History of Portsmouth

1101 Treaty of Alton

1338 French Raid on Portsmouth

1628 Muder of the Duke of Buckingham

1642 Siege of Portsmouth

1661 Execution of the Fifth Monarchists

1662 Marriage of Charles II and Catherine of Braganza

1648 Treaty of Newport

1664 Comet

1665 Great Plague of London

1667 Thames Frozen

1667 Raid on the Medway

1690 Glorious Revolution

1690 Battle of the Boyne

1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III

Portsmouth is in Hampshire.

Treaty of Alton

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Henry I Beauclerc 1101. Jun 1101. Then at midsummer went the king (33) out to Pevensey with all his force against his brother (50), and there awaited him. But in the meantime came the Earl Robert (50) up at Portsmouth twelve nights before Lammas; and the king (33) with all his force came against him. But the chief men interceded between them, and settled the brothers on the condition, "that the king (33) should forego all that he held by main strength in Normandy against the earl (50); and that all then in England should have their lands again, who had lost it before through the earl (50), and Earl Eustace also all his patrimony in this land; and that the Earl Robert (50) every year should receive from England three thousand marks of silver; and particularly, that whichever of the brothers should survive the other, he should be heir of all England and also of Normandy, except the deceased left an heir by lawful wedlock." And this twelve men of the highest rank on either side then confirmed with an oath. And the earl (50) afterwards remained in this land till after Michaelmas; and his men did much harm wherever they went, the while that the earl continued in this land.

On 20 Jul 1101 Robert Curthose Normandy III Duke Normandy 1051-1134 (50) landed at Portsmouth.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Henry I Beauclerc 1123. 1123. Then went the king (55) thence to Portsmouth, and lay there all over Pentecost week. Then, as soon as he had a fair wind, he went over into Normandy; and meanwhile committed all England to the guidance and government of the Bishop Roger of Salisbury. Then was the king (55) all this year (150) in Normandy. And much hostility arose betwixt him and his thanes; so that the Earl Waleram of Mellent (19), and Hamalric, and Hugh of Montfort (48), and William of Romare, and many others, went from him, and held their castles against him. And the king (55) strongly opposed them: and this same year he won of Waleram (19) his castle of Pont-Audemer, and of Hugh that of Montfort (48); and ever after, the longer he stayed, the better he sped.
The writer means, "the remainder of this year"; for the feast of Pentecost was already past, before the king left England.

1338 French Raid on Portsmouth

On 24 Mar 1338 a large fleet of small French coastal ships sailed across the Channel from Calais and into the Solent where they landed and burnt the vitally important port-town of Portsmouth.

Diary of Henry Machyn June 1557. 17 Jun 1557. The x[vij] day of Junj was the store-howsse at Port[smouth] bornyd, and a gentyll-mansse howsse next unto hytt, and [both were] borntt, and all maner of thynges for war and vetelle.

John Evelyn's Diary 09 July 1638. 09 Jul 1638. I went home to visit my friends, and, on the 26th, with my brother (21) and sister to Lewes, where we abode till the 31st; and thence to one Mr. Michael's, of Houghton, near Arundel, where we were very well treated; and, on the 2d of August, to Portsmouth, and thence, having surveyed the fortifications (a great rarity in that blessed halcyon time in England), we passed into the Isle of Wight, to the house of my Baroness Richards, in a place called Yaverland; but were turned the following day to Chichester, where, having viewed the city and fair cathedral, we returned home.

Siege of Portsmouth

Between 10 Aug 1642 and 07 Sep 1642 Portsmouth was besieged by Parliamentary forces.

In 1644 William Jephson MP 1609-1658 (36) was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Portsmouth.

John Evelyn's Diary 02 January 1661. 02 Jan 1661. The Queen-Mother (51), with the Princess Henrietta (16), began her journey to Portsmouth, in order to her return into France.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 02 January 1661. 02 Jan 1661. Up early, and being called up to my Lord he did give me many commands in his business. As about taking care to write to my uncle that Mr. Barnewell's papers should be locked up, in case he should die, he being now suspected to be very ill. Also about consulting with Mr. W. Montagu (43) for the settling of the £4000 a-year that the King had promised my Lord. As also about getting of Mr. George Montagu (38) to be chosen at Huntingdon this next Parliament, &c. That done he to White Hall stairs with much company, and I with him; where we took water for Lambeth, and there coach for Portsmouth.
The Queen's things were all in White Hall Court ready to be sent away, and her Majesty ready to be gone an hour after to Hampton Court to-night, and so to be at Ports mouth on Saturday next.
I by water to my office, and there all the morning, and so home to dinner, where I found Pall (my sister) was come; but I do not let her sit down at table with me, which I do at first that she may not expect it hereafter from me.
After dinner I to Westminster by water, and there found my brother Spicer at the Leg with all the rest of the Exchequer men (most of whom I now do not know) at dinner. Here I staid and drank with them, and then to Mr. George Montagu (38) about the business of election, and he did give me a piece in gold; so to my Lord's and got the chest of plate brought to the Exchequer, and my brother Spicer put it into his treasury. So to Will's with them to a pot of ale, and so parted. I took a turn in the Hall, and bought the King and Chancellor's speeches at the dissolving the Parliament last Saturday.
So to my Lord's, and took my money I brought 'thither last night and the silver candlesticks, and by coach left the latter at Alderman Backwell's (43), I having no use for them, and the former home. There stood a man at our door, when I carried it in, and saw me, which made me a little afeard. Up to my chamber and wrote letters to Huntingdon and did other business.
This day I lent Sir W. Batten (60) and Captn. Rider my chine of beef for to serve at dinner tomorrow at Trinity House, the Duke of Albemarle (52) being to be there and all the rest of the Brethren, it being a great day for the reading over of their new Charter, which the King hath newly given them.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 11 January 1661. 11 Jan 1661. Office day. This day comes news, by letters from Portsmouth, that the Princess Henrietta (16) is fallen sick of the meazles on board the London, after the Queen (51) and she was under sail. And so was forced to come back again into Portsmouth harbour; and in their way, by negligence of the pilot, run upon the Horse Sand. The Queen (51) and she continue aboard, and do not intend to come on shore till she sees what will become of the young Princess. This news do make people think something indeed, that three of the Royal Family should fall sick of the same disease, one after another.
This morning likewise, we had order to see guards set in all the King's yards; and so we do appoint who and who should go to them. Sir Wm. Batten (60) to Chatham, Colonel Slingsby (50) and I to Deptford and Woolwich. Portsmouth being a garrison, needs none.
Dined at home, discontented that my wife do not go neater now she has two maids. After dinner comes in Kate_Sterpin (whom we had not seen a great while) and her husband to see us, with whom I staid a while, and then to the office, and left them with my wife. At night walked to Paul's Churchyard, and bespoke some books against next week, and from thence to the Coffeehouse, where I met Captain Morrice, the upholster, who would fain have lent me a horse to-night to have rid with him upon the Cityguards, with the Lord Mayor, there being some new expectations of these rogues; but I refused by reason of my going out of town tomorrow. So home to bed.

Read More ...

Execution of the Fifth Monarchists

Diary of Samuel Pepys 19 January 1661. 19 Jan 1661. To the Comptroller's (50), and with him by coach to White Hall; in our way meeting Venner and Pritchard upon a sledge, who with two more Fifth Monarchy men were hanged to-day, and the two first drawn and quartered.
Where we walked up and down, and at last found Sir G. Carteret (51), whom I had not seen a great while, and did discourse with him about our assisting the Commissioners in paying off the Fleet, which we think to decline. Here the Treasurer did tell me that he did suspect Thos. Hater to be an informer of them in this work, which we do take to be a diminution of us, which do trouble me, and I do intend to find out the truth.
Hence to my Lady, who told me how Mr. Hetley is dead of the smallpox going to Portsmouth with my Lord. My Lady went forth to dinner to her father's, and so I went to the Leg in King Street and had a rabbit for myself and my Will, and after dinner I sent him home and myself went to the Theatre, where I saw "The Lost Lady", which do not please me much. Here I was troubled to be seen by four of our office clerks, which sat in the half-crown box and I in the 1s. 6d.
From thence by link, and bought two mouse traps of Thomas Pepys, the Turner, and so went and drank a cup of ale with him, and so home and wrote by post to Portsmouth to my Lord and so to bed.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 January 1661. 27 Jan 1661. Lord's Day. Before I rose, letters come to me from Portsmouth, telling me that the Princess (16) is now well, and my Lord Sandwich (35) set sail with the Queen (51) and her yesterday from thence for France.
To church, leaving my wife sick.... at home, a poor dull sermon of a stranger.
Home, and at dinner was very angry at my people's eating a fine pudding (made me by Slater, the cook, last Thursday) without my wife's leave.
To church again, a good sermon of Mr. Mills, and after sermon Sir W. Pen (39) and I an hour in the garden talking, and he did answer me to many things, I asked Mr. Coventry's (33) opinion of me, and Sir W. Batten's (60) of my Lord Sandwich (35), which do both please me. Then to Sir W. Batten's (60), where very merry, and here I met the Comptroller (50) and his lady and daughter (the first time I ever saw them) and Mrs. Turner (38), who and her husband supped with us here (I having fetched my wife thither), and after supper we fell to oysters, and then Mr. Turner went and fetched some strong waters, and so being very merry we parted, and home to bed. This day the parson read a proclamation at church, for the keeping of Wednesday next, the 30th of January, a fast for the murther of the late King.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 March 1661. 14 Mar 1661. With Sir W. Batten (60) and Pen (39) to Mr. Coventry's (33), and there had a dispute about my claim to the place of Purveyor of Petty-provisions, and at last to my content did conclude to have my hand to all the bills for these provisions and Mr. Turner to purvey them, because I would not have him to lose the place. Then to my Lord's, and so with Mr. Creed to an alehouse, where he told me a long story of his amours at Portsmouth to one of Mrs. Boat's daughters, which was very pleasant. Dined with my Lord and Lady, and so with Mr. Creed to the Theatre, and there saw "King and no King", well acted. Thence with him to the Cock alehouse at Temple Bar, where he did ask my advice about his amours, and I did give him it, which was to enquire into the condition of his competitor, who is a son of Mr. Gauden's, and that I promised to do for him, and he to make (what) use he can of it to his advantage. Home and to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 26 April 1661. 26 Apr 1661. At the office all the morning, and at noon dined by myself at home on a piece of meat from the cook's, and so at home all the afternoon with my workmen, and at night to bed, having some thoughts to order my business so as to go to Portsmouth the next week with Sir Robert Slingsby (50).

Diary of Samuel Pepys 29 April 1661. 29 Apr 1661. Up and with my father towards my house, and by the way met with Lieut. Lambert (41), and with him to the Dolphin in Tower Street and drank our morning draught, he being much troubled about his being offered a fourth rate ship to be Lieutenant of her now he has been two years Lieutenant in a first rate. So to the office, where it is determined that I should go to-morrow to Portsmouth.
So I went out of the office to Whitehall presently, and there spoke with Sir W. Pen (40) and Sir George Carteret (51) and had their advice as to my going, and so back again home, where I directed Mr. Hater what to do in order to our going to-morrow, and so back again by coach to Whitehall and there eat something in the buttery at my Lord's with John Goods and Ned Osgood.
And so home again, and gave order to my workmen what to do in my absence. At night to Sir W. Batten's (60), and by his and Sir W. Pen's (40) persuasion I sent for my wife from my father's, who came to us to Mrs. Turner's (38), where we were all at a collacion to-night till twelve o'clock, there being a gentlewoman there that did play well and sang well to the Harpsicon, and very merry we were. So home and to bed, where my wife had not lain a great while.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 October 1661. 20 Oct 1661. Lord's Day. At home in bed all the morning to ease my late tumour, but up to dinner and much offended in mind at a proud trick my man Will hath got, to keep his hat on in the house, but I will not speak of it to him to-day; but I fear I shall be troubled with his pride and laziness, though in other things he is good enough.
To church in the afternoon, where a sleepy Presbyter preached, and then to Sir W. Batten (60) who is to go to Portsmouth to-morrow to wait upon the Duke of York (28), who goes to take possession and to set in order the garrison there. Supped at home and to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 October 1661. 22 Oct 1661. At the office all the morning, where we had a deputation from the Duke (28) in his absence, he being gone to Portsmouth, for us to have the whole disposal and ordering of the Fleet. In the afternoon about business up and down, and at night to visit Sir R. Slingsby (50), who is fallen sick of this new disease, an ague and fever. So home after visiting my aunt Wight and Mrs. Norbury (who continues still a very pleasant lady), and to supper, and so to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 26 October 1661. 26 Oct 1661. This morning Sir W. Pen (40) and I should have gone out of town with my Lady Batten, to have met Sir William coming back from Portsmouth; at Kingston, but could not, by reason that my Lord of Peterborough (39) (who is to go Governor of Tangier) came this morning, with Sir G. Carteret (51), to advise with us about completing of the affairs and preparacions for that place.
So at the office all the morning, and in the afternoon Sir W. Pen (40), my wife and I to the Theatre, and there saw "The Country Captain", the first time it hath been acted this twenty-five years, a play of my Lord Newcastle's (68), but so silly a play as in all my life I never saw, and the first that ever I was weary of in my life.
So home again, and in the evening news was brought that Sir R. Slingsby (50), our Comptroller (50) (who hath this day been sick a week), is dead; which put me into so great a trouble of mind, that all the night I could not sleep, he being a man that loved me, and had many qualitys that made me to love him above all the officers and commissioners in the Navy. Coming home we called at Dan Rawlinson's; and there drank good sack, and so home.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 April 1662. 13 Apr 1662. Lord's Day. In the morning to Paul's, where I heard a pretty good sermon, and thence to dinner with my Lady at the Wardrobe; and after much talk with her after dinner, I went to the Temple to Church, and there heard another: by the same token a boy, being asleep, fell down a high seat to the ground, ready to break his neck, but got no hurt.
Thence to Graye's Inn walkes; and there met Mr. Pickering and walked with him two hours till 8 o'clock till I was quite weary. His discourse most about the pride of the Duchess of York (25); and how all the ladies envy my Baroness Castlemaine's (21). He intends to go to Portsmouth to meet the Queen (23) this week; which is now the discourse and expectation of the town.
So home, and no sooner come but Sir W. Warren comes to me to bring me a paper of Field's (with whom we have lately had a great deal of trouble at the office), being a bitter petition to the King (31) against our office for not doing justice upon his complaint to us of embezzlement of the King's stores by one Turpin. I took Sir William to Sir W. Pen's (40) (who was newly come from Walthamstow), and there we read it and discoursed, but we do not much fear it, the King (31) referring it to the Duke of York (28).
So we drank a glass or two of wine, and so home and I to bed, my wife being in bed already.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 April 1662. 14 Apr 1662. Being weary last night I lay very long in bed to-day, talking with my wife, and persuaded her to go to Brampton, and take Sarah with her, next week, to cure her ague by change of ayre, and we agreed all things therein. We rose, and at noon dined, and then we to the Paynter's (53), and there sat the last time for my little picture, which I hope will please me.
Then to Paternoster Row to buy things for my wife against her going.
So home and walked upon the leads with my wife, and whether she suspected anything or no I know not, but she is quite off of her going to Brampton, which something troubles me, and yet all my design was that I might the freer go to Portsmouth when the rest go to pay off the yards there, which will be very shortly. But I will get off if I can.
So to supper and to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 18 April 1662. 18 Apr 1662. This morning sending the boy down into the cellar for some beer I followed him with a cane, and did there beat him for his staying of awards and other faults, and his sister came to me down and begged for him. So I forebore, and afterwards, in my wife's chamber, did there talk to Jane how much I did love the boy for her sake, and how much it do concern to correct the boy for his faults, or else he would be undone. So at last she was well pleased.
This morning Sir G. Carteret (52), Sir W. Batten (61) and I met at the office, and did conclude of our going to Portsmouth next week, in which my mind is at a great loss what to do with my wife, for I cannot persuade her to go to Brampton, and I am loth to leave her at, home. All the afternoon in several places to put things in order for my going. At night home and to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 21 April 1662. 21 Apr 1662. This morning I attempted to persuade my wife in bed to go to Brampton this week, but she would not, which troubles me, and seeing that I could keep it no longer from her, I told her that I was resolved to go to Portsmouth to-morrow. Sir W. Batten (61) goes to Chatham to-day, and will be back again to come for Portsmouth after us on Thursday next. I went to Westminster and several places about business. Then at noon dined with my Lord Crew; and after dinner went up to Sir Thos. Crew's chamber, who is still ill. He tells me how my Lady Duchess of Richmond and Castlemaine had a falling out the other day; and she calls the latter Jane Shore, and did hope to see her come to the same end that she did. Coming down again to my Lord, he told me that news was come that the Queen (23) is landed; at which I took leave, and by coach hurried to White Hall, the bells ringing in several places; but I found there no such matter, nor anything like it. So I went by appointment to Anthony Joyce's, where I sat with his wife and Matt. Joyce an hour or two, and so her husband not being at home, away I went and in Cheapside spied him and took him into the coach.
Home, and there I found my Lady Jemimah, and Anne, and Madamoiselle come to see my wife, whom I left, and to talk with Joyce about a project I have of his and my joyning, to get some money for my brother Tom (28) and his kinswoman to help forward with her portion if they should marry. I mean in buying of tallow of him at a low rate for the King (31), and Tom should have the profit; but he tells me the profit will be considerable, at which I was troubled, but I have agreed with him to serve some in my absence. He went away, and then came Mr. Moore and sat late with me talking about business, and so went away and I to bed.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 April 1662. 23 Apr 1662. Up early, and to Petersfield, and there dined well; and thence got a countryman to guide us by Havant, to avoid going through the Forest; but he carried us much out of the way, and upon our coming we sent away an express to Sir W. Batten (61) to stop his coming, which I did project to make good my oath, that my wife should come if any of our wives came, which my Lady Batten did intend to do with her husband. The Doctor and I lay together at Wiard's, the chyrurgeon's, in Portsmouth, his wife a very pretty woman. We lay very well and merrily; in the morning, concluding him to be of the eldest blood and house of the Clerkes, because that all the fleas came to him and not to me.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 25 April 1662. 25 Apr 1662. All the morning at Portsmouth, at the Pay, and then to dinner, and again to the Pay; and at night got the Doctor to go lie with me, and much pleased with his company; but I was much troubled in my eyes, by reason of the healths I have this day been forced to drink.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 April 1662. 27 Apr 1662. Sunday. Sir W. Pen (41) got trimmed before me, and so took the coach to Portsmouth to wait on my Lord Steward to church, and sent the coach for me back again. So I rode to church, and met my Lord Chamberlain (60) upon the walls of the garrison, who owned and spoke to me. I followed him in the crowd of gallants through the Queen's (23) lodgings to chappell; the rooms being all rarely furnished, and escaped hardly being set on fire yesterday. At chappell we had a most excellent and eloquent sermon. And here I spoke and saluted Mrs. Pierce, but being in haste could not learn of her where her lodgings are, which vexes me.
Thence took Ned Pickering (44) to dinner with us, and the two Marshes, father and Son, dined with us, and very merry.
After dinner Sir W. Batten (61) and I, the Doctor, and Ned Pickering (44) by coach to the Yard, and there on board the Swallow in the dock hear our navy chaplain preach a sad sermon, full of nonsense and false Latin; but prayed for the Right Honourable the principal officers1.
After sermon took him to Mr. Tippets's to drink a glass of wine, and so at 4 back again by coach to Portsmouth, and then visited the Mayor, Mr. Timbrell, our anchor-smith, who showed us the present they have for the Queen (23); which is a salt-sellar of silver, the walls christall, with four eagles and four greyhounds standing up at the top to bear up a dish; which indeed is one of the neatest pieces of plate that ever I saw, and the case is very pretty also2.
This evening came a merchantman in the harbour, which we hired at London to carry horses to Portugall; but, Lord! what running there was to the seaside to hear what news, thinking it had come from the Queen (23).
In the evening Sir George (52), Sir W. Pen (41) and I walked round the walls, and thence we two with the Doctor to the yard, and so to supper and to bed.
Note 1. Principal officers of the navy, of which body Pepys was one as Clerk of the Acts.
Note 2. A salt-cellar answering this description is preserved at the Tower.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 30 April 1662. 30 Apr 1662. This morning Sir G. Carteret (52) came down to the yard, and there we mustered over all the men and determined of some regulations in the yard, and then to dinner, all the officers of the yard with us, and after dinner walk to Portsmouth, there to pay off the Success, which we did pretty early, and so I took leave of Sir W. Pen (41), he desiring to know whither I went, but I would not tell him. I went to the ladies, and there took them and walked to the Mayor's to show them the present, and then to the Dock, where Mr. Tippets made much of them, and thence back again, the Doctor being come to us to their lodgings, whither came our supper by my appointment, and we very merry, playing at cards and laughing very merry till 12 o'clock at night, and so having staid so long (which we had resolved to stay till they bade us be gone), which yet they did not do but by consent, we bade them good night, and so past the guards, and went to the Doctor's lodgings, and there lay with him, our discourse being much about the quality of the lady with Mrs. Pierce, she being somewhat old and handsome, and painted and fine, and had a very handsome maid with her, which we take to be the marks of a bawd. But Mrs. Pierce says she is a stranger to her and met by chance in the coach, and pretends to be a dresser. Her name is Eastwood.
So to sleep in a bad bed about one o'clock in the morning.
This afternoon after dinner comes Mr. Stephenson, one of the burgesses of the town, to tell me that the Mayor and burgesses did desire my acceptance of a burgess-ship, and were ready at the Mayor's to make me one. So I went, and there they were all ready, and did with much civility give me my oath, and after the oath, did by custom shake me all by the hand. So I took them to a tavern and made them drink, and paying the reckoning, went away. They having first in the tavern made Mr. Waith also a burgess, he coming in while we were drinking. It cost me a piece in gold to the Town Clerk, and 10s. to the Bayliffes, and spent 6s.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 01 May 1662. 01 May 1662. Sir G. Carteret (52), Sir W. Pen (41), and myself, with our clerks, set out this morning from Portsmouth very early, and got by noon to Petersfield; several officers of the Yard accompanying us so far. Here we dined and were merry. At dinner comes my Lord Carlingford (59) from London, going to Portsmouth: tells us that the Duchess of York (25) is brought to bed of a girl, [Mary, afterwards Queen of England.] at which I find nobody pleased; and that Prince Rupert (42) and the Duke of Buckingham (34) are sworn of the Privy Councell. He himself made a dish with eggs of the butter of the sparagus, which is very fine meat, which I will practise hereafter.
To horse again after dinner, and got to Gilford, where after supper I to bed, having this day been offended by Sir W. Pen's (41) foolish talk, and I offending him with my answers. Among others he in discourse complaining of want of confidence, did ask me to lend him a grain or two, which I told him I thought he was better stored with than myself, before Sir George (52). So that I see I must keep a greater distance than I have done, and I hope I may do it because of the interest which I am making with Sir George (52).
To bed all alone, and my Will in the truckle bed1.
Note 1. According to the original Statutes of Corpus Christi Coll. Oxon, a Scholar slept in a truckle bed below each Fellow. Called also "a trindle bed". Compare Hall's description of an obsequious tutor: "He lieth in a truckle bed While his young master lieth o'er his head". Satires, ii. 6, 5. The bed was drawn in the daytime under the high bed of the tutor. See Wordsworth's "University Life in the Eighteenth Century".—M. B.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 May 1662. 09 May 1662. Up and to my office, and so to dinner at home, and then to several places to pay my debts, and then to Westminster to Dr. Castle, who discoursed with me about Privy Seal business, which I do not much mind, it being little worth, but by Watkins's [clerk of the Privy Seal] late sudden death we are like to lose money.
Thence to Mr. De Cretz, and there saw some good pieces that he hath copyed of the King's pieces, some of Raphael and Michael Angelo; and I have borrowed an Elizabeth of his copying to hang up in my house, and sent it home by Will.
Thence with Mr. Salisbury, who I met there, into Covent Garden to an alehouse, to see a picture that hangs there, which is offered for 20s., and I offered fourteen—but it is worth much more money—but did not buy it, I having no mind to break my oath.
Thence to see an Italian puppet play [Possibly Punch and Judy] that is within the rayles there, which is very pretty, the best that ever I saw, and great resort of gallants.
So to the Temple and by water home, and so walk upon the leads, and in the dark there played upon my flageolette, it being a fine still evening, and so to supper and to bed.
This day I paid Godfrey's debt of 40 and odd pounds. The Duke of York (28) went last night to Portsmouth; so that I believe the Queen (23) is near.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 10 May 1662. 10 May 1662. By myself at the office all the morning drawing up instructions for Portsmouth yard in those things wherein we at our late being there did think fit to reform, and got them signed this morning to send away to-night, the Duke being now there.
At noon to the Wardrobe; there dined. My Lady told me how my Baroness Castlemaine's (21) do speak of going to lie in at Hampton Court; which she and all our ladies are much troubled at, because of the King's being forced to show her countenance in the sight of the Queen (23) when she comes.
Back to the office and there all afternoon, and in the evening comes Sir G. Carteret (52), and he and I did hire a ship for Tangier, and other things together; and I find that he do single me out to join with me apart from the rest, which I am much glad of.
So home, and after being trimmed, to bed.

On 14 May 1662 Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (23) landed at Portsmouth.

Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza. Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms.Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 15 May 1662. 15 May 1662. To Westminster; and at the Privy Seal I saw Mr. Coventry's (34) seal for his being Commissioner with us, at which I know not yet whether to be glad or otherwise. So doing several things by the way, I walked home, and after dinner to the office all the afternoon. At night, all the bells of the town rung, and bonfires made for the joy of the Queen's (23) arrival, who came and landed at Portsmouth last night. But I do not see much thorough joy, but only an indifferent one, in the hearts of people, who are much discontented at the pride and luxury of the Court, and running in debt.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 May 1662. 17 May 1662. Upon a letter this morning from Mr. Moore, I went to my cozen Turner's chamber, and there put him drawing a replication to Tom Trice's answer speedily.
So to Whitehall and there met Mr. Moore, and I walked long in Westminster Hall, and thence with him to the Wardrobe to dinner, where dined Mrs. Sanderson, the mother of the maids, and after dinner my Lady and she and I on foot to Pater Noster Row to buy a petticoat against the Queen's (23) coming for my Lady, of plain satin, and other things; and being come back again, we there met Mr. Nathaniel Crew (29)1 at the Wardrobe with a young gentleman, a friend and fellow student of his, and of a good family, Mr. Knightly, and known to the Crews, of whom my Lady privately told me she hath some thoughts of a match for my Lady Jemimah. I like the person very well, and he hath £2000 per annum.
Thence to the office, and there we sat, and thence after writing letters to all my friends with my Lord at Portsmouth, I walked to my brother Tom's (28) to see a velvet cloak, which I buy of Mr. Moore. It will cost me £8 10s.; he bought it for £6 10s., but it is worth my money.
So home and find all things made clean against to-morrow, which pleases me well.
So to bed.
Note 1. Nathaniel Crew (29), born 1633, fifth son of John, first Lord Crew; he himself became third Lord Crew in 1697. Sub-Rector of Lincoln College, Oxford, 1659. Took orders in 1664, and was Rector of Lincoln College in 1668; Dean of Chichester, 1669; Bishop of Oxford, 1671; Bishop of Durham, 1674; sworn of the Privy Council in 1676. He was very subservient to James II, and at the Revolution was excepted from the general pardon of May, 1690, but he was allowed to keep possession of the bishopric of Durham.

Read More ...

Marriage of Charles II and Catherine of Braganza

On 21 May 1662 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (31) and Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (23) were married at Portsmouth. He a son of Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649. She by marriage Queen Consort England.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes.Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes.Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II

Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 May 1662. 23 May 1662. At the office good part of the morning, and then about noon with my wife on foot to the Wardrobe. My wife went up to the dining room to my Lady Paulina (13), and I staid below talking with Mr. Moore in the parley, reading of the King's and Chancellor's late speeches at the proroguing of the Houses of Parliament. And while I was reading, news was brought me that my Lord Sandwich (36) is come and gone up to my Lady, which put me into great suspense of joy, so I went up waiting my Lord's coming out of my Lady's chamber, which by and by he did, and looks very well, and my soul is glad to see him. He very merry, and hath left the King (31) and Queen (23) at Portsmouth, and is come up to stay here till next Wednesday, and then to meet the King (31) and Queen (23) at Hampton Court.
So to dinner, Mr. Browne, Clerk of the House of Lords, and his wife and brother there also; and my Lord mighty merry; among other things, saying that the Queen (23) is a very agreeable lady, and paints still.
After dinner I showed him my letter from Teddiman about the news from Argier, which pleases him exceedingly; and he writ one to the Duke of York (28) about it, and sent it express. There coming much company after dinner to my Lord, my wife and I slunk away to the Opera, where we saw "Witt in a Constable", the first time that it is acted; but so silly a play I never saw I think in my life.
After it was done, my wife and I to the puppet play in Covent Garden, which I saw the other day, and indeed it is very pleasant. Here among the fidlers I first saw a dulcimere1 played on with sticks knocking of the strings, and is very pretty.
So by water home, and supped with Sir William Pen (41) very merry, and so to bed.
Note 1. The dulcimer (or psaltery) consisted of a flat box, acting as a resonating chamber, over which strings of wire were stretched: These were struck by little hammers.

Read More ...

John Evelyn's Diary 25 May 1662. 25 May 1662. I went this evening to London, in order to our journey to Hampton Court, to see the Queen (23); who, having landed at Portsmouth, had been married to the King (31) a week before by the Bishop of London (63).

Diary of Samuel Pepys 25 May 1662. 25 May 1662. Lord's Day. To trimming myself, which I have this week done every morning, with a pumice stone, [Shaving with pumice stone.] which I learnt of Mr. Marsh, when I was last at Portsmouth; and I find it very easy, speedy, and cleanly, and shall continue the practice of it. To church, and heard a good sermon of Mr. Woodcocke's at our church; only in his latter prayer for a woman in childbed, he prayed that God would deliver her from the hereditary curse of child-bearing, which seemed a pretty strange expression.
Dined at home, and Mr. Creed with me. This day I had the first dish of pease I have had this year. After discourse he and I abroad, and walked up and down, and looked into many churches, among others Mr. Baxter's at Blackfryers.
Then to the Wardrobe, where I found my Lord takes physic, so I did not see him, but with Captn. Ferrers in Mr. George Montagu's (39) coach to Charing Cross; and there at the Triumph tavern he showed me some Portugall ladys, which are come to town before the Queen (23). They are not handsome, and their farthingales a strange dress1. Many ladies and persons of quality come to see them. I find nothing in them that is pleasing; and I see they have learnt to kiss and look freely up and down already, and I do believe will soon forget the recluse practice of their own country. They complain much for lack of good water to drink.
So to the Wardrobe back on foot and supped with my Lady, and so home, and after a walk upon the leads with my wife, to prayers and bed. The King's guards and some City companies do walk up and down the town these five or six days; which makes me think, and they do say, there are some plots in laying. God keep us.
Note 1. Farthingales had gone out of fashion in England during the reign of Charles I, and therefore their use by the Portuguese ladies astonished the English. Evelyn also remarks in his Diary on this ugly custom May 30th, 1662.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 June 1662. 23 Jun 1662. Up early, this morning, and my people are taking down the hangings and things in my house because of the great dust that is already made by the pulling down of Sir W. Batten's (61) house, and will be by my own when I come to it.
To my office, and there hard at work all the morning.
At noon to the Exchange to meet Dr. Williams, who sent me this morning notice of his going into the country tomorrow, but could not find him, but meeting with Frank Moore, my Lord Lambeth's man formerly, we, and two or three friends of his did go to a tavern, and there they drank, but I nothing but small beer. In the next room one was playing very finely of the dulcimer, which well played I like well, but one of our own company, a talking fellow, did in discourse say much of this Act against Seamen1, for their being brought to account; and that it was made on purpose for my Lord Sandwich (36), who was in debt £100,000, and hath been forced to have pardon oftentimes from Oliver for the same: at which I was vexed at him, but thought it not worth my trouble to oppose what he said, but took leave and went home, and after a little dinner to my office again, and in the evening Sir W. Warren came to me about business, and that being done, discoursing of deals, I did offer to go along with him among his deal ships, which we did to half a score, where he showed me the difference between Dram, Swinsound, Christiania, and others, and told me many pleasant notions concerning their manner of cutting and sawing them by watermills, and the reason how deals become dearer and cheaper, among others, when the snow is not so great as to fill up the values that they may pass from hill to hill over the snow, then it is dear carriage. From on board he took me to his yard, where vast and many places of deals, sparrs, and bulks, &c., the difference between which I never knew before, and indeed am very proud of this evening's work. He had me into his house, which is most pretty and neat and well furnished. After a glass, not of wine, for I would not be tempted to drink any, but a glass of mum, I well home by water, but it being late was forced to land at the Custom House and so home and to bed, and after I was a-bed, letters came from the Duke for the fitting out of four ships forthwith from Portsmouth (I know not yet for what) so I was forced to make Will get them wrote, and signed them in bed and sent them away by express. And so to sleep.
Note 1. In 1662 was passed "An Act for providing of carriage by land and by water for the use of His Majesty's Navy and Ordinance" (13-14 Gar. II, cap. 20), which gave power for impressing seamen, &c.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 June 1662. 27 Jun 1662. Up early, not quite rid of my pain. I took more physique, and so made myself ready to go forth.
So to my Lord, who rose as soon as he heard I was there; and in his nightgown and shirt stood talking with me alone two hours, I believe, concerning his greatest matters of state and interest. Among other things, that his greatest design is, first, to get clear of all debts to the King (32) for the Embassy money, and then a pardon. Then, to get his land settled; and then to, discourse and advise what is best for him, whether to keep his sea employment longer or no. For he do discern that the Duke would be willing to have him out, and that by Coventry's means. And here he told me, how the terms at Argier were wholly his; and that he did plainly tell Lawson (47) and agree with him, that he would have the honour of them, if they should ever be agreed to; and that accordingly they did come over hither entitled, "Articles concluded on by Sir J. Lawson (47), according to instructions received from His Royal Highness James Duke of York (28), &c., and from His Excellency the Earle of Sandwich". (Which however was more than needed; but Lawson tells my Lord in his letter, that it was not he, but the Council of Warr that would have "His Royal Highness" put into the title, though he did not contribute one word to it.) But the Duke of York (28) did yesterday propose them to the Council, to be printed with this title: "Concluded on, by Sir J. Lawson (47), Knt". and my Lord quite left out. Here I find my Lord very politique; for he tells me, that he discerns they design to set up Lawson as much as they can and that he do counterplot them by setting him up higher still; by which they will find themselves spoiled of their design, and at last grow jealous of Lawson. This he told me with much pleasure; and that several of the Duke's servants, by name my Lord Barkeley (60), Mr. Talbot (32), and others, had complained to my Lord, of Coventry, and would have him out. My Lord do acknowledge that his greatest obstacle is Coventry. He did seem to hint such a question as this: "Hitherto I have been supported by the King (32) and Chancellor against the Duke; but what if it should come about, that it should be the Duke and Chancellor against the King (32)?" which, though he said it in these plain words, yet I could not fully understand it; but may more here after. My Lord did also tell me, that the Duke himself at Portsmouth did thank my Lord for all his pains and care; and that he perceived it must be the old Captains that must do the business; and that the new ones would spoil all. And that my Lord did very discreetly tell the Duke (though quite against his judgement and inclination), that, however, the King's new captains ought to be borne with a little and encouraged. By which he will oblige that party, and prevent, as much as may be, their envy; but he says that certainly things will go to rack if ever the old captains should be wholly out, and the new ones only command.
Then we fell to talk of Sir J. Minnes (63), of whom my Lord hath a very slight opinion, and that at first he did come to my Lord very displeased and sullen, and had studied and turned over all his books to see whether it had ever been that two flags should ride together in the main-top, but could not find it, nay, he did call his captains on board to consult them. So when he came by my Lord's side, he took down his flag, and all the day did not hoist it again, but next day my Lord did tell him that it was not so fit to ride without a flag, and therefore told him that he should wear it in the fore-top, for it seems my Lord saw his instructions, which were that he should not wear his flag in the maintop in the presence of the Duke or my Lord. But that after that my Lord did caress him, and he do believe him as much his friend as his interest will let him. I told my Lord of the late passage between Swan and me, and he told me another lately between Dr. Dell and himself when he was in the country.
At last we concluded upon dispatching all his accounts as soon as possible, and so I parted, and to my office, where I met Sir W. Pen (41), and he desired a turn with me in the garden, where he told me the day now was fixed for his going into Ireland; [Penn was Governor of Kinsale.-B.] and that whereas I had mentioned some service he could do a friend of mine there, Saml. Pepys1, he told me he would most readily do what I would command him, and then told me we must needs eat a dish of meat together before he went, and so invited me and my wife on Sunday next. To all which I did give a cold consent, for my heart cannot love or have a good opinion of him since his last playing the knave with me, but he took no notice of our difference at all, nor I to him, and so parted, and I by water to Deptford, where I found Sir W. Batten (61) alone paying off the yard three quarters pay.
Thence to dinner, where too great a one was prepared, at which I was very much troubled, and wished I had not been there.
After dinner comes Sir J. Minnes (63) and some captains with him, who had been at a Councill of Warr to-day, who tell us they have acquitted Captain Hall, who was accused of cowardice in letting of old Winter, the Argier pyrate, go away from him with a prize or two; and also Captain Diamond of the murder laid to him of a man that he had struck, but he lived many months after, till being drunk, he fell into the hold, and there broke his jaw and died, but they say there are such bawdy articles against him as never were heard of .... To the pay again, where I left them, and walked to Redriffe, and so home, and there came Mr. Creed and Shepley to me, and staid till night about my Lord's accounts, our proceeding to set them in order, and so parted and I to bed. Mr. Holliard (53) had been with my wife to-day, and cured her of her pain in her ear by taking out a most prodigious quantity of hard wax that had hardened itself in the bottom of the ear, of which I am very glad.
Note 1. Mentioned elsewhere as "My cousin in Ireland". He was son of Lord Chief Justice Richard Pepys.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 25 July 1662. 25 Jul 1662. At the office all the morning, reading Mr. Holland's' discourse of the Navy, lent me by Mr. Turner, and am much pleased with them, they hitting the very diseases of the Navy, which we are troubled with now-a-days. I shall bestow writing of them over and much reading thereof.
This morning Sir W. Batten (61) came in to the office and desired to speak with me; he began by telling me that he observed a strangeness between him and me of late, and would know the reason of it, telling me he heard that I was offended with merchants coming to his house and making contracts there. I did tell him that as a friend I had spoke of it to Sir W. Pen (41) and desired him to take a time to tell him of it, and not as a backbiter, with which he was satisfied, but I find that Sir W. Pen (41) has played the knave with me, and not told it from me as a friend, but in a bad sense.
He also told me that he heard that exceptions were taken at his carrying his wife down to Portsmouth, saying that the King (32) should not pay for it, but I denied that I had spoke of it, nor did I
At last he desired the difference between our wives might not make a difference between us, which I was exceedingly glad to hear, and do see every day the fruit of looking after my business, which I pray God continue me in, for I do begin to be very happy.
Dined at home, and so to the office all the afternoon again, and at night home and to bed.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 August 1662. 22 Aug 1662. About three o'clock this morning I waked with the noise of the rayne, having never in my life heard a more violent shower; and then the catt was lockt in the chamber, and kept a great mewing, and leapt upon the bed, which made me I could not sleep a great while. Then to sleep, and about five o'clock rose, and up to my office, and about 8 o'clock went down to Deptford, and there with Mr. Davis did look over most of his stores; by the same token in the great storehouse, while Captain Badily was talking to us, one from a trap-door above let fall unawares a coyle of cable, that it was 10,000 to one it had not broke Captain Badily's neck, it came so near him, but did him no hurt. I went on with looking and informing myself of the stores with great delight, and having done there, I took boat home again and dined, and after dinner sent for some of my workmen and did scold at them so as I hope my work will be hastened.
Then by water to Westminster Hall, and there I hear that old Mr. Hales did lately die suddenly in an hour's time. Here I met with Will Bowyer, and had a promise from him of a place to stand to-morrow at his house to see the show.
Thence to my Lord's, and thither sent for Mr. Creed, who came, and walked together talking about business, and then to his lodgings at Clerke's, the confectioner's, where he did give me a little banquet, and I had liked to have begged a parrot for my wife, but he hath put me in a way to get a better from Steventon; at Portsmouth. But I did get of him a draught of Tangier to take a copy by, which pleases me very well.
So home by water and to my office, where late, and so home to bed.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 November 1662. 04 Nov 1662. Lay long talking pleasantly with my wife in bed, it having rained, and do still, very much all night long. Up and to the office, where we sat till noon. This morning we had news by letters that Sir Richard Stayner (37) is dead at sea in the Mary, which is now come into Portsmouth from Lisbon; which we are sorry for, he being a very stout seaman. But there will be no great miss of him for all that.
Dined at home with my wife, and all the afternoon among my workmen, and at night to my office to do business there, and then to see Sir W. Pen (41), who is still sick, but his pain less than it was. He took occasion to talk with me about Sir J. Minnes's (63) intention to divide the entry and the yard, and so to keep him out of the yard, and forcing him to go through the garden to his house. Which he is vexed at, and I am glad to see that Sir J. Minnes (63) do use him just as he do me, and so I perceive it is not anything extraordinary his carriage to me in the matter of our houses, for this is worse than anything he has done to me, that he should give order for the stopping up of his way to his house without so much as advising with him or letting of him know it, and I confess that it is very highly and basely done of him.
So to my office again, and after doing business there, then home to supper and to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 December 1662. 13 Dec 1662. Slept long to-day till Sir J. Minnes (63) and Sir W. Batten (61) were set out towards Portsmouth before I rose, and Sir G. Carteret (52) came to the office to speak with me before I was up. So I started up and down to him.
By and by we sat, Mr. Coventry (34) and I (Sir G. Carteret (52) being gone), and among other things, Field and Stint did come, and received the £41 given him by the judgement against me and Harry Kem1; and we did also sign bonds in £500 to stand to the award of Mr. Porter (31) and Smith for the rest: which, however, I did not sign to till I got Mr. Coventry (34) to go up with me to Sir W. Pen (41); and he did promise me before him to bear his share in what should be awarded, and both concluded that Sir W. Batten (61) would do no less.
At noon broke up and dined with my wife, and then to the office again, and there made an end of last night's examination, and got my study there made very clean and put in order, and then to write by the post, among other letters one to Sir W. Batten (61) about this day's work with Field, desiring his promise also. The letter I have caused to be entered in our public book of letters.
So home to supper and to bed.
Note 1. Fine for the imprisonment of Field (see February 4th, 1661-62, and October 21st, 1662).

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 December 1662. 23 Dec 1662. And slept hard till 8 o'clock this morning, and so up and to the office, where I found Sir J. Minnes (63) and Sir W. Batten (61) come unexpectedly home last night from Portsmouth, having done the Pay there before we could have, thought it. Sat all the morning, and at noon home to dinner with my wife alone, and after dinner sat by the fire, and then up to make up my accounts with her, and find that my ordinary housekeeping comes to £7 a month, which is a great deal.
By and by comes James_Pearce_Surgeon, who among other things tells me that my Baroness Castlemaine's (22) interest at Court increases, and is more and greater than the Queen's (24); that she hath brought in Sir H. Bennet (44), and Sir Charles Barkeley (32); but that the Queen (24) is a most good lady, and takes all with the greatest meekness that may be. He tells me too that Mr. Edward Montagu (27) is quite broke at Court with his repute and purse; and that he lately was engaged in a quarrell against my Lord Chesterfield (28): but that the King (32) did cause it to be taken up. He tells me, too, that the King (32) is much concerned in the Chancellor's (53) sickness, and that the Chancellor (53) is as great, he thinks, as ever he was with the King (32). He also tells me what the world says of me, "that Mr. Coventry (34) and I do all the business of the office almost:" at which I am highly proud. He being gone I fell to business, which was very great, but got it well over by nine at night, and so home, and after supper to bed.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 January 1663. 05 Jan 1663. Up and to the Duke (29), who himself told me that Sir J. Lawson (48) was come home to Portsmouth from the Streights, who is now come with great renown among all men, and, I perceive, mightily esteemed at Court by all. The Duke (29) did not stay long in his chamber; but to the King's chamber, whither by and by the Russia Embassadors (18) come; who, it seems, have a custom that they will not come to have any treaty with our or any King's Commissioners, but they will themselves see at the time the face of the King (32) himself, be it forty days one after another; and so they did to-day only go in and see the King (32); and so out again to the Council-chamber. The Duke (29) returned to his chamber, and so to his closett, where Sir G. Carteret (53), Sir J. Minnes (63), Sir W. Batten (62), Mr. Coventry (35), and myself attended him about the business of the Navy; and after much discourse and pleasant talk he went away.
And I took Sir W. Batten (62) and Captain Allen into the wine cellar to my tenant (as I call him, Serjeant Dalton), and there drank a great deal of variety of wines, more than I have drunk at one time, or shall again a great while, when I come to return to my oaths, which I intend in a day or two.
Thence to my Lord's lodging, where Mr. Hunt and Mr. Creed dined with us, and were very merry. And after dinner he and I to White Hall, where the Duke (29) and the Commissioners for Tangier met, but did not do much: my Lord Sandwich (37) not being in town, nobody making it their business. So up, and Creed and I to my wife again, and after a game or two at cards, to the Cockpitt, where we saw "Claracilla", a poor play, done by the King's house (but neither the King (32) nor Queen (24) were there, but only the Duke (29) and Duchess (25), who did show some impertinent and, methought, unnatural dalliances there, before the whole world, such as kissing, and leaning upon one another); but to my very little content, they not acting in any degree like the Duke's people.
So home (there being here this night Mrs. Turner (40) and Mrs. Martha Batten of our office) to my Lord's lodgings again, and to a game at cards, we three and Sarah, and so to supper and some apples and ale, and to bed with great pleasure, blessed be God!

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 January 1663. 08 Jan 1663. Up pretty early, and sent my boy to the carrier's with some wine for my father, for to make his feast among his Brampton friends this Christmas, and my muff to my mother, sent as from my wife. But before I sent my boy out with them, I beat him for a lie he told me, at which his sister, with whom we have of late been highly displeased, and warned her to be gone, was angry, which vexed me, to see the girl I loved so well, and my wife, should at last turn so much a fool and unthankful to us.
So to the office, and there all the morning, and though without and a little against the advice of the officers did, to gratify him, send Thomas Hater to-day towards Portsmouth a day or two before the rest of the clerks, against the Pay next week.
Dined at home; and there being the famous new play acted the first time to-day, which is called "The Adventures of Five Hours", at the Duke's house, being, they say, made or translated by Colonel Tuke (48), I did long to see it; and so made my wife to get her ready, though we were forced to send for a smith, to break open her trunk, her mayde Jane being gone forth with the keys, and so we went; and though early, were forced to sit almost out of sight, at the end of one of the lower forms, so full was the house. And the play, in one word, is the best, for the variety and the most excellent continuance of the plot to the very end, that ever I saw, or think ever shall, and all possible, not only to be done in the time, but in most other respects very admittable, and without one word of ribaldry; and the house, by its frequent plaudits, did show their sufficient approbation.
So home; with much ado in an hour getting a coach home, and, after writing letters at my office, I went home to supper and to bed, now resolving to set up my rest as to plays till Easter, if not Whitsuntide next, excepting plays at Court.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 12 January 1663. 12 Jan 1663. Up, and to Sir W. Batten's (62) to bid him and Sir J. Minnes (63) adieu, they going this day towards Portsmouth, and then to Sir W. Pen's (41) to see Sir J. Lawson (48), who I heard was there, where I found him the same plain man that he was, after all his success in the Straights, with which he is come loaded home.
Thence to Sir G. Carteret (53), and with him in his coach to White Hall, and first I to see my Lord Sandwich (37) (being come now from Hinchingbrooke), and after talking a little with him, he and I to the Duke's chamber, where Mr. Coventry (35) and he and I into the Duke's closett and Sir J. Lawson (48) discoursing upon business of the Navy, and particularly got his consent to the ending some difficulties in Mr. Creed's accounts.
Thence to my Lord's lodgings, and with Mr. Creed to the King's Head ordinary, but people being set down, we went to two or three places; at last found some meat at a Welch cook's at Charing Cross, and here dined and our boys.
After dinner to the 'Change to buy some linen for my wife, and going back met our two boys. Mine had struck down Creed's boy in the dirt, with his new suit on, and the boy taken by a gentlewoman into a house to make clean, but the poor boy was in a pitifull taking and pickle; but I basted my rogue soundly.
Thence to my Lord's lodging, and Creed to his, for his papers against the Committee. I found my Lord within, and he and I went out through the garden towards the Duke's chamber, to sit upon the Tangier matters; but a lady called to my Lord out of my Baroness Castlemaine lodging, telling him that the King (32) was there and would speak with him. My Lord could not tell what to bid me say at the Committee to excuse his absence, but that he was with the King (32); nor would suffer me to go into the Privy Garden (which is now a through-passage, and common), but bid me to go through some other way, which I did; so that I see he is a servant of the King's pleasures too, as well as business.
So I went to the Committee, where we spent all this night attending to Sir J. Lawson's (48) description of Tangier and the place for the Mole1, of which he brought a very pretty draught. Concerning the making of the Mole, Mr. Cholmely (30) did also discourse very well, having had some experience in it. Being broke up, I home by coach to Mr. Bland's, and there discoursed about sending away of the merchant ship which hangs so long on hand for Tangier.
So to my Lady Batten's, and sat with her awhile, Sir W. Batten (62) being gone out of town; but I did it out of design to get some oranges for my feast to-morrow of her, which I did.
So home, and found my wife's new gown come home, and she mightily pleased with it. But I appeared very angry that there were no more things got ready against to-morrow's feast, and in that passion sat up long, and went discontented to bed.
Note 1. The construction of this Mole or breakwater turned out a very costly undertaking. In April, 1663, it was found that the charge for one year's work was £13,000. In March, 1665, £36,000 had been spent upon it. The wind and sea exerted a very destructive influence over this structure, although it was very strongly built, and Colonel Norwood reported in 1668 that a breach had been made in the Mole, which cost a considerable sum to repair.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 January 1663. 22 Jan 1663. To the office, where Sir W. Batten (62) and Sir J. Minnes (63) are come from Portsmouth. We sat till dinner time. Then home, and Mr. Dixon by agreement came to dine, to give me an account of his success with Mr. Wheatly for his daughter for my brother; and in short it is, that his daughter cannot fancy my brother because of his imperfection in his speech, which I am sorry for, but there the business must die, and we must look out for another. There came in also Mrs. Lodum, with an answer from her brother Ashwell's daughter, who is likely to come to me, and with her my wife's brother, and I carried Commissioner Pett (52) in with me, so I feared want of victuals, but I had a good dinner, and mirth, and so rose and broke up, and with the rest of the officers to Mr. Russell's buriall, where we had wine and rings, and a great and good company of aldermen and the livery of the Skinners' Company.
We went to St. Dunstan's in the East church, where a sermon, but I staid not, but went home, and, after writing letters, I took coach to Mr. Povy's (49), but he not within I left a letter there of Tangier business, and so to my Lord's, and there find him not sick, but expecting his fit to-night of an ague. Here was Sir Wm. Compton (38), Mr. Povy (49), Mr. Bland, Mr. Gawden and myself; we were very busy about getting provisions sent forthwith to Tangier, fearing that by Mr. Gawden's neglect they might want bread. So among other ways thought of to supply them I was empowered by the Commissioners of Tangier that were present to write to Plymouth and direct Mr. Lanyon to take up vessels great or small to the quantity of 150 tons, and fill them with bread of Mr. Gawden's lying ready there for Tangier, which they undertake to bear me out in, and to see the freight paid. This I did.
About 10 o'clock we broke up, and my Lord's fit was coming upon him, and so we parted, and I with Mr. Creed, Mr. Pierce, Win. Howe and Captn. Ferrers, who was got almost drunk this afternoon, and was mighty capricious and ready to fall out with any body, supped together in the little chamber that was mine heretofore upon some fowls sent by Mr. Shepley, so we were very merry till 12 at night, and so away, and I lay with Mr. Creed at his lodgings, and slept well.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 25 January 1663. 25 Jan 1663. Lord's Day. Lay till 9 a-bed, then up, and being trimmed by the barber, I walked towards White Hall, calling upon Mr. Moore, whom I found still very ill of his ague. I discoursed with him about my Lord's estate against I speak with my Lord this day.
Thence to the King's Head ordinary at Charing Cross, and sent for Mr. Creed, where we dined very finely and good company, good discourse. I understand the King of France (24) is upon consulting his divines upon the old question, what the power of the Pope is? and do intend to make war against him, unless he do right him for the wrong his Embassador received;1 and banish the Cardinall Imperiall2, which I understand this day is not meant the Cardinall belonging or chosen by the Emperor, but the name of his family is Imperiali.
Thence to walk in the Park, which we did two hours, it being a pleasant sunshine day though cold. Our discourse upon the rise of most men that we know, and observing them to be the results of chance, not policy, in any of them, particularly Sir J. Lawson's (48), from his declaring against Charles Stuart in the river of Thames, and for the Rump.
Thence to my Lord, who had his ague fit last night, but is now pretty well, and I staid talking with him an hour alone in his chamber, about sundry publique and private matters. Among others, he wonders what the project should be of the Duke's (29) going down to Portsmouth just now with his Lady (25), at this time of the year: it being no way, we think, to increase his popularity, which is not great; nor yet safe to do it, for that reason, if it would have any such effect.
By and by comes in my Lady Wright, and so I went away, end after talking with Captn. Ferrers, who tells me of my Baroness Castlemaine's (22) and Sir Charles Barkeley (33) being the great favourites at Court, and growing every day more and more; and that upon a late dispute between my Lord Chesterfield (29), that is the Queen's (24) Lord Chamberlain, and Mr. Edward Montagu (28), her Master of the Horse, who should have the precedence in taking the Queen's (24) upperhand abroad out of the house, which Mr. Montagu challenges, it was given to my Lord Chesterfield (29). So that I perceive he goes down the wind in honour as well as every thing else, every day.
So walk to my brother's and talked with him, who tells me that this day a messenger is come, that tells us how Collonel Honiwood, who was well yesterday at Canterbury, was flung by his horse in getting up, and broke his scull, and so is dead.
So home and to the office, despatching some business, and so home to supper, and then to prayers and to bed.
Note 1. On the 20th of August, the Duc de Crequi, then French ambassador at Rome, was insulted by the Corsican armed police, a force whose ignoble duty it was to assist the Sbirri; and the pope, Alexander VII, at first refused reparation for the affront offered to the French. Louis, as in the case of D'Estrades, took prompt measures. He ordered the papal nuncio forthwith to quit France; he seized upon Avignon, and his army prepared to enter Italy. Alexander found it necessary to submit. In fulfilment of a treaty signed at Pisa in 1664, Cardinal Chigi, the pope's nephew, came to Paris, to tender the pope's apology to Louis. The guilty individuals were punished; the Corsicans banished for ever from the Roman States; and in front of the guard-house which they had occupied a pyramid was erected, bearing an inscription which embodied the pope's apology. This pyramid Louis permitted Clement IX. to destroy on his accession.-B.
Note 2. Lorenzo Imperiali, of Genoa. He had been appointed Governor of Rome by Innocent X., and he had acted in that capacity at the time of the tumult. B.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 18 May 1663. 18 May 1663. Up and after taking leave of Sir W. Batten (62), who is gone this day towards Portsmouth (to little purpose, God knows) upon his survey, I home and spent the morning at dancing; at noon Creed dined with us and Deane (29) of Woolwich, and so after dinner came Mr. Howe, who however had enough for his dinner, and so, having done, by coach to Westminster, she to Mrs. Clerke and I to St. James's, where the Duke being gone down by water to-day with the King (32) I went thence to my Lord Sandwich's (37) lodgings, where Mr. Howe and I walked a while, and going towards Whitehall through the garden Dr. Clerk and Creed called me across the bowling green, and so I went thither and after a stay went up to Mrs. Clerke who was dressing herself to go abroad with my wife.
But, Lord! in what a poor condition her best chamber is, and things about her, for all the outside and show that she makes, but I found her just such a one as Mrs. Pierce, contrary to my expectation, so much that I am sick and sorry to see it.
Thence for an hour Creed and I walked to White Hall, and into the Park, seeing the Queen (24) and Maids of Honour passing through the house going to the Park. But above all, Mrs. Stuart (15) is a fine woman, and they say now a common mistress to the King (32)1, as my Baroness Castlemaine's (22) is; which is a great pity.
Thence taking a coach to Mrs. Clerke's, took her, and my wife, and Ashwell, and a Frenchman, a kinsman of hers, to the Park, where we saw many fine faces, and one exceeding handsome, in a white dress over her head, with many others very beautiful. Staying there till past eight at night, I carried Mrs. Clerke and her Frenchman, who sings well, home, and thence home ourselves, talking much of what we had observed to-day of the poor household stuff of Mrs. Clerke and mere show and flutter that she makes in the world; and pleasing myself in my own house and manner of living more than ever I did by seeing how much better and more substantially I live than others do.
So to supper and bed.
Note 1. The King (32) said to 'la belle' Stuart (15), who resisted all his importunities, that he hoped he should live to see her "ugly and willing" (Lord Dartmouth's note to Burnet's "Own Time", vol. i., p. 436, ed. 1823).

