History of Hertford

673 Synod of Hertford

1358 Death of Isabella of France Queen Consort

1361 Plague Outbreak

Hertford is in Hertfordshire.

Anglo Saxon Chronicle 650 699. 673. This year died Egbert, King of Kent; and the same year there was a synod at Hertford; and St. Etheldritha (37) began that monastery at Ely.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 900-949. 913. This year, about Martinmas, King Edward (39) had the northern fortress built at Hertford, betwixt the Memer, and the Benwic, and the Lea. After this, in the summer, betwixt gang-days and midsummer, went King Edward with some of his force into Essex, to Maldon; and encamped there the while that men built and fortified the town of Witham. And many of the people submitted to him, who were before under the power of the Danes. And some of his force, meanwhile, built the fortress at Hertford on the south side of the Lea. This year by the permission of God went Ethelfleda (43), lady of Mercia, with all the Mercians to Tamworth; and built the fort there in the fore-part of the summer; and before Lammas that at Stafford: in the next year that at Eddesbury, in the beginning of the summer; and the same year, late in the autumn, that at Warwick. Then in the following year was built, after mid-winter, that at Chirbury and that at Warburton; and the same year before mid-winter that at Runkorn.

Letter XXV Constance Wife of John of Gaunt Duke of Lancaster to the Chancellor of England. 07 Aug 1372. 1372 the earliest date based on her marriage in 1371. Letter XXV. Constance (18), Wife of John of Gaunt Duke of Lancaster, to the Chancellor of England.

From the Queen of Castile and Leon, Duchess of Lancaster.

Honoured sir.

We pray you lovingly that you will grant your letters for Friar Alvare, the bearer of these, to the prior of the friars-preachers of Oxford, that the said friar may be received there to be a student in the university of the said city, for love of me. And may our Lord ever have you, honoured sir, in his holy keeping.

Written at Hertford, the 7th day of August.

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The River Lea rises near Leagrave after which it travels through Wheathampstead, Hertford, Ware, Broxbourne, Waltham Cross, Tottenham before joining the River Thames at Leamouth.

673 Synod of Hertford

The 673 Synod of Hertford was convened by Archbishop Theodore of Tarsus 602-690. It was probably held at Hertford, possibly at Hartford.

Bede's Ecclesiastical History of England Book 4 Chapter 5. "In the name of our Lord God and Saviour Jesus Christ, who reigns for ever and for ever, and governs his church, it was thought meet that we should assemble, according to the custom of the venerable canons, to treat about the necessary affairs of the church. We met on the 24th day of September, the first indiction, at a place called Hertford, myself, Theodore, the unworthy bishop of the see of Canterbury, appointed by the Apostolic See, our fellow-priest and most reverend brother, Bisi, bishop of the East Angles; also by his proxies, our brother and fellow-priest, Wilfrid, bishop of the nation of the Northumbrians, as also our brothers and fellow priests, Putta, bishop of the Kentish castle, called Rochester; Eleutherius, bishop of the West Saxons, and Winfrid, bishop of the province of the Mercians. When we were all met together, and were sat down in order, I said, ' I beseech you, most dear brothers, for the love and fear of our Redeemer, that we may all treat in common for our faith ; to the end that whatsoever has been decreed and defined by the holy and revered fathers, may be inviolably observed by all.' This and much more I spoke tending to the preservation of the charity and unity of the church; and when I had ended my discourse, I asked every one of them in order, whether they consented to observe the things that had been formerly canonically decreed by the fathers ? To which all our fellow-priests answered, ' It so pleases us, and we will all most willingly observe with a cheerful mind whatever is laid down in the canons of the holy fathers.' I then produced the said book of canons, and publicly showed them ten chapters in the same, which I had marked in several places, because I knew them to be of the most importance to us, and entreated that they might be most particularly received by them all.

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Balls Park Hertford, Hertfordshire

John Evelyn's Diary 15 April 1643. 15 Apr 1643. To Hatfield, and near the town of Hertford I went to see Sir J. Harrison's (53) house new built. Returning to London, I called to see his Majesty's house and gardens at Theobald's, since demolished by the rebels.

On 28 Sep 1669 John Harrison 1590-1669 (79) died in Balls Park Hertford.

