History of Dover

1051 Banishment of the Godwins

1154 Death of King Stephen

1156 Henry II travels to Normandy

1236 Wedding of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence

1308 King Edward II and Isabella of France arrive in England

1308 Coronation of Edward II and Isabella

1327 Coronation of Edward III

1327 Battle of Stanhope Park

1328 Marriage of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault

1360 Release of King John II of France

1431 French Coronation of Henry VI

1450 Murder of William de la Pole

1492 Siege of Boulogne

1522 Henry VIII Meeting with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor

1665 Battle of Lowestoft

1666 Four Days' Battle

1670 Secret Treaty of Dover

1670 Death of Henrietta Stewart

1854 Charge of the Light Brigade

Dover is in Kent.

Banishment of the Godwins

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 1050-1065. 1051. This year came Archbishop Robert hither over sea with his pall from Rome, one day before St. Peter's eve: and he took his archiepiscopal seat at Christ-church on St. Peter's day, and soon after this went to the king. Then came Abbot Sparhawk to him with the king's writ and seal, to the intent that he should consecrate him Bishop o[oe] London; but the archbishop refused, saying that the pope had forbidden him. Then went the abbot to the archbishop again for the same purpose, and there demanded episcopal consecration; but the archbishop obstinately refused, repeating that the pope had forbidden him. Then went the abbot to London, and sat at the bishopric which the king had before given him, with his full leave, all the summer and the autumn. Then during the same year came Eustace (36), who had the sister (47) of King Edward (48) to wife, from beyond sea, soon after the bishop, and went to the king; and having spoken with him whatever he chose, he then went homeward. When he came to Canterbury eastward, there took he a repast, and his men; whence he proceeded to Dover. When he was about a mile or more on this side Dover, he put on his breast-plate; and so did all his companions: and they proceeded to Dover. When they came thither, they resolved to quarter themselves wherever they lived. Then came one of his men, and would lodge at the house of a master of a family against his will; but having wounded the master of the house, he was slain by the other. Then was Eustace (36) quickly upon his horse, and his companions upon theirs; and having gone to the master of the family, they slew him on his own hearth; then going up to the boroughward, they slew both within and without more than twenty men. The townsmen slew nineteen men on the other side, and wounded more, but they knew not how many. Eustace (36) escaped with a few men, and went again to the king (48), telling him partially how they had fared. The king (48) was very wroth with the townsmen, and sent off Earl Godwin (50), bidding him go into Kent with hostility to Dover. For Eustace (36) had told the king that the guilt of the townsmen was greater than his. But it was not so: and the earl (50) would not consent to the expedition, because he was loth to destroy his own people. Then sent the king after all his council, and bade them come to Gloucester nigh the after-mass of St. Mary. Meanwhile Godwin (50) took it much to heart, that in his earldom such a thing should happen. Whereupon be began to gather forces over all his earldom, and Earl Sweyne (30), his son, over his; and Harold (29), his other son, over his earldom: and they assembled all in Gloucestershire, at Langtree, a large and innumerable army, all ready for battle against the king; unless Eustace (36) and his men were delivered to them handcuffed, and also the Frenchmen that were in the castle. This was done seven nights before the latter mass of St. Mary, when King Edward (48) was sitting at Gloucester. Whereupon he sent after Earl Leofric, and north after Earl Siward (41), and summoned their retinues. At first they came to him with moderate aid; but when they found how it was in the south, then sent they north over all their earldom, and ordered a large force to the help of their lord. So did Ralph also over his earldom. Then came they all to Gloucester to the aid of the king (48), though it was late. So unanimous were they all in defence of the king (48), that they would seek Godwin's (50) army if the king (48) desired it. But some prevented that; because it was very unwise that they should come together; for in the two armies was there almost all that was noblest in England. They therefore prevented this, that they might not leave the land at the mercy of our foes, whilst engaged in a destructive conflict betwixt ourselves. Then it was advised that they should exchange hostages between them. And they issued proclamations throughout to London, whither all the people were summoned over all this north end in Siward's (41) earldom, and in Leofric's, and also elsewhere; and Earl Godwin (50) was to come thither with his sons to a conference; They came as far as Southwark, and very many with them from Wessex; but his army continually diminished more and more; for they bound over to the king (48) all the thanes that belonged to Earl Harold (29) his son, and outlawed Earl Sweyne (30) his other son. When therefore it could not serve his purpose to come to a conference against the king (48) and against the army that was with him, he went in the night away. In the morning the king (48) held a council, and proclaimed him (50) an outlaw, with his whole army; himself (50) and his wife, and all his three sons — Sweyne (30) and Tosty (25) and Grith (19). And he went south to Thorney, (67) with his wife, and Sweyne (30) his son, and Tosty (25) and his wife (18), a cousin of Baldwin of Bruges (38) [Note. Judith Flanders Duchess Bavaria 1033-1094 (18) was a sister of Baldwin "The Good" V Count Flanders 1012-1067 (38)], and his son Grith (19). Earl Harold (29) with Leofwine (16) went to Bristol in the ship that Earl Sweyne (30) had before prepared and provisioned for himself; and the king (48) sent Bishop Aldred from London with his retinue, with orders to overtake him ere he came to ship. But they either could not or would not: and he then went out from the mouth of the Avon; but he encountered such adverse weather, that he got off with difficulty, and suffered great loss. He then went forth to Ireland, as soon as the weather permitted. In the meantime the Welshmen had wrought a castle in Herefordshire, in the territory of Earl Sweyne (30), and brought as much injury and disgrace on the king's (48) men thereabout as they could. Then came Earl Godwin (50), and Earl Sweyne (30), and Earl Harold (29), together at Beverstone, and many men with them; to the intent that they might go to their natural lord, and to all the peers that were assembled with him; to have the king's (48) counsel and assistance, and that of all the peers, how they might avenge the insult offered to the king (48), and to all the nation. But the Welshmen were before with the king (48), and betrayed the earls, so that they were not permitted to come within the sight of his eyes; for they declared that they intended to come thither to betray the king (48). There was now assembled before the king (48) (68) Earl Siward (41), and Earl Leofric, and much people with them from the north: and it was told Earl Godwin (50) and his sons, that the king (48) and the men who were with him would take counsel against them; but they prepared themselves firmly to resist, though they were loth to proceed against their natural lord. Then advised the peers on either side, that they should abstain from all hostility: and the king (48) gave God's peace and his full friendship to each party. Then advised the king (48) and his council, that there should be a second time a general assembly of all the nobles in London, at the autumnal equinox: and the king (48) ordered out an army both south and north of the Thames, the best that ever was. Then was Earl Sweyne (30) proclaimed an outlaw; and Earl Godwin (50) and Earl Harold (29) were summoned to the council as early as they could come. When they came thither and were cited to the council, then required they security and hostages, that they might come into the council and go out without treachery. The king (48) then demanded all the thanes that the earls had; and they put them all into his hands. Then sent the king (48) again to them, and commanded them to come with twelve men to the king's (48) council. Then desired the earl again security and hostages, that he might answer singly to each of the things that were laid to his charge. But the hostages were refused; and a truce of five nights was allowed him to depart from the land. Then went Earl Godwin (50) and Earl Sweyne (30) to Bosham, and drew out their ships, and went beyond sea, seeking the protection of Baldwin (38); and there they abode all the winter. Earl Harold (29) went westward to Ireland, and was there all the winter on the king's (48) security. It was from Thorney (69) that Godwin (50) and those that were with him went to Bruges, to Baldwin's (38) land, in one ship, with as much treasure as they could lodge therein for each man. Wonderful would it have been thought by every man that was then in England, if any person had said before this that it would end thus! For he was before raised to such a height, that he ruled the king (48) and all England; his sons were earls, and the king's (48) darlings; and his daughter (25) wedded and united to the king (48). Soon after this took place, the king (48) dismissed the lady (25) who had been consecrated his queen, and ordered to be taken from her all that she had in land, and in gold, and in silver, and in all things; and committed her to the care of his sister at Wherwell. Soon after came Earl William (23) from beyond sea with a large retinue of Frenchmen; and the king (48) entertained him and as many of his companions as were convenient to him, and let him depart again. Then was Abbot Sparhawk driven from his bishopric at London; and William (23) the king's priest was invested therewith. Then was Oddy appointed earl over Devonshire, and over Somerset, and over Dorset, and over Wales; and Algar, the son of Earl Leofric, was promoted to the earldom which Harold (29) before possessed.

67. The ancient name of Westminster; which came into disuse because there was another Thorney in Cambridgeshire.

68. i.e. at Gloucester, according to the printed Chronicle; which omits all that took place in the meantime at London and Southwark.

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Henry II travels to Normandy

On 10 Jan 1156 Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (22) crossed from Dover to Wissant. Richard "The Loyal" Lucy 1089-1179 (67) was appointed Regent in Henry's absence. Eleanor of Aquitaine (34) was placed in the care of Theobald of Bec (66) and John of Salisbury (38). Her party included her sister Petronilla Poitiers 1125-1193 (31).

In 1187 Eustace Fiennes 1112-1187 (75) died at Dover.

