richard Sackville 5th Earl Dorset 1622-1677.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 November 1662. 17 Nov 1662. To the Duke's to-day, but he is gone a-hunting, and therefore I to my Lord Sandwich's (37), and having spoke a little with him about his businesses, I to Westminster Hall and there staid long doing many businesses, and so home by the Temple and other places doing the like, and at home I found my wife dressing by appointment by her woman [Mrs. Gosnell.] that I think is to be, and her other sister being here to-day with her and my wife's brother, I took Mr. Creed, that came to dine, to an ordinary behind the Change, and there dined together, and after dinner home and there spent an hour or two till almost dark, talking with my wife, and making Mrs. Gosnell sing; and then, there being no coach to be got, by water to White Hall; but Gosnell not being willing to go through bridge, we were forced to land and take water, again, and put her and her sister ashore at the Temple. I am mightily pleased with her humour and singing. At White Hall by appointment, Mr. Creed carried my wife and I to the Cockpitt, and we had excellent places, and saw the King (32), Queen (23), Duke of Monmouth (13), his son, and my Baroness Castlemaine's (21), and all the fine ladies; and "The Scornful Lady", well performed. They had done by eleven o'clock, and it being fine moonshine, we took coach and home, but could wake nobody at my house, and so were fain to have my boy get through one of the windows, and so opened the door and called up the maids, and went to supper and to bed, my mind being troubled at what my wife tells me, that her woman will not come till she hears from her mother, for I am so fond of her that I am loth now not to have her, though I know it will be a great charge to me which I ought to avoid, and so will make it up in other things.

So to bed.

Around 1650 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672. Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes. Around 1661 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza. Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1670. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685. Before 07 Nov 1666. William Faithorne Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 and her son Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton as Madonna and Child. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. One of the Windsor Beauties. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1690 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 01 December 1662. 01 Dec 1662. Up and by coach with Sir John Minnes (63) and Sir W. Batten (61) to White Hall to the Duke's chamber, where, as is usual, my Lord Sandwich (37) and all of us, after his being ready, to his closett, and there discoursed of matters of the Navy, and here Mr. Coventry (34) did do me the great kindness to take notice to the Duke (29) of my pains in making a collection of all contracts about masts, which have been of great use to us.

Thence I to my Lord Sandwich's (37), to Mr. Moore, to talk a little about business; and then over the Parke (where I first in my life, it being a great frost, did see people sliding with their skeates1, which is a very pretty art), to Mr. Coventry's (34) chamber to St. James's, where we all met to a venison pasty, and were very merry, Major Norwood being with us, whom they did play upon for his surrendering of Dunkirk. Here we staid till three or four o'clock; and so to the Council Chamber, where there met the Duke of York (29), Prince Rupert (42), Duke of Albemarle (53), my Lord Sandwich (37), Sir Win. Compton (37), Mr. Coventry (34), Sir J. Minnes (63), Sir R. Ford (48), Sir W. Rider, myself, and Captain Cuttance, as Commissioners for Tangier. And after our Commission was read by Mr. Creed, who I perceive is to be our Secretary, we did fall to discourse of matters: as, first, the supplying them forthwith with victualls; then the reducing it to make way for the money, which upon their reduction is to go to the building of the Mole; and so to other matters, ordered as against next meeting.

This done we broke up, and I to the Cockpitt, with much crowding and waiting, where I saw "The Valiant Cidd2" acted, a play I have read with great delight, but is a most dull thing acted, which I never understood before, there being no pleasure in it, though done by Betterton (27) and by Ianthe (25), And another fine wench that is come in the room of Roxalana (20) nor did the King (32) or Queen (24) once smile all the whole play, nor any of the company seem to take any pleasure but what was in the greatness and gallantry of the company.

Thence to my Lord's, and Mr. Moore being in bed I staid not, but with a link walked home and got thither by 12 o'clock, knocked up my boy, and put myself to bed.

Note 1. Iron skates appear to have been introduced by the Dutch, as the name certainly was; but we learn from Fitzstephen that bone skates (although not so called) were used in London in the twelfth century.

Note 2. Translated from the "Cid" of Corneille.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of John Mennes Comptroller 1599-1671. Before 23 Jun 1686 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699. Portrait of William Coventry 1628-1686. Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King James II when Duke of York. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II wearing his Garter Robes. Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of King James II. Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the Prince Rupert, Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 and Colonel William Murray. Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert. Around 1672 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Prince Rupert. Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 January 1663. 05 Jan 1663. Up and to the Duke (29), who himself told me that Sir J. Lawson (48) was come home to Portsmouth from the Streights, who is now come with great renown among all men, and, I perceive, mightily esteemed at Court by all. The Duke (29) did not stay long in his chamber; but to the King's chamber, whither by and by the Russia Embassadors (18) come; who, it seems, have a custom that they will not come to have any treaty with our or any King's Commissioners, but they will themselves see at the time the face of the King (32) himself, be it forty days one after another; and so they did to-day only go in and see the King (32); and so out again to the Council-chamber. The Duke (29) returned to his chamber, and so to his closett, where Sir G. Carteret (53), Sir J. Minnes (63), Sir W. Batten (62), Mr. Coventry (35), and myself attended him about the business of the Navy; and after much discourse and pleasant talk he went away.