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 May 1663. 23 May 1663. Waked this morning between four and five by my blackbird, which whistles as well as ever I heard any; only it is the beginning of many tunes very well, but there leaves them, and goes no further.
So up and to my office, where we sat, and among other things I had a fray with Sir J. Minnes (64) in defence of my Will in a business where the old coxcomb would have put a foot upon him, which was only in Jack Davis and in him a downright piece of knavery in procuring a double ticket and getting the wrong one paid as well as the second was to the true party. But it appeared clear enough to the board that Will was true in it.
Home to dinner, and after dinner by water to the Temple, and there took my Lyra Viall book bound up with blank paper for new lessons.
Thence to Greatorex's (38), and there seeing Sir J. Minnes (64) and Sir W. Pen (42) go by coach I went in to them and to White Hall; where, in the Matted Gallery, Mr. Coventry (35) was, who told us how the Parliament have required of Sir G. Carteret (53) and him an account what money shall be necessary to be settled upon the Navy for the ordinary charge, which they intend to report £200,000 per annum. And how to allott this we met this afternoon, and took their papers for our perusal, and so we parted. Only there was walking in the gallery some of the Barbary company, and there we saw a draught of the arms of the company, which the King (32) is of, and so is called the Royall Company, which is, in a field argent an elephant proper, with a canton on which England and France is quartered, supported by two Moors. The crest an anchor winged, I think it is, and the motto too tedious: "Regio floret, patrocinio commercium, commercioque Regnum1".
Thence back by water to Greatorex's (38), and there he showed me his varnish which he had invented, which appears every whit as good, upon a stick which he hath done, as the Indian, though it did not do very well upon my paper ruled with musique lines, for it sunk and did not shine.
Thence home by water, and after a dance with Pembleton to my office and wrote by the post to Sir W. Batten (62) at Portsmouth to send for him up against next Wednesday, being our triall day against Field at Guildhall, in which God give us good end.
So home: to supper and to bed.
Note 1. TT. By royal patronage commerce flourishes, by commerce the realm".

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 25 May 1663. 25 May 1663. Up, and my pill working a little I staid within most of the morning, and by and by the barber came and Sarah Kite my cozen, poor woman, came to see me and borrow 40s. of me, telling me she will pay it at Michaelmas again to me. I was glad it was no more, being indifferent whether she pays it me or no, but it will be a good excuse to lend her nor give her any more. So I did freely at first word do it, and give her a crown more freely to buy her child something, she being a good-natured and painful wretch, and one that I would do good for as far as I can that I might not be burdened. My wife was not ready, and she coming early did not see her, and I was glad of it. She gone, I up and then hear that my wife and her maid Ashwell had between them spilled the pot.... upon the floor and stool and God knows what, and were mighty merry making of it clean. I took no great notice, but merrily. Ashwell did by and by come to me with an errand from her mistress to desire money to buy a country suit for her against she goes as we talked last night, and so I did give her £4, and believe it will cost me the best part of 4 more to fit her out, but with peace and honour I am willing to spare anything so as to be able to keep all ends together, and my power over her undisturbed.
So to my office and by and by home, where my wife and her master were dancing, and so I staid in my chamber till they had done, and sat down myself to try a little upon the Lyra viall, my hand being almost out, but easily brought to again.
So by and by to dinner, and then carried my wife and Ashwell to St. James's, and there they sat in the coach while I went in, and finding nobody there likely to meet with the Duke, but only Sir J. Minnes (64) with my Lord Barkely (61) (who speaks very kindly, and invites me with great compliments to come now and then and eat with him, which I am glad to hear, though I value not the thing, but it implies that my esteem do increase rather than fall), and so I staid not, but into the coach again, and taking up my wife's taylor, it raining hard, they set me down, and who should our coachman be but Carleton the Vintner, that should have had Mrs. Sarah, at Westminster, my Chancellor's (54), and then to Paternoster Row. I staid there to speak with my Lord Sandwich (37), and in my staying, meeting Mr. Lewis Phillips of Brampton, he and afterwards others tell me that news came last night to Court, that the King of France (24) is sick of the spotted fever, and that they are struck in again; and this afternoon my Lord Mandeville (29) is gone from the King (32) to make him a visit; which will be great news, and of great import through Europe.
By and by, out comes my Lord Sandwich (37), and he and I talked a great while about his business, of his accounts for his pay, and among other things he told me that this day a vote hath passed that the King's grants of land to my Lord Monk (54) and him should be made good; which pleases him very well. He also tells me that things don't go right in the House with Mr. Coventry (35); I suppose he means in the business of selling of places; but I am sorry for it.
Thence by coach home, where I found Pembleton, and so I up to dance with them till the evening, when there came Mr. Alsopp, the King's brewer, and Lanyon of Plymouth to see me. Mr. Alsopp tells me of a horse of his that lately, after four days' pain, voided at his fundament four stones, bigger than that I was cut of, very heavy, and in the middle of each of them either a piece of iron or wood. The King (32) has two of them in his closett, and a third the College of Physicians to keep for rarity, and by the King's command he causes the turd of the horse to be every day searched to find more. At night to see Sir W. Batten (62) come home this day from Portsmouth. I met with some that say that the King of France (24) is poisoned, but how true that is is not known.
So home to supper and to bed pleasant.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 11 July 1663. 11 Jul 1663. Up early and to the Dock, and with the Storekeeper and other officers all the morning from one office to another.
At noon to the Hill-house in Commissioner Pett's (52) coach, and after seeing the guard-ships, to dinner, and after dining done to the Dock by coach, it raining hard, to see "The Prince" launched, which hath lain in the Dock in repairing these three years. I went into her and was launched in her.
Thence by boat ashore, it raining, and I went to Mr. Barrow's, where Sir J. Minnes (64) and Commissioner Pett (52); we staid long eating sweetmeats and drinking, and looking over some antiquities of Mr. Barrow's, among others an old manuscript Almanac, that I believe was made for some monastery, in parchment, which I could spend much time upon to understand. Here was a pretty young lady, a niece of Barrow's, which I took much pleasure to look on.
Thence by barge to St Mary Creeke; where Commissioner Pett (52) (doubtful of the growing greatness of Portsmouth by the finding of those creeks there), do design a wett dock at no great charge, and yet no little one; he thinks towards £10,000. And the place, indeed, is likely to be a very fit place, when the King (33) hath money to do it with.
Thence, it raining as hard as it could pour down, home to the Hillhouse, and anon to supper, and after supper, Sir J. Minnes (64) and I had great discourse with Captain Cox and Mr. Hempson about business of the yard, and particularly of pursers' accounts with Hempson, who is a cunning knave in that point. So late to bed and, Mr. Wayth being gone, I lay above in the Treasurer's (56) bed and slept well. About one or two in the morning the curtains of my bed being drawn waked me, and I saw a man stand there by the inside of my bed calling me French dogg 20 times, one after another, and I starting, as if I would get out of the bed, he fell a-laughing as hard as he could drive, still calling me French dogg, and laid his hand on my shoulder. At last, whether I said anything or no I cannot tell, but I perceived the man, after he had looked wistly upon me, and found that I did not answer him to the names that he called me by, which was Salmon, Sir Carteret's clerk, and Robt. Maddox, another of the clerks, he put off his hat on a suddaine, and forebore laughing, and asked who I was, saying, "Are you Mr. Pepys?" I told him yes, and now being come a little better to myself, I found him to be Tom Willson, Sir W. Batten's (62) clerk, and fearing he might be in some melancholy fit, I was at a loss what to do or say. At last I asked him what he meant. He desired my pardon for that he was mistaken, for he thought verily, not knowing of my coming to lie there, that it had been Salmon, the Frenchman, with whom he intended to have made some sport. So I made nothing of it, but bade him good night, and I, after a little pause, to sleep again, being well pleased that it ended no worse, and being a little the better pleased with it, because it was the Surveyor's clerk, which will make sport when I come to tell Sir W. Batten (62) of it, it being a report that old Edgeborough, the former Surveyor, who died here, do now and then walk.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 29 July 1663. 29 Jul 1663. Up about 6 o'clock, and found the people to have just done, and Hannah not gone to bed yet, but was making clean of the yard and kitchen. Will newly gone to bed.
So I to my office, and having given some order to Tom Hater, to whom I gave leave for his recreation to go down to Portsmouth this Pay, I went down to Wapping to Sir W. Warren, and there staid an hour or two discoursing of some of his goods and then things in general relating to this office, &c., and so home, and there going to Sir William Batten (62) (having no stomach to dine at home, it being yet hardly clean of last night's [mess])and there I dined with my Lady and her daughter and son Castle, and mighty kind she is and I kind to her, but, Lord! how freely and plainly she rails against Commissioner Pett (52), calling him rogue, and wondering that the King (33) keeps such a fellow in the Navy.
Thence by and by walked to see Sir W. Pen (42) at Deptford, reading by the way a most ridiculous play, a new one, called "The Politician Cheated".
After a little sitting with him I walked to the yard a little and so home again, my Will with me, whom I bade to stay in the yard for me, and so to bed. This morning my brother Tom (29) was with me, and we had some discourse again concerning his country mistress, but I believe the most that is fit for us to condescend to, will not content her friends.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 30 July 1663. 30 Jul 1663. Up and to the office to get business ready for our sitting, this being the first day of altering it from afternoon during the Parliament sitting to the fore-noon again.
By and by Mr. Coventry (35) only came (Sir John Minnes (64) and Sir William Batten (62) being gone this morning to Portsmouth to pay some ships and the yard there), and after doing a little business he and I down to Woolwich, and there up and down the yard, and by and by came Sir G. Carteret (53) and we all looked into matters, and then by water back to Deptford, where we dined with him at his house, a very good dinner and mightily tempted with wines of all sorts and brave French Syder, but I drunk none. But that which is a great wonder I find his little daughter Betty, that was in hanging sleeves but a month or two ago, and is a very little young child; married, and to whom, but to young Scott, son to Madam Catharine Scott, that was so long in law, and at whose triall I was with her husband; he pleading that it was unlawfully got and would not own it, she, it seems, being brought to bed of it, if not got by somebody else at Oxford, but it seems a little before his death he did own the child, and hath left him his estate, not long since. So Sir G. Carteret (53) hath struck up of a sudden a match with him for his little daughter. He hath about £2000 per annum; and it seems Sir G. Carteret (53) hath by this means over-reached Sir H. Bennet (45), who did endeavour to get this gentleman for a sister of his, but Sir G. Carteret (53) I say has over-reached him. By this means Sir G. Carteret (53) hath married two daughters this year both very well.
After dinner into Deptford yard, but our bellies being full we could do no great business, and so parted, and Mr. Coventry (35) and I to White Hall by water, where we also parted, and I to several places about business, and so calling for my five books of the Variorum print bound according to my common binding instead of the other which is more gaudy I went home.
The town talk this day is of nothing but the great foot-race run this day on Banstead Downes, between Lee, the Duke of Richmond's footman, and a tyler, a famous runner. And Lee hath beat him; though the King (33) and Duke of York (29) and all men almost did bet three or four to one upon the tyler's head.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 August 1663. 08 Aug 1663. Up and to my office, whither I search for Brown the mathematical instrument maker, who now brought me a ruler for measuring timber and other things so well done and in all things to my mind that I do set up my trust upon it that I cannot have a better, nor any man else have so good for this purpose, this being of my own ordering.
By and by we sat all the morning dispatching of business, and then at noon rose, and I with Mr. Coventry (35) down to the water-side, talking, wherein I see so much goodness and endeavours of doing the King (33) service, that I do more and more admire him. It being the greatest trouble to me, he says, in the world to see not only in the Navy, but in the greatest matters of State, where he can lay his finger upon the soare (meaning this man's faults, and this man's office the fault lies in), and yet dare or can not remedy matters.
Thence to the Exchange about several businesses, and so home to dinner, and in the afternoon took my brother John (22) and Will down to Woolwich by water, and after being there a good while, and eating of fruit in Sheldon's (65) garden, we began our walk back again, I asking many things in physiques of my brother John (22), to which he gives me so bad or no answer at all, as in the regions of the ayre he told me that he knew of no such thing, for he never read Aristotle's philosophy and Des Cartes ownes no such thing, which vexed me to hear him say. But I shall call him to task, and see what it is that he has studied since his going to the University.
It was late before we could get from Greenwich to London by water, the tide being against us and almost past, so that to save time and to be clear of anchors I landed at Wapping, and so walked home weary enough, walking over the stones.
This night Sir W. Batten (62) and Sir J. Minnes (64) returned [from] Portsmouth, but I did not go see them.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 August 1663. 09 Aug 1663. Lord's Day. Up, and leaving my brother John (22) to go somewhere else, I to church, and heard Mr. Mills (who is lately returned out of the country, and it seems was fetched in by many of the parishioners, with great state,) preach upon the authority of the ministers, upon these words, "We are therefore embassadors of Christ". Wherein, among other high expressions, he said, that such a learned man used to say, that if a minister of the word and an angell should meet him together, he would salute the minister first; which methought was a little too high.
This day I begun to make use of the silver pen (Mr. Coventry (35) did give me) in writing of this sermon, taking only the heads of it in Latin, which I shall, I think, continue to do.
So home and at my office reading my vowes, and so to Sir W. Batten (62) to dinner, being invited and sent for, and being willing to hear how they left things at Portsmouth, which I found but ill enough, and are mightily for a Commissioner to be at seat there to keep the yard in order.
Thence in the afternoon with my Lady Batten, leading her through the streets by the hand to St. Dunstan's Church, hard by us (where by Mrs. Russell's means we were set well), and heard an excellent sermon of one Mr. Gifford, the parson there, upon "Remember Lot's wife".
So from thence walked back to Mrs. Russell's, and there drank and sat talking a great while. Among other things talked of young Dawes (19) that married the great fortune, who it seems has a Baronet's patent given him, and is now Sir Thos. Dawes1, and a very fine bred man they say he is.
Thence home, and my brother being abroad I walked to my uncle Wight's and there staid, though with little pleasure, and supped, there being the husband of Mrs. Anne Wight, who it seems is lately married to one Mr. Bentley, a Norwich factor.
Home, and staid up a good while examining Will in his Latin below, and my brother along with him in his Greeke, and so to prayers and to bed.
This afternoon I was amused at the tune set to the Psalm by the Clerke of the parish, and thought at first that he was out, but I find him to be a good songster, and the parish could sing it very well, and was a good tune. But I wonder that there should be a tune in the Psalms that I never heard of.
Note 1. Not clear why Pepy's refers to him as Thomas when he was John Dawes 1st Baronet 1644-1671 (19).

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 01 September 1663. 01 Sep 1663. Up pretty betimes, and after a little at my viall to my office, where we sat all the morning, and I got my bill among others for my carved work (which I expected to have paid for myself) signed at the table, and hope to get the money back again, though if the rest had not got it paid by the King (33), I never intended nor did desire to have him pay for my vanity.
In the evening my brother John (22) coming to me to complain that my wife seems to be discontented at his being here, and shows him great disrespect; so I took and walked with him in the garden, and discoursed long with him about my affairs, and how imprudent it is for my father and mother and him to take exceptions without great cause at my wife, considering how much it concerns them to keep her their friend and for my peace; not that I would ever be led by her to forget or desert them in the main, but yet she deserves to be pleased and complied with a little, considering the manner of life that I keep her to, and how convenient it were for me to have Brampton for her to be sent to when I have a mind or occasion to go abroad to Portsmouth or elsewhere. So directed him how to behave himself to her, and gave him other counsel; and so to my office, where late.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 October 1663. 14 Oct 1663. Up and to my office, where all the morning, and part of it Sir J. Minnes (64) spent, as he do every thing else, like a fool, reading the Anatomy of the body to me, but so sillily as to the making of me understand any thing that I was weary of him, and so I toward the 'Change and met with Mr. Grant (43), and he and I to the Coffee-house, where I understand by him that Sir W. Petty (40) and his vessel are coming, and the King (33) intends to go to Portsmouth to meet it.
Thence home and after dinner my wife and I, by Mr. Rawlinson's conduct, to the Jewish Synagogue: where the men and boys in their vayles, and the women behind a lattice out of sight; and some things stand up, which I believe is their Law, in a press to which all coming in do bow; and at the putting on their vayles do say something, to which others that hear him do cry Amen, and the party do kiss his vayle. Their service all in a singing way, and in Hebrew. And anon their Laws that they take out of the press are carried by several men, four or five several burthens in all, and they do relieve one another; and whether it is that every one desires to have the carrying of it, I cannot tell, thus they carried it round about the room while such a service is singing. And in the end they had a prayer for the King (33), which they pronounced his name in Portugall; but the prayer, like the rest, in Hebrew. But, Lord! to see the disorder, laughing, sporting, and no attention, but confusion in all their service, more like brutes than people knowing the true God, would make a man forswear ever seeing them more and indeed I never did see so much, or could have imagined there had been any religion in the whole world so absurdly performed as this. Away thence with my mind strongly disturbed with them, by coach and set down my wife in Westminster Hall, and I to White Hall, and there the Tangier Committee met, but the Duke and the Africa Committee meeting in our room, Sir G. Carteret (53); Sir Wm. Compton (38), Mr. Coventry (35), Sir W. Rider, Cuttance and myself met in another room, with chairs set in form but no table, and there we had very fine discourses of the business of the fitness to keep Sally, and also of the terms of our King's paying the Portugees that deserted their house at Tangier, which did much please me, and so to fetch my wife, and so to the New Exchange about her things, and called at Thomas Pepys the turner's and bought something there, an so home to supper and to bed, after I had been a good while with Sir W. Pen (42), railing and speaking freely our minds against Sir W. Batten (62) and Sir J. Minnes (64), but no more than the folly of one and the knavery of the other do deserve.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 November 1663. 05 Nov 1663. Lay long in bed, then up, called by Captain Cocke (46) about business of a contract of his for some Tarre, and so to the office, and then to Sir W. Pen (42) and there talked, and he being gone came Sir W. Warren and discoursed about our business with Field, and at noon by agreement to the Miter to dinner upon T. Trice's 40s., to be spent upon our late agreement. Here was a very poor dinner and great company. All our lawyers on both sides, and several friends of his and some of mine brought by him, viz., Mr. Moore, uncle Wight, Dr. Williams, and my cozen Angier, that lives here in town, who the Captain John Shales after dinner carried me aside and showed me a letter from his poor brother at Cambridge to me of the same contents with that yesterday to me desiring help from me. Here I was among a sorry company without any content or pleasure, and at the last the reckoning coming to above 40s. by 15s., he would have me pay the 10s. and he would pay the 5s., which was so poor that I was ashamed of it, and did it only to save contending with him. There, after agreeing a day for him and I to meet and seal our agreement, I parted and home, and at the office by agreement came Mr. Shales, and there he and I discourse till late the business of his helping me in the discovery of some arrears of provisions and stores due to the stores at Portsmouth, out of which I may chance to get some money, and save the King (33) some too, and therefore I shall endeavour to do the fellow some right in other things here to his advantage between Mr. Gauden and him. He gone my wife and I to her arithmetique, in which she pleases me well, and so to the office, there set down my Journall, and so home to supper and to bed. A little troubled to see how my family is out of order by Will's being there, and also to hear that Jane do not please my wife as I expected and would have wished.

Read More ...

