History of Northampton

1010 Battle of Ringmere

1164 Trial of Thomas a Becket

1264 Battle of Northampton

1328 Treaty of Edinburgh Northampton

1460 Battle of Northampton

1483 Arrest of the Woodville Affinity

Northampton is in Northamptonshire.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 900-949. 917. This year rode the army, after Easter, out of Northampton and Leicester; and having broken the truce they slew many men at Hookerton and thereabout. Then, very soon after this, as the others came home, they found other troops that were riding out against Leighton. But the inhabitants were aware of it; and having fought with them they put them into full flight; and arrested all that they had taken, and also of their horses and of their weapons a good deal.

Battle of Ringmere

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 1000-1049. 1010. This year came the aforesaid army, after Easter, into East Anglia; and went up at Ipswich, marching continually till they came where they understood Ulfcytel was with his army. This was on the day called the first of the Ascension of our Lord. The East-Angles soon fled. Cambridgeshire stood firm against them. There was slain Athelstan, the king's relative, and Oswy, and his son, and Wulfric, son of Leofwin, and Edwy, brother of Efy, and many other good thanes, and a multitude of the people. Thurkytel Myrehead first began the flight; and the Danes remained masters of the field of slaughter. There were they horsed; and afterwards took possession of East-Anglia, where they plundered and burned three months; and then proceeded further into the wild fens, slaying both men and cattle, and burning throughout the fens. Thetford also they burned, and Cambridge; and afterwards went back southward into the Thames; and the horsemen rode towards the ships. Then went they west-ward into Oxfordshire, and thence to Buckinghamshire, and so along the Ouse till they came to Bedford, and so forth to Temsford, always burning as they went. Then returned they to their ships with their spoil, which they apportioned to the ships. When the king's army should have gone out to meet them as they went up, then went they home; and when they were in the east, then was the army detained in the west; and when they were in the south, then was the army in the north. Then all the privy council were summoned before the king (44), to consult how they might defend this country. But, whatever was advised, it stood not a month; and at length there was not a chief that would collect an army, but each fled as he could: no shire, moreover, would stand by another. Before the feast-day of St. Andrew came the enemy to Northampton, and soon burned the town, and took as much spoil thereabout as they would; and then returned over the Thames into Wessex, and so by Cannings-marsh, burning all the way. When they had gone as far as they would, then came they by midwinter to their ships.

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Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 1050-1065. 1065. Soon after this all the thanes in Yorkshire and in Northumberland gathered themselves together at York, and outlawed their Earl Tosty (39); slaying all the men of his clan that they could reach, both Danish and English; and took all his weapons in York, with gold and silver, and all his money that they could anywhere there find. They then sent after Morkar, son of Earl Elgar, and chose him for their earl. He went south with all the shire, and with Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire and Lincolnshire, till he came to Northampton; where his brother Edwin came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom. Many Britons also came with him. Harold (43) also there met them; on whom they imposed an errand to King Edward (62), sending also messengers with him, and requesting that they might have Morcar for their earl. This the king granted; and sent back Harold (43) to them, to Northampton, on the eve of St. Simon and St. Jude; and announced to them the same, and confirmed it by hand, and renewed there the laws of Knute. But the Northern men did much harm about Northampton, whilst he went on their errand: either that they slew men, and burned houses and corn; or took all the cattle that they could come at; which amounted to many thousands. Many hundred men also they took, and led northward with them; so that not only that shire, but others near it were the worse for many winters.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Henry I Beauclerc 1106. 1106. In this year was the King Henry (38) on the Nativity at Westminster, and there held his court; and at that season Robert de Belesme (50) went unreconciled from the king (38) out of his land into Normandy. Hereafter before Lent was the king (38) at Northampton; and the Earl Robert (55) his brother came thither from Normandy to him; and because the king (38) would not give him back that which he had taken from him in Normandy, they parted in hostility; and the earl soon went over sea back again.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Henry I Beauclerc 1122. 1122. In this year was the King Henry (54) at Christmas in Norwich, and at Easter in Northampton.

Trial of Thomas a Becket

In Oct 1164 Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury 1119-1170 (44) was put on trial in Northampton by Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (31) on a charge of contempt. After a week of discussion Becket fled to Flanders with John of Salisbury (46).