And I took Sir W. Batten (62) and Captain Allen into the wine cellar to my tenant (as I call him, Serjeant Dalton), and there drank a great deal of variety of wines, more than I have drunk at one time, or shall again a great while, when I come to return to my oaths, which I intend in a day or two.

Thence to my Lord's lodging, where Mr. Hunt and Mr. Creed dined with us, and were very merry. And after dinner he and I to White Hall, where the Duke (29) and the Commissioners for Tangier met, but did not do much: my Lord Sandwich (37) not being in town, nobody making it their business. So up, and Creed and I to my wife again, and after a game or two at cards, to the Cockpitt, where we saw "Claracilla", a poor play, done by the King's house (but neither the King (32) nor Queen (24) were there, but only the Duke (29) and Duchess (25), who did show some impertinent and, methought, unnatural dalliances there, before the whole world, such as kissing, and leaning upon one another); but to my very little content, they not acting in any degree like the Duke's people.

So home (there being here this night Mrs. Turner (40) and Mrs. Martha Batten of our office) to my Lord's lodgings again, and to a game at cards, we three and Sarah, and so to supper and some apples and ale, and to bed with great pleasure, blessed be God!

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Admiral John Lawson 1615-1665. One of the Flagmen of Lowestoft. Around 1661 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. Around 1662 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. One of the Windsor Beauties. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666.

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Treaty of Newport

Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 November 1663. 09 Nov 1663. Up and found myself very well, and so by coach to White Hall and there met all my fellow officers, and so to the Duke (30), where, when we came into his closett, he told us that Mr. Pepys was so altered with his new perriwigg that he did not know him.

So to our discourse, and among and above other things we were taken up in talking upon Sir J. Lawson's (48) coming home, he being come to Portsmouth; and Captain Berkely is come to towne with a letter from the Duana of Algier to the King (33), wherein they do demand again the searching of our ships and taking out of strangers, and their goods; and that what English ships are taken without the Duke's pass they will detain (though it be flat contrary to the words of the peace) as prizes, till they do hear from our King, which they advise him may be speedy. And this they did the very next day after they had received with great joy the Grand Seignor's confirmation of the Peace from Constantinople by Captain Berkely; so that there is no command nor certainty to be had of these people. The King (33) is resolved to send his will by a fleete of ships; and it is thought best and speediest to send these very ships that are now come home, five sail of good ships, back again after cleaning, victualling, and paying them. But it is a pleasant thing to think how their Basha, Shavan Aga, did tear his hair to see the soldiers order things thus; for (just like his late predecessor) when they see the evil of war with England, then for certain they complain to the Grand Seignor of him, and cut his head off: this he is sure of, and knows as certain.

Thence to Westminster Hall, where I met with Mr. Pierce, chyrurgeon; and among other things he asked me seriously whether I knew anything of my Lord's being out of favour with the King (33); and told me, that for certain the King (33) do take mighty notice of my Lord's living obscurely in a corner not like himself, and becoming the honour that he is come to. I was sorry to hear, and the truth is, from my Lord's discourse among his people (which I am told) of the uncertainty of princes' favours, and his melancholy keeping from Court, I am doubtful of some such thing; but I seemed wholly strange to him in it, but will make my use of it. He told me also how loose the Court is, nobody looking after business, but every man his lust and gain; and how the King (33) is now become besotted upon Mrs. Stewart (16), that he gets into corners, and will be with her half an houre together kissing her to the observation of all the world; and she now stays by herself and expects it, as my Baroness Castlemaine's (22) did use to do; to whom the King (33), he says, is still kind, so as now and then he goes to have a chat with her as he believes; but with no such fondness as he used to do. But yet it is thought that this new wench is so subtle, that she lets him not do any thing than is safe to her, but yet his doting is so great that, Pierce tells me, it is verily thought if the Queene (53) had died, he would have married her.

The Duke of Monmouth (14) is to have part of the Cockpitt new built for lodgings for him, and they say to be made Captain of the Guards in the room of my Lord Gerard (45). Having thus talked with him, there comes into the Hall Creed and Ned Pickering (45), and after a turne or two with them, it being noon, I walked with them two to the King's Head ordinary, and there we dined; little discourse but what was common, only that the Duke of Yorke (30) is a very, desperate huntsman, but I was ashamed of Pickering, who could not forbear having up my Lord Sandwich (38) now and then in the most paltry matters abominable.