Treaty of Newport

Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 November 1663. 09 Nov 1663. Up and found myself very well, and so by coach to White Hall and there met all my fellow officers, and so to the Duke (30), where, when we came into his closett, he told us that Mr. Pepys was so altered with his new perriwigg that he did not know him.
So to our discourse, and among and above other things we were taken up in talking upon Sir J. Lawson's (48) coming home, he being come to Portsmouth; and Captain Berkely is come to towne with a letter from the Duana of Algier to the King (33), wherein they do demand again the searching of our ships and taking out of strangers, and their goods; and that what English ships are taken without the Duke's pass they will detain (though it be flat contrary to the words of the peace) as prizes, till they do hear from our King, which they advise him may be speedy. And this they did the very next day after they had received with great joy the Grand Seignor's confirmation of the Peace from Constantinople by Captain Berkely; so that there is no command nor certainty to be had of these people. The King (33) is resolved to send his will by a fleete of ships; and it is thought best and speediest to send these very ships that are now come home, five sail of good ships, back again after cleaning, victualling, and paying them. But it is a pleasant thing to think how their Basha, Shavan Aga, did tear his hair to see the soldiers order things thus; for (just like his late predecessor) when they see the evil of war with England, then for certain they complain to the Grand Seignor of him, and cut his head off: this he is sure of, and knows as certain.
Thence to Westminster Hall, where I met with Mr. Pierce, chyrurgeon; and among other things he asked me seriously whether I knew anything of my Lord's being out of favour with the King (33); and told me, that for certain the King (33) do take mighty notice of my Lord's living obscurely in a corner not like himself, and becoming the honour that he is come to. I was sorry to hear, and the truth is, from my Lord's discourse among his people (which I am told) of the uncertainty of princes' favours, and his melancholy keeping from Court, I am doubtful of some such thing; but I seemed wholly strange to him in it, but will make my use of it. He told me also how loose the Court is, nobody looking after business, but every man his lust and gain; and how the King (33) is now become besotted upon Mrs. Stewart (16), that he gets into corners, and will be with her half an houre together kissing her to the observation of all the world; and she now stays by herself and expects it, as my Baroness Castlemaine's (22) did use to do; to whom the King (33), he says, is still kind, so as now and then he goes to have a chat with her as he believes; but with no such fondness as he used to do. But yet it is thought that this new wench is so subtle, that she lets him not do any thing than is safe to her, but yet his doting is so great that, Pierce tells me, it is verily thought if the Queene (53) had died, he would have married her.
The Duke of Monmouth (14) is to have part of the Cockpitt new built for lodgings for him, and they say to be made Captain of the Guards in the room of my Lord Gerard (45). Having thus talked with him, there comes into the Hall Creed and Ned Pickering (45), and after a turne or two with them, it being noon, I walked with them two to the King's Head ordinary, and there we dined; little discourse but what was common, only that the Duke of Yorke (30) is a very, desperate huntsman, but I was ashamed of Pickering, who could not forbear having up my Lord Sandwich (38) now and then in the most paltry matters abominable.
Thence I took leave of them, and so having taken up something at my wife's tailor's, I home by coach and there to my office, whither Shales came and I had much discourse with him about the business of the victualling, and thence in the evening to the Coffee-house, and there sat till by and by, by appointment Will brought me word that his uncle Blackburne was ready to speak with me. So I went down to him, and he and I to a taverne hard by, and there I begun to speak to Will friendlily, advising him how to carry himself now he is going from under my roof, without any reflections upon the occasion from whence his removal arose. This his uncle seconded, and after laying down to him his duty to me, and what I expect of him, in a discourse of about a quarter of an houre or more, we agreed upon his going this week, towards the latter (end) of the week, and so dismissed him, and Mr. Blackburne and I fell to talk of many things, wherein I did speak so freely to him in many things agreeing with his sense that he was very open to me: first, in that of religion, he makes it great matter of prudence for the King (33) and Council to suffer liberty of conscience; and imputes the losse of Hungary to the Turke from the Emperor's denying them this liberty of their religion. He says that many pious ministers of the word of God, some thousands of them, do now beg their bread: and told me how highly the present clergy carry themselves every where, so as that they are hated and laughed at by everybody; among other things, for their excommunications, which they send upon the least occasions almost that can be. And I am convinced in my judgement, not only from his discourse, but my thoughts in general, that the present clergy will never heartily go down with the generality of the commons of England; they have been so used to liberty and freedom, and they are so acquainted with the pride and debauchery of the present clergy. He did give me many stories of the affronts which the clergy receive in all places of England from the gentry and ordinary persons of the parish. He do tell me what the City thinks of General Monk (54), as of a most perfidious man that hath betrayed every body, and the King (33) also; who, as he thinks, and his party, and so I have heard other good friends of the King (33) say, it might have been better for the King (33) to have had his hands a little bound for the present, than be forced to bring such a crew of poor people about him, and be liable to satisfy the demands of every one of them. He told me that to his knowledge (being present at every meeting at the Treaty at the Isle of Wight), that the old King did confess himself overruled and convinced in his judgement against the Bishopps, and would have suffered and did agree to exclude the service out of the churches, nay his own chappell; and that he did always say, that this he did not by force, for that he would never abate one inch by any vyolence; but what he did was out of his reason and judgement.
He tells me that the King (33) by name, with all his dignities, is prayed for by them that they call Fanatiques, as heartily and powerfully as in any of the other churches that are thought better: and that, let the King (33) think what he will, it is them that must helpe him in the day of warr. For as they are the most, so generally they are the most substantial sort of people, and the soberest; and did desire me to observe it to my Lord Sandwich (38), among other things, that of all the old army now you cannot see a man begging about the street; but what? You shall have this captain turned a shoemaker; the lieutenant, a baker; this a brewer; that a haberdasher; this common soldier, a porter; and every man in his apron and frock, &c., as if they never had done anything else: whereas the others go with their belts and swords, swearing and cursing, and stealing; running into people's houses, by force oftentimes, to carry away something; and this is the difference between the temper of one and the other; and concludes (and I think with some reason,) that the spirits of the old parliament soldiers are so quiett and contented with God's providences, that the King (33) is safer from any evil meant him by them one thousand times more than from his own discontented Cavalier. And then to the publique management of business: it is done, as he observes, so loosely and so carelessly, that the Kingdom can never be happy with it, every man looking after himself, and his owne lust and luxury; among other things he instanced in the business of money, he do believe that half of what money the Parliament gives the King (33) is not so much as gathered. And to the purpose he told me how the Bellamys (who had some of the Northern counties assigned them for their debt for the petty warrant victualling) have often complained to him that they cannot get it collected, for that nobody minds, or, if they do, they won't pay it in. Whereas (which is a very remarkable thing,) he hath been told by some of the Treasurers at Warr here of late, to whom the most of the £120,000 monthly was paid, that for most months the payments were gathered so duly, that they seldom had so much or more than 40s., or the like, short in the whole collection; whereas now the very Commissioners for Assessments and other publique payments are such persons, and those that they choose in the country so like themselves, that from top to bottom there is not a man carefull of any thing, or if he be, he is not solvent; that what between the beggar and the knave, the King (33) is abused the best part of all his revenue. From thence we began to talk of the Navy, and particularly of Sir W. Pen (42), of whose rise to be a general I had a mind to be informed. He told me he was always a conceited man, and one that would put the best side outward, but that it was his pretence of sanctity that brought him into play. Lawson, and Portman, and the Fifth-monarchy men, among whom he was a great brother, importuned that he might be general; and it was pleasant to see how Blackburne himself did act it, how when the Commissioners of the Admiralty would enquire of the captains and admirals of such and such men, how they would with a sigh and casting up the eyes say, "Such a man fears the Lord", or, "I hope such a man hath the Spirit of God", and such things as that. But he tells me that there was a cruel articling against Pen after one fight, for cowardice, in putting himself within a coyle of cables, of which he had much ado to acquit himself: and by great friends did it, not without remains of guilt, but that his brethren had a mind to pass it by, and Sir H. Vane (50) did advise him to search his heart, and see whether this fault or a greater sin was not the occasion of this so great tryall. And he tells me, that what Pen gives out about Cromwell's sending and entreating him to go to Jamaica, is very false; he knows the contrary: besides, the Protector never was a man that needed to send for any man, specially such a one as he, twice. He tells me that the business of Jamaica did miscarry absolutely by his pride, and that when he was in the Tower he would cry like a child. This he says of his own personal knowledge, and lastly tells me that just upon the turne, when Monk (54) was come from the North to the City, and did begin to think of bringing in the King (33), Pen was then turned Quaker. This he is most certain of. He tells me that Lawson was never counted any thing but only a seaman, and a stout man, but a false man, and that now he appears the greatest hypocrite in the world. And Pen the same. He tells me that it is much talked of, that the King (33) intends to legitimate the Duke of Monmouth (14); and that he has not, nor his friends of his persuasion, have any hopes of getting their consciences at liberty but by God Almighty's turning of the King's heart, which they expect, and are resolved to live and die in quiett hopes of it; but never to repine, or act any thing more than by prayers towards it. And that not only himself but all of them have, and are willing at any time to take the oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy. Thus far, and upon many more things, we had discoursed when some persons in a room hard by began to sing in three parts very finely and to play upon a flagilette so pleasantly that my discourse afterwards was but troublesome, and I could not attend it, and so, anon, considering of a sudden the time of night, we found it 11 o'clock, which I thought it had not been by two hours, but we were close in talk, and so we rose, he having drunk some wine and I some beer and sugar, and so by a fair moonshine home and to bed, my wife troubled with tooth ache.
Mr. Blackburne observed further to me, some certain notice that he had of the present plot so much talked of; that he was told by Mr. Rushworth, how one Captain Oates, a great discoverer, did employ several to bring and seduce others into a plot, and that one of his agents met with one that would not listen to him, nor conceal what he had offered him, but so detected the trapan. This, he says, is most true. He also, among other instances how the King (33) is served, did much insist upon the cowardice and corruption of the King's guards and militia, which to be sure will fail the King (33), as they have done already, when there will be occasion for them.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 18 November 1663. 18 Nov 1663. Up, and after being ready, and done a little business at the office, I and Mr. Hater by water to Redriffe, and so walked to Deptford, where I have not been a very great, while, and there paid off the Milford in very good order, and all respect showed me in the office as much as there used to be to any of the rest or the whole board. That done at noon I took Captain Terne, and there coming in by chance Captain Berkeley, him also to dinner with me to the Globe. Captain Berkeley, who was lately come from Algier, did give us a good account of the place, and how the Basha there do live like a prisoner, being at the mercy of the soldiers and officers, so that there is nothing but a great confusion there.
After dinner came Sir W. Batten (62), and I left him to pay off another ship, and I walked home again reading of a little book of new poems of Cowley's (45), given me by his brother. Abraham do lie, it seems, very sicke, still, but like to recover.
At my office till late, and then came Mr. Hollyard (54) so full of discourse and Latin that I think he hath got a cupp, but I do not know; but full of talke he is in defence of Calvin and Luther. He begun this night the fomentation to my wife, and I hope it will do well with her.
He gone, I to the office again a little, and so to bed. This morning I sent Will with my great letter of reproof to my Lord Sandwich (38), who did give it into his owne hand. I pray God give a blessing to it, but confess I am afeard what the consequence may be to me of good or bad, which is according to the ingenuity that he do receive it with. However, I am satisfied that it will do him good, and that he needs it: MY LORD, I do verily hope that neither the manner nor matter of this advice will be condemned by your Lordship, when for my defence in the first I shall allege my double attempt, since your return from Hinchinbroke, of doing it personally, in both of which your Lordship's occasions, no doubtfulnesse of mine, prevented me, and that being now fearful of a sudden summons to Portsmouth, for the discharge of some ships there, I judge it very unbecoming the duty which every bit of bread I eat tells me I owe to your Lordship to expose the safety of your honour to the uncertainty of my return. For the matter, my Lord, it is such as could I in any measure think safe to conceal from, or likely to be discovered to you by any other hand, I should not have dared so far to owne what from my heart I believe is false, as to make myself but the relater of other's discourse; but, sir, your Lordship's honour being such as I ought to value it to be, and finding both in city and court that discourses pass to your prejudice, too generally for mine or any man's controllings but your Lordship's, I shall, my Lord, without the least greatening or lessening the matter, do my duty in laying it shortly before you. People of all conditions, my Lord, raise matter of wonder from your Lordship's so little appearance at Court: some concluding thence their disfavour thereby, to which purpose I have had questions asked me, and endeavouring to put off such insinuations by asserting the contrary, they have replied, that your Lordship's living so beneath your quality, out of the way, and declining of Court attendance, hath been more than once discoursed about the King (33). Others, my Lord, when the chief ministers of State, and those most active of the Council have been reckoned up, wherein your Lordship never used to want an eminent place, have said, touching your Lordship, that now your turn was served, and the King (33) had given you a good estate, you left him to stand or fall as he would, and, particularly in that of the Navy, have enlarged upon your letting fall all service there. Another sort, and those the most, insist upon the bad report of the house wherein your Lordship, now observed in perfect health again, continues to sojourne, and by name have charged one of the daughters for a common courtizan, alleging both places and persons where and with whom she hath been too well known, and how much her wantonnesse occasions, though unjustly, scandal to your Lordship, and that as well to gratifying of some enemies as to the wounding of more friends I am not able to tell. Lastly, my Lord, I find a general coldness in all persons towards your Lordship, such as, from my first dependance on you, I never yet knew, wherein I shall not offer to interpose any thoughts or advice of mine, well knowing your Lordship needs not any. But with a most faithful assurance that no person nor papers under Heaven is privy to what I here write, besides myself and this, which I shall be careful to have put into your owne hands, I rest confident of your Lordship's just construction of my dutifull intents herein, and in all humility take leave, may it please your Lordship, Your Lordship's most obedient Servant, S. P.
The foregoing letter was sealed up, and enclosed in this that follows MY LORD, If this finds your Lordship either not alone, or not at leisure, I beg the suspending your opening of the enclosed till you shall have both, the matter very well bearing such a delay, and in all humility remain, may it please your Lordship, Your Lordship's most obedient Servant, S. P. November 17, 1663. My servant hath my directions to put this into your Lordship's owne hand, but not to stay for any answer.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 19 November 1663. 19 Nov 1663. Up, and to the office, where (Sir J. Minnes (64) and Sir W. Batten (62) being gone this morning to Portsmouth) the rest of us met, and rode at noon. So I to the 'Change, where little business, and so home to dinner, and being at dinner Mr. Creed in and dined with us, and after dinner Mr. Gentleman, my Jane's father, to see us and her. !And after a little stay with them, I was sent for by Sir G. Carteret (53) by agreement, and so left them, and to him and with him by coach to my Lord Treasurer (56), to discourse with him about Mr. Gauden's having of money, and to offer to him whether it would not be necessary, Mr. Gauden's credit being so low as it is, to take security of him if he demands any great sum, such as £20,000, which now ought to be paid him upon his next year's declaration. Which is a sad thing, that being reduced to this by us, we should be the first to doubt his credit; but so it is. However, it will be managed with great tenderness to him. My Lord Treasurer (56) we found in his bed-chamber, being laid up of the goute. I find him a very ready man, and certainly a brave servant to the King (33): he spoke so quick and sensibly of the King's charge. Nothing displeased me in him but his long nails, which he lets grow upon a pretty thick white short hand, that it troubled me to see them.
Thence with Sir G. Carteret (53) by coach, and he set me down at the New Exchange. In our way he told me there is no such thing likely yet as a Dutch war, neither they nor we being in condition for it, though it will come certainly to that in some time, our interests lying the same way, that is to say, in trade. But not yet.
Thence to the Temple, and there visited my cozen Roger Pepys (46) and his brother Dr. John, a couple, methinks, of very ordinary men, and thence to speak [with] Mr. Moore, and met him by the way, who tells me, to my great content, that he believes my letter to my Lord Sandwich (38) hath wrought well upon him, and that he will look after himself and his business upon it, for he begins already to do so. But I dare not conclude anything till I see him, which shall be to-morrow morning, that I may be out of my pain to know how he takes it of me. He and I to the Coffee-house, and there drank and talked a little, and so I home, and after a little at my office home to supper and to bed, not knowing how to avoid hopes from Mr. Moore's words to-night, and yet I am fearful of the worst.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 03 December 1663. 03 Dec 1663. Up and to the office, where all the forenoon, and then (by Mr. Coventry's (35) coach) to the 'Change, and so home to dinner, very pleasant with my poor wife. Somebody from Portsmouth, I know not who, has this day sent me a Runlett of Tent.
So to my office all the afternoon, where much business till late at night, and so home to my wife, and then to supper and to bed.
This day Sir G. Carteret (53) did tell us at the table, that the Navy (excepting what is due to the Yards upon the quarter now going on, and what few bills he hath not heard of) is quite out of debt; which is extraordinary good newes, and upon the 'Change to hear how our creditt goes as good as any merchant's upon the 'Change is a joyfull thing to consider, which God continue! I am sure the King (33) will have the benefit of it, as well as we some peace and creditt.

After 17 Mar 1664 Charles Berkeley 1st Earl Falmouth 1630-1665 was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Portsmouth.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 18 May 1664. 18 May 1664. Up and within all the morning, being willing to keep as much as I could within doors, but receiving a very wakening letter from Mr. Coventry (36) about fitting of ships, which speaks something like to be done, I went forth to the office, there to take order in things, and after dinner to White Hall to a Committee of Tangier, but did little.
So home again and to Sir W. Pen (43), who, among other things of haste in this new order for ships, is ordered to be gone presently to Portsmouth to look after the work there. I staid to discourse with him, and so home to supper, where upon a fine couple of pigeons, a good supper; and here I met a pretty cabinet sent me by Mr. Shales, which I give my wife, the first of that sort of goods I ever had yet, and very conveniently it comes for her closett. I staid up late finding out the private boxes, but could not do some of them, and so to bed, afraid that I have been too bold to-day in venturing in the cold. This day I begun to drink butter-milke and whey, and I hope to find great good by it.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 19 May 1664. 19 May 1664. Up, and it being very rayny weather, which makes it cooler than it was, by coach to Charing Cross with Sir W. Pen (43), who is going to Portsmouth this day, and left him going to St. James's to take leave of the Duke (30), and I to White Hall to a Committee of Tangier; where God forgive how our Report of my Lord Peterborough's (42) accounts was read over and agreed to by the Lords, without one of them understanding it! And had it been what it would, it had gone: and, besides, not one thing touching the King's profit in it minded or hit upon.
Thence by coach home again, and all the morning at the office, sat, and all the afternoon till 9 at night, being fallen again to business, and I hope my health will give me leave to follow it.
So home to supper and to bed, finding myself pretty well. A pretty good stool, which I impute to my whey to-day, and broke wind also.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 18 June 1664. 18 Jun 1664. From morning till 11 at night (only a little at dinner at home) at my office very busy, setting many businesses in order to my great trouble, but great content in the end.
So home to supper and to bed. Strange to see how pert Sir W. Pen (43) is to-day newly come from Portsmouth with his head full of great reports of his service and the state of the ships there. When that is over he will be just as another man again or worse. But I wonder whence Mr. Coventry (36) should take all this care for him, to send for him up only to look after his Irish business with my Lord Ormond (53) and to get the Duke's leave for him to come with so much officiousness, when I am sure he knows him as well as I do as to his little service he do.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 12 October 1664. 12 Oct 1664. This morning all the morning at my office ordering things against my journey to-morrow.
At noon to the Coffeehouse, where very good discourse. For newes, all say De Ruyter (57) is gone to Guinny before us. Sir J. Lawson (49) is come to Portsmouth; and our fleete is hastening all speed: I mean this new fleete. Prince Rupert (44) with his is got into the Downes.
At home dined with me W. Joyce and a friend of his. W. Joyce will go with me to Brampton.
After dinner I out to Mr. Bridges, the linnen draper, and evened with (him) for 100 pieces of callico, and did give him £208 18s., which I now trust the King (34) for, but hope both to save the King (34) money and to get a little by it to boot.
Thence by water up and down all the timber yards to look out some Dram timber, but can find none for our turne at the price I would have; and so I home, and there at my office late doing business against my journey to clear my hands of every thing for two days.
So home and to supper and bed.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 October 1664. 17 Oct 1664. Rose very well and not weary, and with Sir W. Batten (63) to St. James's; there did our business. I saw Sir J. Lawson (49) since his return from sea first this morning, and hear that my Lord Sandwich (39) is come from Portsmouth to town.
Thence I to him, and finding him at my Lord Crew's (66), I went with him home to his house and much kind discourse.
Thence my Lord to Court, and I with Creed to the 'Change, and thence with Sir W. Warren to a cook's shop and dined, discoursing and advising him about his great contract he is to make tomorrow, and do every day receive great satisfaction in his company, and a prospect of a just advantage by his friendship.
Thence to my office doing some business, but it being very cold, I, for fear of getting cold, went early home to bed, my wife not being come home from my Lady Jemimah, with whom she hath been at a play and at Court to-day.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 18 October 1664. 18 Oct 1664. Up and to the office, where among other things we made a very great contract with Sir W. Warren for 3,000 loade of timber.
At noon dined at home. In the afternoon to the Fishery, where, very confused and very ridiculous, my Lord Craven's (56) proceedings, especially his finding fault with Sir J. Collaton and Colonell Griffin's' report in the accounts of the lottery-men.
Thence I with Mr. Gray in his coach to White Hall, but the King (34) and Duke being abroad, we returned to Somersett House. In discourse I find him a very worthy and studious gentleman in the business of trade, and among-other things he observed well to me, how it is not the greatest wits, but the steady man, that is a good merchant: he instanced in Ford and Cocke, the last of whom he values above all men as his oracle, as Mr. Coventry (36) do Mr. Jolliffe. He says that it is concluded among merchants, that where a trade hath once been and do decay, it never recovers again, and therefore that the manufacture of cloath of England will never come to esteem again; that, among other faults, Sir Richard Ford (50) cannot keepe a secret, and that it is so much the part of a merchant to be guilty of that fault that the Duke of Yoke is resolved to commit no more secrets to the merchants of the Royall Company; that Sir Ellis Layton is, for a speech of forty words, the wittiest man that ever he knew in his life, but longer he is nothing, his judgment being nothing at all, but his wit most absolute. At Somersett House he carried me in, and there I saw the Queene's (54) new rooms, which are most stately and nobly furnished; and there I saw her, and the Duke of Yorke (31) and Duchesse (27) were there. The Duke (31) espied me, and came to me, and talked with me a very great while about our contract this day with Sir W. Warren, and among other things did with some contempt ask whether we did except Polliards, which Sir W. Batten (63) did yesterday (in spite, as the Duke I believe by my Lord Barkely (62) do well enough know) among other things in writing propose.
Thence home by coach, it raining hard, and to my office, where late, then home to supper and to bed.
This night the Dutch Embassador desired and had an audience of the King (34). What the issue of it was I know not. Both sides I believe desire peace, but neither will begin, and so I believe a warr will follow. The Prince (44) is with his fleet at Portsmouth, and the Dutch are making all preparations for warr.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 October 1664. 24 Oct 1664. Up and in Sir J. Minnes' (65) coach (alone with Mrs. Turner (41) as far as Paternoster Row, where I set her down) to St. James's, and there did our business, and I had the good lucke to speak what pleased the Duke (31) about our great contract in hand with Sir W. Warren against Sir W. Batten (63), wherein the Duke (31) is very earnest for our contracting.
Thence home to the office till noon, and then dined and to the 'Change and off with Sir W. Warren for a while, consulting about managing his contract.
Thence to a Committee at White Hall of Tangier where I had the good lucke to speak something to very good purpose about the Mole at Tangier, which was well received even by Sir J. Lawson (49) and Mr. Cholmely (32), the undertakers, against whose interest I spoke; that I believe I shall be valued for it.
Thence into the galleries to talk with my Lord Sandwich (39); among other things, about the Prince's (44) writing up to tell us of the danger he and his fleete lie in at Portsmouth, of receiving affronts from the Dutch; which, my Lord said, he would never have done, had he lain there with one ship alone: nor is there any great reason for it, because of the sands. However, the fleete will be ordered to go and lay themselves up at the Cowes. Much beneath the prowesse of the Prince, I think, and the honour of the nation, at the first to be found to secure themselves. My Lord is well pleased to think, that, if the Duke and the Prince (44) go, all the blame of any miscarriage will not light on him; and that if any thing goes well, he hopes he shall have the share of the glory, for the Prince is by no means well esteemed of by any body.
Thence home, and though not very well yet up late about the Fishery business, wherein I hope to give an account how I find the Collections to have been managed, which I did finish to my great content, and so home to supper and to bed.
This day the great O'Neale (52) died; I believe, to the content of all the Protestant pretenders in Ireland.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 31 October 1664. 31 Oct 1664. Very busy all the morning, at noon Creed to me and dined with me, and then he and I to White Hall, there to a Committee of Tangier, where it is worth remembering when Mr. Coventry (36) proposed the retrenching some of the charge of the horse, the first word asked by the Duke of Albemarle (55) was, "Let us see who commands them", there being three troops. One of them he calls to mind was by Sir Toby Bridges. "Oh!" says he, "there is a very good man. If you must reform1 two of them, be sure let him command the troop that is left".
Thence home, and there came presently to me Mr. Young and Whistler, who find that I have quite overcome them in their business of flags, and now they come to intreat my favour, but I will be even with them.
So late to my office and there till past one in the morning making up my month's accounts, and find that my expense this month in clothes has kept me from laying up anything; but I am no worse, but a little better than I was, which is £1205, a great sum, the Lord be praised for it!
So home to bed, with my mind full of content therein, and vexed for my being so angry in bad words to my wife to-night, she not giving me a good account of her layings out to my mind to-night.
This day I hear young Mr. Stanly (25), a brave young [gentleman], that went out with young Jermin (28), with Prince Rupert (44), is already dead of the small-pox, at Portsmouth. All preparations against the Dutch; and the Duke of Yorke (31) fitting himself with all speed, to go to the fleete which is hastening for him; being now resolved to go in the Charles.
Note 1. Reform, i.e. disband. See "Memoirs of Sir John Reresby", September 2nd, 1651. "A great many younger brothers and reformed officers of the King's army depended upon him for their meat and drink". So reformado, a discharged or disbanded officer.—M. B.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 November 1664. 04 Nov 1664. Waked very betimes and lay long awake, my mind being so full of business. Then up and to St. James's, where I find Mr. Coventry (36) full of business, packing up for his going to sea with the Duke (31). Walked with him, talking, to White Hall, where to the Duke's lodgings, who is gone thither to lodge lately. I appeared to the Duke (31), and thence Mr. Coventry (36) and I an hour in the Long gallery, talking about the management of our office, he tells me the weight of dispatch will lie chiefly on me, and told me freely his mind touching Sir W. Batten (63) and Sir J. Minnes (65), the latter of whom, he most aptly said, was like a lapwing; that all he did was to keepe a flutter, to keepe others from the nest that they would find. He told me an old story of the former about the light-houses, how just before he had certified to the Duke (31) against the use of them, and what a burden they are to trade, and presently after, at his being at Harwich, comes to desire that he might have the setting one up there, and gets the usefulness of it certified also by the Trinity House. After long discoursing and considering all our stores and other things, as how the King (34) hath resolved upon Captain Taylor1 and Colonell Middleton, the first to be Commissioner for Harwich and the latter for Portsmouth, I away to the 'Change, and there did very much business, so home to dinner, and Mr. Duke, our Secretary for the Fishery, dined with me.
After dinner to discourse of our business, much to my content, and then he away, and I by water among the smiths on the other side, and to the alehouse with one and was near buying 4 or 5 anchors, and learned something worth my knowing of them, and so home and to my office, where late, with my head very full of business, and so away home to supper and to bed.
Note 1. Coventry (36), writing to Secretary Bennet (46) (November 14th, 1664), refers to the objections made to Taylor, and adds: "Thinks the King (34) will not easily consent to his rejection, as he is a man of great abilities and dispatch, and was formerly laid aside at Chatham on the Duchess of Albemarle's (45) earnest interposition for another. He is a fanatic, it is true, but all hands will be needed for the work cut out; there is less danger of them in harbour than at sea, and profit will convert most of them" ("Calendar of State Papers", Domestic, 1664-65, p. 68).