On 24 Jun 1268 Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (29) took the cross at Northampton, along with his brother Edmund "Crouchback" Plantagenet 1st Earl of Leicester 1st Earl Lancaster 1245-1296 (23) and cousin Henry "Almain" Cornwall 1235-1271 (32), from Papal Legate Ottobuono Fieschi (58).

Close Rolls Edward II 1307-1313. 22 Jan 1308 King Edward II of England (23). Dover. Robert Terry, of Whytefield, imprisoned at Northampton for the death of Galianus de Bek, has letters to the Sheriff of Nottingham to bail him until the first assize. Witness: Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall 1284-1312 (24).

Treaty of Edinburgh Northampton

The Chronicles of Froissart Book 1 Chapter 20 How king Robert of Scotland died. Mar 1328. Treaty of Edinburgh Northampton. AND when that the Scots were departed by night from the mountain, whereas the king of England (15) had besieged them, as ye have heard herebefore, they went twentytwo mile through that savage country without resting, and passed the river of Tyne right near to Carlisle1; and the next day they went into their own land, and so departed every man to his own mansion. And within a space after there was a peace purchased between the kings of England and Scotland; and as the English chronicle saith,' it was done by the special counsel of the old queen (33) and sir Roger Mortimer (40); for by their means there was a parliament holden at Northampton, at the which the king (15) being within age granted to the Scots to release all the fealties and homages that they ought to have done to the crown of England, by his charter ensealed, and also there was delivered to the Scots an indenture, the which was called the Ragman, wherein was contained all the homages and fealties that the king of Scots and all the prelates, earls and barons of Scotland ought to have done to the crown of England, sealed with all their seals, with all other rights that sundry barons and knights ought to have had in the realm of Scotland.

1. This may be a mistake since the River Tyne doesn't flows near Carlisle. The River Eden flows through Carlisle.

On 17 Mar 1328 Robert the Bruce (53) signed the Treaty of Edinburgh Northampton bringing to an end the First Scottish War of Independence. The English Parliament signed at Northampton on 03 May 1328. The terms of the Treaty included:

Scotland to pay England £100,000 sterling,

The Kingdom of Scotland as fully independent,

Robert the Bruce (53), and his heirs and successors, as the rightful rulers of Scotland, and.

The border between Scotland and England as that recognised under the reign of Alexander III (1249–1286).

The Treaty lasted four years only being regarded by the English nobility as humiliating; the work of Edward's (15) mother Isabella of France Queen Consort England 1295-1358 (33) and Roger Mortimer 1st Earl Dunbar aka March 1287-1330 (40) rather than King Edward (15). Two years after King Edward (15) commenced his personal reign he commenced the Second War of Scottish Independence in Aug 1332.

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1460 Battle of Northampton

On 10 Jul 1460 the Yorkist army led by the future King Edward IV (18) and including Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (31), George Neville Archbishop of York 1432-1476 (28), William Neville 1st Earl Kent 1405-1463 (55), Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent 1416-1490 (43), Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham 1415-1464 (45) and John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope of Bolton 1437-1498 (22) defeated the Lancastrian army at the 1460 Battle of Northampton.

King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (38) was captured.

Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham 1402-1460 (57) was killed. His grandson Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (5) succeeded 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1C 1444, 7th Earl Stafford 1C 1351, 8th Baron Stafford 1C 1299.

John Talbot 2nd Earl Shrewsbury 2nd Earl Waterford 1417-1460 (42) was killed. His son John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury 3rd Earl Waterford 1448-1473 (11) succeeded 3rd Earl Shrewsbury 2C 1442, 3rd Earl Waterford, 8th Baron Furnivall 1C 1295, 12th Baron Strange Blackmere 1C 1309, 9th Baron Talbot 1C 1331.

Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460 (37) was killed.

John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont 1409-1460 (50) was killed. His son William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (22) succeeded 2nd Viscount Beaumont, 7th Baron Beaumont.

William Lucy Sheriff 1404-1460 (56) was killed apparently by a member of the Stafford family who wanted his wife Margaret Fitzlewis 1439-1466 (21).

Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 (40) fought.

William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (22) and William Norreys 1441-1507 (19) were knighted.

Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland -1460 was executed following the battle.