Wedding of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence

Chronica Majora 1236 King Henry marries Eleanor, daughter of the count of Provence. 14 Jan 1236. Anno Domini 1236, which was the twentieth year of the reign of King Henry the Third, he held his court at Winchester at Christmas, where he observed that festival with rejoicings. He was at this time anxiously looking for the return of the special messengers, whom he had sent into Provence to Raymond (38), count of that province, with letters containing his own inmost thoughts about contracting a marriage with his daughter Eleanor (13). This said count was a man of illustrious race and brave in battle, but, by continual wars, he had wasted almost all the money he possessed. He had married the daughter (38) of Thomas (58), the late count of Savoy, and sister of the present count, Amadeus (39), a woman of remarkable beauty, by name Beatrice (38). This lady had issue by the aforesaid count, two daughters of great beauty, the elder of whom, named Margaret (15), was married to Louis (21), the French king, as we are told by a clerk named John de Gates; and the king of England had now, by the aforesaid messengers, demanded the younger one, a young lady of handsome appearance, in marriage. In order to obtain this favour, he had secretly sent Richard, prior of Hurle, in advance, who faithfully and with diligence brought the matter to a conclusion. On the prior's returning and telling the king the result, the latter sent him back to the count with some other messengers, namely, the bishops Hugh of Ely, and Robert of Hereford, and the brother of Robert de Sandford, the master of the Knights Templars. These messengers were received by the count on their arrival in Provence with the greatest honour and respect, and from his hands received his daughter Eleanor, for the purpose of being united to the King of England; she was also attended by her uncle, William, bishop elect of Valentia; a man of distinction, and by the count of Champagne, a relation of the English king. The king of Navarre, on learning that they would travel through his territories, went joyfully to meet them, and accompanied them as a guide through his dominions during a journey of five days and more; he also, from his natural generosity, paid all their expenses, both for horses and attendants. Their retinue consisted of more than three hundred horsemen, not including the people who followed them in great numbers. On reaching the boundaries of France, they obtained not only a safe but honourable passage through that country, under conduct of the French king (21) and his queen (15), the sister of the lady about to be married to the English king, and also of Blanche (47), the French king's mother. They embarked at the port of Sandwich [Note. Should be Wissant], and with full sail made for Dover, where they arrived, after a quick passage, before they were expected. Having thus safely landed, they set out for Canterbury, and were met by the king, who rushed into the arms of the messengers, and, having seen the lady and received possession of her, he married her at Canterbury; the ceremony being performed on the fourteenth of January, by Edmund, archbishop (61) of that place, assisted by the bishops, who had come with the lady, in the presence of the other nobles and prelates of the kingdom. On the 19th of January the king went to Westminster, where an extra-ordinary solemnity took place on the following day, which was Sunday, at which the king wore his crown and Eleanor was crowned queen. Thus was Henry the Third married at Canterbury, and the nuptials were celebrated in London, at Westminster, on the feast of St. Fabian and St. Sebastian.

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On 20 Aug 1270 Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (31) and Eleanor of Castile (29) sailed from Dover to Tunis via Sicily. On arrival at Sicily Charles King Sicily 1227-1285 (43), brother of the recently deceased Louis IX King France 1214-1270 (56), had signed a treaty with the Emir so Edward returned to Sicily.

On 02 Aug 1274 Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (35) and Eleanor of Castile (33) arrived at Dover after an absence of four years. They travelled to London via Tonbridge Castle, home of Gilbert "Red Earl" Clare 7th Earl Gloucester 6th Earl Hertford 1243-1295 (30) and Reigate Castle, home of John Warenne 6th Earl Surrey 1231-1304 (43).

Close Rolls Edward II 1307-1313. 08 Jan 1308 King Edward II of England (23) To the Sheriff of Leicester. Order to cause a coroner for that county to be elected in place of John de Noveray, of Burton, lately elected in the late King's reign, who is insufficiently qualified.

Memorandum, that on Sunday before the Feast of St Vincent the Martyr [22 Jan], at Dover in the King's chamber in the Priory of St Martin Dover, in the evening (crepsusculo noctis), in the presence of William Inge, knight, William de Melton and Adam de Osgoodby, clerks, John Langton Bishop of Chichester -1337, the King's Chancellor, delivered under his seal to the said King his great seal; and the King received the said seal in his own hands, and delivered it to Sir William Melton (33) to be carried with him in the wardrobe beyond sea; and the King straightaway delivered by his own hand another seal of his shortly before made anew at London for the government of the realm in the King's absence in a red bag (bursa) sealed with the seal of William Inge to the chancellor. With which seal the chancellor caused writs to be sealed, after the King's passage, in the hospital of Domus Dei, under the testimony of Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall 1284-1312 (24) then Keeper of the realm of England, on the Monday next following, on which day the King in the early morning (summo mane) passed the sea at Dover.

Close Rolls Edward II 1307-1313. 22 Jan 1308 King Edward II of England (23). Dover To the Sheriff of Kent. Order to provide 75 thousands of wood and 200 quarters of charcoal for the expenses of the King's household on his return from parts beyond the sea, so that he have at Dover against the King's return 25 thousands of wood and 30 quarters of coal, and at Canterbury 30 thousands of wood and 100 quarters of coal, and at Rochester (Rofham) 20 thousands of wood and 70 quarters of coal; to be delivered by indenture to John de Sumery, scullion (scutell') of the king's household, or such as supply his place. Witness: Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall 1284-1312 (24).

Close Rolls Edward II 1307-1313. 22 Jan 1308 King Edward II of England (23). Dover. Robert Terry, of Whytefield, imprisoned at Northampton for the death of Galianus de Bek, has letters to the Sheriff of Nottingham to bail him until the first assize. Witness: Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall 1284-1312 (24).

King Edward II and Isabella of France arrive in England

Fine Rolls Edward II. On 07 Feb 1308 King Edward II of England (23) and Isabella of France Queen Consort England 1295-1358 (13) returned from their wedding in Boulogne sur Mer to Dover.

07 Feb 1308. Be it remembered that on Wednesday after the Purification, Edward II (23), the king, returning from beyond seas, to wit, from Boulogne sur Mer, where he took to wife Isabel (13), daughter of the king of France (39), touched at Dover in his barge about the ninth hour [1500], Hugh le Despenser (46) and the lord of Castellione of Gascony being in his company, and the queen a little afterward touched there with certain ladies accompanying her, and because the great seal which had been taken with him beyond seas then remained in the keeping of the keeper of the wardrobe who could not arrive on that day, no writ was sealed from the hour of the king's coming until Friday following on which day the bishop of Chichester, chancellor, about the ninth hour [1500] delivered to the king in his chamber in Dover castle the seal used in England during the king's absence, and the king, receiving the same, delivered it to William de Melton (33), controller of the wardrobe, and forthwith delivered with his own hand to the chancellor the great seal under the seal of J. de Benstede, keeper of the wardrobe, and Master John Painter Fraunceis, in the presence of Thomas, earl of Lancaster (30), Peter, earl of Cornwall (24), and Hugh le Despenser (46), William Martyn and William Inge, knights, and Adam de Osgodby, clerk; and the chancellor on that day after lunch in his room (hospicio) in God's House, Dover, sealed writs with the great seal.

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Coronation of Edward II and Isabella

Close Rolls Edward II 1307-1313. 08 Feb 1308 King Edward II of England (23). Dover. To William Leybourne. Order to attend the king's coronation with his wife on Sunday next after the feast of St Valentine.

The like to seventy others in various counties.

King Edward II and Isabella of France arrive in England

Close Rolls Edward II 1307-1313. 09 Feb 1308 King Edward II of England (23). Dover. To Alice, late wife of Roger Bigod (63), earl of Norfolk and Marshall of England. Order to meet the king at Dover on his return from France with his consort about Sunday next after the Feast of the Purification of St Mary. Witnessed by Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall 1284-1312 (24).

The like to:

Elizabeth, countess of Hereford and Essex (25).

Henry de Lancastre (27).

Robert de Monte Alto.

Almaric de Sancto Amando[Ibid].

To R Archbishop of Canterbury (63). Order to attend the king's coronaion on Sunday next after the feast of St Valentine [14 Feb] at Westminster, to execute what pertains to his office.

To the Sheriff of Surrey. Order to proclaim in market towns, etc., that no knight, esquire, or other shall, under pain of forfeiture, pressure to tourney or make jousts or bordices (torneare, justos seu burdseicas facere), or otherwise go armed at Croydon or elsewhere before the king's coronation.

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Coronation of Edward III

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 14 The coronation of king Edward the third. 01 Feb 1327. AFTER that the most part of the company of Hainault were departed and sir John Hainault (39) lord of Beaumont tarried, the queen (32) gave leave to her people to depart, saving a certain noble knights, the which she kept still about her and her son to counsel them, and commanded all then that departed to be at London the next Christmas, for as then she was determined to keep open court, and all they promised her so to do. And when Christmas was come, she held a great court. And thither came dukes,' earls, barons, knights, and all the nobles of the realm, with prelates and burgesses of good towns; and at this assembly it was advised that the realm could not long endure without a head and a chief lord. Then they put in writing all the deeds of the king (42) who was in prison, and all that he had done by evil counsel, and all his usages and evil behavings, and how evil he had governed his realm, the which was read openly in plain audience, to the intent that the noble sages of the realm might take thereof good advice, and to fall at accord how the realm should be governed from thenceforth. And when all the cases and deeds that the king had done and consented to, and all his behaving and usages were read and well understanded, the barons and knights and all the counsels of the realm drew them apart to counsel; and the most part of them accorded, and namely the great lords and nobles with the burgesses of the good towns, according as they had heard say and knew themselves the most part of his deeds. Wherefore they concluded that such a man (42) was not worthy to be a king, nor to bear a crown royal, nor to have the name of a king. But they all accorded that Edward (14) his eldest son, who was there present and was rightful heir, should be crowned king instead of his father, so that he would take good counsel, sage and true, about him, so than it was before, and that the old king his father (42) should be well and honestly kept as long as he lived, according to his estate. And thus as it was agreed by all the nobles, so it was accomplished; and then was crowned with a crown royal at the palace of Westminster beside London the young king Edward the third (14), who in his, days after was right fortunate and happy in arms. This coronation was in the year of our Lord MCCCXXVI., on Christmasday [Note. Other sources day 01 Feb 1327], and as then the young king was about the age of sixteen; and they held the feast till the Conversion of Saint Paul following, and in the meantime greatly was feasted sir John of Hainault (39) and all the princes and nobles of his country, and was given to him and to his company many rich jewels. And so he and his company in great feast and solace both with lords and ladies tarried till the Twelfth day. And then sir John of Hainault (39) heard tidings how that the king of Bohemia (30) and the earl of Hainault (41) his brother and other great plenty of lords of France had ordained to be at Conde at a great feast and tourney that was there cried. Then would sir John of Hainault no longer abide for no prayer, so great desire he had to be at the said tourney, and to see the earl his brother and other lords of his country, and specially the right noble king in largess the gentle Charles king of Bohemia. When the young king Edward (14) and the queen (32) his mother and the barons saw that he would no longer tarry, and that their request could not avail, they gave him leave sore against their wills, and the king (14) by the counsel of the queen (32) his mother did give him four hundred marks sterlings of rent heritable to hold of him in fee, to be paid every year in the town of Bruges, and also did give to Philip of Chateaux, his chief esquire and his sovereign counsellor, a hundred mark of rent yearly, to be paid at the said place, and also delivered him much money to pay therewith the costs of him and of his company, till he come into his own country, and caused him to be conducted with many noble knights to Dover, and there delivered hint all his passage free. And to the ladies that were come into England with the queen (32), and namely to the countess of Garennes, who was sister to the earl of Bar, and to divers other ladies and damosels, there were given many fair and rich jewels at their departing. And when sir John of Hainault was departed from the young king Edward, and all his company, and were come to Dover, they entered incontinent into their ships to pass the sea, to the intent to come betimes to the said tourney; and there went with him fifteen young lusty knights of England, to go to this tourney with him and to acquaint them with the strange lords and knights that should be there, and they had great honour of all the company that tourneyed at that time at Conde.

