History of Old St Paul's Cathedral

1012-Martyrdom of Archibishop Ælfheah

1399 Death of John of Gaunt

1400 Death of Richard II

1501 Marriage of Arthur Tudor and Catherine of Aragon

1513 Battle of Flodden

1547 Battle of Pinkie Cleugh

1555 Consecrations

1666 Great Fire of London

1665 Great Plague of London

Old St Paul's Cathedral is in Castle Baynard.

1012-Martyrdom of Archibishop Ælfheah

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 1000-1049. 1012. This year came Alderman Edric, and all the oldest counsellors of England, clerk and laity, to London before Easter, which was then on the ides of April; and there they abode, over Easter, until all the tribute was paid, which was 48,000 pounds. Then on the Saturday was the army much stirred against the bishop; because he would not promise them any fee, and forbade that any man should give anything for him. They were also much drunken; for there was wine brought them from the south. Then took they the bishop (59), and led him to their hustings, on the eve of the Sunday after Easter, which was the thirteenth before the calends of May; and there they then shamefully killed him. They overwhelmed him with bones and horns of oxen; and one of them smote him with an axe-iron on the head; so that he sunk downwards with the blow; and his holy blood fell on the earth, whilst his sacred soul was sent to the realm of God. The corpse in the morning was carried to London; and the bishops, Ednoth and Elfhun, and the citizens, received him with all honour, and buried him in St. Paul's minster; where God now showeth this holy martyr's miracles. When the tribute was paid, and the peace-oaths were sworn, then dispersed the army as widely as it was before collected. Then submitted to the king five and forty of the ships of the enemy; and promised him, that they would defend this land, and he should feed and clothe them.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 1000-1049. 1023. This year returned King Knute (28) to England; and Thurkyll and he were reconciled. He committed Denmark and his son to the care of Thurkyll, whilst he took Thurkyll's son with him to England. This year died Archbishop Wulfstan; and Elfric succeeded him; and Archbishop Egelnoth blessed him in Canterbury. This year King Knute (28) in London, in St. Paul's minster, gave full leave (60) to Archbishop Ethelnoth, Bishop Britwine, and all God's servants that were with them, that they might take up from the grave the archbishop, Saint Elphege (70). And they did so, on the sixth day before the ides of June; and the illustrious king, and the archbishop, and the diocesan bishops, and the earls, and very many others, both clergy and laity, carried by ship his holy corpse over the Thames to Southwark. And there they committed the holy martyr to the archbishop and his companions; and they with worthy pomp and sprightly joy carried him to Rochester. There on the third day came the Lady Emma (38) with her royal son Hardacnute (5); and they all with much majesty, and bliss, and songs of praise, carried the holy archbishop (70) into Canterbury Cathedral, and so brought him gloriously into the church, on the third day before the ides of June. Afterwards, on the eighth day, the seventeenth before the calends of July, Archbishop Ethelnoth, and Bishop Elfsy, and Bishop Britwine, and all they that were with them, lodged the holy corpse of Saint Elphege (70) on the north side of the altar of Christ; to the praise of God, and to the glory of the holy archbishop, and to the everlasting salvation of all those who there his holy body daily seek with earnest heart and all humility. May God Almighty have mercy on all Christian men through the holy intercession of Elphege (70)!
60. Matthew of Westminster says the king took up the body with his own hands.

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On 02 Oct 1241 Roger Niger Bishop -1241 was buried in Old St Paul's Cathedral. There was an eclipse of the sun the same day.

On 10 Oct 1367 William of Wykeham Chancellor Bishop Winchester 1320-1404 (47) was consecrated Bishop of Winchester at Old St Paul's Cathedral.

On 12 Sep 1368 Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (23) died at Tutbury Castle. Her last words were said to be "Souveyne vous de moi" ("Don't forget me") the 'S' of which was possibly subsequently represented on the Lancastrian Esses Collar. She was buried at Old St Paul's Cathedral.

In 1380 Giles "Payne" Roet 1310-1380 (70) died. He was buried at Old St Paul's Cathedral.

Death of John of Gaunt

On 03 Feb 1399 John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 (58) died at Leicester Castle. Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403 (48) was by his side. He was buried at Old St Paul's Cathedral.
He was buried in the Choir of Old St Paul's Cathedral with his first wife Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 1345-1368 (53).
Henry IV King England 1367-1413 (31) succeeded 2nd Duke Lancaster 2C 1362, 7th Earl of Leicester 2C 1265.
Richard II King England 1367-1400 (32) witheld the future Henry IV's (31) inheritance from him giving Henry (31) reason to return to England to claim his lands and titles.

Death of Richard II

On 14 Feb 1400 (exact date not known) King Richard II (33) died at Pontefract Castle, possibly murdered, possibly starved to death, as a consequence of the Epiphany Rising. His first cousin Philippa Plantagenet Countess March 5th Countess Ulster 1355-1382 (44) de jure Heir to the Throne of England.
On 17 Feb 1400 Richard's (33) corpse was displayed at Old St Paul's Cathedral.
On 06 Mar 1400 Richard's (33) remains were buried at King's Langley Priory.