Thence I took leave of them, and so having taken up something at my wife's tailor's, I home by coach and there to my office, whither Shales came and I had much discourse with him about the business of the victualling, and thence in the evening to the Coffee-house, and there sat till by and by, by appointment Will brought me word that his uncle Blackburne was ready to speak with me. So I went down to him, and he and I to a taverne hard by, and there I begun to speak to Will friendlily, advising him how to carry himself now he is going from under my roof, without any reflections upon the occasion from whence his removal arose. This his uncle seconded, and after laying down to him his duty to me, and what I expect of him, in a discourse of about a quarter of an houre or more, we agreed upon his going this week, towards the latter (end) of the week, and so dismissed him, and Mr. Blackburne and I fell to talk of many things, wherein I did speak so freely to him in many things agreeing with his sense that he was very open to me: first, in that of religion, he makes it great matter of prudence for the King (33) and Council to suffer liberty of conscience; and imputes the losse of Hungary to the Turke from the Emperor's denying them this liberty of their religion. He says that many pious ministers of the word of God, some thousands of them, do now beg their bread: and told me how highly the present clergy carry themselves every where, so as that they are hated and laughed at by everybody; among other things, for their excommunications, which they send upon the least occasions almost that can be. And I am convinced in my judgement, not only from his discourse, but my thoughts in general, that the present clergy will never heartily go down with the generality of the commons of England; they have been so used to liberty and freedom, and they are so acquainted with the pride and debauchery of the present clergy. He did give me many stories of the affronts which the clergy receive in all places of England from the gentry and ordinary persons of the parish. He do tell me what the City thinks of General Monk (54), as of a most perfidious man that hath betrayed every body, and the King (33) also; who, as he thinks, and his party, and so I have heard other good friends of the King (33) say, it might have been better for the King (33) to have had his hands a little bound for the present, than be forced to bring such a crew of poor people about him, and be liable to satisfy the demands of every one of them. He told me that to his knowledge (being present at every meeting at the Treaty at the Isle of Wight), that the old King did confess himself overruled and convinced in his judgement against the Bishopps, and would have suffered and did agree to exclude the service out of the churches, nay his own chappell; and that he did always say, that this he did not by force, for that he would never abate one inch by any vyolence; but what he did was out of his reason and judgement.

He tells me that the King (33) by name, with all his dignities, is prayed for by them that they call Fanatiques, as heartily and powerfully as in any of the other churches that are thought better: and that, let the King (33) think what he will, it is them that must helpe him in the day of warr. For as they are the most, so generally they are the most substantial sort of people, and the soberest; and did desire me to observe it to my Lord Sandwich (38), among other things, that of all the old army now you cannot see a man begging about the street; but what? You shall have this captain turned a shoemaker; the lieutenant, a baker; this a brewer; that a haberdasher; this common soldier, a porter; and every man in his apron and frock, &c., as if they never had done anything else: whereas the others go with their belts and swords, swearing and cursing, and stealing; running into people's houses, by force oftentimes, to carry away something; and this is the difference between the temper of one and the other; and concludes (and I think with some reason,) that the spirits of the old parliament soldiers are so quiett and contented with God's providences, that the King (33) is safer from any evil meant him by them one thousand times more than from his own discontented Cavalier. And then to the publique management of business: it is done, as he observes, so loosely and so carelessly, that the Kingdom can never be happy with it, every man looking after himself, and his owne lust and luxury; among other things he instanced in the business of money, he do believe that half of what money the Parliament gives the King (33) is not so much as gathered. And to the purpose he told me how the Bellamys (who had some of the Northern counties assigned them for their debt for the petty warrant victualling) have often complained to him that they cannot get it collected, for that nobody minds, or, if they do, they won't pay it in. Whereas (which is a very remarkable thing,) he hath been told by some of the Treasurers at Warr here of late, to whom the most of the £120,000 monthly was paid, that for most months the payments were gathered so duly, that they seldom had so much or more than 40s., or the like, short in the whole collection; whereas now the very Commissioners for Assessments and other publique payments are such persons, and those that they choose in the country so like themselves, that from top to bottom there is not a man carefull of any thing, or if he be, he is not solvent; that what between the beggar and the knave, the King (33) is abused the best part of all his revenue. From thence we began to talk of the Navy, and particularly of Sir W. Pen (42), of whose rise to be a general I had a mind to be informed. He told me he was always a conceited man, and one that would put the best side outward, but that it was his pretence of sanctity that brought him into play. Lawson, and Portman, and the Fifth-monarchy men, among whom he was a great brother, importuned that he might be general; and it was pleasant to see how Blackburne himself did act it, how when the Commissioners of the Admiralty would enquire of the captains and admirals of such and such men, how they would with a sigh and casting up the eyes say, "Such a man fears the Lord", or, "I hope such a man hath the Spirit of God", and such things as that. But he tells me that there was a cruel articling against Pen after one fight, for cowardice, in putting himself within a coyle of cables, of which he had much ado to acquit himself: and by great friends did it, not without remains of guilt, but that his brethren had a mind to pass it by, and Sir H. Vane (50) did advise him to search his heart, and see whether this fault or a greater sin was not the occasion of this so great tryall. And he tells me, that what Pen gives out about Cromwell's sending and entreating him to go to Jamaica, is very false; he knows the contrary: besides, the Protector never was a man that needed to send for any man, specially such a one as he, twice. He tells me that the business of Jamaica did miscarry absolutely by his pride, and that when he was in the Tower he would cry like a child. This he says of his own personal knowledge, and lastly tells me that just upon the turne, when Monk (54) was come from the North to the City, and did begin to think of bringing in the King (33), Pen was then turned Quaker. This he is most certain of. He tells me that Lawson was never counted any thing but only a seaman, and a stout man, but a false man, and that now he appears the greatest hypocrite in the world. And Pen the same. He tells me that it is much talked of, that the King (33) intends to legitimate the Duke of Monmouth (14); and that he has not, nor his friends of his persuasion, have any hopes of getting their consciences at liberty but by God Almighty's turning of the King's heart, which they expect, and are resolved to live and die in quiett hopes of it; but never to repine, or act any thing more than by prayers towards it. And that not only himself but all of them have, and are willing at any time to take the oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy. Thus far, and upon many more things, we had discoursed when some persons in a room hard by began to sing in three parts very finely and to play upon a flagilette so pleasantly that my discourse afterwards was but troublesome, and I could not attend it, and so, anon, considering of a sudden the time of night, we found it 11 o'clock, which I thought it had not been by two hours, but we were close in talk, and so we rose, he having drunk some wine and I some beer and sugar, and so by a fair moonshine home and to bed, my wife troubled with tooth ache.