The battle was fought south of the Northampton River Nene in the grounds of Delapré Abbey.

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Arrest of the Woodville Affinity

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. 01 May 1483. And as soon as they came in his presence, they alighted down with all their company about them. To whom the Duke of Buckingham said, "Go before, gentlemen and yeomen, keep your rooms." And thus in a goodly array, they came to the King (12) and, on their knees in very humble fashion, assuaged his Grace, who received them in very joyous and amiable manner, nothing earthly knowing nor mistrusting as yet. But even by and by, in his presence, they picked a quarrel with the Lord Richard Grey (26), the King's other brother by his mother, saying that he, with the Lord Marquis (28) his brother and the Lord Rivers (43) his uncle, had planned to rule the King and the realm, and to set variance among the lords, and to subdue and destroy the noble blood of the realm. Toward the accomplishing whereof, they said that the Lord Marquis (28) had entered into the Tower of London, and thence taken out the King's treasure, and sent men to the sea. All of which things, these dukes knew well, were done for good purposes and necessary ones by the whole council at London, except that they must say something.

Unto which words, the King (12) answered, "What my brother marquis (28) has done I cannot say. But in good faith I dare well answer for mine uncle Rivers (43) and my brother (26) here, that they be innocent of any such matters.".

"Yea, my Liege," said the Duke of Buckingham, "they have kept their dealing in these matters far from the knowledge of your good Grace.".

And forthwith they arrested the Lord Richard (26) and Sir Thomas Vaughan (73), knight, in the King's (12) presence, and brought the King (12) and all back unto Northampton, where they took again further counsel. And there they sent away from the King (12) whomever it pleased them, and set new servants about him, such as liked them better than him. At which dealing he wept and was nothing content, but it remedied not. And at dinner the Duke of Gloucester (30) sent a dish from his own table to the Lord Rivers (43), praying him to be of good cheer, all should be well enough. And he thanked the Duke (30), and prayed the messenger to bear it to his nephew, the Lord Richard (26), with the same message for his comfort, who he thought had more need of comfort, as one to whom such adversity was foreign. But for himself, he had been all his days used to a life therewith, and therefore could bear it the better. But for all this comfortable courtesy of the Duke of Gloucester (30), he sent the Lord Rivers (43) and the Lord Richard (26) with Sir Thomas Vaughan (73) into the north country to different places to prison and, afterwards, all to Pomfrait, where they were, in conclusion, beheaded.

Around 1675 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 wearing his Garter Collar. 1876. John Everett Millais Painter Baronet 1829-1896.

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In Oct 1509 Richard Empson 1450-1510 (59) convicted at Northampton.

On 18 Jul 1553 Thomas Tresham 1500-1559 (53) proclaimed as queen Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (37) and accompanied her to London at Northampton.

Around 1554 Antonis Mor Painter 1517-1577. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558. Around 1556 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558.

In Oct 1553 Judge Francis Morgan 1511-1558 (42) was elected MP Northampton.

On 15 Oct 1553 Thomas Saunders -1528 preached at Northampton warning the congregation that 'the errors of the popish religion' would be restored to the church by Queen Mary (37).

In Apr 1554 Judge Francis Morgan 1511-1558 (43) was elected MP Northampton.

In 1634 Thomas Cartwright Bishop of Chester 1634-1689 was born in Northampton.

Before 1680 Gilbert Soest Painter 1605-1681. Portrait of Thomas Cartwright Bishop of Chester 1634-1689.

In 1640 Samuel Parker Bishop of Oxford 1640-1688 was born in Northampton.

John Evelyn's Diary 11 July 1675. 11 Jul 1675. We heard the speeches, and saw the ceremony of creating doctors in Divinity, Law and Physic. I had, early in the morning, heard Dr. Morison, Botanic Professor, read on divers plants in the Physic Garden; and saw that rare collection of natural curiosities of Dr. Plot's, of Magdalen Hall, author of "The Natural History of Oxfordshire", all of them collected in that shire, and indeed extraordinary, that in one county there should be found such variety of plants, shells, stones, minerals, marcasites, fowls, insects, models of works, crystals, agates, and marbles. He was now intending to visit Staffordshire, and, as he had of Oxfordshire, to give us the natural, topical, political, and mechanical history. Pity it is that more of this industrious man's genius were not employed so to describe every county of England; it would be one of the most useful and illustrious works that was ever produced in any age or nation.