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The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 15 How that king Robert de Bruce of Scotland defied king Edward. AFTER that sir John of Hainault (39) was departed from king Edward (14), he and the queen (32) his mother governed the realm by the counsel of the earl of Kent (25), uncle to the king, and by the counsel of sir Roger Mortimer (39), who had great lands in England to the sum of seven hundred pounds of rent yearly. And they both were banished and chased out of England with the queen (32), as ye have heard before. Also they used much after the counsel of sir Thomas Wake (30), and by the advice of other who were reputed for the most sagest of the realm. Howbeit there were some had envy thereat, the which never died in England, and also it reigneth and will reign in divers other countries. Thus passed forth the winter and the Lent season till Easter, and then the king (14) and the queen (32) and all the realm was in good peace all this season. Then so it fortuned that king Robert of Scotland (52), who had been right hardy and had suffered much travail against Englishmen, and oftentimes he had been chased and discomfited in the time of king Edward the first, grandfather to this young king Edward the third (14), he was as then become very old and ancient, and sick (as it was said) of the great evil and malady. When he knew the adventures that was fallen in England, how that the old king Edward the second (42) was taken and deposed down from his regaly and his crown, and certain of his counsellors beheaded and put to destruction, as ye have heard herebefore, then he bethought him that he would defy the young king Edward the third (14), because he was young and that the barons of the realm were not all of one accord, as it was said: therefore he [thought] the better to speed in his purpose to conquer part of England. And so about Easter in the year of our Lord MCCCXXVII. he sent his defiance to the young king Edward the third and to all the realm, sending them word how that he would enter into the realm of England and bren before him as he had done beforetime at such season as the discomfiture was at the castle of Stirling, whereas the Englishmen received great damage. When the king of England (14) and his council perceived that they were defied, they caused it to be known over all the realm, and commanded that all the nobles and all other should be ready apparelled every man after his estate, and that they should be by Ascension-day next after at the town of York, standing northward. The king sent much people before to keep the frontiers against Scotland, and sent a great ambassade to sir John of Hainault (39), praying him right affectuously that he would help to succour and to keep company with him in his voyage against the Scots, and that he world be with him at the Ascensionday next after at York, with such company as he might get of men of war in those parts. When sir John of Hainault lord of Beaumont (39) heard the king's (14) desire, he sent straight his letters and his messengers in every place whereas he thought to recover or attain to have any company of men of war, in Flanders, in Hainault, in Brabant, and in other places, desiring them that in their best apparel for the war they would meet him at Wissant, for to go over the sea with him into England. And all such as he sent unto came to him with a glad cheer, and divers other that heard thereof, in trust to attain to as much honour as they had that were with him in England before at the other voyage. So that by that time the said lord Beaumont (39) was come to Wissant, there was ready ships for him and his company, brought out of England. And so they took shipping and passed over the sea and arrived at Dover, and so then ceased not to ride till: they came within three days of Pentecost to the town of York, whereas the king (14) and the queen (32) his mother and all his lords were with great host tarrying the coming of sir John of Hainault (39), and had sent many before of their men of arms, archers and common people of the good towns and villages; and as people resorted, they were caused to be lodged two or three leagues off, all about in the country. And on a day thither came sir John of Hainault (39) and his company, who were right welcome and well received both of the king (14), of the queen his mother, and of all other barons, and to them was delivered the suburbs of the city to lodge in. And to sir John of Hainault was delivered an abbey of white monks for him and his household. There came with him out of Hainault the lord of Enghien, who was called sir Gaultier, and sir Henry lord d'Antoing, and the lord of Fagnolle, and sir Fastres du Roeulx, sir Robert de Bailleul, and sir Guilliam de Bailleul his brother, and the lord of Havreth, chatelain of Mons, sir Allard de Briffeuil, sir Michael de Ligne, sir John de Montigny the younger and his brother, sir Sanses de Boussoit, the lord of Gommegnies, sir Perceval de Semeries, the lord of Beaurieu and the lord of Floyon. Also of the country of Flanders there was sir Hector of Vilain, sir John de Rhodes, sir Wu there was sir John le Belt and sir Henry his brother, sir Godfrey de la Chapelle, sir Hugh d'Ohey, sir John de Libyne, sir Lambert d'Oupey, and sir Gilbert de Herck: and out of Cambresis and Artois there were come certain knights of their own good wills to advance their bodies: so that sir John of Hainault had well in his company five hundred men of arms, well apparelled and richly mounted. And after the feast of Pentecost came thither sir Guilliam de Juliers (28), who was after duke of Juliers after the decease of his father, and sir Thierry of Heinsberg, who was after earl of Loos, and with them a right fair rout, and all to keep company with the gentle knight sir John of Hainault lord Beaumont.