Mr. Blackburne observed further to me, some certain notice that he had of the present plot so much talked of; that he was told by Mr. Rushworth, how one Captain Oates, a great discoverer, did employ several to bring and seduce others into a plot, and that one of his agents met with one that would not listen to him, nor conceal what he had offered him, but so detected the trapan. This, he says, is most true. He also, among other instances how the King (33) is served, did much insist upon the cowardice and corruption of the King's guards and militia, which to be sure will fail the King (33), as they have done already, when there will be occasion for them.

Around 1662 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Frances Teresa Stewart Duchess Lennox and Richmond 1647-1702. One of the Windsor Beauties. Around 1625 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669. Around 1658 Gilbert Soest Painter 1605-1681. Portrait of Henry Vane

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 April 1665. 24 Apr 1665. Up and with Creed in Sir W. Batten's (64) coach to White Hall. Sir W. Batten (64) and I to the Duke of Albemarle (56), where very busy.

Then I to Creed's chamber, where I received with much ado my two orders about receiving Povy's (51) monies and answering his credits, and it is strange how he will preserve his constant humour of delaying all business that comes before him.

Thence he and I to London to my office, and back again to my Lady Sandwich's (40) to dinner, where my wife by agreement.

After dinner alone, my Lady told me, with the prettiest kind of doubtfullnesse, whether it would be fit for her with respect to Creed to do it, that is, in the world, that Creed had broke his desire to her of being a servant to Mrs. Betty Pickering (23), and placed it upon encouragement which he had from some discourse of her ladyship, commending of her virtues to him, which, poor lady, she meant most innocently. She did give him a cold answer, but not so severe as it ought to have been; and, it seems, as the lady since to my Lady confesses, he had wrote a letter to her, which she answered slightly, and was resolved to contemn any motion of his therein. My Lady takes the thing very ill, as it is fit she should; but I advise her to stop all future occasions of the world's taking notice of his coming thither so often as of late he hath done. But to think that he should have this devilish presumption to aime at a lady so near to my Lord is strange, both for his modesty and discretion.

Thence to the Cockepitt, and there walked an houre with my Lord Duke of Albemarle (56) alone in his garden, where he expressed in great words his opinion of me; that I was the right hand of the Navy here, nobody but I taking any care of any thing therein; so that he should not know what could be done without me. At which I was (from him) not a little proud.

Thence to a Committee of Tangier, where because not a quorum little was done, and so away to my wife (Creed with me) at Mrs. Pierce's, who continues very pretty and is now great with child. I had not seen her a great while.

Thence by coach to my Lord Treasurer's (58), but could not speak with Sir Ph. Warwicke (55). So by coach with my wife and Mercer to the Parke; but the King (34) being there, and I now-a-days being doubtfull of being seen in any pleasure, did part from the tour, and away out of the Parke to Knightsbridge, and there eat and drank in the coach, and so home, and after a while at my office, home to supper and to bed, having got a great cold I think by my pulling off my periwigg so often.

Around 1657 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Thomas Povey Master of Requests 1614-1705. In or before 1674. John Hayls Painter 1600-1679. Portrait of Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich 1625-1674. Around 1660 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Thomas Wriothesley 4th Earl of Southampton 1607-1667 holding his Lord Treasurer Staff of Office.

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Great Plague of London

Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 June 1665. 08 Jun 1665. About five o'clock my wife come home, it having lightened all night hard, and one great shower of rain. She come and lay upon the bed; I up and to the office, where all the morning.

Alone at home to dinner, my wife, mother, and Mercer dining at W. Joyce's; I giving her a caution to go round by the Half Moone to his house, because of the plague.

I to my Lord Treasurer's (58) by appointment of Sir Thomas Ingram's (50), to meet the Goldsmiths; where I met with the great news at last newly come, brought by Bab May (37) from the Duke of Yorke (31), that we have totally routed the Dutch; that the Duke (31) himself, the Prince (45), my Lord Sandwich (39), and Mr. Coventry (37) are all well: which did put me into such joy, that I forgot almost all other thoughts. The particulars I shall set down by and by.

By and by comes Alderman Maynell and Mr. Viner (34), and there my Lord Treasurer (58) did intreat them to furnish me with money upon my tallys, Sir Philip Warwicke (55) before my Lord declaring the King's changing of the hand from Mr. Povy (51) to me, whom he called a very sober person, and one whom the Lord Treasurer (58) would owne in all things that I should concern myself with them in the business of money. They did at present declare they could not part with money at present. My Lord did press them very hard, and I hope upon their considering we shall get some of them.

Thence with great joy to the Cocke-pitt; where the Duke of Albemarle (56), like a man out of himself with content, new-told me all; and by and by comes a letter from Mr. Coventry's (37) own hand to him, which he never opened (which was a strange thing), but did give it me to open and read, and consider what was fit for our office to do in it, and leave the letter with Sir W. Clerke; which upon such a time and occasion was a strange piece of indifference, hardly pardonable. I copied out the letter, and did also take minutes out of Sir W. Clerke's other letters; and the sum of the newes is:

VICTORY OVER THE DUTCH, JUNE 3RD, 1665.