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 29 Oct 1415. And in that same yere, onne the morne aftyr Syn Symonnys day and Jude, that the mayre shulde ryde to Westemyster for to take hys othe, come tydyngys to London of the batayle a-bove sayde by the Byschoppe of Worseter20, that tyme beyng Chaunceler, for he come to London erly in the mornynge, and warnyd the mayre. And thenne thorowe London they lette rynge the bellys in every chyrche and song Te Deum; and at Powlys, at ix of the clocke, the tydyngys were oppynly proclaymyd to alle the comeners of [th]e cytte and to alle othyr strangerys. And thenne the Quene (45)21, and alle hyr byschoppys and alle the lordys [th]at were in London that tyme, wentte to Westemyster on hyr fete a prosessyon to Synt Edwarde ys schryne, whythe alle the prestys, and clerkys, and fryers, and alle othyr relygyous men, devoutely syngynge ande saynge the letanye. And whenne they hadde offerde, the mayre com home rydynge merely whythe alle hys aldermen and comeners as they were i-wounte for to doo.
Note 20. Should be Winchester. Henry Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester (40), afterwards Cardinal. The title is given correctly in Vit.
Note 21. Joan of Navarre (45), widow of Henry IV.

In Jul 1484 William Collingbourne, a Tudor agent, tacked up a lampooning poem to Old St Paul's Cathedral, which mentions Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell 1456-1488 (28), whose family's heraldic symbol was a silver wolf, among the three aides to King Richard III (31), whose emblem was a white boar:
The Catte, the Ratte and Lovell our dogge.
Rulyth all Englande under a hogge.

Marriage of Arthur Tudor and Catherine of Aragon

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VII. 1501. This yeare, the 14th day of November, Prince Arthure (14) was married at Paules Churche, in London, to the Kinge of Spaynes (48) third daughter, named Katheryne (15). And in Easter weeke followinge the saide Prince Arthure (14) deceased at Ludlowe, in Wales, and was buried at Worcester. See Marriage of Arthur Tudor and Catherine of Aragon, Death of Prince Arthur.

Around 1500. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Arthur Tudor Prince of Wales 1486-1502.Around 1497. Juan de Flandes Painter 1440-1519. Portrait of Catherine of Aragon or Joanna "The Mad" Trastámara Queen Castile 1479-1555.Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Catherine of Aragon.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VII. 1503. This yeare, in Februarie, died Queene Elizabeth (36) at the Towre of London, lyeinge in childebedd of a daughter named Katherine (the 8th day after her birth), and was buried at Westminster; and on Passion Sundaye a peace made betwene the Emperoure (43) and the Kinge (45) duringe their lyves, solemnized upon a great oathe at the highe aulter in Paules queere.

Around 1675 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500.Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525 is believed to have painted the portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Battle of Flodden

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VIII 1st Year. 1513. This yeare, on the Assension Even, Edmonde de la Pole (42) was beheaded on Tower Hill.
This yeare allso, on the day of th' Exaltation of the Crosse, Te Deum was sungen in Paules Churche for the victorie of the Scottishe feild, where King Jamys of Scotland (39) was slayne. The King of England (21) that tjrme lyenge at seege before Turney in France, and wan it and Turwjm also.
A Parlement kept at Westminster, where was graunted to the King (21) of all men's goodes 6d. in the pownde. A peace betwene the King (21) and French King (52) duringe both their lives; and the Ladie Marie (18), sister to the King, married to the French King, at Abireld, in Picardye, in October.

1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.In 1544 Master John Painter. Portrait of Mary Tudor Queen Consort France 1496-1533.

On 14 Feb 1546 Bishop Henry Man -1556 was consecrated Bishop of Sodor and Man at Old St Paul's Cathedral by Bishop Edmund "Bloody" Bonner of London 1500-1569 (46), Bishop Thomas Chetham -1558 and Bishop John Hodgkins -1560.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Edward VI 1st Year 1547-1548. The 29th daie of June there was a solempne obsequie kept in Poules [for] the French Kinge Frances (52) latelie departed, where was a sumptuous herse made, and the quire and the bodie of the church hanged with blacke and sett with schuchions of the armes of France, and tow hundreth torch bearers having new blacke gownes and hoodes with badges of the armes of France on their sholders, the Archbishop of Canterbery (57) begining the derige in his pontificalibus, the Archbishop of Yorke (65) and other 8 bishopps and suffragans being also in their pontificalibus, six erles and lordes of the Kinges Majestie being the cheife mourners, the Emperours Embassadour, and the French Kinges Embassadoure, and the Secretarie of Venice in their blacke mourning gownes being also there present at the same, the major and aldermen with tow hundred citizens in their best lyveries with their hoodes on their sholders present at the same also; and on the morrow also at the requiem masse, which the Archbishopp of Canterberie (57) songe in his pontificalibus, with the other bishopps in their pontificalibus also; and there preached at the said masse the Bishop of Rochester (70) [Note. Possibly Nicholas Ridley Bishop Martyr 1500-1555 (47) who became Bishop of Rochester in 1547], who greatlie commended in his sermon the said French King departed, for setting fourth of the Bible and New Testament in the French tonge to be reade of all his subjectes; also all the parish churches in London kept a solempne obett with knill, the bells ringing, and a herse with tow great tapers, in everie parish church.

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1533 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556.In 1544 Gerlach Flicke Painter 1520-1558. Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556.