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Battle of Stanhope Park

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 18 How the king of England made his first journey against the Scots. 03 Aug 1327. Battle of Stanhope Park. And when they had well rested them and taken repast, then the trumpet sounded to horse, and every man mounted, and the banners and standards followed this new-made knight, every battle by itself in good order, through mountains and dales, ranged as well as they might, ever ready apparelled to fight; and they rode and made such haste that about noon they were so near the Scots that each of them might clearly see other. And as soon as the Scots saw them, they issued out of their lodges afoot, and ordained three great battles in the availing of the hill, and at the foot of this mountain there ran a great river full of great rocks and stones, so that none might pass over without great danger or jeopardy; and though the Englishmen had passed over the river, yet was there no place nor room between the hill and the river to set the battle in good order. The Scots had stablished their two first battles at the two corners of the mountain, joining to the rocks, so that none might well mount upon the hill to assail them, but the Scots were ever ready to beat with stones the assailants, if they passed the river. And when the lords of England saw the behaving and the manner of the Scots, they made all their people to alight afoot and to put off their spurs, and arranged three great battles, as they had done before, and there were made many new knights. And when their battles were set in good order, then some of the lords of England brought their young king a-horseback before all the battles of the host, to the intent to give thereby the more courage to all his people, the which king in full goodly manner prayed and required them right graciously that every man would pain them to do their best to save his honour and common weal of his realm. And it was commanded upon pain of death that were so near together that they might know each other's arms. Then the host stood still to take other counsel. And some of the host mounted on good horses and rode forth to skirmish with them and to behold the passage of the river and to see the countenance of their enemies more nearer. And there were heralds of arms sent to the Scots, giving them knowledge, if that they would come and pass the river to fight with them in the plain field, they would draw back from the river and give them sufficient place to arrange their battles either the same day or else the next, as they would choose themselves, or else to let them do likewise and they would come over to them. And when the Scots heard this, they took counsel among themselves, and anon they answered the heralds, how they would do neither the one nor the other, and said, `Sirs, your king and his lords see well how we be here in this realm and have brent and wasted the country as we have passed through, and if they be displeased therewith, let them amend it when they will, for here we will abide as long as it shall please us.' And as soon as the king of England (14) heard that answer, it was incontinent cried that all the host should lodge there that night without reculing back. And so the host lodged there that night with much pain on the hard ground and stones, always still armed. They had no stakes nor rods to tie withal their horses, nor forage, nor bush to make withal any fire. And when they were thus lodged, then the Scots caused some of their people to keep still the field, whereas they had ordained their battles; and the remnant went to their lodgings, and they made such fires that it was marvel to behold. And between the day and the night they made a marvellous great bruit, with blowing of horns all at once, that it seemed properly that all the devils of hell had been there. Thus these two hosts were lodged that night, the which was Saint Peter's night in the beginning of August the year of our Lord MCCCXXVII. And the next morning the lords of England heard mass and ranged again their battles as they had done the day before; and the Scots in like wise ordered their battles. Thus both the hosts stood still in battle till it was noon. The Scots made never semblant to come to the English host to fight with them, nor in like wise the Englishmen to them; for they could not approach together without great damage. There were divers companions a-horseback that passed the river, and some afoot, to scrimmish with the Scots, and in likewise some of the Scots brake out and scrimmished with them; so that there were divers on both parties slain, wounded and taken prisoners. And after that noon was past, the lords of England commanded every man to draw to their lodging, for they saw well the Scots would not fight with them. And in like manner thus they did three days together, and the Scots in like case kept still their mountains. Howbeit there was scrimmishing on both parties, and divers slain and prisoners taken. And every night the Scots made great fires and great bruit with shouting and blowing of horns. The intention of the Englishmen was to hold the Scots there in manner as besieged (for they could not fight with them thereas they were), thinking to have famished them. And the Englishmen knew well by such prisoners as they had taken that the Scots had neither bread, wine nor salt, nor other purveyance, save of beasts they had great plenty, the which they had taken in the country and might eat at their pleasure without bread, which was an evil diet, for they lacked oaten meal to make cakes withal, as is said before;' the which diet some of the Englishmen used when they had need, specially borderers when they make roads into Scotland. And in the morning the fourth day the Englishmen looked' on the mountain whereas the Scots were, and they could see no creature, for the Scots were departed at midnight. Then was there sent men a-horseback and afoot over the river to know where they were become; and about noon lodged, and drew to that part, embattled in good order, and lodged them on another hill against the Scots, and ranged their battles and made semblant to have come to them. Then the Scots issued out of their lodges and set their battles along the river side against them; but they would never come toward the English host, and the Englishmen could not go to them, without they would have been slain or taken at advantage. Thus they lodged each against other the space of eighteen days; and oftentimes the king of England sent to them his heralds of arms, offering them that if they would come and fight with him, he would give them place sufficient on the plain ground to pitch their field; or else let them give him room and place, and he assured them that he would come over the river and fight with them but the Scots would never agree thereto. Thus both the hosts suffered much pain and travail the space that they lay so near together: and the first night that the English host was thus lodged on the second mountain the lord William Douglas took with him about two hundred men of arms and passed the river far off from the host, so that he was not perceived, and suddenly he brake into the English host about midnight crying, 'Douglas! Douglas! Ye shall all die, thieves of England!' and he slew, or he ceased, three hundred men, some in their beds and some scant ready; and he strake his horse with the spurs and came to the king's (14) own tent, always crying,Douglas!' and strake asunder two or three cords of the king's tent and so departed, and in that retreat he lost some of his men. Then he returned again to the Scots, so that there was no more done but every night the English host made good and sure watch, for they doubted making of skryes; and ever the most part of-the host lay in their harness; and every day there were scrimmisbes made, and men slain on both parties: and in conclusion, the last day of~twenty-four, there was a Scottish knight taken, who against his will shewed to the lords of England what state and condition the Scots were in: he was so sore examined that for fear of his life he shewed how the lords of Scotland were accorded among themselves that the same night every man should be ready armed, and to follow the banners of the lord William Douglas, and every man to keep him secret. But the knight could not shew them what they intended to do. Then the lords of England drew them to council, and there it was thought among them that the Scots. might in the night time come and assail their host on both sides, to adventure themselves either to live or die, for they could endure no longer the famine that was among them. Then the English lords ordained three great battles, and so stood in three parties without their lodgings, and made great fires, thereby to see the better, and caused all their pages to keep their lodgings and horses. Thus they stood still all that night armed, every man under his own standard and banner; and in the breaking of the day two trumpets of Scotland met with the English scout-watch, who took the trumpets and brought them before the king of England and his council, and then they said openly, 'Sirs, what do ye watch here? Ye lose but your time, for on the jeopardy of our heads the Scots are gone and departed before midnight, and they are at the least by this time three or four mile on their way; and they left us two behind to the intent that we should shew this to you.' Then the English lords said that it were but a folly to follow the Scots, for they saw well they could not overtake them: yet for doubt of deceiving they kept still the two trumpets privily, and caused their battles to stand still arranged till it was near prime. And when they saw for truth that the Scots were departed, then every man had leave to retray to their lodging, and the lords took counsel to determine what should be hest to do. And in the meantime divers of the English host mounted on their horses and passed. over the river, and came to the mountain whereas the Scots bad been; and there they found more than five hundred greatbeasts ready slain, because the Scots could not drive them before their host and because that the Englishmen should have but small profit of them. Also there they found three hundred cauldrons made of beasts' skins with the hair still on them, strained on stakes over the fire, full of water and full of flesh to be sodden, and more than a thousand spits full of flesh to be roasted, and more than ten thousand old shoes made of raw leather with the hair still on them, the which the Scots had left behind them; also there they found five poor Englishmen prisoners, bound fast to certain trees, and some of their legs broken.' Then they were loosed and let go: and then they returned again, and by that time all the host was dislodged: and it was ordained by the king and by the advice of his council that the whole host should follow the marshals' banners and draw homeward into England. And so they did, and at the last came into a fair meadow, whereas they found forage sufficient for their horses and carriages,2 whereof they had great need, for they were nigh so feeble that it should have been great pain for them to have gone any further. The English chronicle saith that the Scots had been fought withal, an sir Roger Mortimer, a lord of England, had not betrayed the king; for he took meed and money of the Scots, to the intent they might depart privily by night unfought withal, as it may be seen more plainly in the English chronicle, and divers other matters, the which I pass over at this time and follow mine author. 3 And so then the next day the host dislodged again and went forth, and about noon they came to a great abbey two mile from the city of Durham; and there the king lodged, and the host there about in the fields, whereas they found forage sufficient for themselves and for their horses. And the next day the host lay there still, and the king went to the city of Durham to see the church, and there he offered.4 And in this city every man found their own carriages, the which they had left thirty-two days before in a wood at mid-night, when they followed the Scots first, as it bath been skewed before; for the burgesses and people of Durham had found and brought them into their town at their own costs and charges. And all these carriages were set in void granges and barns in safe-guard, and on every man's carriage his own cognisance or arms, whereby every man might know his own. And the lords and gentlemen were glad when they had thus found their carriages. Thus they abode two days in the city of Durham, and the host round about, for they could not all lodge within the city; and there their horses were new shod. And then they took their way to the city of York, and so within three days they came thither; and there the king found the queen his mother, who received him with great joy, and so did all other ladies, damosels, burgesses and commons of the city. The king gave licence to all manner of people, every man to draw homeward to their own countries. And the king thanked greatly the earls, barons and knights of their good counsel and aid that they had done to him in his journey; and he retained still with him sir John of Hainault and all his company, who were greatly feasted by the queen and all other ladies. Then the knights and other strangers of his company made a bill of their horses and such other stuff as they had lost in that journey, and delivered it to the king's council, every man by itself; and in trust of the king's promise, sir John of Hainault lord Beaumont bound himself to all his company that they should be content for everything comprised in their own bills within a short space them, the which ships with their stuff arrived at Sluys in Flanders. And sir John of Hainault and his company took their leave of the king, of the old queen, of the earl of Kent, of the earl of Lancaster and of all the other barons, who greatly did honour them. And the king caused twelve knights and two hundred men of arms to company them, for doubt of the archers of England, of whom they were not well assured, for they must needs pass through the bishopric of Lincoln. Thus departed sir John of Hainault (39) and his rout in the conduct of these knights. and rode so long in their journey that they came to Dover, and there entered into the sea in ships and vessels that they found ready there apparelled for them. Then the English knights departed from thence, and returned to their own houses; And the Hainowes arrived at Wissant, and there they sojourned two days in making ready their horses and harness. And in the meantime sir John of Hainault (39) and some of his company rode a pilgrimage to our Lady of Boulogne; and after they returned into Hainault, and departed each from other to their own houses and countries. Sir John of Hainault (39) rode to the earl his brother (41), who was at Valenciennes, who received him joyously, for greatly he loved him, to whom he recounted all his tidings, that ye have heard herebefore.

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Marriage of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 19 How king Edward was married to my lady Philippa of Hainault. Jun 1328.It was not long after but that the king (15) and the queen (33) his mother, the earl of Kent (26) his uncle, the earl of Lancaster (47), sir Roger Mortimer (41) and all the barons of England, and by the advice of the king's council, they sent a bishop1 and two knights bannerets, with two notable clerks, to sir John of Hainault (40), praying him to be a mean that their lord the young king of England might have in marriage one of the earl's (42) daughters of Hainault, his brother (42), named Philippa (13); for the king and all the nobles of the realm had rather have her than any other lady, for the love of him. Sir John of Hainault (40) lord Beaumont feasted and honoured greatly these ambassadors, and brought them to Valenciennes to the earl his brother, who honourably received them and made them such cheer, that it were over long here to rehearse. And when they had skewed the content of their message, the earl (42) said, 'Sirs, I thank greatly the king (15) your prince and the queen (33) his mother and all other lords of England, sith they have sent such sufficient personages as ye be to do me such honour as to treat for the marriage; to the which request I am well agreed, if our holy father the pope (84) will consent thereto'-. with the which answer these ambassadors were right well content. Then they sent two knights and two clerks incontinent to the pope, to Avignon, to purchase a dispensation for this marriage to be had; for without the pope's licence they might not marry, for [by] the lineage of France they were so near of kin as at the third degree, for the two mothers [Note. Isabella of France Queen Consort England 1295-1358 (33) and Joan Valois Countess Zeeland Holland Avesnes and Hainault 1294-1342 (34)] were cousin-germans issued of two brethren2. And when these ambassadors were come to the pope (84), and their requests and considerations well heard, our holy father the pope (84) with all the whole college consented to this marriage, and so feasted them. And then they departed and came again to Valenciennes with their bulls. Then this marriage was concluded and affirmed on both parties. Then was there devised and purveyed for their apparel and for all things honourable that belonged to such a lady, who should be queen of England: and there this princess was married by a sufficient procuration brought from the king of England; and after all feasts and triumphs done, then this young queen entered into the sea at Wissant, and arrived with all her company at Dover. And sir John of Hainault (40) lord Beaumont, her uncle, did conduct her to the city of London, where there was made great feast, and many nobles of England, ... queen was crowned. And there was also great jousts, tourneys, dancing, carolling and great feasts every day, the which endured the, space of three weeks. The English chronicle saith this marriage and coronation of the queen was done at York with much honour, the Sunday in the even of the Conversion of Saint Paul, in the year of our Lord MCCCXXVII. In the which chronicle is shewed many other things of the ruling of the realm, and of the death of king Edward of Caernarvon (44), and divers other debates that were within the realm, as in the same chronicle more plainly it appeareth: the which the author of this book speaketh no word of, because peradventure he knew it not; for it was hard for a stranger to know all things. But according to his writing this young queen Philippa (13) abode still in England with a small company of any persons of her own country, saving one who was named Watelet of Manny (18), who abode still with the queen and was, her carver, and after did so many great prowesses in divers places, that it were hard to make mention of them all.

Note 1. This should be: 'And the other barons of England who had continued to be of the council of the king sent a bishop,' etc. Or according to a better text, ' took advice to marry him. So they sent a bishop,' etc.