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 November 1664. 09 Nov 1664. Thence not staying, the wind blowing hard, I made use of the Jemmy yacht and returned to the Tower in her, my boy being a very droll boy and good company.
Home and eat something, and then shifted myself, and to White Hall, and there the King (34) being in his Cabinet Council (I desiring to speak with Sir G. Carteret (54)), I was called in, and demanded by the King (34) himself many questions, to which I did give him full answers. There were at this Council my Chancellor (55), Archbishop of Canterbury (66), Lord Treasurer (57), the two Secretarys, and Sir G. Carteret (54). Not a little contented at this chance of being made known to these persons, and called often by my name by the King (34), I to Mr. Pierces to take leave of him, but he not within, but saw her and made very little stay, but straight home to my office, where I did business, and then to supper and to bed.
The Duke of York (31) is this day gone away to Portsmouth.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 21 November 1664. 21 Nov 1664. Up, and with them to the Lords at White Hall, where they do single me out to speake to and to hear, much to my content, and received their commands, particularly in several businesses.
Thence by their order to the Attorney General's about a new warrant for Captain Taylor which I shall carry for him to be Commissioner in spite of Sir W. Batten (63), and yet indeed it is not I, but the ability of the man, that makes the Duke (31) and Mr. Coventry (36) stand by their choice.
I to the 'Change and there staid long doing business, and this day for certain newes is come that Teddiman hath brought in eighteen or twenty Dutchmen, merchants, their Bourdeaux fleete, and two men of wary to Portsmouth1.
And I had letters this afternoon, that three are brought into the Downes and Dover; so that the warr is begun: God give a good end to it! After dinner at home all the afternoon busy, and at night with Sir W. Batten (63) and Sir J. Minnes (65) looking over the business of stating the accounts of the navy charge to my Lord Treasurer (57), where Sir J. Minnes's (65) paper served us in no stead almost, but was all false, and after I had done it with great pains, he being by, I am confident he understands not one word in it. At it till 10 at night almost.
Thence by coach to Sir Philip Warwicke's (54), by his desire to have conferred with him, but he being in bed, I to White Hall to the Secretaries, and there wrote to Mr. Coventry (36), and so home by coach again, a fine clear moonshine night, but very cold.
Home to my office awhile, it being past 12 at night; and so to supper and to bed.
Note 1. Captain Sir Thomas Captain Sir Thomas Teddiman (or Tyddiman) had been appointed Rear-Admiral of Lord Sandwich's (39) squadron of the English fleet. In a letter from Sir William Coventry (36) to Secretary Bennet (46), dated November 13th, 1664, we read, "Rear Admiral Teddeman with four or five ships has gone to course in the Channel, and if he meet any refractory Dutchmen will teach them their duty" (Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1664.-65, p. 66).

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 25 November 1664. 25 Nov 1664. Up and at my office all the morning, to prepare an account of the charge we have been put to extraordinary by the Dutch already; and I have brought it to appear £852,700; but God knows this is only a scare to the Parliament, to make them give the more money.
Thence to the Parliament House, and there did give it to Sir Philip Warwicke (54); the House being hot upon giving the King (34) a supply of money, and I by coach to the 'Change and took up Mr. Jenings along with me (my old acquaintance), he telling me the mean manner that Sir Samuel Morland (39) lives near him, in a house he hath bought and laid out money upon, in all to the value of £1200, but is believed to be a beggar; and so I ever thought he would be.
From the 'Change with Mr. Deering and Luellin to the White Horse Tavern in Lombard Street, and there dined with them, he giving me a dish of meat to discourse in order to my serving Deering, which I am already obliged to do, and shall do it, and would be glad he were a man trusty that I might venture something along with him.
Thence home, and by and by in the evening took my wife out by coach, leaving her at Unthanke's while I to White Hall and to Westminster Hall, where I have not been to talk a great while, and there hear that Mrs. Lane and her husband live a sad life together, and he is gone to be a paymaster to a company to Portsmouth to serve at sea. She big with child.
Thence I home, calling my wife, and at Sir W. Batten's (63) hear that the House have given the King (34) £2,500,000 to be paid for this warr, only for the Navy, in three years' time; which is a joyfull thing to all the King's party I see, but was much opposed by Mr. Vaughan (61) and others, that it should be so much.
So home and to supper and to bed.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 03 December 1664. 03 Dec 1664. Up, and at the office all the morning, and at noon to Mr. Cutler's, and there dined with Sir W. Rider and him, and thence Sir W. Rider and I by coach to White Hall to a Committee of the Fishery; there only to hear Edward Ford's (59) proposal about farthings, wherein, O God! to see almost every body interested for him; only my Lord Annesly (43), who is a grave, serious man. My Lord Barkeley (62) was there, but is the most hot, fiery man in discourse, without any cause, that ever I saw, even to breach of civility to my Lord Anglesey (50), in his discourse opposing to my Lord's. At last, though without much satisfaction to me, it was voted that it should be requested of the King (34), and that Edward Ford's (59) proposal is the best yet made.
Thence by coach home. The Duke of Yorke (31) being expected to-night with great joy from Portsmouth, after his having been abroad at sea three or four days with the fleete; and the Dutch are all drawn into their harbours. But it seems like a victory: and a matter of some reputation to us it is, and blemish to them; but in no degree like what it is esteemed at, the weather requiring them to do so.
Home and at my office late, and then to supper and to bed.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 10 December 1664. 10 Dec 1664. Lay long, at which I am ashamed, because of so many people observing it that know not how late I sit up, and for fear of Sir W. Batten's (63) speaking of it to others, he having staid for me a good while.
At the office all the morning, where comes my Lord Brunkard (44) with his patent in his hand, and delivered it to Sir J. Minnes (65) and myself, we alone being there all the day, and at noon I in his coach with him to the 'Change, where he set me down; a modest civil person he seems to be, but wholly ignorant in the business of the Navy as possible, but I hope to make a friend of him, being a worthy man.
Thence after hearing the great newes of so many Dutchmen being brought in to Portsmouth and elsewhere, which it is expected will either put them upon present revenge or despair, I with Sir W. Rider and Cutler to dinner all alone to the Great James, where good discourse, and, I hope, occasion of getting something hereafter.
After dinner to White Hall to the Fishery, where the Duke (31) was with us.
So home, and late at my office, writing many letters, then home to supper and to bed.
Yesterday come home, and this night I visited Sir W. Pen (43), who dissembles great respect and love to me, but I understand him very well. Major Holmes (42) is come from Guinny, and is now at Plymouth with great wealth, they say.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 12 December 1664. 12 Dec 1664. Up, and with Sir W. Batten (63) by coach to White Hall, where all of us with the Duke (31); Mr. Coventry (36) privately did tell me the reason of his advice against our pretences to the Prize Office (in his letter from Portsmouth), because he knew that the King (34) and the Duke (31) had resolved to put in some Parliament men that have deserved well, and that would needs be obliged, by putting them in.
Thence homeward, called at my bookseller's and bespoke some books against the year's out, and then to the 'Change, and so home to dinner, and then to the office, where my Lord Brunkard (44) comes and reads over part of our Instructions in the Navy—and I expounded it to him, so he is become my disciple. He gone, comes Cutler to tell us that the King of France (26) hath forbid any canvass to be carried out of his kingdom, and I to examine went with him to the East India house to see a letter, but came too late.
So home again, and there late till 12 at night at my office, and then home to supper and to bed.
This day (to see how things are ordered in the world), I had a command from the Earle of Sandwich, at Portsmouth, not to be forward with Mr. Cholmly (32) and Sir J. Lawson (49) about the Mole at Tangier, because that what I do therein will (because of his friendship to me known) redound against him, as if I had done it upon his score. So I wrote to my Lord my mistake, and am contented to promise never to pursue it more, which goes against my mind with all my heart.

Read More ...

1664 Comet

Diary of Samuel Pepys 21 December 1664. 21 Dec 1664. Up, and after evening reckonings to this day with Mr. Bridges, the linnen draper, for callicos, I out to Doctors' Commons, where by agreement my cozen Roger (47) and I did meet my cozen Dr. Tom Pepys (43), and there a great many and some high words on both sides, but I must confess I was troubled; first, to find my cozen Roger (47) such a simple but well-meaning man as he is; next to think that my father, out of folly and vain glory, should now and then (as by their words I gather) be speaking how he had set up his son Tom with his goods and house, and now these words are brought against him—I fear to the depriving him of all the profit the poor man intended to make of the lease of his house and sale of his owne goods. I intend to make a quiet end if I can with the Doctor (43), being a very foul-tounged fool and of great inconvenience to be at difference with such a one that will make the base noise about it that he will.
Thence, very much vexed to find myself so much troubled about other men's matters, I to Mrs. Turner's (41), in Salsbury Court, and with her a little, and carried her, the porter staying for me, our eagle, which she desired the other day, and we were glad to be rid of her, she fouling our house of office mightily. They are much pleased with her.
And thence I home and after dinner to the office, where Sir W. Rider and Cutler come, and in dispute I very high with them against their demands, I hope to no hurt to myself, for I was very plain with them to the best of my reason.
So they gone I home to supper, then to the office again and so home to bed.
My Lord Sandwich (39) this day writes me word that he hath seen (at Portsmouth) the Comet, and says it is the most extraordinary thing that ever he saw.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 December 1664. 22 Dec 1664. Up and betimes to my office, and then out to several places, among others to Holborne to have spoke with one Mr. Underwood about some English hemp, he lies against Gray's Inn. Thereabouts I to a barber's shop to have my hair cut, and there met with a copy of verses, mightily commended by some gentlemen there, of my Lord Mordaunt's (38), in excuse of his going to sea this late expedition, with the Duke of Yorke (31). But, Lord! they are but sorry things; only a Lord made them.
Thence to the 'Change; and there, among the merchants, I hear fully the news of our being beaten to dirt at Guinny, by De Ruyter (57) with his fleete. The particulars, as much as by Sir G. Carteret (54) afterwards I heard, I have said in a letter to my Lord Sandwich (39) this day at Portsmouth; it being most wholly to the utter ruine of our Royall Company, and reproach and shame to the whole nation, as well as justification to them in their doing wrong to no man as to his private [property], only takeing whatever is found to belong to the Company, and nothing else.
Dined at the Dolphin, Sir G. Carteret (54), Sir J. Minnes (65), Sir W. Batten (63), and I, with Sir W. Boreman and Sir Theophilus Biddulph and others, Commissioners of the Sewers, about our place below to lay masts in.
But coming a little too soon, I out again, and tooke boat down to Redriffe; and just in time within two minutes, and saw the new vessel of Sir William Petty's (41) launched, the King (34) and Duke (31) being there1. It swims and looks finely, and I believe will do well. The name I think is Twilight, but I do not know certainly.
Coming away back immediately to dinner, where a great deal of good discourse, and Sir G. Carteret's (54) discourse of this Guinny business, with great displeasure at the losse of our honour there, and do now confess that the trade brought all these troubles upon us between the Dutch and us.
Thence to the office and there sat late, then I to my office and there till 12 at night, and so home to bed weary.
Note 1. Pepys was wrong as to the name of Sir William Petty's (41) new doublekeeled boat. On February 13th, 1664-65, he gives the correct title, which was "The Experiment".

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 31 December 1664. 31 Dec 1664. At the office all the morning, and after dinner there again, dispatched first my letters, and then to my accounts, not of the month but of the whole yeare also, and was at it till past twelve at night, it being bitter cold; but yet I was well satisfied with my worke, and, above all, to find myself, by the great blessing of God, worth £1349, by which, as I have spent very largely, so I have laid up above £500 this yeare above what I was worth this day twelvemonth. The Lord make me for ever thankful to his holy name for it! Thence home to eat a little and so to bed. Soon as ever the clock struck one, I kissed my wife in the kitchen by the fireside, wishing her a merry new yeare, observing that I believe I was the first proper wisher of it this year, for I did it as soon as ever the clock struck one.
So ends the old yeare, I bless God, with great joy to me, not only from my having made so good a yeare of profit, as having spent £420 and laid up £540 and upwards; but I bless God I never have been in so good plight as to my health in so very cold weather as this is, nor indeed in any hot weather, these ten years, as I am at this day, and have been these four or five months. But I am at a great losse to know whether it be my hare's foote, or taking every morning of a pill of turpentine, or my having left off the wearing of a gowne. My family is, my wife, in good health, and happy with her; her woman Mercer, a pretty, modest, quiett mayde; her chambermayde Besse, her cook mayde Jane, the little girl Susan, and my boy, which I have had about half a yeare, Tom Edwards, which I took from the King's chappell, and a pretty and loving quiett family I have as any man in England. My credit in the world and my office grows daily, and I am in good esteeme with everybody, I think. My troubles of my uncle's estate pretty well over; but it comes to be but of little profit to us, my father being much supported by my purse. But great vexations remain upon my father and me from my brother Tom's (30) death and ill condition, both to our disgrace and discontent, though no great reason for either. Publique matters are all in a hurry about a Dutch warr. Our preparations great; our provocations against them great; and, after all our presumption, we are now afeard as much of them, as we lately contemned them. Every thing else in the State quiett, blessed be God! My Lord Sandwich (39) at sea with the fleete at Portsmouth; sending some about to cruise for taking of ships, which we have done to a great number. This Christmas I judged it fit to look over all my papers and books; and to tear all that I found either boyish or not to be worth keeping, or fit to be seen, if it should please God to take me away suddenly. Among others, I found these two or three notes, which I thought fit to keep.

Read More ...

John Evelyn's Diary 04 January 1665. 04 Jan 1665. I went in a coach, it being excessive sharp frost and snow, toward Dover and other parts of Kent, to settle physicians, chirurgeons, agents, marshals, and other officers in all the sea ports, to take care of such as should be set on shore, wounded, sick, or prisoners, in pursuance of our commission reaching from the North Foreland, in Kent, to Portsmouth, in Hampshire. The rest of the ports in England were allotted to the other Commissioners. That evening I came to Rochester, where I delivered the Privy Council's letter to the Mayor to receive orders from me.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 12 January 1665. 12 Jan 1665. Up, and to White Hall about getting a privy seal for felling of the King's timber for the navy, and to the Lords' House to speak with my Lord Privy Seale about it, and so to the 'Change, where to my last night's ill news I met more. Spoke with a Frenchman who was taken, but released, by a Dutch man-of-war of thirty-six guns (with seven more of the like or greater ships), off the North Foreland, by Margett. Which is a strange attempt, that they should come to our teeth; but the wind being easterly, the wind that should bring our force from Portsmouth, will carry them away home. God preserve us against them, and pardon our making them in our discourse so contemptible an enemy!
So home and to dinner, where Mr. Hollyard (56) with us dined.
So to the office, and there late till 11 at night and more, and then home to supper and to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 18 January 1665. 18 Jan 1665. Up and by and by to my bookseller's, and there did give thorough direction for the new binding of a great many of my old books, to make my whole study of the same binding, within very few.
Thence to my Lady Sandwich's (40), who sent for me this morning. Dined with her, and it was to get a letter of hers conveyed by a safe hand to my Lord's owne hand at Portsmouth, which I did undertake. Here my Lady did begin to talk of what she had heard concerning Creed, of his being suspected to be a fanatique and a false fellow. I told her I thought he was as shrewd and cunning a man as any in England, and one that I would feare first should outwit me in any thing. To which she readily concurred.
Thence to Mr. Povy's (51) by agreement, and there with Mr. Sherwin, Auditor Beale, and Creed and I hard at it very late about Mr. Povy's (51) accounts, but such accounts I never did see, or hope again to see in my days.
At night, late, they gone, I did get him to put out of this account our sums that are in posse only yet, which he approved of when told, but would never have stayed it if I had been gone.
Thence at 9 at night home, and so to supper vexed and my head akeing and to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 February 1665. 13 Feb 1665. Up and to St. James's, did our usual business before the Duke (31).
Thence I to Westminster and by water (taking Mr. Stapely the rope-maker by the way), to his rope-ground and to Limehouse, there to see the manner of stoves and did excellently inform myself therein, and coming home did go on board Sir W. Petty's (41) "The Experiment", which is a brave roomy vessel, and I hope may do well. So went on shore to a Dutch House to drink some mum, and there light upon some Dutchmen, with whom we had good discourse touching stoveing1 and making of cables. But to see how despicably they speak of us for our using so many hands more to do anything than they do, they closing a cable with 20, that we use 60 men upon.
Thence home and eat something, and then to my office, where very late, and then to supper and to bed. Captain Stokes, it seems, is at last dead at Portsmouth.
Note 1. Stoveing, in sail-making, is the heating of the bolt-ropes, so as to make them pliable. B.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 18 February 1665. 18 Feb 1665. Up, and to the office, where sat all the morning; at noon to the 'Change, and thence to the Royall Oake taverne in Lombard Street, where Sir William Petty (41) and the owners of the double-bottomed boat (The Experiment) did entertain my Lord Brunkard (45), Sir R. Murrey, myself, and others, with marrow bones and a chine_of_beefe of the victuals they have made for this ship; and excellent company and good discourse: but, above all, I do value Sir William Petty (41).
Thence home; and took my Lord Sandwich's (39) draught of the harbour of Portsmouth down to Ratcliffe, to one Burston, to make a plate for the King (34), and another for the Duke (31), and another for himself; which will be very neat.
So home, and till almost one o'clock in the morning at my office, and then home to supper and to bed. My Lord Sandwich (39), and his fleete of twenty-five ships in the Downes, returned from cruising, but could not meet with any Dutchmen.

Great Plague of London

Diary of Samuel Pepys 01 July 1665. 01 Jul 1665. Called up betimes, though weary and sleepy, by appointment by Mr. Povy (51) and Colonell Norwood (51) to discourse about some payments of Tangier. They gone, I to the office and there sat all the morning.
At noon dined at home, and then to the Duke of Albemarle's (56), by appointment, to give him an account of some disorder in the Yarde at Portsmouth, by workmen's going away of their owne accord, for lacke of money, to get work of hay-making, or any thing else to earne themselves bread1.
Thence to Westminster, where I hear the sicknesse encreases greatly, and to the Harp and Ball with Mary talking, who tells me simply her losing of her first love in the country in Wales, and coming up hither unknown to her friends, and it seems Dr. Williams do pretend love to her, and I have found him there several times.
Thence by coach and late at the office, and so to bed. Sad at the newes that seven or eight houses in Bazing Hall street, are shut up of the plague.
Note 1. There are several letters among the State Papers from Commissioner Thomas Middleton relating to the want of workmen at Portsmouth Dockyard. On June 29th Middleton wrote to Pepys, "The ropemakers have discharged themselves for want of money, and gone into the country to make hay". The blockmakers, the joiners, and the sawyers all refused to work longer without money ("Calendar", 1664-65, p. 453).