Battle of Pinkie Cleugh

Wriothesley's Chronicle Edward VI 1st Year 1547-1548. The 20th daie, being Sainct Matthewes Eaven, was a solemne sermon made in Poules by the Bishopp of Lincolne, with procession, Ponies. kneeling with their copes in the quire, and after that Te Deum song with the organns playinge to give laude to God for the said victorie, my lord major, with his brethren the aldermen, being present, with all the comens in their lyveries, and that night great fiars were made in everie streete with banqueting for joy of the said victorie.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Edward VI 1st Year 1547-1548. The sixth daie of November the Convocation of the bishopps beganne at Powles, afore whome preached the Bishopp of Lyncolne, who made a goodlie sermon in Lattin; and for Prolocutor of the Lower House for the clergie was chosen Doctor John Taylor, Deane of Lyncolne (44), and parson of Sainct Peeters in Cornehill, in London.

On 20 Feb 1552 Anne Parr Countess Pembroke 1515-1552 (36) died at Baynard's Castle. She was buried at Old St Paul's Cathedral.

Around 1532 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of [possibly] Anne Parr Countess Pembroke 1515-1552.

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1552. 28 Feb 1552. The xxviij day of Feybruarii was bered the nobull [lady the] contes of Penbroke (36), and syster to the late qwyne (39) and wyffe [to the] nobull Kyng Henry the viij. late kyng, and the good lade [the] contes of Penbroke the wyche she ded at Benard Castle, and so cared unto Powlls. Ther was a C. [Note. 100] powre men and women had mantylle fryse gownes, then cam the haroldes, [then] the corse, and a-bowt her viij baners rolls of armes, and then cam the mornars boyth lordes and knyghts and gentyll men, and then cam the lades mornars and gentyll women mornars ij C. [then the] gentyll men and gentyll women, and after cam in cotts ij C. servandes and odur servandes, and she was bered by the tombe of [the duke] of Lankaster [Note. At Old St Paul's Cathedral], and after her banars wher sett up over her [and her] armes sett on dyvers pelers,—the vj King Edward vjth.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 2nd Year 18 Oct 1554. 18 Oct 1554. The 18 of Octobre, beinge the day of St. Luke, the Kinge (27) rode from his pallace of Whitehall to Paules Church in the forenoone, and there heard masse, which was sunge by the Spaniards of his owne quier.

Around 1573 Sofonisba Anguissola Painter 1532-1625. Portrait of Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain 1527-1598.Around 1560 Antonis Mor Painter 1517-1577. Portrait of Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain 1527-1598.Around 1550. Titian Painter 1488-1576. Portrait of Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain 1527-1598.Around 1554. Titian Painter 1488-1576. Portrait of Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain 1527-1598.Around 1594. Juan Pantoja de La Cruz Painter 1553–1608. Portrait of Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain 1527-1598.

1555 Consecrations

On 04 Sep 1555 Bishop Edmund "Bloody" Bonner of London 1500-1569 (55) consecrated an Archbishop and two Bishops at Old St Paul's Cathedral:
Archbishop Hugh Curwen 1500-1568 (55) was consecrated Archbishop of Dublin.
Bishop James Turbeville -1570 was consecrated Bishop of Exeter.
Bishop William Glynne 1504-1558 (51) was consecrated Bishop of Bangor.

Diary of Henry Machyn September 1555. 04 Sep 1555. [The same day were certain bishops, viz. doctor Corwyn (55) archbishop of] Duvylyne [Dublin], [doctor William] Glyne (51) bysshoppe of Bangor, (and) doctur (James Turberville) bysshope of Exsseter, alle consecratyd at Powlles.

In 1559 Archdeacon John Mullins -1591 was appointed Archdeacon of London and Canon at Old St Paul's Cathedral.

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1559. After 07 Apr 1559. The (blank) day cam from Franse my lord chamburlayn Haward (38) and my lord bysshope of Elly (53) and master doctur Wotton, and (unfinished) .... ye Tempull, and ix .... dener, and ther dynyd the consell and dyvers notabyll .... and juges, and my lord mayre (50) and the althermen, and the [officers of the] Chansseres [Chancery] and the Flett, and the Kyngesbynshe, and the Marshalsea; [and they] gayff gownes of ij collers, morreys and mustars, and ... ij collers ... hondered; and at v of cloke at after-non [the new] serganttes whent unto sant Thomas of Acurs in a ... gowne and skarlette hodes a-bowt ther nekes, and whyt [hoods on] ther hedes, and no capes [caps]; and after they whent unto Powles with typstayffes and offesers of the Kyngbynche, and odur plasses, and [they were] browth be ij old serganttes, one after a-nodur in skarlett ... of north syd, and ther thay stod tyll thay had brou[th them] unto ix sondre pellers [pillars] of the north syd, and after the ... cam unto the furst, and after to the reseduu; and thay whe[nt back] unto the Tempull on a-lone [one-by-one], and a-for whent the ... and the rulers and the Chansere and of the Kyngbynche [ij and ij to]gether, and after cam a hondered in parte cottes of ...

