History of King Street Whitehall

1665 Great Plague of London

1666 Four Days' Battle

1666 Great Fire of London

1668 Bawdy House Riots

King Street Whitehall is in Whitehall Palace.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 March 1660. 20 Mar 1660. This morning I rose early and went to my house to put things in a little order against my going, which I conceive will be to-morrow (the weather still very rainy). After that to my Lord, where I found very great deal of business, he giving me all letters and papers that come to him about business, for me to give him account of when we come on shipboard. Hence with Capt. Isham (32) by coach to Whitehall to the Admiralty. He and I and Chetwind, Doling and Luellin dined together at Marsh's at Whitehall. So to the Bull Head whither W. Simons comes to us and I gave them my foy [Note. Foy. A feast given by one who is about to leave a place. In Kent, according to Grose, a treat to friends, either at going abroad or coming home. See Diary, November 25th, 1661.] against my going to sea; and so we took leave one of another, they promising me to write to me to sea. Hither comes Pim's boy, by my direction, with two monteeres—[Monteeres, montero (Spanish), a kind of huntsman's cap.] for me to take my choice of, and I chose the saddest colour and left the other for Mr. Sheply. Hence by coach to London, and took a short melancholy leave of my father and mother, without having them to drink, or say anything of business one to another. And indeed I had a fear upon me I should scarce ever see my mother again, she having a great cold then upon her. Then to Westminster, where by reason of rain and an easterly wind, the water was so high that there was boats rowed in King Street and all our yard was drowned, that one could not go to my house, so as no man has seen the like almost, most houses full of water. ["In this month the wind was very high, and caused great tides, so that great hurt was done to the inhabitants of Westminster, King Street being quite drowned. The Maidenhead boat was cast away, and twelve persons with her. Also, about Dover the waters brake in upon the mainland; and in Kent was very much damage done; so that report said, there was £20,000 worth of harm done".—Rugge's Diurnal. B.] Then back by coach to my Lord's; where I met Mr. Sheply, who staid with me waiting for my Lord's coming in till very late. Then he and I, and William Howe went with our swords to bring my Lord home from Sir H. Wright's (23). He resolved to go to-morrow if the wind ceased. Sheply and I home by coach. I to Mrs. Crisp's, who had sat over a good supper long looking for me. So we sat talking and laughing till it was very late, and so Laud and I to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 26 July 1662. 26 Jul 1662. Sir W. Batten (61), Mr. Pett (51), and I at the office sitting all the morning.
So dined at home, and then to my office again, causing the model hanging in my chamber to be taken down and hung up in my office, for fear of being spoilt by the workmen, and for my own convenience of studying it.
This afternoon I had a letter from Mr. Creed, who hath escaped narrowly in the King's yacht, and got safe to the Downs after the late storm; and that there the King (32) do tell him, that he is sure that my Lord is landed at Callis safe, of which being glad, I sent news thereof to my Lord Crew, and by the post to my Lady into the country.
This afternoon I went to Westminster; and there hear that the King (32) and Queen (23) intend to come to White Hall from Hampton Court next week, for all winter.
Thence to Mrs. Sarah, and there looked over my Lord's lodgings, which are very pretty; and White Hall garden and the Bowling-ally (where lords and ladies are now at bowles), in brave condition. Mrs. Sarah told me how the falling out between my Baroness Castlemaine's (21) and her Lord was about christening of the child lately1, which he would have, and had done by a priest: and, some days after, she had it again christened by a minister; the King (32), and Lord of Oxford, and Duchesse of Suffolk, being witnesses: and christened with a proviso, that it had not already been christened. Since that she left her Lord, carrying away every thing in the house; so much as every dish, and cloth, and servant but the porter. He is gone discontented into France, they say, to enter a monastery; and now she is coming back again to her house in Kingstreet. But I hear that the Queen (23) did prick her out of the list presented her by the King (32);2 desiring that she might have that favour done her, or that he would send her from whence she come: and that the King (32) was angry and the Queen (23) discontented a whole day and night upon it; but that the King (32) hath promised to have nothing to do with her hereafter. But I cannot believe that the King (32) can fling her off so, he loving her too well: and so I writ this night to my Lady to be my opinion; she calling her my lady, and the lady I admire. Here I find that my Lord hath lost the garden to his lodgings, and that it is turning into a tennis-court. Hence by water to the Wardrobe to see how all do there, and so home to supper and to bed.
Note 1. The boy was born in June at Baroness Castlemaine's (21) house in King Street. By the direction of Lord Castlemaine, who had become a Roman Catholic, the child was baptized by a priest, and this led to a final separation between husband and wife. Some days afterwards the child was again baptized by the rector of St. Margaret's, Westminster, in presence of the godparents, the King (32), Aubrey De Vere (35), Earl of Oxford, and Barbara, Countess of Suffolk (40), first Lady of the Bedchamber to the Queen (23) and Baroness Castlemaine's (21) aunt. The entry in the register of St. Margaret's is as follows: "1662 June 18 Charles Palmer Ld Limbricke, s. to ye right honorble Roger Earl of Castlemaine by Barbara" (Steinman's "Memoir of Barbara, Duchess of Cleveland", 1871, p. 33). The child was afterwards called Charles Fitzroy, and was created Duke of Southampton in 1674. He succeeded his mother in the dukedom of Cleveland in 1709, and died 1730.
Note 2. By the King's command Lord Clarendon (53), much against his inclination, had twice visited his royal mistress with a view of inducing her, by persuasions which he could not justify, to give way to the King's determination to have Baroness Castlemaine's (21) of her household.... Lord Clarendon (53) has given a full account of all that transpired between himself, the King (32) and the Queen (23), on this very unpleasant business ('Continuation of Life of Clarendon,' 1759, ff. 168-178). Steinman's Memoir of Duchess of Cleveland, p. 35. The day at length arrived when Baroness Castlemaine's (21) was to be formally admitted a Lady of the Bedchamber. The royal warrant, addressed to the Lord Chamberlain (60), bears date June 1, 1663, and includes with that of her ladyship, the names of the Duchess of Buckingham (23), the Countesses of Chesterfield and Bath (22), and the Countess Mareshall. A separate warrant of the same day directs his lordship to admit the Countess of Suffolk as Groom of the Stole and first Lady of the Bedchamber, to which undividable offices she had, with the additional ones of Mistress of the Robes and Keeper of the Privy Purse, been nominated by a warrant dated April 2, 1662, wherein the reception of her oath is expressly deferred until the Queen's (23) household shall be established. We here are furnished with the evidence that Charles would not sign the warrants for the five until Catherine had withdrawn her objection to his favourite one. Addenda to Steinman's Memoir of Duchess of Cleveland (privately printed), 1874, p. i.

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Great Plague of London

Diary of Samuel Pepys 28 June 1665. 28 Jun 1665. Sir J. Minnes (66) carried me and my wife to White Hall, and thence his coach along with my wife where she would.
There after attending the Duke (31) to discourse of the navy. We did not kiss his hand, nor do I think, for all their pretence, of going away to-morrow. Yet I believe they will not go for good and all, but I did take my leave of Sir William Coventry (37), who, it seems, was knighted and sworn a Privy-Counsellor two days since; who with his old kindness treated me, and I believe I shall ever find (him) a noble friend.
Thence by water to Blackfriars, and so to Paul's churchyard and bespoke severall books, and so home and there dined, my man William giving me a lobster sent him by my old maid Sarah. This morning I met with Sir G. Carteret (55), who tells me how all things proceed between my Lord Sandwich (39) and himself to full content, and both sides depend upon having the match finished presently, and professed great kindnesse to me, and said that now we were something akin. I am mightily, both with respect to myself and much more of my Lord's family, glad of this alliance.
After dinner to White Hall, thinking to speak with my Lord Ashly (43), but failed, and I whiled away some time in Westminster Hall against he did come, in my way observing several plague houses in King's Street and [near] the Palace. Here I hear Mrs. Martin is gone out of town, and that her husband, an idle fellow, is since come out of France, as he pretends, but I believe not that he hath been. I was fearful of going to any house, but I did to the Swan, and thence to White Hall, giving the waterman a shilling, because a young fellow and belonging to the Plymouth.
Thence by coach to several places, and so home, and all the evening with Sir J. Minnes (66) and all the women of the house (excepting my Lady Batten) late in the garden chatting. At 12 o'clock home to supper and to bed. My Lord Sandwich (39) is gone towards the sea to-day, it being a sudden resolution, I having taken no leave of him.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 July 1665. 20 Jul 1665. Up, in a boat among other people to the Tower, and there to the office, where we sat all the morning.
So down to Deptford and there dined, and after dinner saw my Lady Sandwich (40) and Mr. Carteret (24) and his two sisters over the water, going to Dagenhams, and my Baroness Carteret (63) towards Cranburne1. So all the company broke up in most extraordinary joy, wherein I am mighty contented that I have had the good fortune to be so instrumental, and I think it will be of good use to me.
So walked to Redriffe, where I hear the sickness is, and indeed is scattered almost every where, there dying 1089 of the plague this week. My Baroness Carteret (63) did this day give me a bottle of plague-water home with me.
So home to write letters late, and then home to bed, where I have not lain these 3 or 4 nights. I received yesterday a letter from my Lord Sandwich (39), giving me thanks for my care about their marriage business, and desiring it to be dispatched, that no disappointment may happen therein, which I will help on all I can.
This afternoon I waited on the Duke of Albemarle (56), and so to Mrs. Croft's, where I found and saluted Mrs. Burrows, who is a very pretty woman for a mother of so many children. But, Lord! to see how the plague spreads. It being now all over King's Streete, at the Axe, and next door to it, and in other places.
Note 1. The royal lodge of that name in Windsor Forest, occupied by Sir George Carteret (55) as Vice-Chamberlain to the King (35). B.