Church of All Saints Hertford, Hertfordshire

Hertford Castle, Hertfordshire

On 22 Aug 1358 Isabella of France Queen Consort England 1295-1358 (63) died at Hertford Castle. She was buried in Christ Church Greyfriars.

The funeral was performed by Simon Islip Archbishop of Canterbury -1366. She was buried in the mantle she had worn at her wedding and at her request, Edward's (74) heart, placed into a casket thirty years before, was interred with her.

On 31 Mar 1373 Catherine of Lancaster was born to John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (33) and Constance of Castile (19) at Hertford Castle. She a granddaughter of King Edward III England.

In 1554 John Mordaunt 2nd Baron Mordaunt 1508-1571 (46) was appointed Constable Hertford Castle.

Diary of Henry Machyn September 1561. 15 Sep 1561. The sam day the Quen('s) (28) grace removyd from Hatford castyll in Hatford-shyre unto Enfeld within x mylle of London.

Around 1546. William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland before her accession painted for her father. Around 1570 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. In 1579 George Gower Painter 1540-1596. The Plimton Sieve Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1585 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Ermine Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1592 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636. The Ditchley Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. After 1585 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1563 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.

Hertford Priory, Hertfordshire

Chronica Majora: The wretched death of Earl Gilbert marshal. "Whilst the mutability of time was thus sporting with and deluding the world with its variable occurrences, Earl Gilbert, marshal (44), had, with some other nobles, arranged a sort of tilting-match, called by some a " venture," but wliich might rather be called a " misadventure;"" they tried their strength about a crossbow-shot from Hertford; where he by his skill in knightly tactics, gained for himself the praise of military science, and was declared by all, considering his small size of body, to have justly distinguished himself for his valour. This was what the said earl chiefly aimed at; for he was, in the first place, destined to clerical orders, and was reported to be weak and unskilful in warlike exercises. He was, at this tournament, mounted on a noble horse, an Italian charger, to which he was not accustomed, accoutred in handsome armour, and surrounded by a dense body of soldiers, who soon afterwards, however, left him, and dispersed, intent on gain. Whilst the earl, then, was amusing himself by checking his horse at full speed, and anon goring his sides with his sharp spurs, to urge him to greater speed, and, as the case required, suddenly drew rein, both the reins suddenly broke off at the junction with the bit. By this accident the horse became unmanageable, and tossing up his head, struck his rider a violent blow on the breast. Some there were who imhesitatingly asserted that the bridle had been treacherously cut by some jealous person, in order that, being thus left at the mercy of his horse, he might be dashed to pieces and killed; or, at least, that he might be taken by his adversaries at will. Moreover, he had dined, and was nearly blinded by the heat, dust, and sweat, and his head was oppressed by the weight of his heavy helmet. His horse, too, could not be restrained by him, or any one else; but he, at the same time, fainted away, began to totter in his saddle, and soon after fell, half-dead, from his horse—with one foot, however, fixed in the stirrup; and in this manner he was dragged some distance over the field, by which he suffered some internal injuries, which caused his death. He expired in the evening of the 27th of June, amidst the deep and loudly-expressed sorrow of those who beheld him, at a house of the monks of Hertford. When he was about to breathe his last, having just received the viaticum, he made a bequest to the church of the blessed Virgin at Hertford, for the redemption of his soul. His body was afterwards opened, when his liver was discovered to be black and broken, from the force of the blows he had received. His entrails were buried in the said church, before the altar of St. Mary, to whom he had committed his spirit when dying. On the following day, his body—preceded by his brother (42), and accompanied by the whole of his family — was carried to London, to be buried near his father (95). At this same tournament, also, was killed one of the earl's retinue, named Robert de Saye, and his bowels were buried with those of the earl. Many other knights and men-at-arms were also wounded and seriously injured with maces, at this same tournament, because the jealousy of many of the parties concerned had converted the sport into a battle. The affairs of the cross and the interests of the Holy Land suffered great loss by the death of the said earl, for he had intended to set out for Jerusalem in the next month, without fail, having collected money from all in the country who had assumed the cross; for permission to do which, he had paid two hundred marks to the pope; following the prudent example of Earl Richard (32).