Diary of Henry Machyn September 1559. 05 Sep 1559. [The v day of September was a frame set up for the French king (40) deceased, in] Powlles qwyre, of ix [9] storys, and [with a] valens of sarsenetes and blake fyne fryng, [and pensils, and] rond a-bowt the hers a pesse of welvett; [all the] viij pellers and all the quer [choir] hangyd with blake and [arms; and] the herse garnyshed with xxx [30] dosen penselles and xv dosen [of arms].

Diary of Henry Machyn January 1560. 25 Jan 1560. The xxv day of January wher mad at Powlles by the nuw byshope of London (41) lx prestes, menysters, and decons, and more.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1561. 01 May 1561. The furst day of May was cared to Polles to be bered [one] Bathellmuw Comopane, a marchand stranger dwelling [by saint] Cristoffer at the stokes, and throughe Chepe, and yj men in blake gownes and hodes, and a xxx gownes for pore men and women of mantll frys, a liiij in blake gownes ; and within the gatt of Powlles cherche-yerd mett all the quer [choir] of Powlles, and the clarkes of London whent a-for the corse with ther surples onder ther gownes, tyll they cam in-to the Powlles cherche-yerd, and then they be-gane to syng : and the quer [choir] wher hangyd with blake and armes, a iij dosen of skochyons of armes ; and Veron dyd pryche, the Frenche- man, and after browth ym to the neder end of the stepes under the belles, and bered hym, and after home to dener.
The sam day at after-none dyd master Godderyke('s) sune, the gold-smyth, go hup in-tohys father('s) gylddyng house, toke abowe strynge and hangyd ym-seylff, at the syne of the Unycorne in Chepe-syd.

Diary of Henry Machyn June 1561. 10 Jun 1561. The x day of June was grantyd at Yeld-halle by my lord mare (52) and my masters the althermen and the commen consell iij xv toward the beldyng of Powlles chyrche and the stepulle, with as grett sped as they may gett tymbur rede [ready], and odur thynges, and worke-men.

Diary of Henry Machyn June 1561. 17 Jun 1561. The xvij day of June my lord mare (52) and the althermen and the commen conselle how that and watt men shuld loke and over-se the workemen, and what men shuld take hed too in alle placys for the beldyng of Powlles, and to chose men of knolleg to loke and over-se the worke and the workmen.

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1561. 01 Jul 1561. The furst day of July be-gane workemen and la[bourers] at Powlles for the reparyng of the chyrche and the stepull, and the oversers and the doars of the sam here be ther namys, master Graftun grocer, and master Haresun goldsmyth, and master (blank) grocer.

Diary of Henry Machyn November 1561. 01 Nov 1561. [The j day of November went to saint Paul's the lord mayor (65)] and the althermen at afternon [and all the crafts of] London in ther leverey, and with iiijxx men all carehyng of torchys, and my lord mare [tarried until] nyght, and so whent home with all torches [lighted,] for my lord mare (65) tared the sermon; my lord of London (42) mad the sermon; but yt was latt, [and so] there torchys was lyght to bryng my lord home.

On 17 Oct 1595 Thomas Heneage 1532-1595 (63) died. He was buried at Old St Paul's Cathedral.

On 21 Jan 1600 John Wooley was buried at Old St Paul's Cathedral.

On 08 Jun 1602 Ursula St Barbe 1532-1602 (70) died at her home in Barn Elms. She was buried the following night in Old St Paul's Cathedral.

In 1583 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Unkown Woman formerly known as Ursula St Barbe 1532-1602.

Great Fire of London

In 1612 William Dethick Officer of Arms 1542-1612 (70) died. He was buried at Old St Paul's Cathedral. His grave was lost in the Great Fire of London.

On 25 Sep 1621 Mary Sidney Countess Pembroke 1561-1621 (59) died of smallpox at Herbert Townhouse Aldersgate Street. Her funeral was held at Old St Paul's Cathedral. She was buried at Salisbury Cathedral.

Around 1590 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619. Portrait of Mary Sidney Countess Pembroke 1561-1621.

John Evelyn's Diary 10 February 1656. 10 Feb 1656. I heard Dr. Wilkins (41) preach before the Lord Mayor in St. Paul's, showing how obedience was preferable to sacrifice. He was a most obliging person, who had married the Protector's (56) sister, and took great pains to preserve the Universities from the ignorant, sacrilegious commanders and soldiers, who would fain have demolished all places and persons that pretended to learning.

John Evelyn's Diary 25 August 1666. 25 Aug 1666. Waited on Sir William D'Oyly (52), now recovered, as it were, miraculously. In the afternoon, visited the Savoy Hospital, where I stayed to see the miserably dismembered and wounded men dressed, and gave some necessary orders. Then to my Lord Chancellor (57), who had, with the Bishop of London (74) and others in the commission, chosen me one of the three surveyors of the repairs of Paul's, and to consider of a model for the new building, or, if it might be, repairing of the steeple, which was most decayed.