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Bell Tavern, King Street Whitehall, Whitehall Palace, Westminster

Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 March 1660. 06 Mar 1660. Shrove Tuesday. I called Mr. Sheply and we both went up to my Lord's lodgings at Mr. Crew's (62), where he bade us to go home again, and get a fire against an hour after. Which we did at White Hall, whither he came, and after talking with him and me about his going to sea, he called me by myself to go along with him into the garden, where he asked me how things were with me, and what he had endeavoured to do with my uncle to get him to do something for me but he would say nothing too. He likewise bade me look out now at this turn some good place, and he would use all his own, and all the interest of his friends that he had in England, to do me good. And asked me whether I could, without too much inconvenience, go to sea as his secretary, and bid me think of it. He also began to talk of things of State, and told me that he should want one in that capacity at sea, that he might trust in, and therefore he would have me to go. He told me also, that he did believe the King (29) would come in, and did discourse with me about it, and about the affection of the people and City, at which I was full glad. After he was gone, I waiting upon him through the garden till he came to the Hall, where I left him and went up to my office, where Mr. Hawly brought one to me, a seaman, that had promised Rio to him if he get him a purser's place, which I think to endeavour to do. Here comes my uncle Tom, whom I took to Will's and drank with, poor man, he comes to inquire about the knights of Windsor, of which he desires to get to be one.
[Note. The body of Poor Knights of Windsor was founded by Edward III. The intention of the King (29) with regard to the poor knights was to provide relief and comfortable subsistence for such valiant soldiers as happened in their old age to fall into poverty and decay. On September 20th, 1659, a Report having been read respecting the Poor Knights of Windsor, the House "ordered that it be referred to a Committee, to look into the revenue for maintenance of the Poor Knights of Windsor", &c. (See Tighe and Davis's "Annals of Windsor".)]
While we were drinking, in comes Mr. Day, a carpenter in Westminster, to tell me that it was Shrove Tuesday, and that I must go with him to their yearly Club upon this day, which I confess I had quite forgot. So I went to the Bell, where were Mr. Eglin, Veezy, Vincent a butcher, one more, and Mr. Tanner, with whom I played upon a viall, and he a viallin, after dinner, and were very merry, with a special good dinner, a leg of veal and bacon, two capons and sausages and fritters, with abundance of wine. After that I went home, where I found Kate_Sterpin who hath not been here a great while before. She gone I went to see Mrs. Jem, at whose chamber door I found a couple of ladies, but she not being there, we hunted her out, and found that she and another had hid themselves behind a door. Well, they all went down into the dining-room, where it was full of tag, rag, and bobtail, dancing, singing, and drinking, of which I was ashamed, and after I had staid a dance or two I went away. Going home, called at my Lord's for Mr. Sheply, but found him at the Lion with a pewterer, that he had bought pewter to-day of. With them I drank, and so home and wrote by the post, by my Lord's command, for J. Goods to come up presently. For my Lord intends to go forthwith into the Swiftsure till the Nazeby be ready.
This day I hear that the Lords do intend to sit, and great store of them are now in town, and I see in the Hall to-day. Overton at Hull do stand out, but can, it is thought, do nothing; and Lawson (45), it is said, is gone with some ships thither, but all that is nothing. My Lord told me, that there was great endeavours to bring in the Protector again; but he told me, too, that he did believe it would not last long if he were brought in; no, nor the King (29) neither (though he seems to think that he will come in), unless he carry himself very soberly and well. Every body now drinks the King's (29) health without any fear, whereas before it was very private that a man dare do it. Monk (51) this day is feasted at Mercers' Hall, and is invited one after another to all the twelve Halls in London! Many think that he is honest yet, and some or more think him to be a fool that would raise himself, but think that he will undo himself by endeavouring it. My mind, I must needs remember, has been very much eased and joyed at my Lord's great expressions of kindness this day, and in discourse thereupon my wife and I lay awake an hour or two in our bed.
07 Mar 1660. Ash Wednesday. In the morning I went to my Lord at Mr. Crew's (62), in my way Washington overtook me and told me upon my question whether he knew of any place now void that I might have, by power over friends, that this day Mr. G. Montagu (37) was to be made 'Custos Rotulorum' for Westminster, and that by friends I might get to be named by him Clerk of the Peace, with which I was, as I am at all new things, very much joyed, so when I came to Mr. Crew's (62), I spoke to my Lord about it, who told me he believed Mr. Montagu had already promised it, and that it was given him only that he might gratify one person with the place I look for. Here, among many that were here, I met with Mr. Lynes, the surgeon, who promised me some seeds of the sensitive plant. [Note. Evelyn, about the same date (9th August 1661), "tried several experiments on the sensitive plant and humilis, which contracted with the least touch of the sun through a burning glass, though it rises and opens only when it shines on it"]
I spoke too with Mr. Pierce the surgeon, who gave me great encouragement to go to sea with my Lord. Thence going homewards, my Lord overtook me in his coach, and called me in, and so I went with him to St. James's, and G. Montagu (37) being gone to White Hall, we walked over the Park thither, all the way he discoursing of the times, and of the change of things since the last year, and wondering how he could bear with so great disappointment as he did. He did give me the best advice that he could what was best for me, whether to stay or go with him, and offered all the ways that could be, how he might do me good, with the greatest liberty and love that could be. I left him at Whitehall, and myself went to Westminster to my office, whither nothing to do, but I did discourse with Mr. Falconbridge about Le Squire's place, and had his consent to get it if I could. I afterwards in the Hall met with W. Simons, who put me in the best way how to get it done. Thence by appointment to the Angel in King Street, where Chetwind, Mr. Thomas and Doling were at oysters, and beginning Lent this day with a fish dinner. After dinner Mr. Thomas and I by water to London, where I went to Herring's and received the £50 of my Lord's upon Frank's bill from Worcester. I gave in the bill and set my hand to his bill. Thence I went to the Pope's Head Alley and called on Adam Chard, and bought a catcall there, it cost me two groats. Thence went and gave him a cup of ale. After that to the Sun behind the Exchange, where meeting my uncle Wight by the way, took him with me thither, and after drinking a health or two round at the Cock (Mr. Thomas being gone thither), we parted, he and I homewards, parted at Fleet Street, where I found my father newly come home from Brampton very well. He left my uncle with his leg very dangerous, and do believe he cannot continue in that condition long. He tells me that my uncle did acquaint him very largely what he did intend to do with his estate, to make me his heir and give my brother Tom (26) something, and that my father and mother should have likewise something, to raise portions for John and Pall. I pray God he may be as good as his word. Here I staid and supped and so home, there being Joyce Norton there and Ch. Glascock. Going home I called at Wotton's and took home a piece of cheese. At home Mr. Sheply sat with me a little while, and so we all to bed. This news and my Lord's great kindness makes me very cheerful within. I pray God make me thankful. This day, according to order, Sir Arthur (59) appeared at the House; what was done I know not, but there was all the Rumpers almost come to the House to-day. My Lord did seem to wonder much why Lambert (40) was so willing to be put into the Tower, and thinks he has some design in it; but I think that he is so poor that he cannot use his liberty for debts, if he were at liberty; and so it is as good and better for him to be there, than any where else.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 02 July 1660. 02 Jul 1660. Infinite of business that my heart and head and all were full. Met with purser Washington, with whom and a lady, a friend of his, I dined at the Bell Tavern in King Street, but the rogue had no more manners than to invite me and to let me pay my club. All the afternoon with my Lord, going up and down the town; at seven at night he went home, and there the principal Officers of the Navy1, among the rest myself was reckoned one. We had order to meet to-morrow, to draw up such an order of the Council as would put us into action before our patents were passed. At which my heart was glad. At night supped with my Lord, he and I together, in the great dining-room alone by ourselves, the first time I ever did it in London. Home to bed, my maid pretty well again.
Note 1. A list of the Officers of the Admiralty, May 31st, 1660. From a MS. in the Pepysian Library in Pepys's own handwriting. His Royal Highness James, Duke of York, Lord High Admiral, Sir George Carteret (50), Treasurer, Sir Robert Slingsby (49), (soon after) Comptroller. Sir William Batten (59), Surveyor. Samuel Pepys, Esq., Clerk of the Acts. John, Lord Berkeley (58) (of Stratton,) Sir William Pen (39), Commissioners. Peter Pett, Esq. B.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 January 1664. 09 Jan 1664. Up (my underlip being mightily swelled, I know not how but by overrubbing it, it itching) and to the office, where we sat all the morning, and at noon I home to dinner, and by discourse with my wife thought upon inviting my Lord Sandwich (38) to a dinner shortly. It will cost me at least ten or twelve pounds; but, however, some arguments of prudence I have, which however I shall think again upon before I proceed to that expence.
After dinner by coach I carried my wife and Jane to Westminster, leaving her at Mr. Hunt's, and I to Westminster Hall, and there visited Mrs. Lane, and by appointment went out and met her at the Trumpet, Mrs. Hare's, but the room being damp we went to the Bell Tavern, and there I had her company, but could not do as I used to do (yet nothing but what was honest).... So I to talk about her having Hawley, she told me flatly no, she could not love him. I took occasion to enquire of Howlett's daughter, with whom I have a mind to meet a little to see what mettle the young wench is made of, being very pretty, but she tells me she is already betrothed to Mrs. Michell's son, and she in discourse tells me more, that Mrs. Michell herself had a daughter before marriage, which is now near thirty years old, a thing I could not have believed.
Thence leading her to the Hall, I took coach and called my wife and her mayd, and so to the New Exchange, where we bought several things of our pretty Mrs. Dorothy Stacy, a pretty woman, and has the modestest look that ever I saw in my life and manner of speech.
Thence called at Tom's and saw him pretty well again, but has not been currant.
So homeward, and called at Ludgate, at Ashwell's uncle's, but she was not within, to have spoke to her to have come to dress my wife at the time my Lord dines here. So straight home, calling for Walsingham's Manuals at my bookseller's to read but not to buy, recommended for a pretty book by Sir W. Warren, whose warrant however I do not much take till I do read it.
So home to supper and to bed, my wife not being very well since she came home, being troubled with a fainting fit, which she never yet had before since she was my wife.