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 26 July 1665. 26 Jul 1665. Up, and after doing a little business, down to Deptford with Sir W. Batten (64), and there left him, and I to Greenwich to the Park, where I hear the King (35) and Duke (31) are come by water this morn from Hampton Court. They asked me several questions. The King (35) mightily pleased with his new buildings there. I followed them to Castle's (36) ship in building, and there, met Sir W. Batten (64), and thence to Sir G. Carteret's (55), where all the morning with them; they not having any but the Duke of Monmouth (16), and Sir W. Killigrew (59), and one gentleman, and a page more. Great variety of talk, and was often led to speak to the King (35) and Duke (31).
By and by they to dinner, and all to dinner and sat down to the King (35) saving myself, which, though I could not in modesty expect, yet, God forgive my pride! I was sorry I was there, that Sir W. Batten (64) should say that he could sit down where I could not, though he had twenty times more reason than I, but this was my pride and folly. I down and walked with Mr. Castle (36), who told me the design of Ford and Rider to oppose and do all the hurt they can to Captain Taylor in his new ship "The London", and how it comes, and that they are a couple of false persons, which I believe, and withal that he himself is a knave too.
He and I by and by to dinner mighty nobly, and the King (35) having dined, he come down, and I went in the barge with him, I sitting at the door.
Down to Woolwich (and there I just saw and kissed my wife, and saw some of her painting, which is very curious; and away again to the King (35)) and back again with him in the barge, hearing him and the Duke (31) talk, and seeing and observing their manner of discourse. And God forgive me! though I admire them with all the duty possible, yet the more a man considers and observes them, the less he finds of difference between them and other men, though (blessed be God!) they are both princes of great nobleness and spirits. The barge put me into another boat that come to our side, Mr. Holder with a bag of gold to the Duke (31), and so they away and I home to the office.
The Duke of Monmouth (16) is the most skittish leaping gallant that ever I saw, always in action, vaulting or leaping, or clambering.
Thence mighty full of the honour of this day, I took coach and to Kate Joyce's, but she not within, but spoke with Anthony, who tells me he likes well of my proposal for Pall to Harman (28), but I fear that less than £500 will not be taken, and that I shall not be able to give, though I did not say so to him. After a little other discourse and the sad news of the death of so many in the parish of the plague, forty last night, the bell always going, I back to the Exchange, where I went up and sat talking with my beauty, Mrs. Batelier, a great while, who is indeed one of the finest women I ever saw in my life. After buying some small matter, I home, and there to the office and saw Sir J. Minnes (66) now come from Portsmouth, I home to set my Journall for these four days in order, they being four days of as great content and honour and pleasure to me as ever I hope to live or desire, or think any body else can live. For methinks if a man would but reflect upon this, and think that all these things are ordered by God Almighty to make me contented, and even this very marriage now on foot is one of the things intended to find me content in, in my life and matter of mirth, methinks it should make one mightily more satisfied in the world than he is. This day poor Robin Shaw at Backewell's died, and Backewell himself now in Flanders. The King (35) himself asked about Shaw, and being told he was dead, said he was very sorry for it. The sicknesse is got into our parish this week, and is got, indeed, every where; so that I begin to think of setting things in order, which I pray God enable me to put both as to soul and body.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 October 1665. 20 Oct 1665. Up, and had my last night's letters brought back to me, which troubles me, because of my accounts, lest they should be asked for before they come, which I abhorr, being more ready to give than they can be to demand them: so I sent away an expresse to Oxford with them, and another to Portsmouth, with a copy of my letter to Mr. Coventry (37) about my victualling business, for fear he should be gone from Oxford, as he intended, thither. !So busy all the morning and at noon to Cocke (48), and dined there. He and I alone, vexed that we are not rid of all our trouble about our goods, but it is almost over, and in the afternoon to my lodging, and there spent the whole afternoon and evening with Mr. Hater, discoursing of the business of the office, where he tells me that among others Thomas Willson do now and then seem to hint that I do take too much business upon me, more than I can do, and that therefore some do lie undone. This I confess to my trouble is true, but it arises from my being forced to take so much on me, more than is my proper task to undertake. But for this at last I did advise to him to take another clerk if he thinks fit, I will take care to have him paid. I discoursed also much with him about persons fit to be put into the victualling business, and such as I could spare something out of their salaries for them, but without trouble I cannot, I see, well do it, because Thomas Willson must have the refusal of the best place which is London of £200 per annum, which I did intend for Tooker, and to get £50 out of it as a help to Mr. Hater. How[ever], I will try to do something of this kind for them. Having done discourse with him late, I to enter my Tangier accounts fair, and so to supper and to bed.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 25 October 1665. 25 Oct 1665. Up and to my Lord Sandwich's (40), where several Commanders, of whom I took the state of all their ships, and of all could find not above four capable of going out. The truth is, the want of victuals being the whole overthrow of this yeare both at sea, and now at the Nore here and Portsmouth, where all the fleete lies.
By and by comes down my Lord, and then he and I an houre together alone upon private discourse. He tells me that Mr. Coventry (37) and he are not reconciled, but declared enemies: the only occasion of it being, he tells me, his ill usage from him about the first fight, wherein he had no right done him, which, methinks, is a poor occasion, for, in my conscience, that was no design of Coventry's. But, however, when I asked my Lord whether it were not best, though with some condescension, to be friends with him, he told me it was not possible, and so I stopped. He tells me, as very private, that there are great factions at the Court between the King's party and the Duke of Yorke's (32), and that the King (35), which is a strange difficulty, do favour my Lord in opposition to the Duke's party; that my Chancellor (56), being, to be sure, the patron of the Duke's, it is a mystery whence it should be that Mr. Coventry (37) is looked upon by him (56) [Clarendon] as an enemy to him; that if he had a mind himself to be out of this employment, as Mr. Coventry (37), he believes, wishes, and himself and I do incline to wish it also, in many respects, yet he believes he shall not be able, because of the King (35), who will keepe him in on purpose, in opposition to the other party; that Prince Rupert (45) and he are all possible friends in the world; that Coventry (37) hath aggravated this business of the prizes, though never so great plundering in the world as while the Duke and he were at sea; and in Sir John Lawson's (50) time he could take and pillage, and then sink a whole ship in the Streights, and Coventry (37) say nothing to it; that my Lord Arlington (47) is his fast friend; that the Chancellor (56) is cold to him, and though I told him that I and the world do take my Chancellor (56), in his speech the other day, to have said as much as could be wished, yet he thinks he did not.
That my Chancellor (56) do from hence begin to be cold to him, because of his seeing him and Arlington (47) so great: that nothing at Court is minded but faction and pleasure, and nothing intended of general good to the Kingdom by anybody heartily; so that he believes with me, in a little time confusion will certainly come over all the nation. He told me how a design was carried on a while ago, for the Duke of Yorke (32) to raise an army in the North, and to be the Generall of it, and all this without the knowledge or advice of the Duke of Albemarle (56), which when he come to know, he was so vexed, they were fain to let it fall to content him: that his matching with the family of Sir G. Carteret (55) do make the difference greater between Coventry (37) and him, they being enemies; that the Chancellor (56) did, as every body else, speak well of me the other day, but yet was, at the Committee for Tangier, angry that I should offer to suffer a bill of exchange to be protested.
So my Lord did bid me take heed, for that I might easily suppose I could not want enemies, no more than others. In all he speaks with the greatest trust and love and confidence in what I say or do, that a man can do. After this discourse ended we sat down to dinner and mighty merry, among other things, at the Bill brought into the House to make it felony to break bulke, which, as my Lord says well, will make that no prizes shall be taken, or, if taken, shall be sunke after plundering; and the Act for the method of gathering this last £1,250,000 now voted, and how paid wherein are several strange imperfections.
After dinner my Lord by a ketch down to Erith, where the Bezan was, it blowing these last two days and now both night and day very hard southwardly, so that it has certainly drove the Dutch off the coast.
My Lord being gone I to the office, and there find Captain Ferrers, who tells me his wife is come to town to see him, having not seen him since 15 weeks ago at his first going to sea last. She is now at a Taverne and stays all night, so I was obliged to give him my house and chamber to lie in, which he with great modesty and after much force took, and so I got Mr. Evelyn's (44) coach to carry her thither, and the coach coming back, I with Mr. Evelyn (44) to Deptford, where a little while with him doing a little business, and so in his coach back again to my lodgings, and there sat with Mrs. Ferrers two hours, and with my little girle, Mistress Frances Tooker, and very pleasant. Anon the Captain comes, and then to supper very merry, and so I led them to bed. And so to bed myself, having seen my pretty little girle home first at the next door.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 26 October 1665. 26 Oct 1665. Up, and, leaving my guests to make themselves ready, I to the office, and thither comes Sir Jer. Smith and Sir Christopher Mings (39) to see me, being just come from Portsmouth and going down to the Fleete. Here I sat and talked with them a good while and then parted, only Sir Christopher Mings (39) and I together by water to the Tower; and I find him a very witty well-spoken fellow, and mighty free to tell his parentage, being a shoemaker's son, to whom he is now going, and I to the 'Change, where I hear how the French have taken two and sunk one of our merchant-men in the Streights, and carried the ships to Toulon; so that there is no expectation but we must fall out with them.
The 'Change pretty full, and the town begins to be lively again, though the streets very empty, and most shops shut. So back again I and took boat and called for Sir Christopher Mings (39) at St. Katharine's, who was followed with some ordinary friends, of which, he says, he is proud, and so down to Greenwich, the wind furious high, and we with our sail up till I made it be taken down. I took him, it being 3 o'clock, to my lodgings and did give him a good dinner and so parted, he being pretty close to me as to any business of the fleete, knowing me to be a servant of my Lord Sandwich's (40).
He gone I to the office till night, and then they come and tell me my wife is come to towne, so I to her vexed at her coming, but it was upon innocent business, so I was pleased and made her stay, Captain Ferrers and his lady being yet there, and so I left them to dance, and I to the office till past nine at night, and so to them and there saw them dance very prettily, the Captain and his wife, my wife and Mrs. Barbary, and Mercer and my landlady's daughter, and then little Mistress Frances Tooker and her mother, a pretty woman come to see my wife.
Anon to supper, and then to dance again (Golding being our fiddler, who plays very well and all tunes) till past twelve at night, and then we broke up and every one to bed, we make shift for all our company, Mrs. Tooker being gone.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 16 December 1665. 16 Dec 1665. Up, and met at the office; Sir W. Batten (64) with us, who come from Portsmouth on Monday last, and hath not been with us to see or discourse with us about any business till this day.
At noon to dinner, Sir W. Warren with me on boat, and thence I by water, it being a fearfull cold, snowing day to Westminster to White Hall stairs and thence to Sir G. Downing (40), to whom I brought the happy newes of my having contracted, as we did this day with Sir W. Warren, for a ship's lading of Norway goods here and another at Harwich to the value of above £3,000, which is the first that hath been got upon the New Act, and he is overjoyed with it and tells me he will do me all the right to Court about it in the world, and I am glad I have it to write to Sir W. Coventry (37) to-night. He would fain have me come in £200 to lend upon the Act, but I desire to be excused in doing that, it being to little purpose for us that relate to the King (35) to do it, for the sum gets the King (35) no courtesy nor credit.
So I parted from him and walked to Westminster Hall, where Sir W. Warren, who come along with me, staid for me, and there I did see Betty Howlett come after the sicknesse to the Hall. Had not opportunity to salute her, as I desired, but was glad to see her and a very pretty wench she is.
Thence back, landing at the Old Swan and taking boat again at Billingsgate, and setting ashore we home and I to the office.... and there wrote my letters, and so home to supper and to bed, it being a great frost. Newes is come to-day of our Sounde fleete being come, but I do not know what Sir W. Warren hath insured.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 March 1666. 17 Mar 1666. Up, and to finish my Journall, which I had not sense enough the last night to make an end of, and thence to the office, where very busy all the morning.
At noon home to dinner and presently with my wife out to Hales's (66), where I am still infinitely pleased with my wife's picture. I paid him £14 for it, and 25s. for the frame, and I think it is not a whit too deare for so good a picture. It is not yet quite finished and dry, so as to be fit to bring home yet. This day I begun to sit, and he will make me, I think, a very fine picture. He promises it shall be as good as my wife's, and I sit to have it full of shadows, and do almost break my neck looking over my shoulder to make the posture for him to work by.
Thence home and to the office, and so home having a great cold, and so my wife and Mrs. Barbary have very great ones, we are at a loss how we all come by it together, so to bed, drinking butter-ale. This day my W. Hewer (24) comes from Portsmouth and gives me an instance of another piece of knavery of Sir W. Pen (44), who wrote to Commissioner Middleton, that it was my negligence the other day he was not acquainted, as the board directed, with our clerks coming down to the pay. But I need no new arguments to teach me that he is a false rogue to me and all the world besides.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 11 April 1666. 11 Apr 1666. To White Hall, having first set my people to worke about setting me rails upon the leads of my wife's closett, a thing I have long designed, but never had a fit opportunity till now. After having done with the Duke of Yorke (32), I to Hales's (66), where there was nothing found to be done more to my picture, but the musique, which now pleases me mightily, it being painted true.
Thence home, and after dinner to Gresham College, where a great deal of do and formality in choosing of the Council and Officers. I had three votes to be of the Council, who am but a stranger, nor expected any. So my Lord Bruncker (46) being confirmed President I home, where I find to my great content my rails up upon my leads.
To the office and did a little business, and then home and did a great jobb at my Tangier accounts, which I find are mighty apt to run into confusion, my head also being too full of other businesses and pleasures. This noon Bagwell's wife come to me to the office, after her being long at Portsmouth. After supper, and past 12 at night to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 September 1666. 08 Sep 1666. Up and with Sir W. Batten (65) and Sir W. Pen (45) by water to White Hall and they to St. James's. I stopped with Sir G. Carteret (56) to desire him to go with us, and to enquire after money. But the first he cannot do, and the other as little, or says, "when we can get any, or what shall we do for it?" He, it seems, is employed in the correspondence between the City and the King (36) every day, in settling of things. I find him full of trouble, to think how things will go. I left him, and to St. James's, where we met first at Sir W. Coventry's (38) chamber, and there did what business we can, without any books. Our discourse, as every thing else, was confused. The fleete is at Portsmouth, there staying a wind to carry them to the Downes, or towards Bullen, where they say the Dutch fleete is gone, and stays. We concluded upon private meetings for a while, not having any money to satisfy any people that may come to us. I bought two eeles upon the Thames, cost me six shillings.
Thence with Sir W. Batten (65) to the Cock-pit, whither the Duke of Albemarle (57) is come. It seems the King (36) holds him so necessary at this time, that he hath sent for him, and will keep him here. Indeed, his interest in the City, being acquainted, and his care in keeping things quiet, is reckoned that wherein he will be very serviceable. We to him; he is courted in appearance by every body. He very kind to us; I perceive he lays by all business of the fleete at present, and minds the City, and is now hastening to Gresham College, to discourse with the Aldermen. Sir W. Batten (65) and I home (where met by my brother John (25), come to town to see how things are with us), and then presently he with me to Gresham College; where infinity of people, partly through novelty to see the new place, and partly to find out and hear what is become one man of another. I met with many people undone, and more that have extraordinary great losses. People speaking their thoughts variously about the beginning of the fire, and the rebuilding; of the City. Then to Sir W. Batten's (65), and took my brothet with me, and there dined with a great company of neighbours; and much good discourse; among others, of the low spirits of some rich men in the City, in sparing any encouragement to the poor people that wrought for the saving their houses. Among others, Alderman Starling, a very rich man, without; children, the fire at next door to him in our lane, after our men had saved his house, did give 2s. 6d. among thirty of them, and did quarrel with some that would remove the rubbish out of the way of the fire, saying that they come to steal. Sir W. Coventry (38) told me of another this morning, in Holborne, which he shewed the King (36) that when it was offered to stop the fire near his house for such a reward that came but to 2s. 6d. a man among the neighbours he would, give but 18d.
Thence to Bednall Green by coach, my brother with me, and saw all well there, and fetched away my journall book to enter for five days past, and then back to the office where I find Bagwell's wife, and her husband come home. Agreed to come to their house to-morrow, I sending him away to his ship to-day.
To the office and late writing letters, and then to Sir W. Pen's (45), my brother lying with me, and Sir W. Pen (45) gone down to rest himself at Woolwich. But I was much frighted and kept awake in my bed, by some noise I heard a great while below stairs; and the boys not coming up to me when I knocked. It was by their discovery of people stealing of some neighbours' wine that lay in vessels in the streets.
So to sleep; and all well all night.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 October 1666. 20 Oct 1666. He being gone, there comes to me Commissioner Middleton, whom I took on purpose to walk in the garden with me, and to learn what he observed when the fleete was at Portsmouth. He says that the fleete was in such a condition, as to discipline, as if the Devil had commanded it; so much wickedness of all sorts. Enquiring how it come to pass that so many ships miscarried this year, he tells me that he enquired; and the pilots do say, that they dare not do nor go but as the Captains will have them; and if they offer to do otherwise, the Captains swear they will run them through. He says that he heard Captain Digby (my Lord of Bristol's (53) son, a young fellow that never was but one year, if that, in the fleete) say that he did hope he should not see a tarpaulin have the command of a ship within this twelve months. He observed while he was on board the Admirall, when the fleete was at Portsmouth, that there was a faction there. Holmes (44) commanded all on the Prince's (46) side, and Sir Jeremy Smith on the Duke's (33), and every body that come did apply themselves to one side or other; and when the Duke of Albemarle (57) was gone away to come hither, then Sir Jeremy Smith did hang his head, and walked in the Generall's ship but like a private commander. He says he was on board The Prince, when the newes come of the burning of London; and all the Prince (46) said was, that now Shipton's prophecy was out; and he heard a young commander presently swear, that now a citizen's wife that would not take under half a piece before, would be occupied for half-a-crowne: and made mighty sport of it.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 December 1666. 22 Dec 1666. At the office all the morning, and there come news from Hogg that our shipp hath brought in a Lubecker to Portsmouth, likely to prove prize, of deals, which joys us.
At noon home to dinner, and then Sir W. Pen (45), Sir R. Ford (52), and I met at Sir W. Batten's (65) to examine our papers, and have great hopes to prove her prize, and Sir R. Ford (52) I find a mighty yare1 man in this business, making exceeding good observations from the papers on our behalf. Hereupon concluded what to write to Hogg and Middleton, which I did, and also with Mr. Oviatt (Sir R. Ford's (52) son, who is to be our solicitor), to fee some counsel in the Admiralty, but none in town.
So home again, and after writing letters by the post, I with all my clerks and Carcasse and Whitfield to the ticket-office, there to be informed in the method and disorder of the office, which I find infinite great, of infinite concernment to be mended, and did spend till 12 at night to my great satisfaction, it being a point of our office I was wholly unacquainted in. So with great content home and to bed.
Note 1. Quick or ready, a naval term frequently used by Shakespeare.

1667 Thames Frozen

Diary of Samuel Pepys 01 January 1667. 01 Jan 1667. Lay long, being a bitter, cold, frosty day, the frost being now grown old, and the Thames covered with ice. Up, and to the office, where all the morning busy.
At noon to the 'Change a little, where Mr. James Houblon (37) and I walked a good while speaking of our ill condition in not being able to set out a fleet (we doubt) this year, and the certain ill effect that must bring, which is lamentable.
Home to dinner, where the best powdered goose that ever I eat. Then to the office again, and to Sir W. Batten's (66) to examine the Commission going down to Portsmouth to examine witnesses about our prizes, of which God give a good issue! and then to the office again, where late, and so home, my eyes sore. To supper and to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 February 1667. 06 Feb 1667. So to Sir W. Coventry's (39) chamber, and find him within, and with a letter from the Downes in his hands, telling the loss of the St. Patricke coming from Harwich in her way to Portsmouth; and would needs chase two ships (she having the Malago fire-ship in company) which from English colours put up Dutch, and he would clap on board the Vice-Admirall; and after long dispute the Admirall comes on the other side of him, and both together took him. Our fire-ship (Seely) not coming in to fire all three, but come away, leaving her in their possession, and carried away by them: a ship built at Bristoll the last year, of fifty guns and upwards, and a most excellent good ship. This made him very melancholy. I to talk of our wants of money, but I do find that he is not pleased with that discourse, but grieves to hear it, and do seem to think that Sir G. Carteret (57) do not mind the getting of money with the same good cheer that he did heretofore, nor do I think he hath the same reason.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 March 1667. 06 Mar 1667. Up, and with Sir W. Pen (45) to White Hall by coach, and by the way agreed to acquaint Sir W. Coventry (39) with the business of Mr. Carcasse, and he and I spoke to Sir W. Coventry (39) that we might move it to the Duke of York (33), which I did in a very indifferent, that is, impartial manner, but vexed I believe Lord Bruncker (47). Here the Duke of York (33) did acquaint us, and the King (36) did the like also, afterwards coming in, with his resolution of altering the manner of the war this year; that is, we shall keep what fleete we have abroad in several squadrons: so that now all is come out; but we are to keep it as close as we can, without hindering the work that is to be done in preparation to this. Great preparations there are to fortify Sheernesse and the yard at Portsmouth, and forces are drawing down to both those places, and elsewhere by the seaside; so that we have some fear of an invasion; and the Duke of York (33) himself did declare his expectation of the enemy's blocking us up here in the River, and therefore directed that we should send away all the ships that we have to fit out hence. Sir W. Pen (45) told me, going with me this morning to White Hall, that for certain the Duke of Buckingham (39) is brought into the Tower, and that he hath had an hour's private conference with the King (36) before he was sent thither. To Westminster Hall. There bought some news books, and, as every where else, hear every body complain of the dearness of coals, being at £4 per chaldron, the weather, too, being become most bitter cold, the King (36) saying to-day that it was the coldest day he ever knew in England.
Thence by coach to my Lord Crew's (69), where very welcome. Here I find they are in doubt where the Duke of Buckingham (39) is; which makes me mightily reflect on the uncertainty of all history, when, in a business of this moment, and of this day's growth, we cannot tell the truth. Here dined my old acquaintance, Mr. Borfett, that was my Lord Sandwich's (41) chaplain, and my Lady Wright and Dr. Boreman, who is preacher at St. Gyles's in the Fields, who, after dinner, did give my Lord an account of two papist women lately converted, whereof one wrote her recantation, which he shewed under her own hand mighty well drawn, so as my Lord desired a copy of it, after he had satisfied himself from the Doctor, that to his knowledge she was not a woman under any necessity.
Thence by coach home and staid a very little, and then by water to Redriffe, and walked to Bagwell's, where 'la moher' was 'defro, sed' would not have me 'demeurer' there 'parce que' Mrs. Batters and one of my 'ancillas', I believe Jane (for she was gone abroad to-day), was in the town, and coming thither; so I away presently, esteeming it a great escape.
So to the yard and spoke a word or two, and then by water home, wondrous cold, and reading a ridiculous ballad made in praise of the Duke of Albemarle (58), to the tune of St. George, the tune being printed, too; and I observe that people have some great encouragement to make ballads of him of this kind. There are so many, that hereafter he will sound like Guy of Warwicke.
Then abroad with my wife, leaving her at the 'Change, while I to Sir H. Cholmly's (34), a pretty house, and a fine, worthy, well-disposed gentleman he is. He and I to Sir Ph. Warwicke's (57), about money for Tangier, but to little purpose. H. Cholmley (34) tells me, among other things, that he hears of little hopes of a peace, their demands being so high as we shall never grant, and could tell me that we shall keep no fleete abroad this year, but only squadrons. And, among other things, that my Lord Bellasses (52), he believes, will lose his command of Tangier by his corrupt covetous ways of.endeavouring to sell his command, which I am glad [of], for he is a man of no worth in the world but compliment.
So to the 'Change, and there bought 32s. worth of things for Mrs. Knipp, my Valentine, which is pretty to see how my wife is come to convention with me, that, whatever I do give to anybody else, I shall give her as much, which I am not much displeased with.
So home and to the office and Sir W. Batten (66), to tell him what I had done to-day about Carcasse's business, and God forgive me I am not without design to give a blow to Sir W. Batten (66) by it.
So home, where Mr. Batelier supped with us and talked away the evening pretty late, and so he gone and we to bed.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 March 1667. 22 Mar 1667. Up and by coach to Sir Ph. Warwicke (57) about business for Tangier about money, and then to Sir Stephen Fox (39) to give him account of a little service I have done him about money coming to him from our office, and then to Lovett's and saw a few baubling things of their doing which are very pretty, but the quality of the people, living only by shifts, do not please me, that it makes me I do no more care for them, nor shall have more acquaintance with them after I have got my Baroness Castlemayne's (26) picture home.
So to White Hall, where the King (36) at Chapel, and I would not stay, but to Westminster to Howlett's, and there, he being not well, I sent for a quart of claret and burnt it and drank, and had a 'basado' or three or four of Sarah, whom 'je trouve ici', and so by coach to Sir Robt. Viner's (36) about my accounts with him, and so to the 'Change, where I hear for certain that we are going on with our treaty of peace, and that we are to treat at Bredah. But this our condescension people do think will undo us, and I do much fear it.
So home to dinner, where my wife having dressed herself in a silly dress of a blue petticoat uppermost, and a white satin waistcoat and whitehood, though I think she did it because her gown is gone to the tailor's, did, together with my being hungry, which always makes me peevish, make me angry, but when my belly was full were friends again, and dined and then by water down to Greenwich and thence walked to Woolwich, all the way reading Playford's (44) "Introduction to Musique", wherein are some things very pretty.
At Woolwich I did much business, taking an account of the state of the ships there under hand, thence to Blackwall, and did the like for two ships we have repairing there, and then to Deptford and did the like there, and so home. Captain Perriman with me from Deptford, telling me many particulars how the King's business is ill ordered, and indeed so they are, God knows!
So home and to the office, where did business, and so home to my chamber, and then to supper and to bed. Landing at the Tower to-night I met on Tower Hill with Captain Cocke (50) and spent half an hour walking in the dusk of the evening with him, talking of the sorrowful condition we are in, that we must be ruined if the Parliament do not come and chastize us, that we are resolved to make a peace whatever it cost, that the King (36) is disobliging the Parliament in this interval all that may be, yet his money is gone and he must have more, and they likely not to give it, without a great deal of do. God knows what the issue of it will be. But the considering that the Duke of York (33), instead of being at sea as Admirall, is now going from port to port, as he is at this day at Harwich, and was the other day with the King (36) at Sheernesse, and hath ordered at Portsmouth how fortifications shall be made to oppose the enemy, in case of invasion, [which] is to us a sad consideration, and as shameful to the nation, especially after so many proud vaunts as we have made against the Dutch, and all from the folly of the Duke of Albemarle (58), who made nothing of beating them, and Sir John Lawson (52) he always declared that we never did fail to beat them with lesser numbers than theirs, which did so prevail with the King (36) as to throw us into this war.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 April 1667. 04 Apr 1667. Up, and going down found Jervas the barber with a periwigg which I had the other day cheapened at Westminster, but it being full of nits, as heretofore his work used to be, I did now refuse it, having bought elsewhere.
So to the office till noon, busy, and then (which I think I have not done three times in my life) left the board upon occasion of a letter of Sir W. Coventry (39), and meeting Balty (27) at my house I took him with me by water, and to the Duke of Albemarle (58) to give him an account of the business, which was the escaping of some soldiers for the manning of a few ships now going out with Harman (42) to the West Indies, which is a sad consideration that at the very beginning of the year and few ships abroad we should be in such want of men that they do hide themselves, and swear they will not go to be killed and have no pay. I find the Duke of Albemarle (58) at dinner with sorry company, some of his officers of the Army; dirty dishes, and a nasty wife at table, and bad meat, of which I made but an ill dinner. Pretty to hear how she talked against Captain Du Tell, the Frenchman, that the Prince and her husband put out the last year; and how, says she, the Duke of York (33) hath made him, for his good services, his Cupbearer; yet he fired more shot into the D. Gawden's ship, and others of the King's ships, than of the enemy. And the Duke of Albemarle (58) did confirm it, and that somebody in the fight did cry out that a little Dutchman, by his ship, did plague him more than any other; upon which they were going to order him to be sunk, when they looked and found it was Du Tell, who, as the Duke of Albemarle (58) says, had killed several men in several of our ships. He said, but for his interest, which he knew he had at Court, he had hanged him at the yard's-arm, without staying for a Court-martiall. One Colonel Howard, at the table, magnified the Duke of Albemarle's (58) fight in June last, as being a greater action than ever was done by Caesar. The Duke of Albemarle (58), did say it had been no great action, had all his number fought, as they should have done, to have beat the Dutch; but of his 55 ships, not above 25 fought. He did give an account that it was a fight he was forced to: the Dutch being come in his way, and he being ordered to the buoy of the Nore, he could not pass by them without fighting, nor avoid them without great disadvantage and dishonour; and this Sir G. Carteret (57), I afterwards giving him an account of what he said, says that it is true, that he was ordered up to the Nore. But I remember he said, had all his captains fought, he would no more have doubted to have beat the Dutch, with all their number, than to eat the apple that lay on his trencher. My Lady Duchesse, among other things, discoursed of the wisdom of dividing the fleete; which the General said nothing to, though he knows well that it come from themselves in the fleete, and was brought up hither by Sir Edward Spragge (47). Colonel Howard, asking how the Prince did, the Duke of Albemarle (58) answering, "Pretty well"; the other replied, "But not so well as to go to sea again".—"How!" says the Duchess, "what should he go for, if he were well, for there are no ships for him to command? And so you have brought your hogs to a fair market", said she1. One at the table told an odd passage in this late plague: that at Petersfield, I think, he said, one side of the street had every house almost infected through the town, and the other, not one shut up. Dinner being done, I brought Balty (27) to the Duke of Albemarle (58) to kiss his hand and thank him far his kindness the last year to him, and take leave of him, and then Balty (27) and I to walk in the Park, and, out of pity to his father, told him what I had in my thoughts to do for him about the money—that is, to make him Deputy Treasurer of the fleete, which I have done by getting Sir G. Carteret's (57) consent, and an order from the Duke of York (33) for £1500 to be paid to him. He promises the whole profit to be paid to my wife, for to be disposed of as she sees fit, for her father and mother's relief. So mightily pleased with our walk, it being mighty pleasant weather, I back to Sir G. Carteret's (57), and there he had newly dined, and talked, and find that he do give every thing over for lost, declaring no money to be raised, and let Sir W. Coventry (39) name the man that persuaded the King (36) to take the Land Tax on promise, of raising present money upon it. He will, he says, be able to clear himself enough of it. I made him merry, with telling him how many land-admirals we are to have this year: Allen at Plymouth, Holmes at Portsmouth, Spragge for Medway, Teddiman at Dover, Smith to the Northward, and Harman (42) to the Southward. He did defend to me Sir W. Coventry (39) as not guilty of the dividing of the fleete the last year, and blesses God, as I do, for my Lord Sandwich's (41) absence, and tells me how the King (36) did lately observe to him how they have been particularly punished that were enemies to my Lord Sandwich (41). Mightily pleased I am with his family, and my Baroness Carteret (65) was on the bed to-day, having been let blood, and tells me of my Lady Jemimah's being big-bellied.
Thence with him to my Lord Treasurer's (60), and there walked during Council sitting with Sir Stephen Fox (40), talking of the sad condition of the King's purse, and affairs thereby; and how sad the King's life must be, to pass by his officers every hour, that are four years behind-hand unpaid. My Lord Barkeley (65) [of Stratton] I met with there, and fell into talk with him on the same thing, wishing to God that it might be remedied, to which he answered, with an oath, that it was as easy to remedy it as anything in the world; saying, that there is himself and three more would venture their carcasses upon it to pay all the King's debts in three years, had they the managing his revenue, and putting £300,000 in his purse, as a stock. But, Lord! what a thing is this to me, that do know how likely a man my Lord Barkeley (65) of all the world is, to do such a thing as this. Here I spoke with Sir W. Coventry (39), who tells me plainly that to all future complaints of lack of money he will answer but with the shrug of his shoulder; which methought did come to my heart, to see him to begin to abandon the King's affairs, and let them sink or swim, so he do his owne part, which I confess I believe he do beyond any officer the King (36) hath, but unless he do endeavour to make others do theirs, nothing will be done. The consideration here do make me go away very sad, and so home by coach, and there took up my wife and Mercer, who had been to-day at White Hall to the Maundy2, it being Maundy Thursday; but the King (36) did not wash the poor people's feet himself, but the Bishop of London did it for him, but I did not see it, and with them took up Mrs. Anne Jones at her mother's door, and so to take the ayre to Hackney, where good neat's tongue, and things to eat and drink, and very merry, the weather being mighty pleasant; and here I was told that at their church they have a fair pair of organs, which play while the people sing, which I am mighty glad of, wishing the like at our church at London, and would give £50 towards it. So very pleasant, and hugging of Mercer in our going home, we home, and then to the office to do a little business, and so to supper at home and to bed.
Note 1. It was pretty to hear the Duke of Albemarle (58) himself to wish that they would come on our ground, meaning the French, for that he would pay them, so as to make them glad to go back to France again; which was like a general, but not like an admiral.
Note 2. The practice of giving alms on Maundy Thursday to poor men and women equal in number to the years of the sovereign's age is a curious survival in an altered form of an old custom. The original custom was for the King (36) to wash the feet of twelve poor persons, and to give them a supper in imitation of Christ's last supper and his washing of the Apostles' feet. James II was the last sovereign to perform the ceremony in person, but it was performed by deputy so late as 1731. The Archbishop of York was the King's deputy on that occasion. The institution has passed through the various stages of feet washing with a supper, the discontinuance of the feet washing, the substitution of a gift of provisions for the supper, and finally the substitution of a gift of money for the provisions. The ceremony took place at the Chapel Royal, Whitehall; but it is now held at Westminster Abbey. Maundy is derived from the Latin word 'maudatum', which commences the original anthem sung during the ceremony, in reference to Christ's command.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 07 April 1667. 07 Apr 1667. Easter Day. Up, and when dressed with my wife (in mourning for my mother) to church both, where Mr. Mills, a lazy sermon.
Home to dinner, wife and I and W. Hewer (25), and after dinner I by water to White Hall to Sir G. Carteret's (57), there to talk about Balty's (27) money, and did present Balty (27) to him to kiss his hand, and then to walk in the Parke, and heard the Italian musique at the Queen's (28) chapel, whose composition is fine, but yet the voices of eunuchs I do not like like our women, nor am more pleased with it at all than with English voices, but that they do jump most excellently with themselves and their instrument, which is wonderful pleasant; but I am convinced more and more, that, as every nation has a particular accent and tone in discourse, so as the tone of one not to agree with or please the other, no more can the fashion of singing to words, for that the better the words are set, the more they take in of the ordinary tone of the country whose language the song speaks, so that a song well composed by an Englishman must be better to an Englishman than it can be to a stranger, or than if set by a stranger in foreign words.
Thence back to White Hall, and there saw the King (36) come out of chapel after prayers in the afternoon, which he is never at but after having received the Sacrament: and the Court, I perceive, is quite out of mourning; and some very fine; among others, my Lord Gerard (49), in a very rich vest and coat. Here I met with my Lord Bellasses (52): and it is pretty to see what a formal story he tells me of his leaving, his place upon the death of my Lord Cleveland (76), by which he is become Captain of the Pensioners; and that the King (36) did leave it to him to keep the other or take this; whereas, I know the contrary, that they had a mind to have him away from Tangier. He tells me he is commanded by the King (36) to go down to the Northward to satisfy the Deputy Lieutenants of Yorkshire, who have desired to lay down their commissions upon pretence of having no profit by their places but charge, but indeed is upon the Duke of Buckingham's (39) being under a cloud (of whom there is yet nothing heard), so that the King (36) is apprehensive of their discontent, and sends him to pacify them, and I think he is as good a dissembler as any man else, and a fine person he is for person, and proper to lead the Pensioners, but a man of no honour nor faith I doubt.
So to Sir G. Carteret's (57) again to talk with him about Balty's (27) money, and wrote a letter to Portsmouth about part of it, and then in his coach, with his little daughter Porpot (as he used to nickname her), and saw her at home, and her maid, and another little gentlewoman, and so I walked into Moore Fields, and, as is said, did find houses built two stories high, and like to stand; and it must become a place of great trade, till the City be built; and the street is already paved as London streets used to be, which is a strange, and to mean unpleasing sight.
So home and to my chamber about sending an express to Portsmouth about Balty's (27) money, and then comes Mrs. Turner (44) to enquire after her son's business, which goes but bad, which led me to show her how false Sir W. Pen (45) is to her, whereupon she told me his obligations to her, and promises to her, and how a while since he did show himself dissatisfied in her son's coming to the table and applying himself to me, which is a good nut, and a nut I will make use of. She gone I to other business in my chamber, and then to supper and to bed. The Swede's Embassadors and our Commissioners are making all the haste they can over to the treaty for peace, and I find at Court, and particularly Lord Bellasses (52), says there will be a peace, and it is worth remembering what Sir W. Coventry (39) did tell me (as a secret though) that whereas we are afeard Harman's (42) fleete to the West Indys will not be got out before the Dutch come and block us up, we shall have a happy pretext to get out our ships under pretence of attending the Embassadors and Commissioners, which is a very good, but yet a poor shift.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 18 April 1667. 18 Apr 1667. Up, and to read more in the "Origines", and then to the office, where the news is strong that not only the Dutch cannot set out a fleete this year, but that the French will not, and that he hath given the answer to the Dutch Embassador, saying that he is for the King (36) of England's, having an honourable peace, which, if true, is the best news we have had a good while. At the office all the morning, and there pleased with the little pretty Deptford woman I have wished for long, and she hath occasion given her to come again to me. After office I to the 'Change a little, and then home and to dinner, and then by coach with my wife to the Duke of York's (33) house, and there saw "The Wits", a play I formerly loved, and is now corrected and enlarged: but, though I like the acting, yet I like not much in the play now. The Duke of York (33) and Sir W. Coventry (39) gone to Portsmouth, makes me thus to go to plays.
So home, and to the office a little and then home, where I find Goodgroome, and he and I did sing several things over, and tried two or three grace parts in Playford's (44) new book, my wife pleasing me in singing her part of the things she knew, which is a comfort to my very heart. So he being gone we to supper and to bed.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 April 1667. 20 Apr 1667. Up, with much pain in my eare and palate. To the office out of humour all the morning.
At noon dined, and with my wife to the King's house, but there found the bill torn down and no play acted, and so being in the humour to see one, went to the Duke of York's house, and there saw "The Witts" again, which likes me better than it did the other day, having much wit in it. Here met with Mr. Rolt, who tells me the reason of no play to-day at the King's house. That Lacy (52) had been committed to the porter's lodge for his acting his part in the late new play, and that being thence released he come to the King's house, there met with Ned Howard (42), the poet of the play, who congratulated his release; upon which Lacy (52) cursed him as that it was the fault of his nonsensical play that was the cause of his ill usage. Mr. Howard (42) did give him some reply; to which Lacy (52) [answered] him, that he was more a fool than a poet; upon which Howard (42) did give him a blow on the face with his glove; on which Lacy (52), having a cane in his hand, did give him a blow over the pate. Here Rolt and others that discoursed of it in the pit this afternoon did wonder that Howard (42) did not run him through, he being too mean a fellow to fight with. But Howard did not do any thing but complain to the King (36) of it; so the whole house is silenced, and the gentry seem to rejoice much at it, the house being become too insolent. Here were many fine ladies this afternoon at this house as I have at any time seen, and so after the play home and there wrote to my father, and then to walk in the garden with my wife, resolving by the grace of God to see no more plays till Whitsuntide, I having now seen a play every day this week till I have neglected my business, and that I am ashamed of, being found so much absent; the Duke of York (33) and Sir W. Coventry (39) having been out of town at Portsmouth did the more embolden me thereto.
So home, and having brought home with me from Fenchurch Street a hundred of sparrowgrass1, cost 18d. We had them and a little bit of salmon, which my wife had a mind to, cost 3s.
So to supper, and my pain being somewhat better in my throat, we to bed.
Note 1. A form once so commonly used for asparagus that it has found its way into dictionaries.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 April 1667. 22 Apr 1667. Up pretty betimes, my throat better, and so drest me, and to White Hall to see Sir W. Coventry (39), returned from Portsmouth, whom I am almost ashamed to see for fear he should have been told how often I have been at plays, but it is better to see him at first than afterward. So walked to the Old Swan and drank at Michell's, and then to White Hall and over the Park to St. James's to Sir W. Coventry (39), where well received, and good discourse. He seems to be sure of a peace; that the King of France (28) do not intend to set out a fleete, for that he do design Flanders. Our Embassadors set out this week.
Thence I over the Park to Sir G. Carteret (57), and after him by coach to the Chancellor's (58) house, the first time I have been therein; and it is very noble, and brave pictures of the ancient and present nobility, never saw better.
Thence with him to London, mighty merry in the way.
Thence home, and find the boy out of the house and office, and by and by comes in and hath been to Mercer's. I did pay his coat for him. Then to my chamber, my wife comes home with linen she hath been buying of. I then to dinner, and then down the river to Greenwich, and the watermen would go no further. So I turned them off, giving them nothing, and walked to Woolwich; there did some business, and met with Captain Cocke (50) and back with him. He tells me our peace is agreed on; we are not to assist the Spanyard against the French for this year, and no restitution, and we are likely to lose Poleroone1. I know not whether this be true or no, but I am for peace on any terms. He tells me how the King (36) was vexed the other day for having no paper laid him at the Council-table, as was usual; and Sir Richard Browne (62) did tell his Majesty he would call the person whose work it was to provide it: who being come, did tell his Majesty that he was but a poor man, and was out £400 or £500 for it, which was as much as he is worth; and that he cannot provide it any longer without money, having not received a penny since the King's coming in. So the King (36) spoke to my Lord Chamberlain (65); and many such mementos the King (36) do now-a-days meet withall, enough to make an ingenuous man mad. I to Deptford, and there scolded with a master for his ship's not being gone, and so home to the office and did business till my eyes are sore again, and so home to sing, and then to bed, my eyes failing me mightily:
Note 1. Among the State Papers is a document dated July 8th, 1667, in which we read: "At Breda, the business is so far advanced that the English have relinquished their pretensions to the ships Henry Bonaventure and Good Hope. The matter sticks only at Poleron; the States have resolved not to part with it, though the English should have a right to it" ("Calendar", 1667, p. 278).