This day they engaged; the Dutch neglecting greatly the opportunity of the wind they had of us, by which they lost the benefit of their fire-ships. The Earl of Falmouth (35), Muskerry, and Mr. Richard Boyle killed on board the Duke's ship, the Royall Charles, with one shot: their blood and brains flying in the Duke's (31) face; and the head of Mr. Boyle striking down the Duke (31), as some say. !Earle of Marlborough (47), Portland (26), Rear-Admirall Sansum (to Prince Rupert (45)) killed, and Capt. Kirby and Ableson. Sir John Lawson (50) wounded on the knee; hath had some bones taken out, and is likely to be well again. Upon receiving the hurt, he sent to the Duke (31) for another to command the Royall Oake. The Duke (31) sent Jordan1 out of the St. George, who did brave things in her. Capt. Jer. Smith of the Mary was second to the Duke (31), and stepped between him and Captain Seaton of the Urania (76 guns and 400 men), who had sworn to board the Duke (31); killed him, 200 men, and took the ship; himself losing 99 men, and never an officer saved but himself and lieutenant. His master indeed is saved, with his leg cut off: Admirall Opdam blown up, Trump killed, and said by Holmes; all the rest of their admiralls, as they say, but Everson (whom they dare not trust for his affection to the Prince of Orange), are killed: we having taken and sunk, as is believed, about 24 of their best ships; killed and taken near 8 or 10,000 men, and lost, we think, not above 700. A great[er] victory never known in the world. They are all fled, some 43 got into the Texell, and others elsewhere, and we in pursuit of the rest.

Thence, with my heart full of joy; home, and to my office a little; then to my Lady Pen's (41), where they are all joyed and not a little puffed up at the good successe of their father (44)2 and good service indeed is said to have been done by him. Had a great bonefire at the gate; and I with my Lady Pen's (41) people and others to Mrs. Turner's (42) great room, and then down into the streete. I did give the boys 4s. among them, and mighty merry.

So home to bed, with my heart at great rest and quiett, saving that the consideration of the victory is too great for me presently to comprehend3.

Note 1. Afterwards Sir Joseph Jordan, commander of the "Royal Sovereign", and Vice-Admiral of the Red, 1672. He was knighted on July 1st, 1665. B.

Note 2. In the royal charter granted by Charles II in 1680 to William Penn for the government of his American province, to be styled Pennsylvania, special reference is made to "the memory and merits of Sir William Pen (44) in divers services, and particularly his conduct, courage, and discretion under our dearest brother, James, Duke of York (31), in that signal battle and victory fought and obtained against the Dutch fleet commanded by Heer van Opdam in 1665" ("Penn's Memorials of Sir W. Penn (44)", vol. ii., p. 359).

Note 3. Mrs. Ady (Julia Cartwright), in her fascinating life of Henrietta, Duchess of Orléans, gives an account of the receipt of the news of the great sea-fight in Paris, and quotes a letter of Charles II to his sister, dated, "Whitehall, June 8th, 1665" The first report that reached Paris was that "the Duke of York's (31) ship had been blown up, and he himself had been drowned". "The shock was too much for Madame... she was seized with convulsions, and became so dangerously ill that Lord Hollis (65) wrote to the King (35), 'If things had gone ill at sea I really believe Madame would have died.'" Charles wrote: "I thanke God we have now the certayne newes of a very considerable victory over the Duch; you will see most of the particulars by the relation my Lord Hopis will shew you, though I have had as great a losse as 'tis possible in a good frinde, poore C. Barckely (35). It troubles me so much, as I hope you will excuse the shortnesse of this letter, haveing receaved the newes of it but two houres agoe" ("Madame", 1894, pp. 215, 216).

Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Robert Vyner Banker 1st Baronet 1631-1688 and Mary Whitchurch Lady Vyner -1674 and their children.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 November 1665. 05 Nov 1665. Lord's Day. Up, and after being trimmed, by boat to the Cockpitt, where I heard the Duke of Albemarle's (56) chaplin make a simple sermon: among other things, reproaching the imperfection of humane learning, he cried: "All our physicians cannot tell what an ague is, and all our arithmetique is not able to number the days of a man"; which, God knows, is not the fault of arithmetique, but that our understandings reach not the thing.

To dinner, where a great deale of silly discourse, but the worst is I hear that the plague increases much at Lambeth, St. Martin's and Westminster, and fear it will all over the city.

Thence I to the Swan, thinking to have seen Sarah but she was at church, and so I by water to Deptford, and there made a visit to Mr. Evelyn (45), who, among other things, showed me most excellent painting in little; in distemper, Indian incke, water colours: graveing; and, above all, the whole secret of mezzo-tinto, and the manner of it, which is very pretty, and good things done with it. He read to me very much also of his discourse, he hath been many years and now is about, about Guardenage; which will be a most noble and pleasant piece. He read me part of a play or two of his making, very good, but not as he conceits them, I think, to be. He showed me his Hortus Hyemalis leaves laid up in a book of several plants kept dry, which preserve colour, however, and look very finely, better than any Herball. In fine, a most excellent person he is, and must be allowed a little for a little conceitedness; but he may well be so, being a man so much above others. He read me, though with too much gusto, some little poems of his own, that were not transcendant, yet one or two very pretty epigrams; among others, of a lady looking in at a grate, and being pecked at by an eagle that was there.