John Evelyn's Diary 27 August 1666. 27 Aug 1666. I went to St. Paul's church, where, with Dr. Wren (80), Mr. Pratt (46), Mr. May (44), Mr. Thomas Chicheley (52), Mr. Slingsby, the Bishop of London (74), the Dean of St. Paul's, and several expert workmen, we went about to survey the general decays of that ancient and venerable church, and to set down in writing the particulars of what was fit to be done, with the charge thereof, giving our opinion from article to article. Finding the main building to recede outward it was the opinion of Chicheley and Mr. Pratt (46) that it had been so built aborigine for an effect in perspective, in regard of the height; but I was, with Dr. Wren (80), quite of another judgment, and so we entered it; we plumbed the uprights in several places. When we came to the steeple, it was deliberated whether it were not well enough to repair it only on its old foundation, with reservation to the four pillars; this Mr. Chicheley (52) and Mr. Pratt (46) were also for, but we totally rejected it, and persisted that it required a new foundation, not only in regard of the necessity, but for that the shape of what stood was very mean, and we had a mind to build it with a noble cupola, a form of church-building not as yet known in England, but of wonderful grace. For this purpose, we offered to bring in a plan and estimate, which after much contest, was at last assented to, and that we should nominate a committee of able workmen to examine the present foundation. This concluded, we drew all up in writing, and so went with my Lord Bishop to the Dean's.

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Great Fire of London

From 02 Sep 1666 to 06 Sep 1666 the Great Fire of London destroyed around 13000 properties in the medieval City of London as well as 87 parish churches and Old St Paul's Cathedral. The fire is estimated to have left 80% of the city's residents homeless.