Read More ...

1667 Raid on the Medway

Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 June 1667. 14 Jun 1667. Up, and to the office; where Mr. fryer comes and tells me that there are several Frenchmen and Flemish ships in the River, with passes from the Duke of York (33) for carrying of prisoners, that ought to be parted from the rest of the ships, and their powder taken, lest they do fire themselves when the enemy comes, and so spoil us; which is good advice, and I think I will give notice of it; and did so. But it is pretty odd to see how every body, even at this high time of danger, puts business off of their own hands! He says that he told this to the Lieutenant of the Tower (52), to whom I, for the same reason, was directing him to go; and the Lieutenant of the Tower bade him come to us, for he had nothing to do with it; and yesterday comes Captain Crew, of one of the fireships, and told me that the officers of the Ordnance would deliver his gunner's materials, but not compound them1, 2 but that we must do it; whereupon I was forced to write to them about it; and one that like a great many come to me this morning by and by comes—Mr. Wilson, and by direction of his, a man of Mr. Gawden's; who come from Chatham last night, and saw the three ships burnt, they lying all dry, and boats going from the men-of-war and fire them. But that, that he tells me of worst consequence is, that he himself, I think he said, did hear many Englishmen on board the Dutch ships speaking to one another in English; and that they did cry and say, "We did heretofore fight for tickets; now we fight for dollars!" and did ask how such and such a one did, and would commend themselves to them: which is a sad consideration.
And Mr. Lewes, who was present at this fellow's discourse to me, did tell me, that he is told that when they took "The Royall Charles", they said that they had their tickets signed, and showed some, and that now they come to have them paid, and would have them paid before they parted. And several seamen come this morning to me, to tell me that, if I would get their tickets paid, they would go and do all they could against the Dutch; but otherwise they would not venture being killed, and lose all they have already fought for: so that I was forced to try what I could do to get them paid.
This man tells me that the ships burnt last night did lie above Upnor Castle, over against the Docke; and the boats come from the ships of war and burnt them all which is very sad. And masters of ships, that we are now taking up, do keep from their ships all their stores, or as much as they can, so that we can despatch them, having not time to appraise them nor secure their payment; only some little money we have, which we are fain to pay the men we have with, every night, or they will not work. And indeed the hearts as well as affections of the seamen are turned away; and in the open streets in Wapping, and up and down, the wives have cried publickly, "This comes of your not paying our husbands; and now your work is undone, or done by hands that understand it not". And Sir W. Batten (66) told me that he was himself affronted with a woman, in language of this kind, on Tower Hill publickly yesterday; and we are fain to bear it, and to keep one at the office door to let no idle people in, for fear of firing of the office and doing us mischief.
The City is troubled at their being put upon duty: summoned one hour, and discharged two hours after; and then again summoned two hours after that; to their great charge as well as trouble. And Pelling, the Potticary, tells me the world says all over, that less charge than what the Kingdom is put to, of one kind or other, by this business, would have set out all our great ships. It is said they did in open streets yesterday, at Westminster, cry, "A Parliament! a Parliament!" and I do believe it will cost blood to answer for these miscarriages. We do not hear that the Dutch are come to Gravesend; which is a wonder. But a wonderful thing it is that to this day we have not one word yet from Bruncker (47), or Peter Pett (56), or J. Minnes (68), of any thing at Chatham. The people that come hither to hear how things go, make me ashamed to be found unable to answer them: for I am left alone here at the office; and the truth is, I am glad my station is to be here, near my own home and out of danger, yet in a place of doing the King (37) good service.
I have this morning good news from Gibson; three letters from three several stages, that he was safe last night as far as Royston, at between nine and ten at night. The dismay that is upon us all, in the business of the Kingdom and Navy at this day, is not to be expressed otherwise than by the condition the citizens were in when the City was on fire, nobody knowing which way to turn themselves, while every thing concurred to greaten the fire; as here the easterly gale and spring-tides for coming up both rivers, and enabling them to break the chaine. D. Gauden did tell me yesterday, that the day before at the Council they were ready to fall together by the ears at the Council-table, arraigning one another of being guilty of the counsel that brought us into this misery, by laying up all the great ships. Mr. Hater tells me at noon that some rude people have been, as he hears, at my Chancellor's (58), where they have cut down the trees before his house and broke his windows; and a gibbet either set up before or painted upon his gate, and these three words writ: "Three sights to be seen; Dunkirke, Tangier, and a barren Queene (57)"3.
It gives great matter of talk that it is said there is at this hour, in the Exchequer, as much money as is ready to break down the floor. This arises, I believe, from Sir G. Downing's (42) late talk of the greatness of the sum lying there of people's money, that they would not fetch away, which he shewed me and a great many others. Most people that I speak with are in doubt how we shall do to secure our seamen from running over to the Dutch; which is a sad but very true consideration at this day.
At noon I am told that my Lord Duke of Albemarle (58) is made Lord High Constable; the meaning whereof at this time I know not, nor whether it, be true or no.
Dined, and Mr. Hater and W. Hewer (25) with me; where they do speak very sorrowfully of the posture of the times, and how people do cry out in the streets of their being bought and sold; and both they, and every body that come to me, do tell me that people make nothing of talking treason in the streets openly: as, that we are bought and sold, and governed by Papists, and that we are betrayed by people about the King (37), and shall be delivered up to the French, and I know not what.
At dinner we discoursed of Tom of the Wood, a fellow that lives like a hermit near Woolwich, who, as they say, and Mr. Bodham, they tell me, affirms that he was by at the justice's when some did accuse him there for it, did foretell the burning of the City, and now says that a greater desolation is at hand. Thence we read and laughed at Lilly's prophecies this month, in his Almanack this year! !So to the office after dinner; and thither comes Mr. Pierce, who tells me his condition, how he cannot get his money, about £500, which, he says, is a very great part of what he hath for his family and children, out of Viner's (36) hand: and indeed it is to be feared that this will wholly undo the bankers. He says he knows nothing of the late affronts to my Chancellor's (58) house, as is said, nor hears of the Duke of Albemarle's (58) being made High Constable; but says that they are in great distraction at White Hall, and that every where people do speak high against Sir W. Coventry (39): but he agrees with me, that he is the best Minister of State the King (37) hath, and so from my heart I believe.
At night come home Sir W. Batten (66) and W. Pen (46), who only can tell me that they have placed guns at Woolwich and Deptford, and sunk some ships below Woolwich and Blackewall, and are in hopes that they will stop the enemy's coming up. But strange our confusion! that among them that are sunk they have gone and sunk without consideration "The Franakin",' one of the King's ships, with stores to a very considerable value, that hath been long loaden for supply of the ships; and the new ship at Bristoll, and much wanted there; and nobody will own that they directed it, but do lay it on Sir W. Rider. They speak also of another ship, loaden to the value of £80,000, sunk with the goods in her, or at least was mightily contended for by him, and a foreign ship, that had the faith of the nation for her security: this Sir R. Ford (53) tells us: And it is too plain a truth, that both here and at Chatham the ships that we have sunk have many, and the first of them, been ships completely fitted for fire-ships at great charge. But most strange the backwardness and disorder of all people, especially the King's people in pay, to do any work, Sir W. Pen (46) tells me, all crying out for money; and it was so at Chatham, that this night comes an order from Sir W. Coventry (39) to stop the pay of the wages of that Yard; the Duke of Albemarle (58) having related, that not above three of 1100 in pay there did attend to do any work there.
This evening having sent a messenger to Chatham on purpose, we have received a dull letter from my Lord Bruncker (47) and Peter Pett (56), how matters have gone there this week; but not so much, or so particularly, as we knew it by common talk before, and as true. I doubt they will be found to have been but slow men in this business; and they say the Duke of Albemarle (58) did tell my Lord Bruncker (47) to his face that his discharging of the great ships there was the cause of all this; and I am told that it is become common talk against my Lord Bruncker (47). But in that he is to be justified, for he did it by verbal order from Sir W. Coventry (39), and with good intent; and it was to good purpose, whatever the success be, for the men would have but spent the King (37) so much the more in wages, and yet not attended on board to have done the King (37) any service; and as an evidence of that, just now, being the 15th day in the morning that I am writing yesterday's passages, one is with me, Jacob Bryan, Purser of "The Princesse", who confesses to me that he hath about 180 men borne at this day in victuals and wages on that ship lying at Chatham, being lately brought in thither; of which 180 there was not above five appeared to do the King (37) any service at this late business. And this morning also, some of the Cambridge's men come up from Portsmouth, by order from Sir Fretcheville Hollis (25), who boasted to us the other day that he had sent for 50, and would be hanged if 100 did not come up that would do as much as twice the number of other men: I say some of them, instead of being at work at Deptford, where they were intended, do come to the office this morning to demand the payment of their tickets; for otherwise they would, they said, do no more work; and are, as I understand from every body that has to do with them, the most debauched, damning, swearing rogues that ever were in the Navy, just like their prophane commander.
So to Sir W. Batten's (66) to sit and talk a little, and then home to my flageolet, my heart being at pretty good ease by a letter from my wife, brought by Saunders, that my father and wife got well last night to their Inne and out again this morning, and Gibson's being got safe to Caxton at twelve last night.
So to supper, and then to bed. No news to-day of any motion of the enemy either upwards towards Chatham or this way.
Note 1. Meaning, apparently, that the Ordnance would deliver the charcoal, sulphur, and saltpetre separately, but not mix them as gunpowder.
Note 2. The want of ammunition when the Dutch burnt the fleet, and the revenge of the deserter sailors, are well described by Marvell "Our Seamen, whom no danger's shape could fright, Unpaid, refuse to mount their ships, for spite Or to their fellows swim, on board the Dutch, Who show the tempting metal in their clutch.
Note 3. "Pride, Lust, Ambition, and the People's Hate, the Kingdom's broker, ruin of the State, Dunkirk's sad loss, divider of the fleet, Tangier's compounder for a barren sheet This shrub of gentry, married to the crown, His daughter to the heir, is tumbled down". Poems on State Affairs, vol. i., p. 253. B.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 21 June 1667. 21 Jun 1667. Up and by water to White Hall, there to discourse with Sir G. Carteret (57) and Mr. Fenn about office business. I found them all aground, and no money to do anything with.
Thence homewards, calling at my Tailor's to bespeak some coloured clothes, and thence to Hercules Pillars, all alone, and there spent 6d. on myself, and so home and busy all the morning.
At noon to dinner, home, where my wife shows me a letter from her father, who is going over sea, and this afternoon would take his leave of her. I sent him by her three Jacobuses in gold, having real pity for him and her.
So I to my office, and there all the afternoon. This day comes news from Harwich that the Dutch fleete are all in sight, near 100 sail great and small, they think, coming towards them; where, they think, they shall be able to oppose them; but do cry out of the falling back of the seamen, few standing by them, and those with much faintness. The like they write from Portsmouth, and their letters this post are worth reading. Sir H. Cholmly (34) come to me this day, and tells me the Court is as mad as ever; and that the night the Dutch burned our ships the King (37) did sup with my Baroness Castlemayne (26), at the Duchess of Monmouth's (16), and there were all mad in hunting of a poor moth. All the Court afraid of a Parliament; but he thinks nothing can save us but the King's giving up all to a Parliament. Busy at the office all the afternoon, and did much business to my great content.
In the evening sent for home, and there I find my Lady Pen (43) and Mrs. Lowther, and Mrs. Turner (44) and my wife eating some victuals, and there I sat and laughed with them a little, and so to the office again, and in the evening walked with my wife in the garden, and did give Sir W. Pen (46) at his lodgings (being just come from Deptford from attending the dispatch of the fire-ships there) an account of what passed the other day at Council touching Commissioner Pett (56), and so home to supper and to bed.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 19 July 1667. 19 Jul 1667. Up and comes the flageolet master, and brings me two new great Ivory pipes which cost me 32s., and so to play, and he being done, and Balty's (27) wife taking her leave of me, she going back to Lee to-day, I to Westminster and there did receive £15,000 orders out of the Exchequer in part of a bigger sum upon the eleven months tax for Tangier, part of which I presently delivered to Sir H. Cholmly (34), who was there, and thence with Mr. Gawden to Auditor Woods and Beales to examine some precedents in his business of the Victualling on his behalf, and so home, and in my way by coach down Marke Lane, mightily pleased and smitten to see, as I thought, in passing, the pretty woman, the line-maker's wife that lived in Fenchurch Streete, and I had great mind to have gone back to have seen, but yet would correct my nature and would not.
So to dinner with my wife, and then to sing, and so to the office, where busy all the afternoon late, and to Sir W. Batten's (66) and to Sir R. Ford's (53), we all to consider about our great prize at Hull, being troubled at our being likely to be troubled with Prince Rupert (47), by reason of Hogg's consorting himself with two privateers of the D. Gawden's, and so we study how to ease or secure ourselves.
So to walk in the garden with my wife, and then to supper and to bed. One tells me that, by letter from Holland, the people there are made to believe that our condition in England is such as they may have whatever they will ask; and that so they are mighty high, and despise us, or a peace with us; and there is too much reason for them to do so. The Dutch fleete are in great squadrons everywhere still about Harwich, and were lately at Portsmouth; and the last letters say at Plymouth, and now gone to Dartmouth to destroy our Streights' fleete lately got in thither; but God knows whether they can do it any hurt, or no, but it was pretty news come the other day so fast, of the Dutch fleets being in so many places, that Sir W. Batten (66) at table cried, "By God", says he, "I think the Devil shits Dutchmen".