Here comes in, in the middle of our discourse Captain Cocke (48), as drunk as a dogg, but could stand, and talk and laugh. He did so joy himself in a brave woman that he had been with all the afternoon, and who should it be but my Lady Robinson (53), but very troublesome he is with his noise and talke, and laughing, though very pleasant. With him in his coach to Mr. Glanville's (47), where he sat with Mrs. Penington and myself a good while talking of this fine woman again and then went away.

Then the lady and I to very serious discourse and, among other things, of what a bonny lasse my Lady Robinson (53) is, who is reported to be kind to the prisoners, and has said to Sir G. Smith (50), who is her great crony, "Look! there is a pretty man, I would be content to break a commandment with him", and such loose expressions she will have often.

After an houre's talke we to bed, the lady mightily troubled about a pretty little bitch she hath, which is very sicke, and will eat nothing, and the worst was, I could hear her in her chamber bemoaning the bitch, and by and by taking her into bed with her. The bitch pissed and shit a bed, and she was fain to rise and had coals out of my chamber to dry the bed again. This night I had a letter that Sir G. Carteret (55) would be in towne to-morrow, which did much surprize me.

Around 1644. Robert Walker Painter 1599-1658. Portrait of John Evelyn 1620-1706. In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of John Evelyn 1620-1706. Around 1650 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of John Evelyn 1620-1706.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 November 1665. 06 Nov 1665. Up, and to my office, where busy all the morning and then to dinner to Captain Cocke's (48) with Mr. Evelyn (45), where very merry, only vexed after dinner to stay too long for our coach.

At last, however, to Lambeth and thence the Cockpitt, where we found Sir G. Carteret (55) come, and in with the Duke (32) and the East India Company about settling the business of the prizes, and they have gone through with it.

Then they broke up, and Sir G. Carteret (55) come out, and thence through the garden to the water side and by water I with him in his boat down with Captain Cocke (48) to his house at Greenwich, and while supper was getting ready Sir G. Carteret (55) and I did walk an houre in the garden before the house, talking of my Lord Sandwich's (40) business; what enemies he hath, and how they have endeavoured to bespatter him: and particularly about his leaving of 30 ships of the enemy, when Pen (44) would have gone, and my Lord called him back again: which is most false.

However, he says, it was purposed by some hot-heads in the House of Commons, at the same time when they voted a present to the Duke of Yorke (32), to have voted £10,000 to the Prince (45), and half-a-crowne to my Lord of Sandwich (40); but nothing come of it1.

But, for all this, the King (35) is most firme to my Lord, and so is my Chancellor (56), and my Lord Arlington (47).

The Prince (45), in appearance, kind; the Duke of Yorke (32) silent, says no hurt; but admits others to say it in his hearing. Sir W. Pen (44), the falsest rascal that ever was in the world; and that this afternoon the Duke of Albemarle (56) did tell him that Pen (44) was a very cowardly rogue, and one that hath brought all these rogueish fanatick Captains into the fleete, and swears he should never go out with the fleete again. That Sir W. Coventry (37) is most kind to Pen (44) still; and says nothing nor do any thing openly to the prejudice of my Lord. He agrees with me, that it is impossible for the King (35) [to] set out a fleete again the next year; and that he fears all will come to ruine, there being no money in prospect but these prizes, which will bring, it may be, £20,000, but that will signify nothing in the world for it.

That this late Act of Parliament for bringing the money into the Exchequer, and making of it payable out there, intended as a prejudice to him and will be his convenience hereafter and ruine the King's business, and so I fear it will and do wonder Sir W. Coventry (37) would be led by Sir G. Downing (40) to persuade the King (35) and Duke (32) to have it so, before they had thoroughly weighed all circumstances; that for my Lord, the King (35) has said to him lately that I was an excellent officer, and that my Chancellor (56) do, he thinks, love and esteem of me as well as he do of any man in England that he hath no more acquaintance with.

So having done and received from me the sad newes that we are like to have no money here a great while, not even of the very prizes, I set up my rest2 in giving up the King's service to be ruined and so in to supper, where pretty merry, and after supper late to Mr. Glanville's (47), and Sir G. Carteret (55) to bed. I also to bed, it being very late.

Note 1. The tide of popular indignation ran high against Lord Sandwich (40), and he was sent to Spain as ambassador to get him honourably out of the way (see post, December 6th).

Note 2. The phrase "set up my rest" is a metaphor from the once fashionable game of Primero, meaning, to stand upon the cards you have in your hand, in hopes they may prove better than those of your adversary. Hence, to make up your mind, to be determined (see Nares's "Glossary").

Around 1643. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674. Around 1676 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington 1618-1685 wearing his Garter Robes. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington 1618-1685.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 January 1666. 06 Jan 1666. Up betimes and by water to the Cockepitt, there met Sir G. Carteret (56) and, after discourse with the Duke (32), all together, and there saw a letter wherein Sir W. Coventry (38) did take notice to the Duke with a commendation of my paper about Pursers, I to walke in the Parke with the Vice-Chamberlain, and received his advice about my deportment about the advancing the credit of the Act; giving me caution to see that we do not misguide the King (35) by making them believe greater matters from it than will be found. But I see that this arises from his great trouble to see the Act succeede, and to hear my name so much used and my letters shown at Court about goods served us in upon the credit of it. But I do make him believe that I do it with all respect to him and on his behalfe too, as indeed I do, as well as my owne, that it may not be said that he or I do not assist therein. He tells me that my Lord Sandwich (40) do proceed on his journey with the greatest kindnesse that can be imagined from the King (35) and Chancellor (56), which was joyfull newes to me.