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Great Fire of London

Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 December 1666. 14 Dec 1666. Up, and very well again of my pain in my back, it having been nothing but cold. By coach to White Hall, seeing many smokes of the fire by the way yet, and took up into the coach with me a country gentleman, who asked me room to go with me, it being dirty—one come out of the North to see his son, after the burning his house: a merchant. Here endeavoured to wait on the Duke of York (33), but he would not stay from the Parliament.
So I to Westminster Hall, and there met my good friend Mr. Evelyn (46), and walked with him a good while, lamenting our condition for want of good council, and the King's minding of his business and servants. I out to the Bell Tavern, and thither comes Doll to me .... [Note. Other versions include 'and yo did tocar la cosa [ I did touch the thing ] of her as I pleased;'], and after an hour's stay, away and staid in Westminster Hall till the rising of the house, having told Mr. Evelyn (46), and he several others, of my Gazette which I had about me that mentioned in April last a plot for which several were condemned of treason at the Old Bayly for many things, and among others for a design of burning the city on the 3rd of September.
The house sat till three o'clock, and then up: and I home with Sir Stephen Fox (39) to his house to dinner, and the Cofferer (62) with us. There I find Sir S. Fox's Stephen Fox Paymaster 1627-1716 (39) and lady, a fine woman, and seven the prettiest children of theirs that ever I knew almost. A very genteel dinner, and in great state and fashion, and excellent discourse; and nothing like an old experienced man and a courtier, and such is the Cofferer Ashburnham (62).
The House have been mighty hot to-day against the Paper Bill, showing all manner of averseness to give the King (36) money; which these courtiers do take mighty notice of, and look upon the others as bad rebells as ever the last were. But the courtiers did carry it against those men upon a division of the House, a great many, that it should be committed; and so it was: which they reckon good news.
After dinner we three to the Excise Office, and there had long discourse about our monies, but nothing to satisfaction, that is, to shew any way of shortening the time which our tallies take up before they become payable, which is now full two years, which is 20 per, cent. for all the King's money for interest, and the great disservice of his Majesty otherwise.
Thence in the evening round by coach home, where I find Foundes his present, of a fair pair of candlesticks, and half a dozen of plates come, which cost him full £50, and is a very good present; and here I met with, sealed up, from Sir H. Cholmly (34), the lampoone, or the Mocke-Advice to a Paynter1, abusing the Duke of York (33) and my Lord Sandwich (41), Pen (45), and every body, and the King (36) himself, in all the matters of the navy and warr. I am sorry for my Lord Sandwich's (41) having so great a part in it. Then to supper and musique, and to bed.
Note 1. In a broadside (1680), quoted by Mr. G. T. Drury in his edition of Waller's Poems, 1893, satirical reference is made to the fashionable form of advice to the painters "Each puny brother of the rhyming trade At every turn implores the Painter's aid, And fondly enamoured of own foul brat Cries in an ecstacy, Paint this, draw that". The series was continued, for we find "Advice to a Painter upon the Defeat of the Rebels in the West and the Execution of the late Duke of Monmouth (17)" ("Poems on Affairs of State", vol. ii., p. 148); "Advice to a Painter, being a Satire on the French King", &c., 1692, and "Advice to a Painter", 1697 ("Poems on Affairs of State", vol. ii., p. 428).

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 01 February 1667. 01 Feb 1667. Up, and to the office, where I was all the morning doing business, at noon home to dinner, and after dinner down by water, though it was a thick misty and rainy day, and walked to Deptford from Redriffe, and there to Bagwell's by appointment, where the 'mulier etoit within expecting me venir [Note. 'woman was within expecting me to come'].... By and by 'su marido' [Note. her husband] come in, and there without any notice taken by him we discoursed of our business of getting him the new ship building by Deane (33), which I shall do for him.
Thence by and by after a little talk I to the yard, and spoke with some of the officers, but staid but little, and the new clerk of the 'Chequer, Fownes, did walk to Redriffe back with me. I perceive he is a very child, and is led by the nose by Cowly and his kinsman that was his clerk, but I did make him understand his duty, and put both understanding and spirit into him, so that I hope he will do well1. (The passage between brackets is written in the margin of the MS.)
Thence by water to Billingsgate; thence to the Old Swan, and there took boat, it being now night, to Westminster Hall, there to the Hall, and find Doll Lane, and 'con elle' [Note. 'with her'] I went to the Bell Tavern, and 'ibi je' did do what I would 'con elle' [Note. 'with her'] as well as I could, she 'sedendo sobre' [Note. 'giving way'] thus far and making some little resistance. But all with much content, and 'je tenai' [Note. 'I had'] much pleasure 'cum ista' [Note. 'with her'].
There parted, and I by coach home, and to the office, where pretty late doing business, and then home, and merry with my wife, and to supper. My brother and I did play with the base, and I upon my viallin, which I have not seen out of the case now I think these three years, or more, having lost the key, and now forced to find an expedient to open it. Then to bed.
Note 1. Much surprised to hear this day at Deptford that Mrs. Batters is going already to be married to him, that is now the Captain of her husband's ship. She seemed the most passionate mourner in the world. But I believe it cannot be true.

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Roger Whitley's Diary 1690 January. 03 Jan 1690. Friday, went to Parliment; dined with G.Mainwaring (47) & Kirby at the Bell; went with G.Mainwaring (47) to his wine coopers in Roode Lane; had some sherry & other wine; then called on Mr Meade; stayd awhile; went then to the Sunne in Milk Streete; there was 2 Mainwarings, Hannibal Baskerville 1597-1668 (92), Baroby, Herle, Minshall & another Manchester man; parted past 9.