Note 2. The meaning is that the kinship came by the relationship of both to the house of France. The mother of Edward was daughter of Philip the Fair and the mother of Philippa was daughter of Charles I of Valois [who were brothers; Edward and Philippa were second cousins].

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On 03 Aug 1355 Bartholomew "The Elder" Burghesh 1st Baron Burghesh 1287-1355 (68) died at Dover. Bartholomew "The Younger" Burghesh 2nd Baron Burghesh 1328-1369 (27) succeeded 2nd Baron Burghesh 2C 1330. Cecily Weyland Baroness Burghesh by marriage Baroness Burghesh.

Release of King John II of France

Around 30 Jun 1360 John "The Good" II King France 1319-1364 (41) left the Tower of London and proceeded to Eltham Palace where Queen Philippa (46) had prepared a great farewell entertainment. Passing the night at Dartford, he continued towards Dover, stopping at the Maison Dieu of St Mary at Ospringe, and paying homage at the shrine of St Thomas Becket at Canterbury on 04 Jul 1360. He dined with the Black Prince (30) at Dover Castle, and reached English-held Calais on 08 Jul 1360.

French Coronation of Henry VI

Chronicle of Gregory 1431. 13 Dec 1431. And the xiij day of the same monythe he was crownyde at Parysse; for there he was worthely and ryally ressayvyd as they cowthe devyse whythe alle the statys of the towne. And there he hylde hys feste raylly to alle maner of nacyons that were in that contre, that yf hyt plesyde hem thedyr for to come. And in Syn Johnys day in the Crystysmasse weke the kynge remevyd towarde Roone, and on the xij evyn he come unto Calys. Ande the xxix day of Janyver he londyd at Dovyr.

Murder of William de la Pole

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. 01 May 1450. Ande at hys passynge ovyr the see warde he was mette with by-twyne Dovyr and Calys by dyvers schyppys, of the whyche was here Admyralle Nycholas of the Towre; and yn that shyppe soo beyng in the see they smote of hys hedde of the fore sayde Duke of Sowthefolke (53), and they caste bothe body and hys hedde in to the see. And aftyr that hyt was takyn uppe and brought unto the towne of Dovyr, and aftyr from thens brought unto Wynkylfylde in Sowthefolke, and there hyt ys i-buryde ; whos name was Syr Wylliam Pole (53).

On 21 Aug 1463 Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (35) arrived at Dover with King Edward IV (21).

Henry VIII Meeting with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor

In May 1522 Henry VIII (30) met with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558 (22) at Dover. William Blount 4th Baron Mountjoy 1478-1534 (44), William Compton Courtier 1482-1528 (40), John Marney 2nd Baron Marney 1484-1525 (38), William Scott 1459-1524 (63) and John Vere 15th Earl Oxford 1471-1540 (51) were present. Henry VIII Meeting with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor.

1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1548. Titian Painter 1488-1576. Equestrian Portrait of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558. 1519. Bernard Van Orley Painter 1491-1541. Portrait of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558.

Diary of Henry Machyn August 1555. 29 Aug 1555. The same day the Kyng('s) (28) grace toke ys jorney toward Dover, and with a grett compeny, and ther tared for the wynd, and ther the shypes lying rede [ready] for ys grace gohyng over see.

Around 1573 Sofonisba Anguissola Painter 1532-1625. Portrait of Philip Around 1560 Antonis Mor Painter 1517-1577. Portrait of Philip Around 1550. Titian Painter 1488-1576. Portrait of Philip Around 1554. Titian Painter 1488-1576. Portrait of Philip Around 1594. Juan Pantoja de La Cruz Painter 1553–1608. Portrait of Philip

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1557. Jul 1557. The moneth of July whent a grett army after that the kyng (30) was gone over; my lord of Pembroke (56), cheyff capten of the feld, and my lord Montyguw (28) whent, and my lord Clyntun (45), and dyvers lordes and knyghtes and gentyllmen by water and land, and goodly aparelle; they wher sent to Dover. London fond v c. men all in bluw cassokes, sum by shypes and sum to Dover by land, the goodlyst men that ever whent, and best be-sene in change (of) aparelle.

Around 1560 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke 1501-1570. In 1559 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Anthony Browne 1st Viscount Montague 1528-1592 wearing a Garter Collar and St George Pendant. Around 1538 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Edward Clinton 1st Earl Lincoln 1512-1585. Around 1565 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Edward Clinton 1st Earl Lincoln 1512-1585. In 1583 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Edward Clinton 1st Earl Lincoln 1512-1585 wearing his Garter Collar.

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1557. 03 Jul 1557. The iij day of July the Kyng (30) and the Quen (41) toke ther gornay [journey] toward Dover, and lay all nyghtt at Syttyngborne.

Around 1554 Antonis Mor Painter 1517-1577. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558. Around 1556 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558.

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1557. 05 Jul 1557. [The v day of July the King (30) took shipping at Dover] towarde Callys, on hys jornay [toward Flanders].

John Evelyn's Diary 10 October 1641. 10 Oct 1641. I went by waggon, accompanied with a jovial commissary, to Dunkirk, the journey being made all on the sea-sands. On our arrival, we first viewed the court of guards, the works, the town-house, and the new church; the latter is very beautiful within; and another, wherein they showed us an excellent piece of Our Saviour's bearing the Cross. The harbour, in two channels, coming up to the town, was choked vrith a multitude of prizes.

From hence, the next day, I marched three, English miles towards the packet-boat, being a pretty frigate of six guns, which embarked us for England about three in the afternoon.

At our going off, the fort, against which our pinnace anchored, saluted my Lord Marshal (56) with twelve gi'eat guns, which we answered with three. Not having the wind favourable, we anchored that night before Calais. About midnight, we weighed; and, at four in the morning, though not far from Dover, we could not make the pier till four that afternoon, the wind proving contrary and driving us westward; but at last we got on shore, October the 12th.

In 1618 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel 4th Earl Surrey 1st Earl Norfolk 1585-1646. In 1630 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel 4th Earl Surrey 1st Earl Norfolk 1585-1646 and wearing his Garter Collar. Around 1629 Peter Paul Rubens Painter 1577-1640. Portrait of Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel 4th Earl Surrey 1st Earl Norfolk 1585-1646.

John Evelyn's Diary 06 November 1643. 06 Nov 1643. Lying by the way from Wotton at Sir Ralph Whitfield's, at Blechingley (whither both my brothers had conducted me), I arrived at London on the 7th, and two days after took boat at the Tower-wharf, which carried me as far as Sittingbourne, though not without danger, I being only in a pair of oars, exposed to a hideous storm: but it pleased God that we got in before the peril was considerable. From thence, I went by post to Dover, accompanied with one Mr. Thicknesse, a very dear friend of mine.

John Evelyn's Diary 04 October 1647. 04 Oct 1647. I sealed and declared my will, and that morning went from Paris, taking my journey through Rouen, Dieppe, Ville-dieu, and St. Vallerie, where I stayed one day with Mr. Waller (41), with whom I had some affairs, and for which cause I took this circle to Calais, where I arrived on the 11th, and that night embarking in a packet boat, was by one o'clock got safe to Dover; for which I heartily put up my thanks to God who had conducted me safe to my own country, and been merciful to me through so many aberrations. Hence, taking post, I arrived at London the next day at evening, being the 2d of October, new style.

Around 1687. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Edmund Waller Poet 1606-1687.

John Evelyn's Diary 12 July 1649. 12 Jul 1649. It was about three in the afternoon, I took oars for Gravesend., accompanied by my cousin, Stephens, and sister, Glanville, who there supped with me and returned; whence I took post immediately to Dover, where I arrived by nine in the morning; and, about eleven that night, went on board a barque guarded by a pinnace of eight guns; this being the first time the Packet-boat had obtained a convoy, having several times before been pillaged. We had a good passage, though chased for some hours by a pirate, but he dared not attack our frigate, and we then chased him till he got under the protection of the castle at Calais. It was a small privateer belonging to the Prince of Wales. I carried over with me my servant, Richard Hoare, an incomparable writer of several hands, whom I afterward preferred in the Prerogative Office, at the return of his Majesty. Lady Catherine Scott, daughter of the Earl of Norwich (64), followed us in a shallop, with Mr. Arthur Slingsby (26), who left England incognito. At the entrance of the town, the Lieutenant Governor, being on his horse with the guards, let us pass courteously. I visited Sir Richard Lloyd, an English gentleman, and walked in the church, where the ornament about the high altar of black marble is very fine, and there is a good picture of the Assumption. The citadel seems to be impregnable, and the whole country about it to be laid under water by sluices for many miles.

John Evelyn's Diary 06 February 1652. 06 Feb 1652. I embarked early in the packet boat, but put my goods in a stouter vessel. It was calm, so that we got not to Dover till eight at night. I took horse for Canterbury, and lay at Rochester; next day, to Gravesend, took a pair of oars, and landed at Sayes Court, where I stayed three days to refresh, and look after my packet and goods, sent by a stouter vessel. I went to visit my cousin, Richard Fanshawe (43), and divers other friends.

Around 1644. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of Richard Fanshawe 1st Baronet Fanshawe 1608-1666.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 07 May 1660. 07 May 1660. This morning Captain Cuttance sent me 12 bottles of Margate ale. Three of them I drank presently with some friends in the Coach. My Lord went this morning about the flag-ships in a boat, to see what alterations there must be, as to the arms and flags. He did give me order also to write for silk flags and scarlett waistcloathes1. For a rich barge; for a noise of trumpets2, and a set of fidlers. Very great deal of company come today, among others Mr. Bellasses, Sir Thomas Lenthropp, Sir Henry Chichley, Colonel Philip Honiwood, and Captain Titus, the last of whom my Lord showed all our cabins, and I suppose he is to take notice what room there will be for the King's (29) entertainment. Here were also all the Jurates of the town of Dover come to give my Lord a visit, and after dinner all went away. I could not but observe that the Vice-Admiral (45) after dinner came into the great cabin below, where the Jurates and I and the commanders for want of room dined, and there told us we must drink a health to the King, and himself called for a bottle of wine, and begun his and the Duke of York's. In the afternoon I lost 5s. at ninepins. After supper musique, and to bed. Having also among us at the Coach table wrote a letter to the French ambassador, in French, about the release of a ship we had taken. After I was in bed Mr. Sheply and W. Howe came and sat in my cabin, where I gave them three bottles of Margate ale, and sat laughing and very merry, till almost one o'clock in the morning, and so good night.