John Evelyn's Diary 03 September 1666. 03 Sep 1666. I had public prayers at home. The fire continuing, after dinner, I took coach with my wife (31) and son, and went to the Bankside in Southwark, where we beheld that dismal spectacle, the whole city in dreadful flames near the waterside; all the houses from the Bridge, all Thames street, and upward toward Cheapside, down to the Three Cranes, were now consumed; and so returned, exceedingly astonished what would become of the rest.
The fire having continued all this night (if I may call that night which was light as day for ten miles round about, after a dreadful manner), when conspiring with a fierce eastern wind in a very dry season, I went on foot to the same place; and saw the whole south part of the city burning from Cheapside to the Thames, and all along Cornhill (for it likewise kindled back against the wind as well as forward), Tower street, Fenchurch Street, Gracious street, and so along to Baynard's Castle, and was now taking hold of St. Paul's church, to which the scaffolds contributed exceedingly. The conflagration was so universal, and the people so astonished, that, from the beginning, I know not by what despondency, or fate, they hardly stirred to quench it; so that there was nothing heard, or seen, but crying out and lamentation, running about like distracted creatures, without at all attempting to save even their goods; such a strange consternation there was upon them, so as it burned both in breadth and length, the churches, public halls, Exchange, hospitals. Monuments, and ornaments; leaping after a prodigious manner, from house to house, and street to street, at great distances one from the other. For the heat, with a long set of fair and warm weather, had even ignited the air, and prepared the materials to conceive the fire, which devoured, after an incredible manner, houses, furniture, and every thing. Here, we saw the Thames covered with goods floating, all the barges and boats laden with what some had time and courage to save, as, on the other side, the carts, etc., carrying out to the fields, which for many miles were strewn with movables of all sorts, and tents erecting to shelter both people and what goods they could get away. Oh, the miserable and calamitous spectacle! such as haply the world had not seen since the foundation of it, nor can be outdone till the universal conflagration thereof. All the sky was of a fiery aspect, like the top of a burning oven, and the light seen above forty miles round about for many nights. God grant mine eyes may never behold the like, who now saw above 10,000 houses all in one flame! The noise and cracking and thunder of the impetuous flames, the shrieking of women and children, the hurry of people, the fall of towers, houses, and churches, was like a hideous storm; and the air all about so hot and inflamed, that at the last one was not able to approach it, so that they were forced to stand still, and let the flames burn on, which they did, for near two miles in length and one in breadth. The clouds also of smoke were dismal, and reached, upon computation, near fifty miles in length. Thus, I left it this afternoon burning, a resemblance of Sodom, or the last day. It forcibly called to my mind that passage—"non enim hic habemus stabilem civitatem"; the ruins resembling the picture of Troy. London was, but is no more! Thus, I returned.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 September 1666. 04 Sep 1666. Up by break of day to get away the remainder of my things; which I did by a lighter at the Iron gate and my hands so few, that it was the afternoon before we could get them all away. Sir W. Pen (45) and I to Tower-streete, and there met the fire burning three or four doors beyond Mr. Hovell's, whose goods, poor man, his trayes, and dishes, shovells, &c., were flung all along Tower-street in the kennels, and people working therewith from one end to the other; the fire coming on in that narrow streete, on both sides, with infinite fury. Sir W. Batten (65) not knowing how to remove his wine, did dig a pit in the garden, and laid it in there; and I took the opportunity of laying all the papers of my office that I could not otherwise dispose of.
And in the evening Sir W. Pen (45) and I did dig another, and put our wine in it; and I my Parmazan cheese, as well as my wine and some other things. The Duke of Yorke (32) was at the office this day, at Sir W. Pen's (45); but I happened not to be within.
This afternoon, sitting melancholy with Sir W. Pen (45) in our garden, and thinking of the certain burning of this office, without extraordinary means, I did propose for the sending up of all our workmen from Woolwich and Deptford yards (none whereof yet appeared), and to write to Sir W. Coventry (38) to have the Duke of Yorke's (32) permission to pull down houses, rather than lose this office, which would, much hinder, the King's business. So Sir W. Pen (45) he went down this night, in order to the sending them up to-morrow morning; and I wrote to Sir W. Coventry (38) about the business, but received no answer. This night Mrs. Turner (43) (who, poor woman, was removing her goods all this day, good goods into the garden, and knows not how to dispose of them), and her husband supped with my wife and I at night, in the office; upon a shoulder of mutton from the cook's, without any napkin or any thing, in a sad manner, but were merry. Only now and then walking into the garden, and saw how horridly the sky looks, all on a fire in the night, was enough to put us out of our wits; and, indeed, it was extremely dreadful, for it looks just as if it was at us; and the whole heaven on fire. I after supper walked in the darke down to Tower-streete, and there saw it all on fire, at the Trinity House on that side, and the Dolphin Taverne on this side, which was very near us; and the fire with extraordinary vehemence.