Thence with Lord Bruncker to Greenwich by water to a great dinner and much company; Mr. Cottle and his lady and others and I went, hoping to get Mrs. Knipp to us, having wrote a letter to her in the morning, calling myself "Dapper Dicky", in answer to hers of "Barbary Allen", but could not, and am told by the boy that carried my letter, that he found her crying; but I fear she lives a sad life with that ill-natured fellow her husband: so we had a great, but I a melancholy dinner, having not her there, as I hoped.

After dinner to cards, and then comes notice that my wife is come unexpectedly to me to towne. So I to her. It is only to see what I do, and why I come not home; and she is in the right that I would have a little more of Mrs. Knipp's company before I go away. My wife to fetch away my things from Woolwich, and I back to cards and after cards to choose King and Queene, and a good cake there was, but no marks found; but I privately found the clove, the mark of the knave, and privately put it into Captain Cocke's (49) piece, which made some mirthe, because of his lately being knowne by his buying of clove and mace of the East India prizes.

At night home to my lodging, where I find my wife returned with my things, and there also Captain Ferrers is come upon business of my Lord's to this town about getting some goods of his put on board in order to his going to Spain, and Ferrers presumes upon my finding a bed for him, which I did not like to have done without my invitation because I had done [it] several times before, during the plague, that he could not provide himself safely elsewhere. But it being Twelfth Night, they had got the fiddler and mighty merry they were; and I above come not to them, but when I had done my business among my papers went to bed, leaving them dancing, and choosing King and Queene.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 March 1666. 09 Mar 1666. Up, and being ready, to the Cockpitt to make a visit to the Duke of Albemarle (57), and to my great joy find him the same man to me that [he has been] heretofore, which I was in great doubt of, through my negligence in not visiting of him a great while; and having now set all to rights there, I am in mighty ease in my mind and I think shall never suffer matters to run so far backward again as I have done of late, with reference to my neglecting him and Sir W. Coventry (38).

Thence by water down to Deptford, where I met my Lord Bruncker (46) and Sir W. Batten (65) by agreement, and to measuring Mr. Castle's (37) new third-rate ship, which is to be called the Defyance1. And here I had my end in saving the King (35) some money and getting myself some experience in knowing how they do measure ships.

Thence I left them and walked to Redriffe, and there taking water was overtaken by them in their boat, and so they would have me in with them to Castle's house, where my Lady Batten and Madam Williams were, and there dined and a deale of doings. I had a good dinner and counterfeit mirthe and pleasure with them, but had but little, thinking how I neglected my business. Anon, all home to Sir W. Batten's (65) and there Mrs. Knipp coming we did spend the evening together very merry. She and I singing, and, God forgive me! I do still see that my nature is not to be quite conquered, but will esteem pleasure above all things, though yet in the middle of it, it has reluctances after my business, which is neglected by my following my pleasure. However musique and women I cannot but give way to, whatever my business is. They being gone I to the office a while and so home to supper and to bed.

Note 1. William Castell wrote to the Navy Commissioners on February 17th, 1665-66, to inform them that the "Defiance" had gone to Longreach, and again, on February 22nd, to say that Mr. Grey had no masts large enough for the new ship. Sir William Batten (65) on March 29th asked for the consent of the Board to bring the "Defiance" into dock (" Calendar of State Papers", Domestic, 1665-66, pp. 252, 262, 324).

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 28 March 1666. 28 Mar 1666. Up, and with Creed, who come hither betimes to speake with me about his accounts, to White Hall by water, mighty merry in discourse, though I had been very little troubled with him, or did countenance it, having now, blessed be God! a great deale of good business to mind to better purpose than chatting with him. Waited on the Duke (32), after that walked with Sir W. Clerke (43) into St. James's Parke, and by and by met with Mr. Hayes (29), Prince Rupert's (46) Secretary, who are mighty, both, briske blades, but I fear they promise themselves more than they expect.

Thence to the Cockpitt, and dined with a great deal of company at the Duke of Albemarle's (57), and a bad and dirty, nasty dinner.

So by coach to Hales's (66), and there sat again, and it is become mighty like. Hither come my wife and Mercer brought by Mrs. Pierce and Knipp, we were mighty merry and the picture goes on the better for it.

Thence set them down at Pierces, and we home, where busy and at my chamber till 12 at night, and so to bed. This night, I am told, the Queene of Portugall (52), the mother to our Queene (27), is lately dead, and newes brought of it hither this day1. 29th. All the morning hard at the office.

At noon dined and then out to Lombard Street, to look after the getting of some money that is lodged there of mine in Viner's (35) hands, I having no mind to have it lie there longer.

So back again and to the office, where and at home about publique and private business and accounts till past 12 at night, and so to bed. This day, poor Jane, my old, little Jane, came to us again, to my wife's and my great content, and we hope to take mighty pleasure in her, she having all the marks and qualities of a good and loving and honest servant, she coming by force away from the other place, where she hath lived ever since she went from us, and at our desire, her late mistresse having used all the stratagems she could to keepe her.