Crown Tavern

Dog Tavern

Fox Tavern, King Street Whitehall, Whitehall Palace, Westminster

Diary of Samuel Pepys 15 March 1660. 15 Mar 1660. Early packing up my things to be sent by cart with the rest of my Lord's. So to Will's, where I took leave of some of my friends. Here I met Tom Alcock, one that went to school with me at Huntingdon, but I had not seen him these sixteen years. So in the Hall paid and made even with Mrs. Michell; afterwards met with old Beale, and at the Axe paid him this quarter to Ladyday next. In the afternoon Dick Mathews comes to dine, and I went and drank with him at Harper's. So into London by water, and in Fish Street my wife and I bought a bit of salmon for 8d. and went to the Sun Tavern and ate it, where I did promise to give her all that I have in the world but my books, in case I should die at sea. From thence homewards; in the way my wife bought linen for three smocks and other things. I went to my Lord's and spoke with him. So home with Mrs. Jem by coach and then home to my own house. From thence to the Fox in King-street to supper on a brave turkey of Mr. Hawly's, with some friends of his there, Will Bowyer, &c. After supper I went to Westminster Hall, and the Parliament sat till ten at night, thinking and being expected to dissolve themselves to-day, but they did not. Great talk to-night that the discontented officers did think this night to make a stir, but prevented. To the Fox again. Home with my wife, and to bed extraordinary sleepy.