Note 1. Waist-cloths are the painted canvas coverings of the hammocks which are stowed in the waist-nettings.

Note 2. A set or company of musicians, an expression constantly used by old writers without any disparaging meaning. It is sometimes applied to voices as well as to instruments.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes. Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Admiral John Lawson 1615-1665. One of the Flagmen of Lowestoft.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 12 May 1660. 12 May 1660. This morning I inquired for my boy, whether he was come well or no, and it was told me that he was well in bed. My Lord called me to his chamber, he being in bed, and gave me many orders to make for direction for the ships that are left in the Downs, giving them the greatest charge in the world to bring no passengers with them, when they come after us to Scheveling Bay, excepting Mr. Edward Montagu (12), Mr. Thomas Crew (36), and Sir H. Wright (23). Sir R. Stayner (35) hath been here early in the morning and told my Lord, that my Lord Winchelsea (81) understands by letters, that the Commissioners are only to come to Dover to attend the coming over of the King. So my Lord did give order for weighing anchor, which we did, and sailed all day. In our way in the morning, coming in the midway between Dover and Calais, we could see both places very easily, and very pleasant it was to me that the further we went the more we lost sight of both lands. In the afternoon at cards with Mr. North (24) and the Doctor. There by us, in the Lark frigate, Sir R. Freeman and some others, going from the King to England, come to see my Lord and so onward on their voyage. In the afternoon upon the quarterdeck the Doctor told Mr. North (24) and me an admirable story called "The Fruitless Precaution", an exceeding pretty story and worthy my getting without book when I can get the book.[??] This evening came Mr. Sheply on board, whom we had left at Deal and Dover getting of provision and borrowing of money. In the evening late, after discoursing with the Doctor, &c., to bed.

Around 1707. Charles D'Agar Painter 1669-1723. Portrait of Thomas Crew 2nd Baron Crew 1624-1697.

On 25 May 1660 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (29) arrived at Dover.

John Evelyn's Diary 04 June 1660. 04 Jun 1660. I received letters of Sir Richard Browne's (55) landing at Dover, and also letters from the Queen (50), which I was to deliver at Whitehall, not as yet presenting myself to his Majesty (30), by reason of the infinite concourse of people. The eagerness of men, women, and children, to see his Majesty (30), and kiss his hands, was so great, that he had scarce leisure to eat for some days, coming as they did from all parts of the nation; and the King (30) being as willing to give them that satisfaction, would have none kept out, but gave free access to all sorts of people.

Addressing myself to the Duke (26), I was carried to his Majesty (30), when very few noblemen were with him, and kissed his hands, being very graciously received. I then returned home, to meet Sir Richard Browne (55), who came not till the 8th, after nineteen years exile, during all which time he kept up in his chapel the Liturgy and Offices of the Church of England, to his no small honor, and in a time when it was so low, and as many thought utterly lost, that in various controversies both with Papists and Sectaries, our divines used to argue for the visibility of the Church, from his chapel and congregation.

I was all this week to and fro at court about business.

Around 1625 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669. Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of King James II when Duke of York. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II wearing his Garter Robes. Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of King James II.

John Evelyn's Diary 04 January 1665. 04 Jan 1665. I went in a coach, it being excessive sharp frost and snow, toward Dover and other parts of Kent, to settle physicians, chirurgeons, agents, marshals, and other officers in all the sea ports, to take care of such as should be set on shore, wounded, sick, or prisoners, in pursuance of our commission reaching from the North Foreland, in Kent, to Portsmouth, in Hampshire. The rest of the ports in England were allotted to the other Commissioners. That evening I came to Rochester, where I delivered the Privy Council's letter to the Mayor to receive orders from me.

John Evelyn's Diary 06 January 1665. 06 Jan 1665. To Dover, where Colonel Stroode (37), Lieutenant of the Castle, having received the letter I brought him from the Duke of Albemarle (56), made me lodge in it, and I was splendidly treated, assisting me from place to place. Here I settled my first Deputy. The Mayor and officers of the Customs were very civil to me.

In or before 1679. John Hayls Painter 1600-1679. Portrait of Colonel John Strode 1627-1686. Before 03 Jan 1670  Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670. Before 03 Jan 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670 in his Garter Robes.

Battle of Lowestoft

John Evelyn's Diary 08 June 1665. 08 Jun 1665. I went again to his Grace, thence to the Council, and moved for another privy seal for £20,000, and that I might have the disposal of the Savoy Hospital for the sick and wounded; all which was granted. Hence to the Royal Society, to refresh among the philosophers.

Came news of his highness's (35) victory, which indeed might have been a complete one, and at once ended the war, had it been pursued, but the cowardice of some, or treachery, or both, frustrated that. We had, however, bonfires, bells, and rejoicing in the city. Next day, the 9th, I had instant orders to repair to the Downs, so as I got to Rochester this evening. Next day I lay at Deal, where I found all in readiness: but, the fleet being hindered by contrary winds, I came away on the 12th, and went to Dover, and returned to Deal; and on the 13th, hearing the fleet was at Solbay, I went homeward, and lay at Chatham, and on the 14th, I got home. On the 15th, came the eldest son of the present Secretary of State to the French King, with much other company, to dine with me. After dinner, I went with him to London, to speak to my Lord General for more guards, and gave his Majesty (35) an account of my journey to the coasts under my inspection. I also waited on his Royal Highness (31), now come triumphant from the fleet, gotten into repair. See the whole history of this conflict in my "History of the Dutch War"..

Four Days' Battle

Diary of Samuel Pepys 03 June 1666. 03 Jun 1666. Lord's-day; Whit-sunday. Up, and by water to White Hall, and there met with Mr. Coventry (38), who tells me the only news from the fleete is brought by Captain Elliott, of The Portland, which, by being run on board by The Guernsey, was disabled from staying abroad; so is come in to Aldbrough. That he saw one of the Dutch great ships blown up, and three on fire. That they begun to fight on Friday; and at his coming into port, he could make another ship of the King's coming in, which he judged to be the Rupert: that he knows of no other hurt to our ships. With this good newes I home by water again, and to church in the sermon-time, and with great joy told it my fellows in the pew.

So home after church time to dinner, and after dinner my father, wife, sister, and Mercer by water to Woolwich, while I walked by land, and saw the Exchange as full of people, and hath been all this noon as of any other day, only for newes. I to St. Margaret's, Westminster, and there saw at church my pretty Betty Michell, and thence to the Abbey, and so to Mrs. Martin, and there did what 'je voudrais avec her [I wanted with her].... So by and by he come in, and after some discourse with him I away to White Hall, and there met with this bad newes farther, that the Prince (46) come to Dover but at ten o'clock last night, and there heard nothing of a fight; so that we are defeated of all our hopes of his helpe to the fleete. It is also reported by some Victuallers that the Duke of Albemarle (57) and Holmes their flags were shot down, and both fain to come to anchor to renew their rigging and sails.

A letter is also come this afternoon, from Harman (41) in the Henery; which is she [that] was taken by Elliott for the Rupert; that being fallen into the body of the Dutch fleete, he made his way through them, was set on by three fire-ships one after another, got two of them off, and disabled the third; was set on fire himself; upon which many of his men leapt into the sea and perished; among others, the parson first. Have lost above 100 men, and a good many women (God knows what is become of Balty (26)), and at last quenched his own fire and got to Aldbrough; being, as all say, the greatest hazard that ever any ship escaped, and as bravely managed by him. The mast of the third fire-ship fell into their ship on fire, and hurt Harman's (41) leg, which makes him lame now, but not dangerous.

I to Sir G. Carteret (56), who told me there hath been great bad management in all this; that the King's orders that went on Friday for calling back the Prince (46), were sent but by the ordinary post on Wednesday; and come to the Prince (46) his hands but on Friday; and then, instead of sailing presently, he stays till four in the evening. And that which is worst of all, the Hampshire, laden with merchants' money, come from the Straights, set out with or but just before the fleete, and was in the Downes by five in the clock yesterday morning; and the Prince with his fleete come to Dover but at ten of the clock at night. This is hard to answer, if it be true. This puts great astonishment into the King (36), and Duke (32), and Court, every body being out of countenance.

So meeting Creed, he and I by coach to Hide Parke alone to talke of these things, and do blesse God that my Lord Sandwich (40) was not here at this time to be concerned in a business like to be so misfortunate. It was a pleasant thing to consider how fearfull I was of being seen with Creed all this afternoon, for fear of people's thinking that by our relation to my Lord Sandwich (40) we should be making ill construction of the Prince's (46) failure. But, God knows, I am heartily sorry for the sake of the whole nation, though, if it were not for that, it would not be amisse to have these high blades find some checke to their presumption and their disparaging of as good men.

Thence set him down in Covent Guarden and so home by the 'Change, which is full of people still, and all talk highly of the failure of the Prince (46) in not making more haste after his instructions did come, and of our managements here in not giving it sooner and with more care and oftener.

Thence. After supper to bed.

Before 23 Jun 1686 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699. Portrait of William Coventry 1628-1686. Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the Prince Rupert, Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 and Colonel William Murray. Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert. Around 1672 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Prince Rupert. Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert. Around 1650 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 June 1666. 04 Jun 1666. Up, and with Sir J. Minnes (67) and Sir W. Pen (45) to White Hall in the latter's coach, where, when we come, we find the Duke (32) at St. James's, whither he is lately gone to lodge. So walking through the Parke we saw hundreds of people listening at the Gravel-pits, [Kensington] and to and again in the Parke to hear the guns, and I saw a letter, dated last night, from Strowd (38), Governor of Dover Castle, which says that the Prince (46) come thither the night before with his fleete, but that for the guns which we writ that we heard, it is only a mistake for thunder1 and so far as to yesterday it is a miraculous thing that we all Friday, and Saturday and yesterday, did hear every where most plainly the guns go off, and yet at Deale and Dover to last night they did not hear one word of a fight, nor think they heard one gun. This, added to what I have set down before the other day about the Katharine, makes room for a great dispute in philosophy, how we should hear it and they not, the same wind that brought it to us being the same that should bring it to them: but so it is. Major Halsey, however (he was sent down on purpose to hear newes), did bring newes this morning that he did see the Prince (46) and his fleete at nine of the clock yesterday morning, four or five leagues to sea behind the Goodwin, so that by the hearing of the guns this morning we conclude he is come to the fleete.