Note 1. Donna Luiza (52), the Queen Regent of Portugal. She was daughter of the Duke de Medina Sidonia (87) and widow of Juan IV (62). The Court wore the deepest mourning on this occasion. The ladies were directed to wear their hair plain, and to appear without spots on their faces, the disfiguring fashion of patching having just been introduced.— Strickland's Queens of England, vol. viii., p. 362.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 April 1666. 22 Apr 1666. Lord's Day. Up, and put on my new black coate, long down to my knees, and with Sir W. Batten (65) to White Hall, where all in deep mourning for the Queene's (27) mother (52). There had great discourse, before the Duke (32) and Sir W. Coventry (38) begun the discourse of the day about the purser's business, which I seconded, and with great liking to the Duke (32), whom however afterward my Lord Bruncker (46) and Sir W. Pen (44) did stop by some thing they said, though not much to the purpose, yet because our proposition had some appearance of certain charge to the King (35) it was ruled that for this year we should try another the same in every respect with ours, leaving out one circumstance of allowing the pursers the victuals of all men short of the complement. I was very well satisfied with it and am contented to try it, wishing it may prove effectual.

Thence away with Sir W. Batten (65) in his coach home, in our way he telling me the certaine newes, which was afterward confirmed to me this day by several, that the Bishopp of Munster has made a league [with] the Hollanders, and that our King (35) and Court are displeased much at it: moreover we are not sure of Sweden.

I home to my house, and there dined mighty well, my poor wife and Mercer and I So back again walked to White Hall, and there to and again in the Parke, till being in the shoemaker's stockes1. I was heartily weary, yet walked however to the Queene's Chappell at St. James's, and there saw a little mayde baptized; many parts and words whereof are the same with that of our Liturgy, and little that is more ceremonious than ours.

Thence walked to Westminster and eat a bit of bread and drank, and so to Worster House, and there staid, and saw the Council up, and then back, walked to the Cockepitt, and there took my leave of the Duke of Albemarle (57), who is going to-morrow to sea. He seems mightily pleased with me, which I am glad of; but I do find infinitely my concernment in being careful to appear to the King (35) and Duke (32) to continue my care of his business, and to be found diligent as I used to be.

Thence walked wearily as far as Fleet Streete and so there met a coach and home to supper and to bed, having sat a great while with Will Joyce, who come to see me, and it is the first time I have seen him at my house since the plague, and find him the same impertinent, prating coxcombe that ever he was.

Note 1. A cant expression for tight shoes.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 September 1666. 08 Sep 1666. Up and with Sir W. Batten (65) and Sir W. Pen (45) by water to White Hall and they to St. James's. I stopped with Sir G. Carteret (56) to desire him to go with us, and to enquire after money. But the first he cannot do, and the other as little, or says, "when we can get any, or what shall we do for it?" He, it seems, is employed in the correspondence between the City and the King (36) every day, in settling of things. I find him full of trouble, to think how things will go. I left him, and to St. James's, where we met first at Sir W. Coventry's (38) chamber, and there did what business we can, without any books. Our discourse, as every thing else, was confused. The fleete is at Portsmouth, there staying a wind to carry them to the Downes, or towards Bullen, where they say the Dutch fleete is gone, and stays. We concluded upon private meetings for a while, not having any money to satisfy any people that may come to us. I bought two eeles upon the Thames, cost me six shillings.

Thence with Sir W. Batten (65) to the Cock-pit, whither the Duke of Albemarle (57) is come. It seems the King (36) holds him so necessary at this time, that he hath sent for him, and will keep him here. Indeed, his interest in the City, being acquainted, and his care in keeping things quiet, is reckoned that wherein he will be very serviceable. We to him; he is courted in appearance by every body. He very kind to us; I perceive he lays by all business of the fleete at present, and minds the City, and is now hastening to Gresham College, to discourse with the Aldermen. Sir W. Batten (65) and I home (where met by my brother John (25), come to town to see how things are with us), and then presently he with me to Gresham College; where infinity of people, partly through novelty to see the new place, and partly to find out and hear what is become one man of another. I met with many people undone, and more that have extraordinary great losses. People speaking their thoughts variously about the beginning of the fire, and the rebuilding; of the City. Then to Sir W. Batten's (65), and took my brothet with me, and there dined with a great company of neighbours; and much good discourse; among others, of the low spirits of some rich men in the City, in sparing any encouragement to the poor people that wrought for the saving their houses. Among others, Alderman Starling, a very rich man, without; children, the fire at next door to him in our lane, after our men had saved his house, did give 2s. 6d. among thirty of them, and did quarrel with some that would remove the rubbish out of the way of the fire, saying that they come to steal. Sir W. Coventry (38) told me of another this morning, in Holborne, which he shewed the King (36) that when it was offered to stop the fire near his house for such a reward that came but to 2s. 6d. a man among the neighbours he would, give but 18d.

Thence to Bednall Green by coach, my brother with me, and saw all well there, and fetched away my journall book to enter for five days past, and then back to the office where I find Bagwell's wife, and her husband come home. Agreed to come to their house to-morrow, I sending him away to his ship to-day.

To the office and late writing letters, and then to Sir W. Pen's (45), my brother lying with me, and Sir W. Pen (45) gone down to rest himself at Woolwich. But I was much frighted and kept awake in my bed, by some noise I heard a great while below stairs; and the boys not coming up to me when I knocked. It was by their discovery of people stealing of some neighbours' wine that lay in vessels in the streets.

So to sleep; and all well all night.

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