Now begins the practice of blowing up of houses in Tower-streete, those next the Tower, which at first did frighten people more than anything, but it stopped the fire where it was done, it bringing down the1 houses to the ground in the same places they stood, and then it was easy to quench what little fire was in it, though it kindled nothing almost. W. Newer this day went to see how his mother did, and comes late home, telling us how he hath been forced to remove her to Islington, her house in Pye-corner being burned; so that the fire is got so far that way, and all the Old Bayly, and was running down to Fleete-streete; and Paul's is burned, and all Cheapside. I wrote to my father this night, but the post-house being burned, the letter could not go2. 5th. I lay down in the office again upon W. Hewer's (24), quilt, being mighty weary, and sore in my feet with going till I was hardly able to stand. About two in the morning my wife calls me up and tells me of new cRyes of fire, it being come to Barkeing Church, which is the bottom of our lane. I up, and finding it so, resolved presently to take her away, and did, and took my gold, which was about £2350, W. Newer, and Jane, down by Proundy's boat to Woolwich; but, Lord! what sad sight it was by moone-light to see, the whole City almost on fire, that you might see it plain at Woolwich, as if you were by it. There, when I come, I find the gates shut, but no guard kept at all, which troubled me, because of discourse now begun, that there is plot in it, and that the French had done it. I got the gates open, and to Mr. Shelden's, where I locked up my gold, and charged, my wife and W. Newer never to leave the room without one of them in it, night, or day. So back again, by the way seeing my goods well in the lighters at Deptford, and watched well by people.
Home; and whereas I expected to have seen our house on fire, it being now about seven o'clock, it was not. But to the fyre, and there find greater hopes than I expected; for my confidence of finding our Office on fire was such, that I durst not ask any body how it was with us, till I come and saw it not burned. But going to the fire, I find by the blowing up of houses, and the great helpe given by the workmen out of the King's yards, sent up by Sir W. Pen (45), there is a good stop given to it, as well as at Marke-lane end as ours; it having only burned the dyall of Barking Church, and part of the porch, and was there quenched. I up to the top of Barking steeple, and there saw the saddest sight of desolation that I ever saw; every where great fires, oyle-cellars, and brimstone, and other things burning. I became afeard to stay there long, and therefore down again as fast as I could, the fire being spread as far as I could see it; and to Sir W. Pen's (45), and there eat a piece of cold meat, having eaten nothing since Sunday, but the remains of Sunday's dinner.
Here I met with Mr. Young and Whistler; and having removed all my things, and received good hopes that the fire at our end; is stopped, they and I walked into the town, and find Fanchurch-streete, Gracious-streete; and Lumbard-streete all in dust. The Exchange a sad sight, nothing standing there, of all the statues or pillars, but Sir Thomas Gresham's picture in the corner.
Walked into Moorefields (our feet ready to burn, walking through the towne among the hot coles), and find that full of people, and poor wretches carrying their good there, and every body keeping his goods together by themselves (and a great blessing it is to them that it is fair weathe for them to keep abroad night and day); drank there, and paid two-pence for a plain penny loaf.
Thence homeward, having passed through Cheapside and Newgate Market, all burned, and seen Anthony_Joyce_1668's House in fire. And took up (which I keep by me) a piece of glasse of Mercers' Chappell in the streete, where much more was, so melted and buckled with the heat of the fire like parchment. I also did see a poor cat taken out of a hole in the chimney, joyning to the wall of the Exchange; with, the hair all burned off the body, and yet alive.
So home at night, and find there good hopes of saving our office; but great endeavours of watching all night, and having men ready; and so we lodged them in the office, and had drink and bread and cheese for them. And I lay down and slept a good night about midnight, though when I rose I heard that there had been a great alarme of French and Dutch being risen, which proved, nothing. But it is a strange thing to see how long this time did look since Sunday, having been always full of variety of actions, and little sleep, that it looked like a week or more, and I had forgot, almost the day of the week.
Note 1. A copy of this letter, preserved among the Pepys MSS. in the author's own handwriting, is subjoined: "SIR, The fire is now very neere us as well on Tower Streete as Fanchurch Street side, and we little hope of our escape but by this remedy, to ye want whereof we doe certainly owe ye loss of ye City namely, ye pulling down of houses, in ye way of ye fire. This way Sir W. Pen (45) and myself have so far concluded upon ye practising, that he is gone to Woolwich and Deptford to supply himself with men and necessarys in order to the doeing thereof, in case at his returne our condition be not bettered and that he meets with his R. Hs. approbation, which I had thus undertaken to learn of you. Pray please to let me have this night (at whatever hour it is) what his R. Hs. directions are in this particular; Sir J. Minnes (67) and Sir W. Batten (65) having left us, we cannot add, though we are well assured of their, as well as all ye neighbourhood's concurrence. "Yr. obedient servnt. "S. P. "Sir W. Coventry (38), "Septr. 4, 1666"..
Note 2. J. Hickes wrote to Williamson on September 3rd from the "Golden Lyon", Red Cross Street Posthouse. Sir Philip (Frowde) and his lady fled from the (letter) office at midnight for: safety; stayed himself till 1 am. till his wife and childrens' patience could stay, no longer, fearing lest they should be quite stopped up; the passage was so tedious they had much ado to get where they are. The Chester and Irish, mails have come-in; sends him his letters, knows not how to dispose of the business (Calendar of State Papers, 1666-67, p. 95).