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Leg Tavern

Rhenish Winehouse

Rose Tavern, King Street Whitehall, Whitehall Palace, Westminster

Diary of Samuel Pepys 07 November 1666. 07 Nov 1666. Up, and with Sir W. Batten (65) to White Hall, where we attended as usual the Duke of York (33) and there was by the folly of Sir W. Batten (65) prevented in obtaining a bargain for Captain Cocke (49), which would, I think have [been] at this time (during our great want of hempe), both profitable to the King (36) and of good convenience to me; but I matter it not, it being done only by the folly, not any design, of Sir W. Batten's (65).
Thence to Westminster Hall, and, it being fast day, there was no shops open, but meeting with Doll Lane, did go with her to the Rose taverne, and there drank and played with her a good while. She went away, and I staid a good while after, and was seen going out by one of our neighbours near the office and two of the Hall people that I had no mind to have been seen by, but there was no hurt in it nor can be alleged from it. Therefore I am not solicitous in it, but took coach and called at Faythorne's (50), to buy some prints for my wife to draw by this winter, and here did see my Baroness Castlemayne's (25) picture, done by him from Lilly's (48), in red chalke and other colours, by which he hath cut it in copper to be printed. The picture in chalke is the finest thing I ever saw in my life, I think; and did desire to buy it; but he says he must keep it awhile to correct his copper-plate by, and when that is done he will sell it me.
Thence home and find my wife gone out with my brother to see her brother (26).
I to dinner and thence to my chamber to read, and so to the office (it being a fast day and so a holiday), and then to Mrs. Turner's (43), at her request to speake and advise about Sir Thomas Harvy's (41) coming to lodge there, which I think must be submitted to, and better now than hereafter, when he gets more ground, for I perceive he intends to stay by it, and begins to crow mightily upon his late being at the payment of tickets; but a coxcombe he is and will never be better in the business of the Navy.
Thence home, and there find Mr. Batelier come to bring my wife a very fine puppy of his mother's spaniel, a very fine one indeed, which my wife is mighty proud of. He staid and supped with us, and they to cards. I to my chamber to do some business, and then out to them to play and were a little merry, and then to bed. By the Duke of York (33) his discourse to-day in his chamber, they have it at Court, as well as we here, that a fatal day is to be expected shortly, of some great mischiefe to the remainder of this day; whether by the Papists, or what, they are not certain. But the day is disputed; some say next Friday, others a day sooner, others later, and I hope all will prove a foolery. But it is observable how every body's fears are busy at this time.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 02 January 1667. 02 Jan 1667. Up, I, and walked to White Hall to attend the Duke of York (33), as usual. My wife up, and with Mrs. Pen (16) to walk in the fields to frost-bite themselves. I find the Court full of great apprehensions of the French, who have certainly shipped landsmen, great numbers, at Brest; and most of our people here guess his design for Ireland. We have orders to send all the ships we can possible to the Downes. God have mercy on us! for we can send forth no ships without men, nor will men go without money, every day bringing us news of new mutinies among the seamen; so that our condition is like to be very miserable.
Thence to Westminster Hall, and there met all the Houblons, who do laugh at this discourse of the French, and say they are verily of opinion it is nothing but to send to their plantation in the West Indys, and that we at Court do blow up a design of invading us, only to make the Parliament make more haste in the money matters, and perhaps it may be so, but I do not believe we have any such plot in our heads.
After them, I, with several people, among others Mr. George Montagu (44), whom I have not seen long, he mighty kind. He tells me all is like to go ill, the King (36) displeasing the House of Commons by evading their Bill for examining Accounts, and putting it into a Commission, though therein he hath left out Coventry (39) and I and named all the rest the Parliament named, and all country Lords, not one Courtier: this do not please them. He tells me he finds the enmity almost over for my Lord Sandwich (41), and that now all is upon the Vice-Chamberlain (57), who bears up well and stands upon his vindication, which he seems to like well, and the others do construe well also.
Thence up to the Painted Chamber, and there heard a conference between the House of Lords and Commons about the Wine Patent; which I was exceeding glad to be at, because of my hearing exceeding good discourses, but especially from the Commons; among others, Mr. Swinfen, and a young man, one Sir Thomas Meres: and do outdo the Lords infinitely.
So down to the Hall and to the Rose Taverne, while Doll Lane come to me, and we did 'biber a good deal de vino, et je did give elle twelve soldis para comprare elle some gans' for a new anno's gift ... [Note. 'biber a good deal de vino, et je did give elle twelve soldis para comprare elle some gans'. 'drink a good deal, and I did give her twelve soldis to buy her some gans'. Not clear what 'gans' means. Missing text 'I did tocar et no mas su cosa, but in fit time and place jo creo que je pouvais faire whatever I would con ella.']
Thence to the Hall again, and with Sir W. Pen (45) by coach to the Temple, and there 'light and eat a bit at an ordinary by, and then alone to the King's house, and there saw "The Custome of the Country", the second time of its being acted, wherein Knipp does the Widow well; but, of all the plays that ever I did see, the worst-having neither plot, language, nor anything in the earth that is acceptable; only Knipp sings a little song admirably. But fully the worst play that ever I saw or I believe shall see. So away home, much displeased for the loss of so much time, and disobliging my wife by being there without her. So, by link, walked home, it being mighty cold but dry, yet bad walking because very slippery with the frost and treading.
Home and to my chamber to set down my journal, and then to thinking upon establishing my vows against the next year, and so to supper and to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 March 1667. 13 Mar 1667. Up, and with Sir W. Batten (66) to the Duke of York (33) to our usual attendance, where I did fear my Lord Bruncker (47) might move something in revenge that might trouble me, but he did not, but contrarily had the content to hear Sir G. Carteret (57) fall foul on him in the Duke of York's (33) bed chamber for his directing people with tickets and petitions to him, bidding him mind his Controller's place and not his, for if he did he should be too hard for him, and made high words, which I was glad of. Having done our usual business with the Duke of York (33), I away; and meeting Mr. Prince in the presence-chamber, he and I to talk; and among other things he tells me, and I do find every where else, also, that our masters do begin not to like of their councils in fitting out no fleete, but only squadrons, and are finding out excuses for it; and, among others, he tells me a Privy-Councillor did tell him that it was said in Council that a fleete could not be set out this year, for want of victuals, which gives him and me a great alarme, but me especially for had it been so, I ought to have represented it; and therefore it puts me in policy presently to prepare myself to answer this objection, if ever it should come about, by drawing up a state of the Victualler's stores, which I will presently do.
So to Westminster Hall, and there staid and talked, and then to Sir G. Carteret's (57), where I dined with the ladies, he not at home, and very well used I am among them, so that I am heartily ashamed that my wife hath not been there to see them; but she shall very shortly.
So home by water, and stepped into Michell's, and there did baiser my Betty, 'que aegrotat' a little. At home find Mr. Holliard (58), and made him eat a bit of victuals. Here I find Mr. Greeten, who teaches my wife on the flageolet, and I think she will come to something on it. Mr. Holliard (58) advises me to have my father come up to town, for he doubts else in the country he will never find ease, for, poor man, his grief is now grown so great upon him that he is never at ease, so I will have him up at Easter.
By and by by coach, set down Mr. Holliard (58) near his house at Hatton Garden and myself to Lord Treasurer's (60), and sent my wife to the New Exchange. I staid not here, but to Westminster Hall, and thence to Martin's, where he and she both within, and with them the little widow that was once there with her when I was there, that dissembled so well to be grieved at hearing a tune that her, late husband liked, but there being so much company, I had no pleasure here, and so away to the Hall again, and there met Doll Lane coming out, and 'par contrat did hazer bargain para aller to the cabaret de vin', called the Rose, and 'ibi' I staid two hours, 'sed' she did not 'venir', 'lequel' troubled me, and so away by coach and took up my wife, and away home, and so to Sir W. Batten's (66), where I am told that it is intended by Mr. Carcasse to pray me to be godfather with Lord Bruncker (47) to-morrow to his child, which I suppose they tell me in mirth, but if he should ask me I know not whether I should refuse it or no.
Late at my office preparing a speech against to-morrow morning, before the King (36), at my Lord Treasurer's (60), and the truth is it run in my head all night.
So home to supper and to bed. The Duke of Buckingham (39) is concluded gone over sea, and, it is thought, to France.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 01 May 1667. 01 May 1667. Up, it being a fine day, and after doing a little business in my chamber I left my wife to go abroad with W. Hewer (25) and his mother in a Hackney coach incognito to the Park, while I abroad to the Excise Office first, and there met the Cofferer (63) and Sir Stephen Fox (40) about our money matters there, wherein we agreed, and so to discourse of my Lord Treasurer (60), who is a little better than he was of the stone, having rested a little this night. I there did acquaint them of my knowledge of that disease, which I believe will be told my Lord Treasurer (60).
Thence to Westminster; in the way meeting many milk-maids with their garlands upon their pails, dancing with a fiddler before them1 and saw pretty Nelly (17) standing at her lodgings' door in Drury-lane in her smock sleeves and bodice, looking upon one: she seemed a mighty pretty creature. To the Hall and there walked a while, it being term. I thence home to the Rose, and then had Doll Lane venir para me.... [Missing text: 'but it was in a lugar mighty ouvert, so as we no poda hazer algo; so parted and then met again at the Swan, where for la misma reason we no pode hazer, but put off to recontrar anon, which I only used as a put-off;']. To my Lord Crew's (69), where I found them at dinner, and among others. Mrs. Bocket, which I have not seen a long time, and two little dirty children, and she as idle a prating and impertinent woman as ever she was.
After dinner my Lord took me alone and walked with me, giving me an account of the meeting of the Commissioners for Accounts, whereof he is one. How some of the gentlemen, Garraway (50), Littleton (46), and others, did scruple at their first coming there, being called thither to act, as Members of Parliament, which they could not do by any authority but that of Parliament, and therefore desired the King's direction in it, which was sent for by my Lord Bridgewater (43), who brought answer, very short, that the King (36) expected they should obey his Commission. Then they went on, and observed a power to be given them of administering and framing an oath, which they thought they could not do by any power but Act of Parliament; and the whole Commission did think fit to have the judges' opinion in it; and so, drawing up their scruples in writing, they all attended the King (36), who told them he would send to the judges to be answered, and did so; who have, my Lord tells me, met three times about it, not knowing what answer to give to it; and they have met this week, doing nothing but expecting the solution of the judges in this point. My Lord tells me he do believe this Commission will do more hurt than good; it may undo some accounts, if these men shall think fit; but it can never clear an account, for he must come into the Exchequer for all this. Besides, it is a kind of inquisition that hath seldom ever been granted in England; and he believes it will never, besides, give any satisfaction to the People or Parliament, but be looked upon as a forced, packed business of the King (36), especially if these Parliament-men that are of it shall not concur with them: which he doubts they will not, and, therefore, wishes much that the King (36) would lay hold of this fit occasion, and let the Commission fall.
Then to talk of my Lord Sandwich (41), whom my Lord Crew (69) hath a great desire might get to be Lord Treasurer (60) if the present Lord should die, as it is believed he will, in a little time; and thinks he can have no competitor but my Lord Arlington (49), who, it is given out, desires it: but my Lord thinks it is not so, for that the being Secretary do keep him a greater interest with the King (36) than the other would do at least, do believe, that if my Lord would surrender him his Wardrobe place, it would be a temptation to Arlington (49) to assist my Lord in getting the Treasurer's. I did object to my Lord [Crew] (69) that it would be no place of content, nor safety, nor honour for my Lord, the State being so indigent as it is, and the [King] so irregular, and those about him, that my Lord must be forced to part with anything to answer his warrants; and that, therefore, I do believe the King (36) had rather have a man that may be one of his vicious caball, than a sober man that will mind the publick, that so they may sit at cards and dispose of the revenue of the Kingdom. This my Lord was moved at, and said he did not indeed know how to answer it, and bid me think of it; and so said he himself would also do. He do mightily cry out of the bad management of our monies, the King (36) having had so much given him; and yet, when the Parliament do find that the King (36) should have £900,000 in his purse by the best account of issues they have yet seen, yet we should report in the Navy a debt due from the King (36) of £900,000; which, I did confess, I doubted was true in the first, and knew to be true in the last, and did believe that there was some great miscarriages in it: which he owned to believe also, saying, that at this rate it is not in the power of the Kingdom to make a war, nor answer the King's wants.
Thence away to the King's playhouse, by agreement met Sir W. Pen (46), and saw "Love in a Maze" but a sorry play: only Lacy's (52) clowne's part, which he did most admirably indeed; and I am glad to find the rogue at liberty again. Here was but little, and that ordinary, company. We sat at the upper bench next the boxes; and I find it do pretty well, and have the advantage of seeing and hearing the great people, which may be pleasant when there is good store. Now was only Prince Rupert (47) and my Lord Lauderdale (50), and my Lord, the naming of whom puts me in mind of my seeing, at Sir Robert Viner's (36), two or three great silver flagons, made with inscriptions as gifts of the King (36) to such and such persons of quality as did stay in town the late great plague, for the keeping things in order in the town, which is a handsome thing. But here was neither Hart (41), Nell (17), nor Knipp; therefore, the play was not likely to please me.
Thence Sir W. Pen (46) and I in his coach, Tiburne way, into the Park, where a horrid dust, and number of coaches, without pleasure or order. That which we, and almost all went for, was to see my Lady Newcastle (44); which we could not, she being followed and crowded upon by coaches all the way she went, that nobody could come near her; only I could see she was in a large black coach, adorned with silver instead of gold, and so white curtains, and every thing black and white, and herself in her cap, but other parts I could not make [out]. But that which I did see, and wonder at with reason, was to find Pegg Pen (16) in a new coach, with only her husband's (26) pretty sister (18) with her, both patched and very fine, and in much the finest coach in the park, and I think that ever I did see one or other, for neatness and richness in gold, and everything that is noble. My Baroness Castlemayne (26), the King (36), my Lord St. Albans (62), nor Mr. Jermyn, have so neat a coach, that ever I saw.
And, Lord! to have them have this, and nothing else that is correspondent, is to me one of the most ridiculous sights that ever I did see, though her present dress was well enough; but to live in the condition they do at home, and be abroad in this coach, astonishes me. When we had spent half an hour in the Park, we went out again, weary of the dust, and despairing of seeing my Lady Newcastle (44); and so back the same way, and to St. James's, thinking to have met my Lady Newcastle (44) before she got home, but we staying by the way to drink, she got home a little before us: so we lost our labours, and then home; where we find the two young ladies come home, and their patches off, I suppose Sir W. Pen (46) do not allow of them in his sight, and going out of town to-night, though late, to Walthamstow.
So to talk a little at Sir W. Batten's (66), and then home to supper, where I find Mrs. Hewer and her son, who have been abroad with my wife in the Park, and so after supper to read and then to bed.
Sir W. Pen (46) did give me an account this afternoon of his design of buying Sir Robert Brooke's (30) fine house at Wansted; which I so wondered at, and did give him reasons against it, which he allowed of: and told me that he did intend to pull down the house and build a less, and that he should get £1500 by the old house, and I know not what fooleries. But I will never believe he ever intended to buy it, for my part; though he troubled Mr. Gawden to go and look upon it, and advise him in it.
Note 1. On the 1st of May milkmaids used to borrow silver cups, tankards, &c., to hang them round their milkpails, with the addition of flowers and ribbons, which they carried upon their heads, accompanied by a bagpipe or fiddle, and went from door to door, dancing before the houses of their customers, in order to obtain a small gratuity from each of them. "In London thirty years ago, When pretty milkmaids went about, It was a goodly sight to see Their May-day pageant all drawn out. "Such scenes and sounds once blest my eyes And charm'd my ears; but all have vanish'd, On May-day now no garlands go, For milkmaids and their dance are banish'd". Hone's Every-Day Book, vol. i., pp. 569, 570.