After wayting upon the Duke (32), Sir W. Pen (45) (who was commanded to go to-night by water down to Harwich, to dispatch away all the ships he can) and I home, drinking two bottles of Cocke (49) ale in the streete in his new fine coach, where no sooner come, but newes is brought me of a couple of men come to speak with me from the fleete; so I down, and who should it be but Mr. Daniel, all muffled up, and his face as black as the chimney, and covered with dirt, pitch, and tarr, and powder, and muffled with dirty clouts, and his right eye stopped with okum. He is come last night at five o'clock from the fleete, with a comrade of his that hath endangered another eye. They were set on shore at Harwich this morning, and at two o'clock, in a catch with about twenty more wounded men from the Royall Charles. They being able to ride, took post about three this morning, and were here between eleven and twelve. I went presently into the coach with them, and carried them to Somerset-House-stairs, and there took water (all the world gazing upon us, and concluding it to be newes from the fleete, and every body's face appeared expecting of newes) to the Privy-stairs, and left them at Mr. Coventry's (38) lodging (he, though, not being there); and so I into the Parke to the King (36), and told him my Lord Generall was well the last night at five o'clock, and the Prince (46) come with his fleete and joyned with his about seven. The King (36) was mightily pleased with this newes, and so took me by the hand and talked a little of it. Giving him the best account I could; and then he bid me to fetch the two seamen to him, he walking into the house. So I went and fetched the seamen into the Vane room to him, and there he heard the whole account.

THE FIGHT.

How we found the Dutch fleete at anchor on Friday half seas over, between Dunkirke and Ostend, and made them let slip their anchors. They about ninety, and we less than sixty. We fought them, and put them to the run, till they met with about sixteen sail of fresh ships, and so bore up again. The fight continued till night, and then again the next morning from five till seven at night. And so, too, yesterday morning they begun again, and continued till about four o'clock, they chasing us for the most part of Saturday and yesterday, we flying from them. The Duke (32) himself, then those people were put into the catch, and by and by spied the Prince's (46) fleete coming, upon which De Ruyter (59) called a little council (being in chase at this time of us), and thereupon their fleete divided into two squadrons; forty in one, and about thirty in the other (the fleete being at first about ninety, but by one accident or other, supposed to be lessened to about seventy); the bigger to follow the Duke (32), the less to meet the Prince (46). But the Prince (46) come up with the Generall's fleete, and the Dutch come together again and bore towards their own coast, and we with them; and now what the consequence of this day will be, at that time fighting, we know not. The Duke was forced to come to anchor on Friday, having lost his sails and rigging. No particular person spoken of to be hurt but Sir W. Clerke (43), who hath lost his leg, and bore it bravely. The Duke himself had a little hurt in his thigh, but signified little. The King (36) did pull out of his pocket about twenty pieces in gold, and did give it Daniel for himself and his companion; and so parted, mightily pleased with the account he did give him of the fight, and the successe it ended with, of the Prince's (46) coming, though it seems the Duke (32) did give way again and again. The King (36) did give order for care to be had of Mr. Daniel and his companion; and so we parted from him, and then met the Duke [of York], and gave him the same account: and so broke up, and I left them going to the surgeon's and I myself by water to the 'Change, and to several people did give account of the business.

So home about four o'clock to dinner, and was followed by several people to be told the newes, and good newes it is. God send we may hear a good issue of this day's business! After I had eat something I walked to Gresham College, where I heard my Lord Bruncker (46) was, and there got a promise of the receipt of the fine varnish, which I shall be glad to have.

Thence back with Mr. Hooke (30) to my house and there lent some of my tables of naval matters, the names of rigging and the timbers about a ship, in order to Dr. Wilkins' book coming out about the Universal Language.

Thence, he being gone, to the Crown, behind the 'Change, and there supped at the club with my Lord Bruncker (46), Sir G. Ent, and others of Gresham College; and all our discourse is of this fight at sea, and all are doubtful of the successe, and conclude all had been lost if the Prince had not come in, they having chased us the greatest part of Saturday and Sunday.

Thence with my Lord Bruncker (46) and Creed by coach to White Hall, where fresh letters are come from Harwich, where the Gloucester, Captain Clerke, is come in, and says that on Sunday night upon coming in of the Prince (46), the Duke did fly; but all this day they have been fighting; therefore they did face again, to be sure. Captain Bacon of The Bristoll is killed. They cry up Jenings of The Ruby, and Saunders of The Sweepstakes. They condemn mightily Sir Thomas Teddiman for a coward, but with what reason time must shew. Having heard all this Creed and I walked into the Parke till 9 or 10 at night, it being fine moonshine, discoursing of the unhappinesse of our fleete, what it would have been if the Prince (46) had not come in, how much the Duke hath failed of what he was so presumptuous of, how little we deserve of God Almighty to give us better fortune, how much this excuses all that was imputed to my Lord Sandwich (40), and how much more he is a man fit to be trusted with all those matters than those that now command, who act by nor with any advice, but rashly and without any order. How bad we are at intelligence that should give the Prince (46) no sooner notice of any thing but let him come to Dover without notice of any fight, or where the fleete were, or any thing else, nor give the Duke any notice that he might depend upon the Prince's (46) reserve; and lastly, of how good use all may be to checke our pride and presumption in adventuring upon hazards upon unequal force against a people that can fight, it seems now, as well as we, and that will not be discouraged by any losses, but that they will rise again.

Thence by water home, and to supper (my father, wife, and sister having been at Islington today at Pitt's) and to bed.

Note 1. Evelyn (45) was in his garden when he heard the guns, and be at once set off to Rochester and the coast, but he found that nothing had been heard at Deal (see his "Diary", June 1st, 1666).

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of John Mennes Comptroller 1599-1671. 1667. Ferdinand Bol 1616-1680. Portrait of Admiral Michiel de Ruyter 1607-1676. Around 1644. Robert Walker Painter 1599-1658. Portrait of John Evelyn 1620-1706. In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of John Evelyn 1620-1706. Around 1650 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of John Evelyn 1620-1706.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 October 1666. 17 Oct 1666. Up, and busy about public and private business all the morning at the office. At noon home to dinner, alone with my brother, with whom I had now the first private talke I have had, and find he hath preached but twice in his life. I did give him some advice to study pronunciation; but I do fear he will never make a good speaker, nor, I fear, any general good scholar, for I do not see that he minds optickes or mathematiques of any sort, nor anything else that I can find. I know not what he may be at divinity and ordinary school-learning. However, he seems sober, and that pleases me.

After dinner took him and my wife and Barker (for so is our new woman called, and is yet but a sorry girle), and set them down at Unthanke's, and so to White Hall, and there find some of my brethren with the Duke of York (33), but so few I put off the meeting. So staid and heard the Duke (33) discourse, which he did mighty scurrilously, of the French, and with reason, that they should give Beaufort (50) orders when he was to bring, and did bring, his fleete hither, that his rendezvous for his fleete, and for all sluggs to come to, should be between Calais and Dover; which did prove the taking of La Roche[lle], who, among other sluggs behind, did, by their instructions, make for that place, to rendezvous with the fleete; and Beaufort (50), seeing them as he was returning, took them for the English fleete, and wrote word to the King of France (28) that he had passed by the English fleete, and the English fleete durst not meddle with him. The Court is all full of vests, only my Lord St. Albans (61) not pinked but plain black; and they say the King (36) says the pinking upon white makes them look too much like magpyes, and therefore hath bespoke one of plain velvet.

Thence to St. James's by coach, and spoke, at four o'clock or five, with Sir W. Coventry (38), newly come from the House, where they have sat all this day and not come to an end of the debate how the money shall be raised. He tells me that what I proposed to him the other day was what he had himself thought on and determined, and that he believes it will speedily be done—the making Sir J. Minnes (67) a Commissioner, and bringing somebody else to be Comptroller, and that (which do not please me, I confess, for my own particulars, so well as Sir J. Minnes (67)) will, I fear, be Sir W. Pen (45), for he is the only fit man for it. Away from him and took up my wife, and left her at Temple Bar to buy some lace for a petticoat, and I took coach and away to Sir R. Viner's (35) about a little business, and then home, and by and by to my chamber, and there late upon making up an account for the Board to pass to-morrow, if I can get them, for the clearing all my imprest bills, which if I can do, will be to my very good satisfaction. Having done this, then to supper and to bed.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Robert Vyner Banker 1st Baronet 1631-1688 and Mary Whitchurch Lady Vyner -1674 and their children.

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1670 Secret Treaty of Dover

John Evelyn's Diary 26 May 1670. 26 May 1670. Receiving a letter from Mr. Philip Howard (41), Lord Almoner to the Queen, that Monsieur Evelin, first physician to Madame (25) (who was now come to Dover to visit the King (39) her brother), was come to town, greatly desirous to see me; but his stay so short, that he could not come to me, I went with my brother (52) to meet him at the Tower, where he was seeing the magazines and other curiosities, having never before been in England: we renewed our alliance and friendship, with much regret on both sides that, he being to return toward Dover that evening, we could not enjoy one another any longer. How this French family, Ivelin, of Evelin, Normandy, a very ancient and noble house is grafted into our pedigree, see in the collection brought from Paris, 1650.