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John Evelyn's Diary 04 September 1666. 04 Sep 1666. The burning still rages, and it is now gotten as far as the Inner Temple. All Fleet Street, the Old Bailey, Ludgate hill, Warwick lane, Newgate, Paul's chain, Watling street, now flaming, and most of it reduced to ashes; the stones of Paul's flew like grenados, the melting lead running down the streets in a stream, and the very pavements glowing with fiery redness, so as no horse, nor man, was able to tread on them, and the demolition had stopped all the passages, so that no help could be applied. The eastern wind still more impetuously driving the flames forward. Nothing but the Almighty power of God was able to stop them; for vain was the help of man.

Great Plague of London

John Evelyn's Diary 07 September 1666. 07 Sep 1666. I went this morning on foot from Whitehall as far as London Bridge, through the late Fleet Street, Ludgate hill by St. Paul's, Cheapside, Exchange, Bishops-gate, Aldersgate Ward, and out to Moorfields, thence through Cornhill, etc., with extraordinary difficulty, clambering over heaps of yet smoking rubbish, and frequently mistaking where I was; the ground under my feet so hot, that it even burnt the soles of my shoes. In the meantime, his Majesty (36) got to the Tower by water, to demolish the houses about the graff, which, being built entirely about it, had they taken fire and attacked the White Tower, where the magazine of powder lay, would undoubtedly not only have beaten down and destroyed all the bridge, but sunk and torn the vessels in the river, and rendered the demolition beyond all expression for several miles about the country.
At my return, I was infinitely concerned to find that goodly Church, St. Paul's — now a sad ruin, and that beautiful portico (for structure comparable to any in Europe, as not long before repaired by the late King (65)) now rent in pieces, flakes of large stones split asunder, and nothing remaining entire but the inscription in the architrave showing by whom it was built, which had not one letter of it defaced! It was astonishing to see what immense stones the heat had in a manner calcined, so that all the ornaments, columns, friezes, capitals, and projectures of massy Portland stone, flew off, even to the very roof, where a sheet of lead covering a great space (no less than six acres by measure) was totally melted. The ruins of the vaulted roof falling, broke into St. Faith's, which being filled with the magazines of books belonging to the Stationers, and carried thither for safety, they were all consumed, burning for a week following. It is also observable that the lead over the altar at the east end was untouched, and among the divers. Monuments the body of one bishop remained entire. Thus lay in ashes that most venerable church, one of the most ancient pieces of early piety in the Christian world, besides near one hundred more. The lead, ironwork, bells, plate, etc., melted, the exquisitely wrought Mercers' Chapel, the sumptuous Exchange, the august fabric of Christ Church, all the rest of the Companies' Halls, splendid buildings, arches, entries, all in dust; the fountains dried up and ruined, while the very waters remained boiling; the voragos of subterranean cellars, wells, and dungeons, formerly warehouses, still burning in stench and dark clouds of smoke; so that in five or six miles traversing about I did not see one load of timber unconsumed, nor many stones but what were calcined white as snow.
The people, who now walked about the ruins, appeared like men in some dismal desert, or rather, in some great city laid waste by a cruel enemy; to which was added the stench that came from some poor creatures' bodies, beds, and other combustible goods. Sir Thomas Gresham's statue, though fallen from its niche in the Royal Exchange, remained entire, when all those of the Kings since the Conquest were broken to pieces. Also the standard in Cornhill, and Queen Elizabeth's effigies, with some arms on Ludgate, continued with but little detriment, while the vast iron chains of the city streets, hinges, bars, and gates of prisons, were many of them melted and reduced to cinders by the vehement heat. Nor was I yet able to pass through any of the narrow streets, but kept the widest; the ground and air, smoke and fiery vapor, continued so intense, that my hair was almost singed, and my feet insufferably surbated. The by-lanes and narrow streets were quite filled up with rubbish; nor could one have possibly known where he was, but by the ruins of some Church, or Hall, that had some remarkable tower, or pinnacle remaining.
I then went towards Islington and Highgate, where one might have seen 200,000 people of all ranks and degrees dispersed, and lying along by their heaps of what they could save from the fire, deploring their loss; and, though ready to perish for hunger and destitution, yet not asking one penny for relief, which to me appeared a stranger sight than any I had yet beheld. His Majesty (36) and Council indeed took all imaginable care for their relief, by proclamation for the country to come in, and refresh them with provisions.
In the midst of all this calamity and confusion, there was, I know not how, an alarm begun that the French and Dutch, with whom we were now in hostility, were not only landed, but even entering the city. There was, in truth, some days before, great suspicion of those two nations joining; and now that they had been the occasion of firing the town. This report did so terrify, that on a sudden there was such an uproar and tumult that they ran from their goods, and, taking what weapons they could come at, they could not be stopped from falling on some of those nations whom they casually met, without sense or reason. The clamor and peril grew so excessive, that it made the whole Court amazed, and they did with infinite pains and great difficulty, reduce and appease the people, sending troops of soldiers and guards, to cause them to retire into the fields again, where they were watched all this night. I left them pretty quiet, and came home sufficiently weary and broken. Their spirits thus a little calmed, and the affright abated, they now began to repair into the suburbs about the city, where such as had friends, or opportunity, got shelter for the present to which his Majesty's (36) proclamation also invited them.
Still, the plague continuing in our parish, I could not, without danger, adventure to our church.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 07 September 1666. 07 Sep 1666. Up by five o'clock; and, blessed be God! find all well, and by water to Paul's Wharfe. Walked thence, and saw, all the towne burned, and a miserable sight of Paul's church; with all the roofs fallen, and the body of the quire fallen into St. Fayth's; Paul's school also, Ludgate, and Fleet-street, my father's house, and the church, and a good part of the Temple the like.
So to Creed's lodging, near the New Exchange, and there find him laid down upon a bed; the house all unfurnished, there being fears of the fire's coming to them. There borrowed a shirt of him, and washed. To Sir W. Coventry (38), at St. James's, who lay without curtains, having removed all his goods; as the King (36) at White Hall, and every body had done, and was doing. He hopes we shall have no publique distractions upon this fire, which is what every body fears, because of the talke of the French having a hand in it. And it is a proper time for discontents; but all men's minds are full of care to protect themselves, and save their goods: the militia is in armes every where. Our fleetes, he tells me, have been in sight one of another, and most unhappily by fowle weather were parted, to our great losse, as in reason they do conclude; the Dutch being come out only to make a shew, and please their people; but in very bad condition as to stores; victuals, and men. They are at Bullen; and our fleete come to St. Ellen's. We have got nothing, but have lost one ship, but he knows not what.
Thence to the Swan, and there drank: and so home, and find all well. My Lord Bruncker (46), at Sir W. Batten's (65), and tells us the Generall is sent for up, to come to advise with the King (36) about business at this juncture, and to keep all quiet; which is great honour to him, but I am sure is but a piece of dissimulation.
So home, and did give orders for my house to be made clean; and then down to Woolwich, and there find all well: Dined, and Mrs. Markham come to see my wife. So I up again, and calling at Deptford for some things of W. Hewer's (24), he being with me, and then home and spent the evening with Sir R. Ford (52), Mr. Knightly, and Sir W. Pen (45) at Sir W. Batten's (65): This day our Merchants first met at Gresham College, which, by proclamation, is to be their Exchange. Strange to hear what is bid for houses all up and down here; a friend of Sir W. Rider's: having £150 for what he used to let for £40 per annum. Much dispute where the Custome-house shall be thereby the growth of the City again to be foreseen. My Lord Treasurer (59), they say, and others; would have it at the other end of the towne. I home late to Sir W. Pen's (45), who did give me a bed; but without curtains or hangings, all being down. So here I went the first time into a naked bed, only my drawers on; and did sleep pretty well: but still hath sleeping and waking had a fear of fire in my heart, that I took little rest. People do all the world over cry out of the simplicity of my Lord Mayor in generall; and more particularly in this business of the fire, laying it all upon' him. A proclamation1 is come out for markets to be kept at Leadenhall and Mileendgreene, and several other places about the towne; and Tower-hill, and all churches to be set open to receive poor people.
Note 1. On September 5th proclamation was made "ordering that for supply of the distressed people left destitute by the late dreadful and dismal fire.... great proportions of bread be brought daily, not only to the former markets, but to those lately ordained; that all churches, chapels, schools, and public buildings are to be open to receive the goods of those who know not how to dispose of them". On September 6th, proclamation ordered "that as the markets are burned down, markets be held in Bishopsgate Street, Tower Hill, Smithfield, and Leadenhall Street" (Calendar of State Papers, 1666-67, pp. 100, 104).

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On 29 May 1745 Robert Lee 4th Earl Lichfield 1706-1776 (38) and Catherine Lee Countess of Lichfield 1708-1784 (37) were married at Old St Paul's Cathedral. He a grandson of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

On 18 Apr 1850 William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke 1501-1570 was buried at Old St Paul's Cathedral.

Around 1560 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke 1501-1570.

John Evelyn's Diary Editor's Introduction. He was one of the Commissioners for the repair of St. Paul's Cathedral, shortly before it was burned in 1666. In that year he was also in a commission for regulating the farming and making saltpetre; and in 1671 we find him a Commissioner of Plantations on the establishment of the board, to which the Council of Trade was added in 1672.