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Sun Tavern

Swan Tavern, King Street Whitehall, Whitehall Palace, Westminster

Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 May 1661. 09 May 1661. From thence to Sir G. Carteret (51), and there did get his promise for the payment of the remainder of the bill of Mr. Creed's, wherein of late I have been so much concerned, which did so much rejoice me that I meeting with Mr. Childe took him to the Swan Tavern in King Street, and there did give him a tankard of white wine and sugar1, and so I went by water home and set myself to get my Lord's accounts made up, which was till nine at night before I could finish, and then I walked to the Wardrobe, being the first time I was there since my Lady came thither, who I found all alone, and so she shewed me all the lodgings as they are now fitted, and they seem pretty pleasant. By and by comes in my Lord, and so, after looking over my accounts, I returned home, being a dirty and dark walk. So to bed.
Note 1. The popular taste was formerly for sweet wines, and sugar was frequently mixed with the wine.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 02 October 1666. 02 Oct 1666. When come home I to Sir W. Pen's (45), to his boy, for my book, and there find he hath it not, but delivered it to the doorekeeper of the Committee for me. This, added to my former disquiet, made me stark mad, considering all the nakedness of the office lay open in papers within those covers. I could not tell in the world what to do, but was mad on all sides, and that which made me worse Captain Cocke (49) was there, and he did so swear and curse at the boy that told me. So Cocke (49), Griffin, and the boy with me, they to find the housekeeper of the Parliament, Hughes, while I to Sir W. Coventry (38), but could hear nothing of it there. But coming to our rendezvous at the Swan Taverne, in King Streete, I find they have found the housekeeper, and the book simply locked up in the Court. So I staid and drank, and rewarded the doore-keeper, and away home, my heart lighter by all this, but to bed very sad notwithstanding, in fear of what will happen to-morrow upon their coming.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 01 May 1667. 01 May 1667. Up, it being a fine day, and after doing a little business in my chamber I left my wife to go abroad with W. Hewer (25) and his mother in a Hackney coach incognito to the Park, while I abroad to the Excise Office first, and there met the Cofferer (63) and Sir Stephen Fox (40) about our money matters there, wherein we agreed, and so to discourse of my Lord Treasurer (60), who is a little better than he was of the stone, having rested a little this night. I there did acquaint them of my knowledge of that disease, which I believe will be told my Lord Treasurer (60).
Thence to Westminster; in the way meeting many milk-maids with their garlands upon their pails, dancing with a fiddler before them1 and saw pretty Nelly (17) standing at her lodgings' door in Drury-lane in her smock sleeves and bodice, looking upon one: she seemed a mighty pretty creature. To the Hall and there walked a while, it being term. I thence home to the Rose, and then had Doll Lane venir para me.... [Missing text: 'but it was in a lugar mighty ouvert, so as we no poda hazer algo; so parted and then met again at the Swan, where for la misma reason we no pode hazer, but put off to recontrar anon, which I only used as a put-off;']. To my Lord Crew's (69), where I found them at dinner, and among others. Mrs. Bocket, which I have not seen a long time, and two little dirty children, and she as idle a prating and impertinent woman as ever she was.
After dinner my Lord took me alone and walked with me, giving me an account of the meeting of the Commissioners for Accounts, whereof he is one. How some of the gentlemen, Garraway (50), Littleton (46), and others, did scruple at their first coming there, being called thither to act, as Members of Parliament, which they could not do by any authority but that of Parliament, and therefore desired the King's direction in it, which was sent for by my Lord Bridgewater (43), who brought answer, very short, that the King (36) expected they should obey his Commission. Then they went on, and observed a power to be given them of administering and framing an oath, which they thought they could not do by any power but Act of Parliament; and the whole Commission did think fit to have the judges' opinion in it; and so, drawing up their scruples in writing, they all attended the King (36), who told them he would send to the judges to be answered, and did so; who have, my Lord tells me, met three times about it, not knowing what answer to give to it; and they have met this week, doing nothing but expecting the solution of the judges in this point. My Lord tells me he do believe this Commission will do more hurt than good; it may undo some accounts, if these men shall think fit; but it can never clear an account, for he must come into the Exchequer for all this. Besides, it is a kind of inquisition that hath seldom ever been granted in England; and he believes it will never, besides, give any satisfaction to the People or Parliament, but be looked upon as a forced, packed business of the King (36), especially if these Parliament-men that are of it shall not concur with them: which he doubts they will not, and, therefore, wishes much that the King (36) would lay hold of this fit occasion, and let the Commission fall.
Then to talk of my Lord Sandwich (41), whom my Lord Crew (69) hath a great desire might get to be Lord Treasurer (60) if the present Lord should die, as it is believed he will, in a little time; and thinks he can have no competitor but my Lord Arlington (49), who, it is given out, desires it: but my Lord thinks it is not so, for that the being Secretary do keep him a greater interest with the King (36) than the other would do at least, do believe, that if my Lord would surrender him his Wardrobe place, it would be a temptation to Arlington (49) to assist my Lord in getting the Treasurer's. I did object to my Lord [Crew] (69) that it would be no place of content, nor safety, nor honour for my Lord, the State being so indigent as it is, and the [King] so irregular, and those about him, that my Lord must be forced to part with anything to answer his warrants; and that, therefore, I do believe the King (36) had rather have a man that may be one of his vicious caball, than a sober man that will mind the publick, that so they may sit at cards and dispose of the revenue of the Kingdom. This my Lord was moved at, and said he did not indeed know how to answer it, and bid me think of it; and so said he himself would also do. He do mightily cry out of the bad management of our monies, the King (36) having had so much given him; and yet, when the Parliament do find that the King (36) should have £900,000 in his purse by the best account of issues they have yet seen, yet we should report in the Navy a debt due from the King (36) of £900,000; which, I did confess, I doubted was true in the first, and knew to be true in the last, and did believe that there was some great miscarriages in it: which he owned to believe also, saying, that at this rate it is not in the power of the Kingdom to make a war, nor answer the King's wants.
Thence away to the King's playhouse, by agreement met Sir W. Pen (46), and saw "Love in a Maze" but a sorry play: only Lacy's (52) clowne's part, which he did most admirably indeed; and I am glad to find the rogue at liberty again. Here was but little, and that ordinary, company. We sat at the upper bench next the boxes; and I find it do pretty well, and have the advantage of seeing and hearing the great people, which may be pleasant when there is good store. Now was only Prince Rupert (47) and my Lord Lauderdale (50), and my Lord, the naming of whom puts me in mind of my seeing, at Sir Robert Viner's (36), two or three great silver flagons, made with inscriptions as gifts of the King (36) to such and such persons of quality as did stay in town the late great plague, for the keeping things in order in the town, which is a handsome thing. But here was neither Hart (41), Nell (17), nor Knipp; therefore, the play was not likely to please me.
Thence Sir W. Pen (46) and I in his coach, Tiburne way, into the Park, where a horrid dust, and number of coaches, without pleasure or order. That which we, and almost all went for, was to see my Lady Newcastle (44); which we could not, she being followed and crowded upon by coaches all the way she went, that nobody could come near her; only I could see she was in a large black coach, adorned with silver instead of gold, and so white curtains, and every thing black and white, and herself in her cap, but other parts I could not make [out]. But that which I did see, and wonder at with reason, was to find Pegg Pen (16) in a new coach, with only her husband's (26) pretty sister (18) with her, both patched and very fine, and in much the finest coach in the park, and I think that ever I did see one or other, for neatness and richness in gold, and everything that is noble. My Baroness Castlemayne (26), the King (36), my Lord St. Albans (62), nor Mr. Jermyn, have so neat a coach, that ever I saw.
And, Lord! to have them have this, and nothing else that is correspondent, is to me one of the most ridiculous sights that ever I did see, though her present dress was well enough; but to live in the condition they do at home, and be abroad in this coach, astonishes me. When we had spent half an hour in the Park, we went out again, weary of the dust, and despairing of seeing my Lady Newcastle (44); and so back the same way, and to St. James's, thinking to have met my Lady Newcastle (44) before she got home, but we staying by the way to drink, she got home a little before us: so we lost our labours, and then home; where we find the two young ladies come home, and their patches off, I suppose Sir W. Pen (46) do not allow of them in his sight, and going out of town to-night, though late, to Walthamstow.
So to talk a little at Sir W. Batten's (66), and then home to supper, where I find Mrs. Hewer and her son, who have been abroad with my wife in the Park, and so after supper to read and then to bed.
Sir W. Pen (46) did give me an account this afternoon of his design of buying Sir Robert Brooke's (30) fine house at Wansted; which I so wondered at, and did give him reasons against it, which he allowed of: and told me that he did intend to pull down the house and build a less, and that he should get £1500 by the old house, and I know not what fooleries. But I will never believe he ever intended to buy it, for my part; though he troubled Mr. Gawden to go and look upon it, and advise him in it.
Note 1. On the 1st of May milkmaids used to borrow silver cups, tankards, &c., to hang them round their milkpails, with the addition of flowers and ribbons, which they carried upon their heads, accompanied by a bagpipe or fiddle, and went from door to door, dancing before the houses of their customers, in order to obtain a small gratuity from each of them. "In London thirty years ago, When pretty milkmaids went about, It was a goodly sight to see Their May-day pageant all drawn out. "Such scenes and sounds once blest my eyes And charm'd my ears; but all have vanish'd, On May-day now no garlands go, For milkmaids and their dance are banish'd". Hone's Every-Day Book, vol. i., pp. 569, 570.