I visited also the Bodleian Library and my old friend, the learned Obadiah Walker (59), head of University College, which he had now almost rebuilt, or repaired. We then proceeded to Northampton, where we arrived the next day.

In this journey, went part of the way Mr. James Graham (26) (since Privy Purse to the Duke (41)), a young gentleman exceedingly in love with Mrs. Dorothy Howard (24), one of the maids of honor in our company. I could not but pity them both, the mother not much favoring it. This lady was not only a great beauty, but a most virtuous and excellent creature, and worthy to have been wife to the best of men. My advice was required, and I spoke to the advantage of the young gentleman, more out of pity than that she deserved no better match; for, though he was a gentleman of good family, yet there was great inequality.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King James II when Duke of York. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II wearing his Garter Robes. Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of King James II.

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John Evelyn's Diary 14 July 1675. 14 Jul 1675. I went to see my Lord Sunderland's (33) Seat at Althorpe, four miles from the ragged town of Northampton (since burned, and well rebuilt). It is placed in a pretty open bottom, very finely watered and flanked with stately woods and groves in a park, with a canal, but the water is not running, which is a defect. The house, a kind of modern building, of freestone, within most nobly furnished; the apartments very commodious, a gallery and noble hall; but the kitchen being in the body of the house, and chapel too small, were defects. There is an old yet honorable gatehouse standing awry, and out-housing mean, but designed to be taken away. It was moated round, after the old manner, but it is now dry, and turfed with a beautiful carpet. Above all, are admirable and magnificent the several ample gardens furnished with the choicest fruit, and exquisitely kept. Great plenty of oranges, and other curiosities. The park full of fowl, especially herons, and from it a prospect to Holmby House, which being demolished in the late civil wars, shows like a Roman ruin shaded by the trees about it, a stately, solemn, and pleasing view.

Around 1680 Francis Brudenell 1680-1736 was born to Francis Brudenell 1654-1698 (26) at Northampton and Frances Savile 1658-1695 (22).

Around 1678 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Frances Savile 1658-1695.

After 1683 Mary Brudenell Viscountess Molyneux 1683-1766 was born to Francis Brudenell 1654-1698 at Northampton and Frances Savile 1658-1695.

In Aug 1727 George Compton 6th Earl of Northampton 1692-1758 (35) was elected MP Northampton.

In 1761 Spencer Compton 8th Earl of Northampton 1738-1796 (22) was elected MP Northampton.

In 1780 George Rodney 2nd Baron Rodney 1753-1802 (26) was elected MP Northampton.

In 1782 Charles Bingham 1st Earl Lucan 1735-1799 (46) was elected MP Northampton.

In 1831 Robert Smith aka (30) was elected MP Northampton which seat he held until 1859.

Chronicle of Gregory 1462. Alle so the kynge sone aftyr dysposyd hym, and was purposyd to ryde into Yorke schyre and to the contray a boute, to see and understonde the dysposyscyon of the pepylle of the Northe. And toke with hym the Duke of Somersett, and ij C of hys men welle horsyd and welle i-harnaysyd. Ande the sayde Duke, Harry of Somersett, ande his men were made the Kyngys garde, for the Kyng hadde that duke in moche favyr and trustyd hym welle. But [t]e garde of hym was as men shulde put a lombe a monge wolvysse of malyscyus bestys; but Alle myghty God was the scheparde. And whenn the kynge departyd from London he toke hys way to Northehampton, and thedyr the kynge com a Syn Jamys day the Apostylle, ande that fals duke with hym. And the comyns of the towne of Northehampton and of the schyre a-boute sawe that the fals duke and traytoure was so nyghe the Kyngys presens and was made hys garde. The comyns a rosse uppon that fals traytur thee Duke of Somersett, and wolde have slayne hym with yn the kyngys palys. And thenn the kynge with fayre speche and grete defeculte savyde hys lyffe for that tyme, and that was pytte, for the savynge of hys lyffe at that tyme causyd mony mannys dethys son aftyr, as ye shalle heyre. And then the Duke sende that fals Duke of Somersett in to a castelle of hys owne fulle secretly, for save garde of hys the dukys lyffe, and the dukys men unto Newe Castelle, to kepe the towne, and gave hem goode wages fulle treuly payde. And the Kyng fulle lovyngly gave the comyns of Northehampton a tonne of wyne that they shulde drynke and make mery. And [t]e wyne was drunkyn merely in the market place, for they hadde many fayre pecys of sylvyr. I darsay ther ys no taverne that hathe not so moche of stuffe as they occupyde in hys hyr tavernys. For sum fette wyne in basynnys, and sum in caudryns, and sum in bollys, and sum in pannys and sum in dyschys. Loo, the grete tresoure that they scheuyd that tyme.