Around 1662 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans 1644-1670. One of the Windsor Beauties. Around 1672 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Postumous portrait of Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans 1644-1670Commissioned by her brother Charles II King Scotland and presented by him in the Council ChamberWhere it still hangs today, in recognition of her birth in Bedford House, Exeter, the town house of the William Russell 1st Duke Bedford 1616-1700Who had given her mother refuge during the dangerous years before her father's execution in 1649.

1670 Death of Henrietta Stewart

On 30 Jun 1670 Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans 1644-1670 (26) (sister of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (40)) died at the Château de Saint Cloud. Her death came shortly after she had visited Dover. She had suffered pains in her side for a number of years. The evening before she consumed a glass of chicory water after which she immediately cried out that she had been posisoned.

John Evelyn's Diary 14 May 1672. 14 May 1672. To Dover; but the fleet did not appear till the 16th, when the Duke of York (38) with his and the French squadron, in all 170 ships (of which above 100 were men-of-war), sailed by, after the Dutch, who were newly withdrawn. Such a gallant and formidable navy never, I think, spread sail upon the seas. It was a goodly yet terrible sight, to behold them as I did, passing eastward by the straits between Dover and Calais in a glorious day. The wind was yet so high, that I could not well go aboard, and they were soon got out of sight. The next day, having visited our prisoners and the Castle, and saluted the Governor, I took horse for Margate. Here, from the North Foreland Lighthouse top (which is a pharos, built of brick, and having on the top a cradle of iron, in which a man attends a great sea-coal fire all the year long, when the nights are dark, for the safeguard of sailors), we could see our fleet as they lay at anchor. The next morning, they weighed, and sailed out of sight to the N. E.

John Evelyn's Diary 12 November 1675. 12 Nov 1675. We came to Canterbury: and, next morning, to Dover.

There was in my Lady Ambassadress's company my Lady Hamilton (70), a sprightly young lady, much in the good graces of the family, wife of that valiant and worthy gentleman, George Hamilton (68), not long after slain in the wars. She had been a maid of honor to the Duchess, and now turned Papist.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 10 April 1690. 10 Apr 1690. This morning many or most of the commanders in the Fleet came on board and dined here, so that some of them and I dined together in the Round-house, where we were very merry. Hither came the Vice-Admiral (75) to us, and sat and talked and seemed a very good-natured man. At night as I was all alone in my cabin, in a melancholy fit playing on my viallin, my Lord and Sir R. Stayner (65) came into the coach and supped there, and called me out to supper with them. After that up to the Lieutenant's cabin, where he and I and Sir Richard sat till 11 o'clock talking, and so to bed. This day my Lord Goring returned from France, and landed at Dover.

On 01 Dec 1690 Philip Yorke 1st Earl Hardwicke 1690-1764 was born to Philip Yorke 1651-1721 (39) at Dover.

1763. William Hoare 1707-1792. Portrait of Philip Yorke 1st Earl Hardwicke 1690-1764 wearing the Robes of Lord Keeper of the Great Seal and holding the Great Seal. In 1756 Thomas Hudson Painter 1701-1779. Portrait of Philip Yorke 1st Earl Hardwicke 1690-1764.

On 10 Aug 1784 Allan Ramsay Painter 1713-1784 (70) died at Dover.

Charge of the Light Brigade

My Recollections by Adeline Horsey Countess Cardigan 1824 1915 Chapter VII: My Marriage. Among those who came to our house at 8 Upper Grosvenor Street, the Earl of Cardigan (50) was my father's (58) particular friend, and in consequence we saw a great deal of him. Lord Cardigan (50) has sometimes been described as a favourite of fortune, for he possessed great wealth, great personal attractions, and he was much liked by the late Queen Victoria (28) and Prince Albert (28). Commanding the 11th Hussars, he was the first person to welcome the Prince (28) at Dover when he arrived to marry the Queen (28), and his regiment was afterwards known as Prince Albert's own Hussars.

His Lordship (50) was a typical soldier, and after the Crimean War there was perhaps no more popular hero in all England. So much has been written about him that it is unnecessary for me to retail matters that are well known. I have often been asked whether he confided to me anything particular about the Charge of the Light Brigade, but the truth is that he never seemed to attach any importance to the part he played. Such matters are the property of the historian, and as his widow I am naturally his greatest admirer.

1841 Francis Grant Painter 1803-1878. Portrait of James Brudenell 7th Earl Cardigan 1797-1868. 1845 Francis Grant Painter 1803-1878. Portrait of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom 1819-1901. 1833. George Hayter Painter 1792-1871. Portrait of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom 1819-1901. Around 28 Jun 1838. George Hayter Painter 1792-1871. Coronation Portrait of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom 1819-1901. Around 1840. Franz Xaver Winterhalter Painter 1805-1873. Portrait of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom 1819-1901. Note the Arm Garter as worn by Ladies of the Garter. Around 1846. Franz Xaver Winterhalter Painter 1805-1873. Portrait of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom 1819-1901 and Prince Albert Saxe Coburg Gotha 1819-1861 and their children. In 1840. Richard Rothwell Painter 1800-1868. Portrait of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom 1819-1901. 1880. Henry Tanworth Wells Painter 1828-1903. Portrait of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom 1819-1901 being informed she was Queen by Francis Nathaniel Conyngham 2nd Marquess Conyngham 1797-1876 and Archbishop William Howley 1766-1848.Death of King William IV Succession of Queen Victoria Before 05 Oct 1878 Francis Grant Painter 1803-1878. Portrait of Prince Albert Saxe Coburg Gotha 1819-1861. Around 1846. Franz Xaver Winterhalter Painter 1805-1873. Portrait of Prince Albert Saxe Coburg Gotha 1819-1861. Around 1846. Franz Xaver Winterhalter Painter 1805-1873. Portrait of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom 1819-1901 and Prince Albert Saxe Coburg Gotha 1819-1861 and their children. Around 1859. Franz Xaver Winterhalter Painter 1805-1873. Portrait of Prince Albert Saxe Coburg Gotha 1819-1861.

1492 Siege of Boulogne

Hall's Chronicle Henry VII 7th Year Aug 1491. Shortely after that kyng Henry had taryed a conuenient space, he transfreted and arryued at Douer, and so came to his maner of Grenewiche. And this was the yere of our lorde a. M.CCCC.xciii. and y. vii. yere of his troubleous reigne. Also in this soiournynge and be segynge of Boleyne (whiche Ive spake of before) there was few or none kylled, sauyng onely John Savage knyght, which goyng preuely out of hys pauylion with syr Ihon Hiseley, roade about the walles to viewe and se their strength, was sodeynly intercepted and taken of hys enemies. And he beyng inflamed withy re, although he were captyue, of his high courage disdeyned to be taken of suche vileynes, defended his life toy vttennost and was manfullv (I will notsaye wilfully) slayne and oppressed, albeit syr Ihon Riseley fled fro theim & escaped their daunger.

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525 is believed to have painted the portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Watling Street 1a Dover to Canterbury. From the main Roman port of Portus Dubris to Durovernum via Kearnsey, Lydden Hill, Bridge, and Renville.

Dover Castle

Priory of St Martin Dover, Kent

On 25 Oct 1154 Stephen I King England 1094-1154 (60) died at Priory of St Martin Dover. Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (21) succeeded II King England.

Close Rolls Edward II 1307-1313. 08 Jan 1308 King Edward II of England (23) To the Sheriff of Leicester. Order to cause a coroner for that county to be elected in place of John de Noveray, of Burton, lately elected in the late King's reign, who is insufficiently qualified.

Memorandum, that on Sunday before the Feast of St Vincent the Martyr [22 Jan], at Dover in the King's chamber in the Priory of St Martin Dover, in the evening (crepsusculo noctis), in the presence of William Inge, knight, William de Melton and Adam de Osgoodby, clerks, John Langton Bishop of Chichester -1337, the King's Chancellor, delivered under his seal to the said King his great seal; and the King received the said seal in his own hands, and delivered it to Sir William Melton (33) to be carried with him in the wardrobe beyond sea; and the King straightaway delivered by his own hand another seal of his shortly before made anew at London for the government of the realm in the King's absence in a red bag (bursa) sealed with the seal of William Inge to the chancellor. With which seal the chancellor caused writs to be sealed, after the King's passage, in the hospital of Domus Dei, under the testimony of Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall 1284-1312 (24) then Keeper of the realm of England, on the Monday next following, on which day the King in the early morning (summo mane) passed the sea at Dover.

Stourmouth, Dover, Kent

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 850-899. 885. This year separated the before-mentioned army in two; one part east, another to Rochester. This city they surrounded, and wrought another fortress around themselves. The people, however, defended the city, until King Alfred (36) came out with his army. Then went the enemy to their ships, and forsook their work. There were they provided with horses; and soon after, in the same summer, they went over sea again. The same year sent King Alfred (36) a fleet from Kent into East-Anglia. As soon as they came to Stourmouth, there met them sixteen ships of the pirates. And they fought with them, took all the ships, and slew the men. As they returned homeward with their booty, they met a large fleet of the pirates, and fought with them the same day; but the Danes had the victory. The same year, ere midwinter, died Charles, king of the Franks (61). He was slain by a boar; and one year before his brother (81) died, who had also the Western kingdom. They were both the sons of Louis, who also had the Western kingdom, and died the same year that the sun was eclipsed. He was the son of that Charles (61) whose daughter (41) Ethelwulf, king of the West-Saxons, had to wife. And the same year collected a great fleet against Old-Saxony; and there was a great fight twice in the year, and the Saxons had the victory. There were the Frieslanders with them. And the same year succeeded Charles to the Western kingdom, and to all the territory this side of the Mediterranean and beyond, as his great-grandfather held it, except the Lidwiccians. The said Charles was the son of Louis, who was the brother of that Charles who was the father of Judith, whom Ethelwulf, king of the West-Saxons, married. They were the sons of Louis, who was the son of the elder Charles, who was the son of Pepin. The same year died the good Pope Martin, who freed the English school at the request of Alfred, king of the West-Saxons. And he sent him great gifts in relics, and a part of the rood on which Christ suffered. And the same year the army in East-Anglia brake the truce with King Alfred.