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Trumpet Tavern, King Street Whitehall, Whitehall Palace, Westminster

Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 August 1660. 04 Aug 1660.To White Hall, where I found my Lord gone with the King by water to dine at the Tower with Sir J. Robinson (45), Lieutenant. I found my Lady Jemimah at my Lord's, with whom I staid and dined, all alone; after dinner to the Privy Seal Office, where I did business. So to a Committee of Parliament (Sir Heneage Finch (38), Chairman), to give them an answer to an order of theirs, "that we could not give them any account of the Accounts of the Navy in the years 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, as they desire". After that I went and bespoke some linen of Betty Lane in the Hall, and after that to the Trumpet, where I sat and talked with her, &c. At night, it being very rainy, and it thundering and lightning exceedingly, I took coach at the Trumpet door, taking Monsieur L'Impertinent along with me as far as the Savoy, where he said he went to lie with Cary Dillon (33)1, and is still upon the mind of going (he and his whole family) to Ireland. Having set him down I made haste home, and in the courtyard, it being very dark, I heard a man inquire for my house, and having asked his business, he told me that my man William (who went this morning—out of town to meet his aunt Blackburne) was come home not very well to his mother, and so could not come home to-night. At which I was very sorry. I found my wife still in pain. To bed, having not time to write letters, and indeed having so many to write to all places that I have no heart to go about them. Mrs. Shaw did die yesterday and her husband so sick that he is not like to live.
Note 1. Colonel Cary Dillon (33), a friend of the Butlers, who courted the fair Frances; but the engagement was subsequently broken off, see December 31st, 1661.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 January 1664. 09 Jan 1664. Up (my underlip being mightily swelled, I know not how but by overrubbing it, it itching) and to the office, where we sat all the morning, and at noon I home to dinner, and by discourse with my wife thought upon inviting my Lord Sandwich (38) to a dinner shortly. It will cost me at least ten or twelve pounds; but, however, some arguments of prudence I have, which however I shall think again upon before I proceed to that expence.
After dinner by coach I carried my wife and Jane to Westminster, leaving her at Mr. Hunt's, and I to Westminster Hall, and there visited Mrs. Lane, and by appointment went out and met her at the Trumpet, Mrs. Hare's, but the room being damp we went to the Bell Tavern, and there I had her company, but could not do as I used to do (yet nothing but what was honest).... So I to talk about her having Hawley, she told me flatly no, she could not love him. I took occasion to enquire of Howlett's daughter, with whom I have a mind to meet a little to see what mettle the young wench is made of, being very pretty, but she tells me she is already betrothed to Mrs. Michell's son, and she in discourse tells me more, that Mrs. Michell herself had a daughter before marriage, which is now near thirty years old, a thing I could not have believed.
Thence leading her to the Hall, I took coach and called my wife and her mayd, and so to the New Exchange, where we bought several things of our pretty Mrs. Dorothy Stacy, a pretty woman, and has the modestest look that ever I saw in my life and manner of speech.
Thence called at Tom's and saw him pretty well again, but has not been currant.
So homeward, and called at Ludgate, at Ashwell's uncle's, but she was not within, to have spoke to her to have come to dress my wife at the time my Lord dines here. So straight home, calling for Walsingham's Manuals at my bookseller's to read but not to buy, recommended for a pretty book by Sir W. Warren, whose warrant however I do not much take till I do read it.
So home to supper and to bed, my wife not being very well since she came home, being troubled with a fainting fit, which she never yet had before since she was my wife.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 15 August 1664. 15 Aug 1664. Up, and with Sir J. Minnes (65) by coach to St. James's, and there did our business with the Duke (30), who tells us more and more signs of a Dutch warr, and how we must presently set out a fleete for Guinny, for the Dutch are doing so, and there I believe the warr will begin.
Thence home with him again, in our way he talking of his cures abroad, while he was with the King (34) as a doctor, and above all men the pox. And among others, Sir J. Denham (49) he told me he had cured, after it was come to an ulcer all over his face, to a miracle.
To the Coffee-house I, and so to the 'Change a little, and then home to dinner with Creed, whom I met at the Coffee-house, and after dinner by coach set him down at the Temple, and I and my wife to Mr. Blagrave's. They being none of them at home; I to the Hall, leaving her there, and thence to the Trumpett, whither came Mrs. Lane, and there begins a sad story how her husband, as I feared, proves not worth a farthing, and that she is with child and undone, if I do not get him a place. I had my pleasure here of her, and she, like an impudent jade, depends upon my kindness to her husband, but I will have no more to do with her, let her brew as she has baked, seeing she would not take my counsel about Hawly.
After drinking we parted, and I to Blagrave's, and there discoursed with Mrs. Blagrave about her kinswoman, who it seems is sickly even to frantiqueness sometimes, and among other things chiefly from love and melancholy upon the death of her servant, [Servant = lover.] insomuch that she telling us all most simply and innocently I fear she will not be able to come to us with any pleasure, which I am sorry for, for I think she would have pleased us very well. In comes he, and so to sing a song and his niece with us, but she sings very meanly.
So through the Hall and thence by coach home, calling by the way at Charing Crosse, and there saw the great Dutchman that is come over, under whose arm I went with my hat on, and could not reach higher than his eye-browes with the tip of my fingers, reaching as high as I could. He is a comely and well-made man, and his wife a very little, but pretty comely Dutch woman. It is true, he wears pretty high-heeled shoes, but not very high, and do generally wear a turbant, which makes him show yet taller than really he is, though he is very tall, as I have said before.
Home to my office, and then to supper, and then to my office again late, and so home to bed, my wife and I troubled that we do not speed better in this business of her woman.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 December 1664. 09 Dec 1664. Up betimes and walked to Mr. Povy's (50), and there, not without some few troublesome questions of his, I got a note, and went and received £117 5s. of Alderman Viner (75) upon my pretended freight of the "William" for Tangier, which overbears me on one side with joy and on the other to think of my condition if I shall be called into examination about it, and (though in strictness it is due) not be able to give a good account of it.
Home with it, and there comes Captain Taylor to me, and he and I did set even the business of the ship Union lately gone for Tangier, wherein I hope to get £50 more, for all which the Lord be praised.
At noon home to dinner, Mr. Hunt and his wife with us, and very pleasant. Then in the afternoon I carried them home by coach, and I to Westminster Hall, and thence to Gervas's, and there find I cannot prevail with Jane to go forth with me, but though I took a good occasion of going to the Trumpet she declined coming, which vexed me. 'Je avait grande envie envers elle, avec vrai amour et passion [I have a great desire, with true love and passion]'.
Thence home and to my office till one in the morning, setting to rights in writing this day's two accounts of Povy (50) and Taylor, and then quietly to bed. This day I had several letters from several places, of our bringing in great numbers of Dutch ships.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 January 1665. 22 Jan 1665. Lord's Day. Up, leaving my wife in bed, being sick of her months, and to church.
Thence home, and in my wife's chamber dined very merry, discoursing, among other things, of a design I have come in my head this morning at church of making a match between Mrs. Betty Pickering (23) and Mr. Hill (35), my friend the merchant, that loves musique and comes to me a'Sundays, a most ingenious and sweet-natured and highly accomplished person. I know not how their fortunes may agree, but their disposition and merits are much of a sort, and persons, though different, yet equally, I think, acceptable.
After dinner walked to Westminster, and after being at the Abbey and heard a good anthem well sung there, I as I had appointed to the Trumpett, there expecting when Jane Welsh should come, but anon comes a maid of the house to tell me that her mistress and master would not let her go forth, not knowing of my being here, but to keep her from her sweetheart. So being defeated, away by coach home, and there spent the evening prettily in discourse with my wife and Mercer, and so to supper, prayers, and to bed.