The River Nene rises near Badby from where it flows past Newnham, Weedon, Nether Heyford, Kinslingbury, Hunsbury Meadows, Northampton, Billing, Great Doddinton, Rushden, Thrapston, around Oundle, past St Mary and All Saints Fotheringhay and the remains of Fotheringay Castle, Wansford, through the centre of Peterborough after which it is canalised to Rings End. After Rings End it continues through Wisbech, under Sutton Bridge after which it reaches The Wash at Guys Head.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. Now when the King on his way to London had gone from Northampton, then these Dukes of Gloucester and Buckingham came thither. But the Lord Rivers, the King's uncle, remained behind, intending on the morrow to follow the King, and be with him at Stony Stratford, eleven miles thence, early before he departed. So was there made that night much friendly cheer between these dukes and the Lord Rivers a great while. But immediately after that, they openly and with great courtesy departed; and while the Lord Rivers lodged, the dukes secretly, with a few of their most private friends, set themselves down in council, wherein they spent a great part of the night. And at their rising in the dawning of the day, they sent about secretly to their servants, who were in their inns and lodgings about, giving the commandment to make themselves shortly ready, for their lords were ready to ride. Upon which messages, many of their folk were attendant when many of the Lord Rivers' servants were unready. Now had these dukes taken also into their custody the keys of the inn so that none should pass forth without their approval. And besides this, on the highway toward Stony Stratford, where the King lay, they had ordered certain of their folk that they should send back again and compel to return any man who were gotten out of Northampton toward Stony Stratford, till they should give permission, because the dukes themselves intended, for the show of their diligence, to be the first that should that day attend upon the King's Highness out of that town; thus did they deceive the folk at hand.

But when the Lord Rivers understood the gates closed and the ways on every side beset, neither his servants nor himself allowed to go out, perceiving well so great a thing without his knowledge was not begun for nothing, comparing this manner present with this last night's cheer, in so few hours so great a change he marvelously disliked. However, since he could not get away—and keep himself close, he would not do so lest he should seem to hide himself for some secret fear of his own fault, whereof he saw no such fault in himself—he determined, upon the surety of his own conscience, to go boldly to them and inquire what this matter might mean. Whom, as soon as they saw, they began to quarrel with him and say that he intended to set distance between the King and them and to bring them to confusion, but this plan would not lie in his power. And when he began (as he was a very well-spoken man) in goodly manner to excuse himself, they tarried not the end of his answer, but shortly took him and put him under guard, and that done, forthwith went to horseback and took the way to Stony Stratford, where they found the King with his company ready to leap on horseback and depart forward, to leave that lodging for them because it was too small for both companies.

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Rose and Crown Inn Northampton, Northamptonshire

Roger Whitley's Diary 1690 February. 07 Feb 1690. Friday, set out about 8; called at Woborne (stayd not); that morning Alderman Mainwaring & Houseman overtook us; dined at the Swan in Newport; lay at the Rose & Crowne in Northampton:

Northampton Castle, Northamptonshire

On 06 Apr 1264 the future Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 (24), Philip Marmion 5th Baron Marmion 1233-1291 (30) and Roger Leybourne 1215-1271 (49) fought for the King at Northampton Castle during the Battle of Northampton. Simon de Montfort 6th Earl of Leicester 1208-1265 (56) fought for the rebels with his son Simon "Younger" Montfort 1240-1271 (24) who was captured.

St Andrew's Priory Northampton, Northamptonshire

Around 1095 Simon Senlis 1st Earl of Northampton -1111 founded St Andrew's Priory Northampton.