Four Days' Battle

Diary of Samuel Pepys 16 June 1666. 16 Jun 1666. Up betimes and to my office, and there we sat all the morning and dispatched much business, the King (36), Duke of Yorke (32), and Sir W. Coventry (38) being gone down to the fleete.
At noon home to dinner and then down to Woolwich and Deptford to look after things, my head akeing from the multitude of businesses I had in my head yesterday in settling my accounts. All the way down and up, reading of "The Mayor of Quinborough", a simple play. At Deptford, while I am there, comes Mr. Williamson (32), Sir Arthur Ingram (49) and Jacke Fen, to see the new ships, which they had done, and then I with them home in their boat, and a very fine gentleman Mr. Williamson (32) is. It seems the Dutch do mightily insult of their victory, and they have great reason1. Sir William Barkeley (27) was killed before his ship taken; and there he lies dead in a sugar-chest, for every body to see, with his flag standing up by him. And Sir George Ascue (50) is carried up and down the Hague for people to see.
Home to my office, where late, and then to bed.
Note 1. This treatment seems to have been that of the Dutch populace alone, and there does not appear to have been cause of complaint against the government. Respecting Sir W. Berkeley's (27) body the following notice was published in the "London Gazette" of July 15th, 1666 (No. 69 [Note. actually issue 70]) "Whitehall, July 15. This day arrived a Trumpet from the States of Holland, who came over from Calais in the Dover packet-boat, with a letter to his Majesty, that the States have taken order for the embalming the body of Sir William Berkeley, which they have placed in the chapel of the great church at the Hague, a civility they profess to owe to his corpse, in respect to the quality of his person, the greatness of his command, and of the high courage and valour he showed in the late engagement; desiring his Majesty to signify his pleasure about the further disposal of it". "Frederick Ruysch, the celebrated Dutch anatomist, undertook, by order of the States-General, to inject the body of the English Admiral Berkeley, killed in the sea-fight of 1666; and the body, already somewhat decomposed, was sent over to England as well prepared as if it had been the fresh corpse of a child. This produced to Ruysch, on the part of the States-General, a recompense worthy of their liberality, and the merit of the anatomist", "James's Medical Dictionary"..

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1668 Bawdy House Riots

Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1668. 24 Mar 1668. Up pretty betimes, and so there comes to me Mr. Shish (63), to desire my appearing for him to succeed Mr. Christopher Pett (47), lately dead, in his place of Master-Shipwright of Deptford and Woolwich, which I do resolve to promote what I can. So by and by to White Hall, and there to the Duke of York's (34) chamber, where I understand it is already resolved by the King (37) and Duke of York (34) that Shish (63) shall have the place. From the Duke's chamber Sir W. Coventry (40) and I to walk in the Matted Gallery; and there, among other things, he tells me of the wicked design that now is at last contriving against him, to get a petition presented from people that the money they have paid to W. Coventry (40) for their places may be repaid them back; and that this is set on by Temple and Hollis (25) of the Parliament, and, among other mean people in it, by Captain Tatnell: and he prays me that I will use some effectual way to sift Tatnell what he do, and who puts him on in this business, which I do undertake, and will do with all my skill for his service, being troubled that he is still under this difficulty.
Thence up and down Westminster by Mrs. Burroughes her mother's shop, thinking to have seen her, but could not, and therefore back to White Hall, where great talk of the tumult at the other end of the town, about Moore-fields, among the 'prentices, taking the liberty of these holydays to pull down bawdy-houses1. And, Lord! to see the apprehensions which this did give to all people at Court, that presently order was given for all the soldiers, horse and foot, to be in armes! and forthwith alarmes were beat by drum and Trumpet through Westminster, and all to their colours, and to horse, as if the French were coming into the town! So Creed, whom I met here, and I to Lincolne's Inn-fields, thinking to have gone into the fields to have seen the 'prentices; but here we found these fields full of soldiers all in a body, and my Lord Craven (59) commanding of them, and riding up and down to give orders, like a madman. And some young men we saw brought by soldiers to the Guard at White Hall, and overheard others that stood by say, that it was only for pulling down the bawdy-houses; and none of the bystanders finding fault with them, but rather of the soldiers for hindering them. And we heard a justice of the Peace this morning say to the King (37), that he had been endeavouring to suppress this tumult, but could not; and that, imprisoning some [of them] in the new prison at Clerkenwell, the rest did come and break open the prison and release them; and that they do give out that they are for pulling down the bawdy-houses, which is one of the greatest grievances of the nation. To which the King (37) made a very poor, cold, insipid answer: "Why, why do they go to them, then?" and that was all, and had no mind to go on with the discourse. Mr. Creed and I to dinner to my Lord Crew (70), where little discourse, there being none but us at the table, and my Lord and my Lady Jemimah, and so after dinner away, Creed and I to White Hall, expecting a Committee of Tangier, but come too late. So I to attend the Council, and by and by were called in with Lord Brouncker (48) and Sir W. Pen (46) to advise how to pay away a little money to most advantage to the men of the yards, to make them dispatch the ships going out, and there did make a little speech, which was well liked, and after all it was found most satisfactory to the men, and best for the King's dispatch, that what money we had should be paid weekly to the men for their week's work until a greater sum could be got to pay them their arrears and then discharge them. But, Lord! to see what shifts and what cares and thoughts there was employed in this matter how to do the King's work and please the men and stop clamours would make a man think the King (37) should not eat a bit of good meat till he has got money to pay the men, but I do not see the least print of care or thoughts in him about it at all. Having done here, I out and there met Sir Fr. Hollis (25), who do still tell me that, above all things in the world, he wishes he had my tongue in his mouth, meaning since my speech in Parliament. He took Lord Brouncker (48) and me down to the guards, he and his company being upon the guards to-day; and there he did, in a handsome room to that purpose, make us drink, and did call for his bagpipes, which, with pipes of ebony, tipt with silver, he did play beyond anything of that kind that ever I heard in my life; and with great pains he must have obtained it, but with pains that the instrument do not deserve at all; for, at the best, it is mighty barbarous musick.
So home and there to my chamber, to prick out my song, "It is Decreed", intending to have it ready to give Mr. Harris (34) on Thursday, when we meet, for him to sing, believing that he will do it more right than a woman that sings better, unless it were Knepp, which I cannot have opportunity to teach it to. This evening I come home from White Hall with Sir W. Pen (46), who fell in talk about his going to sea this year, and the difficulties that arise to him by it, by giving offence to the Prince, and occasioning envy to him, and many other things that make it a bad matter, at this time of want of money and necessaries, and bad and uneven counsels at home,—for him to go abroad: and did tell me how much with the King (37) and Duke of York (34) he had endeavoured to be excused, desiring the Prince might be satisfied in it, who hath a mind to go; but he tells me they will not excuse him, and I believe it, and truly do judge it a piece of bad fortune to W. Pen (46).
Note 1. It was customary for the apprentices of the metropolis to avail themselves of their holidays, especially on Shrove Tuesday, to search after women of ill fame, and to confine them during the season of Lent. See a "Satyre against Separatists", 1642. "Stand forth, Shrove Tuesday, one a' the silenc'st bricklayers; 'Tis in your charge to pull down bawdy-houses". Middleton's Inner Temple Masque, 1619, Works, ed. Bullen, vii., 209.

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White Horse, King Street Whitehall, Whitehall Palace, Westminster

Diary of Samuel Pepys 12 March 1660. 12 Mar 1660. This day the wench rose at two in the morning to wash, and my wife and I lay talking a great while. I by reason of my cold could not tell how to sleep. my wife and I to the Exchange, where we bought a great many things, where I left her and went into London, and at Bedells the bookseller's at the Temple gate I paid £12 10s. 6d. for Mr. Fuller (52) by his direction. So came back and at Wilkinson's found Mr. Sheply and some sea people, as the cook of the Nazeby and others, at dinner. Then to the White Horse in King Street, where I got Mr. Buddle's horse to ride to Huntsmore to Mr. Bowyer's, where I found him and all well, and willing to have my wife come and board with them while I was at sea, which was the business I went about. Here I lay and took a thing for my cold, namely a spoonful of honey and a nutmeg scraped into it, by Mr. Bowyer's direction, and so took it into my mouth, which I found did do me much good.