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 August 1667. 20 Aug 1667. Up, and to my chamber to set down my journall for the last three days, and then to the office, where busy all the morning.
At noon home to dinner, and then with my wife abroad, set her down at the Exchange, and I to St. James's, where find Sir W. Coventry (39) alone, and fell to discourse of retrenchments; and thereon he tells how he hath already propounded to the Lords Committee of the Councils how he would have the Treasurer of the Navy a less man, that might not sit at the Board, but be subject to the Board. He would have two Controllers to do his work and two Surveyors, whereof one of each to take it by turns to reside at Portsmouth and Chatham by a kind of rotation; he would have but only one Clerk of the Acts. He do tell me he hath propounded how the charge of the Navy in peace shall come within £200,000, by keeping out twenty-four ships in summer, and ten in the winter. And several other particulars we went over of retrenchment: and I find I must provide some things to offer that I may be found studious to lessen the King's charge.
By and by comes my Lord Bruncker (47), and then we up to the Duke of York (33), and there had a hearing of our usual business, but no money to be heard of—no, not £100 upon the most pressing service that can be imagined of bringing in the King's timber from Whittlewood, while we have the utmost want of it, and no credit to provide it elsewhere, and as soon as we had done with the Duke of York (33), Sir W. Coventry (39) did single [out] Sir W. Pen (46) and me, and desired us to lend the King (37) some money, out of the prizes we have taken by Hogg. He did not much press it, and we made but a merry answer thereto; but I perceive he did ask it seriously, and did tell us that there never was so much need of it in the world as now, we being brought to the lowest straits that can be in the world. This troubled me much.
By and by Sir W. Batten (66) told me that he heard how Carcasse do now give out that he will hang me, among the rest of his threats of him and Pen, which is the first word I ever heard of the kind from him concerning me. It do trouble me a little, though I know nothing he can possibly find to fasten on me.
Thence, with my Lord Bruncker (47) to the Duke's Playhouse (telling my wife so at the 'Change, where I left her), and there saw "Sir Martin Marr-all" again, which I have now seen three times, and it hath been acted but four times, and still find it a very ingenious play, and full of variety.
So home, and to the office, where my eyes would not suffer me to do any thing by candlelight, and so called my wife and walked in the garden. She mighty pressing for a new pair of cuffs, which I am against the laying out of money upon yet, which makes her angry.
So home to supper and to bed.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 10 December 1667. 10 Dec 1667. Up, and all the morning at the office, and then home with my people to dinner, and very merry, and then to my office again, where did much business till night, that my eyes begun to be sore, and then forced to leave off, and by coach set my wife at her tailor's and Willet, and I to Westminster Hall, and there walked a good while till 8 at night, and there hear to my great content that the King (37) did send a message to the House to-day that he would adjourne them on the 17th instant to February; by which time, at least, I shall have more respite to prepare things on my own behalf, and the Office, against their return. Here met Mr. Hinxton, the organist, walking, and I walked with him; and, asking him many questions, I do find that he can no more give an intelligible answer to a man that is not a great master in his art, than another man. And this confirms me that it is only want of an ingenious man that is master in musique, to bring musique to a certainty, and ease in composition. Having done this, I home, taking up my wife and girle, and there to supper and to bed, having finished my letters, among which one to Commissioner Middleton, who is now coming up to town from Portsmouth, to enter upon his Surveyorship.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 February 1668. 17 Feb 1668. Up, and to the office, where all the morning till noon getting some things more ready against the afternoon for the Committee of Accounts, which did give me great trouble, to see how I am forced to dance after them in one place, and to answer Committees of Parliament in another.
At noon thence toward the Committee, but meeting with Sir W. Warren in Fleet Street he and I to the Ordinary by Temple Bar and there dined together, and to talk, where he do seem to be very high now in defiance of the Board, now he says that the worst is come upon him to have his accounts brought to the Committee of Accounts, and he do reflect upon my late coldness to him, but upon the whole I do find that he is still a cunning fellow, and will find it necessary to be fair to me, and what hath passed between us of coldness to hold his tongue, which do please me very well.
Thence to the Committee, where I did deliver the several things they expected from me, with great respect and show of satisfaction, and my mind thereby eased of some care. But thence I to Westminster Hall, and there spent till late at night walking to and again with many people, and there in general I hear of the great high words that were in the House on Saturday last, upon the first part of the Committee's Report about the dividing of the fleete; wherein some would have the counsels of the King (37) to be declared, and the reasons of them, and who did give them; where Sir W. Coventry (40) laid open to them the consequences of doing that, that the King (37) would never have any honest and wise men ever to be of his Council. They did here in the House talk boldly of the King's bad counsellors, and how they must be all turned out, and many of them, and better; brought in: and the proceedings of the Long-Parliament in the beginning of the war were called to memory: and the King's bad intelligence was mentioned, wherein they were bitter against my Lord Arlington (50), saying, among other things, that whatever Morrice's was, who declared he had but £750 a-year allowed him for intelligence, the King (37) paid too dear for my Lord Arlington's (50), in giving him £10,000 and a barony for it. Sir W. Coventry (40) did here come to his defence, in the business of the letter that was sent to call back Prince Rupert (48), after he was divided from the fleete, wherein great delay was objected; but he did show that he sent it at one in the morning, when the Duke of York (34) did give him the instructions after supper that night, and did clear himself well of it: only it was laid as a fault, which I know not how he removes, of not sending it by an express, but by the ordinary post; but I think I have heard he did send it to my Lord Arlington's (50); and that there it lay for some hours; it coming not to Sir Philip Honiwood's hand at Portsmouth till four in the afternoon that day, being about fifteen or sixteen hours in going; and about this, I think, I have heard of a falling out between my Lord Arlington (50), heretofore, and W. Coventry (40). Some mutterings I did hear of a design of dissolving the Parliament; but I think there is no ground for it yet, though Oliver would have dissolved them for half the trouble and contempt these have put upon the King (37) and his councils. The dividing of the fleete, however, is, I hear, voted a miscarriage, and the not building a fortification at Sheernesse: and I have reason every hour to expect that they will vote the like of our paying men off by ticket; and what the consequence of that will be I know not, but I am put thereby into great trouble of mind. I did spend a little time at the Swan, and there did kiss the maid, Sarah.
At noon home, and there up to my wife, who is still ill, and supped with her, my mind being mighty full of trouble for the office and my concernments therein, and so to supper and talking with W. Hewer (26) in her chamber about business of the office, wherein he do well understand himself and our case, and it do me advantage to talk with him and the rest of my people. I to bed below as I did last night.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 August 1668. 05 Aug 1668. So to bed about two o'clock, and then up about seven and to White Hall, where read over my report to Lord Arlington (50) and Berkeley (66), and then afterward at the Council Board with great good liking, but, Lord! how it troubled my eyes, though I did not think I could have done it, but did do it, and was not very bad afterward.
So home to dinner, and thence out to the Duke of York's playhouse, and there saw "The Guardian"; formerly the same, I find, that was called "Cutter of Coleman Street"; a silly play. And thence to Westminster Hall, where I met Fitzgerald; and with him to a tavern, to consider of the instructions for Sir Thomas Allen (35), against his going to Algiers; he and I being designed to go down to Portsmouth by the Council's order, and by and by he and I went to the Duke of York (34), who orders me to go down to-morrow morning. So I away home, and there bespeak a coach; and so home and to bed, my wife being abroad with the Mercers walking in the fields, and upon the water.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 28 September 1668. 28 Sep 1668. Up betimes, and Knepp's maid comes to me, to tell me that the women's day at the playhouse is to-day, and that therefore I must be there, to encrease their profit. I did give the pretty maid Betty that comes to me half-a-crown for coming, and had a baiser or two-elle being mighty jolie. And so I about my business. By water to St. James's, and there had good opportunity of speaking with the Duke of York (34), who desires me again, talking on that matter, to prepare something for him to do for the better managing of our Office, telling me that, my Lord Keeper and he talking about it yesterday, my Lord Keeper did advise him to do so, it being better to come from him than otherwise, which I have promised to do.
Thence to my Lord Burlington's (55) houses the first time I ever was there, it being the house built by Sir John Denham (53), next to Clarendon House; and here I visited my Lord Hinchingbrooke (20) and his lady; Mr. Sidney Montagu (18) being come last night to town unexpectedly from Mount's Bay, where he left my Lord well, eight days since, so as we may now hourly expect to hear of his arrival at Portsmouth. Sidney (18) is mighty grown; and I am glad I am here to see him at his first coming, though it cost me dear, for here I come to be necessitated to supply them with £500 for my Lord. He sent him up with a declaration to his friends, of the necessity of his being presently supplied with £2000; but I do not think he will get one. However, I think it becomes my duty to my Lord to do something extraordinary in this, and the rather because I have been remiss in writing to him during this voyage, more than ever I did in my life, and more indeed than was fit for me.
By and by comes Sir W. GoDolphin to see Mr. Sidney, who, I perceive, is much dissatisfied that he should come to town last night, and not yet be with my Lord Arlington (50), who, and all the town, hear of his being come to town, and he did, it seems, take notice of it to GoDolphin this morning: so that I perceive this remissness in affairs do continue in my Lord's managements still, which I am sorry for; but, above all, to see in what a condition my Lord is for money, that I dare swear he do not know where to take up £500 of any man in England at this time, upon his word, but of myself, as I believe by the sequel hereof it will appear. Here I first saw and saluted my Lady Burlington (55), a very fine-speaking lady, and a good woman, but old, and not handsome; but a brave woman in her parts. Here my Lady Hinchingbroke tells me that she hath bought most of the wedding-clothes for Mrs. Pickering (26), so that the thing is gone through, and will soon be ended; which I wonder at, but let them do as they will. Here I also, standing by a candle that was brought for sealing of a letter, do set my periwigg a-fire, which made such an odd noise, nobody could tell what it was till they saw the flame, my back being to the candle.
Thence to Westminster Hall and there walked a little, and to the Exchequer, and so home by water, and after eating a bit I to my vintner's, and there did only look upon su wife, which is mighty handsome; and so to my glove and ribbon shop, in Fenchurch Street, and did the like there. And there, stopping against the door of the shop, saw Mrs. Horsfall, now a late widow, in a coach. I to her, and shook her by the hand, and so she away; and I by coach towards the King's playhouse, and meeting W. Howe took him with me, and there saw "The City Match"; not acted these thirty years, and but a silly play: the King (38) and Court there; the house, for the women's sake, mighty full. So I to White Hall, and there all the evening on the Queen's (29) side; and it being a most summerlike day, and a fine warm evening, the Italians come in a barge under the leads, before the Queen's (29) drawing-room; and so the Queen (29) and ladies went out, and heard them, for almost an hour: and it was indeed very good together; but yet there was but one voice that alone did appear considerable, and that was Seignor Joanni. This done, by and by they went in; and here I saw Mr. Sidney Montagu kiss the Queen's (29) hand, who was mighty kind to him, and the ladies looked mightily on him; and the King (38) come by and by, and did talk to him. So I away by coach with Alderman Backewell (50) home, who is mighty kind to me, more than ordinary, in his expressions. But I do hear this day what troubles me, that Sir W. Coventry (40) is quite out of play, the King (38) seldom speaking to him; and that there is a design of making a Lord Treasurer, and that my Lord Arlington (50) shall be the man; but I cannot believe it. But yet the Duke of Buckingham (40) hath it in his mind, and those with him, to make a thorough alteration in things; and, among the rest, Coventry (40) to be out. The Duke of York (34) did this day tell me how hot the whole party was in the business of GaudenGawden; and particularly, my Lord Anglesey (54) tells me, the Duke of Buckingham (40), for Child against Gawden; but the Duke of York (34) did stand stoutly to it.
So home to read and sup, and to bed.

Read More ...

In 1669 George Carteret 1st Baronet Metesches 1610-1680 (59) was elected MP Portsmouth.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 February 1669. 08 Feb 1669. Up, and dressed myself; and by coach, with W. Hewer (27) and my wife, to White Hall, where she set us two down; and in the way, our little boy, at Martin, my bookseller's shop, going to 'light, did fall down; and, had he not been a most nimble boy (I saw how he did it, and was mightily pleased with him for it), he had been run over by the coach. I to visit my Lord Sandwich (43); and there, while my Lord was dressing himself, did see a young Spaniard, that he hath brought over with him, dance, which he is admired for, as the best dancer in Spain, and indeed he do with mighty mastery; but I do not like his dancing as the English, though my Lord commends it mightily: but I will have him to my house, and show it my wife. Here I met with Mr. Moore, who tells me the state of my Lord's accounts of his embassy, which I find not so good as I thought: for, though it be passed the King (38) and his Cabal (the Committee for Foreign Affairs as they are called), yet they have cut off from £9000 full £8000, and have now sent it to the Lords of the Treasury, who, though the Committee have allowed the rest, yet they are not obliged to abide by it. So that I do fear this account may yet be long ere it be passed-much more, ere that sum be paid: I am sorry for the family, and not a little for what it owes me.
So to my wife, took her up at Unthank's, and in our way home did shew her the tall woman in Holborne, which I have seen before; and I measured her, and she is, without shoes, just six feet five inches high, and they say not above twenty-one years old.
Thence home, and there to dinner, and my wife in a wonderful ill humour; and, after dinner, I staid with her alone, being not able to endure this life, and fell to some angry words together; but by and by were mighty good friends, she telling me plain it was still about Jane, whom she cannot believe but I am base with, which I made a matter of mirth at; but at last did call up Jane, and confirm her mistress's directions for her being gone at Easter, which I find the wench willing to be, but directly prayed that Tom might go with her, which I promised, and was but what I designed; and she being thus spoke with, and gone, my wife and I good friends, and mighty kind, I having promised, and I will perform it, never to give her for the time to come ground of new trouble; and so I to the Office, with a very light heart, and there close at my business all the afternoon. This day I was told by Mr. Wren (40), that Captain Cox, Master-Attendant at Deptford, is to be one of us very soon, he and Tippets being to take their turns for Chatham and Portsmouth, which choice I like well enough; and Captain Annesley is to come in his room at Deptford. This morning also, going to visit Roger Pepys (51), at the potticary's in King's Street, he tells me that Roger is gone to his wife's, so that they have been married, as he tells me, ever since the middle of last week: it was his design, upon good reasons, to make no noise of it; but I am well enough contented that it is over. Dispatched a great deal of business at the office, and there pretty late, till finding myself very full of wind, by my eating no dinner to-day, being vexed, I was forced to go home, and there supped W. Batelier with us, and so with great content to bed.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 April 1669. 06 Apr 1669. Up, and to the Office, and thence to the Excise Office about some business, and so back to the office and sat till late, end thence to Mr. Batelier's to dinner, where my cozen Turner and both her daughters, and Talbot Pepys and my wife, and a mighty fine dinner. They at dinner before I come; and, when I had dined, I away home, and thence to White Hall, where the Board waited on the Duke of York (35) to discourse about the disposing of Sir Thomas Allen's (36) fleete, which is newly come home to Portsmouth; and here Middleton and I did in plain terms acquaint the Duke of York (35) what we thought and had observed in the late Court-martiall, which the Duke did give ear to; and though he thinks not fit to revoke what is already done in this case by a Court-martiall, yet it shall bring forth some good laws in the behaviour of Captains to their under Officers for the time to come.
Thence home, and there, after a while at the Office, I home, and there come home my wife, who hath been with Batelier's late, and been dancing with the company, at which I seemed a little troubled, not being sent for thither myself, but I was not much so, but went to bed well enough pleased.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 19 April 1669. 19 Apr 1669. Up, and with Tom (whom, with his wife, I, and my wife, had this morning taken occasion to tell that I did intend to give him £40 for himself, and £20 to his wife, towards their setting out in the world, and that my wife would give her £20 more, that she might have as much to begin with as he) by coach to White Hall, and there having set him work in the Robe Chamber, to write something for me, I to Westminster Hall, and there walked from 10 o'clock to past 12, expecting to have met Deb., but whether she had been there before, and missing me went away, or is prevented in coming, and hath no mind to come to me (the last whereof, as being most pleasing, as shewing most modesty, I should be most glad of), I know not, but she not then appearing, I being tired with walking went home, and my wife being all day at Jane's, helping her, as she said, to cut out linen and other things belonging to her new condition, I after dinner out again, and, calling for my coach, which was at the coachmaker's, and hath been for these two or three days, to be new painted, and the window-frames gilt against May-day, went on with my Hackney to White Hall, and thence by water to Westminster Hall, and there did beckon to Doll Lane, now Mrs. Powell, as she would have herself called, and went to her sister Martin's lodgings, the first time I have been there these eight or ten months, I think, and her sister being gone to Portsmouth to her Y husband, I did stay and talk and drink with Doll.... [Missing text " and hazer ella para tocar mi thing; and yo did the like para her, but [did] not the thing itself, having not opportunity enough;"] So away:; and to White Hall, and there took my own coach, which was now come, and so away home, and there to do business, and my wife being come home we to talk and to sup, there having been nothing yet like discovery in my wife of what hath lately passed with me about Deb., and so with great content to bed

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 01 May 1669. 01 May 1669. Up betimes. Called up by my tailor, and there first put on a summer suit this year; but it was not my fine one of flowered tabby vest, and coloured camelott tunique, because it was too fine with the gold lace at the hands, that I was afeard to be seen in it; but put on the stuff suit I made the last year, which is now repaired; and so did go to the Office in it, and sat all the morning, the day looking as if it would be fowle.
At noon home to dinner, and there find my wife extraordinary fine, with her flowered tabby gown that she made two years ago, now laced exceeding pretty; and, indeed, was fine all over; and mighty earnest to go, though the day was very lowering; and she would have me put on my fine suit, which I did. And so anon we went alone through the town with our new liveries of serge, and the horses' manes and tails tied with red ribbons, and the standards there gilt with varnish, and all clean, and green refines, that people did mightily look upon us; and, the truth is, I did not see any coach more pretty, though more gay, than ours, all the day. But we set out, out of humour-I because Betty, whom I expected, was not come to go with us; and my wife that I would sit on the same seat with her, which she likes not, being so fine: and she then expected to meet Sheres, which we did in the Pell Mell, and, against my will, I was forced to take him into the coach, but was sullen all day almost, and little complaisant: the day also being unpleasing, though the Park full of coaches, but dusty and windy, and cold, and now and then a little dribbling rain; and, what made it worst, there were so many Hackney-coaches as spoiled the sight of the gentlemen's; and so we had little pleasure. But here was W. Batelier and his sister in a borrowed coach by themselves, and I took them and we to the lodge; and at the door did give them a syllabub, and other things, cost me 12s., and pretty merry. And so back to the coaches, and there till the evening, and then home, leaving Mr. Sheres at St. James's Gate, where he took leave of us for altogether, he; being this night to set out for Portsmouth post, in his way to Tangier, which troubled my wife mightily, who is mighty, though not, I think, too fond of him. But she was out of humour all the evening, and I vexed at her for it, and she did not rest almost all the night, so as in the night I was forced; to take her and hug her to put her to rest.
So home, and after a little supper, to bed.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 10 May 1669. 10 May 1669. Troubled, about three in the morning, with my wife's calling her maid up, and rising herself, to go with her coach abroad, to gather May-dew, which she did, and I troubled for it, for fear of any hurt, going abroad so betimes, happening to her; but I to sleep again, and she come home about six, and to bed again all well, and I up and with Mr. Gibson by coach to St. James's, and thence to White Hall, where the Duke of York (35) met the Office, and there discoursed of several things, particularly the Instructions of Commanders of ships. But here happened by chance a discourse of the Council of Trade, against which the Duke of York (35) is mightily displeased, and particularly Mr. Child, against whom he speaking hardly, Captain Cox did second the Duke of York (35), by saying that he was talked of for an unfayre dealer with masters of ships, about freight: to which Sir T. Littleton (48) very hotly and foolishly replied presently, that he never heard any honest man speak ill of Child; to which the Duke of York (35) did make a smart reply, and was angry; so as I was sorry to hear it come so far, and that I, by seeming to assent to Cox, might be observed too much by Littleton, though I said nothing aloud, for this must breed great heart-burnings. After this meeting done, the Duke of York (35) took the Treasurers into his closet to chide them, as Mr. Wren (40) tells me; for that my Lord Keeper did last night at the Council say, when nobody was ready to say any thing against the constitution of the Navy, that he did believe the Treasurers of the Navy had something to say, which was very foul on their part, to be parties against us. They being gone, Mr. Wren (40) [and I] took boat, thinking to dine with my Lord of Canterbury (70); but, when we come to Lambeth, the gate was shut, which is strictly done at twelve o'clock, and nobody comes in afterwards: so we lost our labour, and therefore back to White Hall, and thence walked my boy Jacke with me, to my Lord Crew (71), whom I have not seen since he was sick, which is eight months ago, I think and there dined with him: he is mightily broke. A stranger a country gentleman, was with him: and he pleased with my discourse accidentally about the decay of gentlemen's families in the country, telling us that the old rule was, that a family might remain fifty miles from London one hundred years, one hundred miles from London two hundred years, and so farther, or nearer London more or less years. He also told us that he hath heard his father say, that in his time it was so rare for a country gentleman to come to London, that, when he did come, he used to make his will before he set out.
Thence: to St. James's, and there met the Duke of York (35), who told me, with great content, that he did now think he should master our adversaries, for that the King (38) did tell him that he was; satisfied in the constitution of the Navy, but that it was well to give these people leave to object against it, which they having not done, he did give order to give warrant to the Duke of York (35) to direct Sir Jeremy Smith to be a Commissioner of the Navy in the room of Pen; which, though he be an impertinent fellow, yet I am glad of it, it showing that the other side is not so strong as it was: and so, in plain terms, the Duke of York (35) did tell me, that they were every day losing ground; and particularly that he would take care to keep out Child: at all which I am glad, though yet I dare not think myself secure, as the King (38) may yet be wrought upon by these people to bring changes in our Office, and remove us, ere it be long.
Thence I to White Hall, an there took boat to Westminster, and to Mrs. Martin's, who is not come to town from her husband at Portsmouth. So drank only at Cragg's with Doll, and so to the Swan, and there baiser a new maid that is there, and so to White Hall again, to a Committee of Tangier, where I see all things going to rack in the business of the Corporation, and consequently in the place, by Middleton's going.
Thence walked a little with Creed, who tells me he hears how fine my horses and coach are, and advises me to avoid being noted for it, which I was vexed to hear taken notice of, it being what I feared and Povy (55) told me of my gold-lace sleeves in the Park yesterday, which vexed me also, so as to resolve never to appear in Court with them, but presently to have them taken off, as it is fit I should, and so to my wife at Unthanke's, and coach, and so called at my tailor's to that purpose, and so home, and after a little walk in the garden, home to supper and to bed.

Read More ...

Diary of Samuel Pepys 12 May 1669. 12 May 1669. Up, and to Westminster Hall, where the term is, and this the first day of my being there, and here by chance met Roger Pepys (52), come to town the last night: I was glad to see him. After some talk with him and others, and among others Sir Charles Harbord (29) and Sidney Montagu (18), the latter of whom is to set out to-morrow towards Flanders and Italy, I invited them to dine with me to-morrow, and so to Mrs. Martin's lodging, who come to town last night, and there je did hazer her, she having been a month, I think, at Portsmouth with her husband, newly come home from the Streights. But, Lord! how silly the woman talks of her great entertainment there, and how all the gentry come to visit her, and that she believes her husband is worth £6 or £700, which nevertheless I am glad of, but I doubt they will spend it a fast.
Thence home, and after dinner my wife and I to the Duke of York's playhouse, and there, in the side balcony, over against the musick, did hear, but not see, a new play, the first day acted, "The Roman Virgin", an old play, and but ordinary, I thought; but the trouble of my eyes with the light of the candles did almost kill me.
Thence to my Lord Sandwich's (43), and there had a promise from Sidney (18) to come and dine with me to-morrow; and so my wife and I home in our coach, and there find my brother John (28), as I looked for, come to town from Ellington, where, among other things, he tell me the first news that my [sister Jackson (28)] is with child, and fat gone, which I know not whether it did more trouble or please me, having no great care for my friends to have children; though I love other people's. So, glad to see him, we to supper, and so to bed.

Read More ...

John Evelyn's Diary 10 May 1672. 10 May 1672. I was ordered, by letter from the Council, to repair forthwith to his Majesty (41), whom I found in the Pall-Mall, in St. James's Park, where his Majesty (41) coming to me from the company, commanded me to go immediately to the seacoast, and to observe the motion of the Dutch fleet and ours, the Duke (38) and so many of the flower of our nation being now under sail, coming from Portsmouth, through the Downs, where it was believed there might be an encounter.

On 19 Aug 1673 Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734 (23) was created 1st Duke Portsmouth, 1st Earl Fareham, 1st Baron Petersfield by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (43) for life for being his mistress and for having given birth to his son Charles Lennox 1st Duke Richmond 1672-1723 (1).

Before 1723 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734.Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734.In 1670 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734.In 1673 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734.Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734.Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734.

John Evelyn's Diary 15 June 1675. 15 Jun 1675. This afternoon came Monsieur Querouaille (60) and his lady (50), parents to the famous beauty (25) and ... favorite at Court, to see Sir R. Browne, with whom they were intimately acquainted in Bretagne, at the time Sir Richard was sent to Brest to supervise his Majesty's (45) sea affairs, during the latter part of the King's (45) banishment. This gentleman's house was not a mile from Brest; Sir Richard made an acquaintance there, and, being used very civilly, was obliged to return it here, which we did. He seemed a soldierly person and a good fellow, as the Bretons generally are; his lady had been very handsome, and seemed a shrewd understanding woman. Conversing with him in our garden, I found several words of the Breton language the same with our Welsh. His daughter (25) was now made Duchess of Portsmouth, and in the height of favor; but he never made any use of it.

John Evelyn's Diary 26 July 1680. 26 Jul 1680. My most noble and illustrious friend, the Earl of Ossory (46), espying me this morning after sermon in the privy gallery, calling to me, told me he was now going his journey (meaning to Tangier, whither he was designed Governor, and General of the forces, to regain the losses we had lately sustained from the Moors, when Inchiquin (40) was Governor). I asked if he would not call at my house (as he always did whenever he went out of England on any exploit). He said he must embark at Portsmouth, "wherefore let you and me dine together to-day; I am quite alone, and have something to impart to you; I am not well, shall be private, and desire your company"..
Being retired to his lodgings, and set down on a couch, he sent to his secretary for the copy of a letter which he had written to Lord Sunderland (38) (Secretary of State), wishing me to read it; it was to take notice how ill he resented it, that he should tell the King (50) before Lord Ossory's (46) face, that Tangier was not to be kept, but would certainly be lost, and yet added that it was fit Lord Ossory (46) should be sent, that they might give some account of it to the world, meaning (as supposed) the next Parliament, when all such miscarriages would probably be examined; this Lord Ossory (46) took very ill of Lord Sunderland (38), and not kindly of the King (50), who resolving to send him with an incompetent force, seemed, as his Lordship (46) took it, to be willing to cast him away, not only on a hazardous adventure, but in most men's opinion, an impossibility, seeing there was not to be above 300 or 400 horse, and 4,000 foot for the garrison and all, both to defend the town, form a camp, repulse the enemy, and fortify what ground they should get in. This touched my Lord (46) deeply, that he should be so little considered as to put him on a business in which he should probably not only lose his reputation, but be charged with all the miscarriage and ill success; whereas, at first they promised 6,000 foot and 600 horse effective.
My Lord (46), being an exceedingly brave and valiant person, and who had so approved himself in divers signal battles, both at sea and land; so beloved and so esteemed by the people, as one they depended on, upon all occasions worthy of such a captain;—he looked on this as too great an indifference in his Majesty (50), after all his services, and the merits of his father, the Duke of Ormond (69), and a design of some who envied his virtue. It certainly took so deep root in his mind, that he who was the most void of fear in the world (and assured me he would go to Tangier with ten men if his Majesty (50) commanded him) could not bear up against this unkindness. Having disburdened himself of this to me after dinner, he went with his Majesty (50) to the sheriffs at a great supper in Fishmongers' Hall; but finding himself ill, took his leave immediately of his Majesty (50), and came back to his lodging. Not resting well this night, he was persuaded to remove to Arlington House, for better accommodation. His disorder turned to a malignant fever, which increasing, after all that six of the most able physicians could do, he became delirious, with intervals of sense, during which Dr. Lloyd (52) (after Bishop of St. Asaph) administered the Holy Sacrament, of which I also participated. He died the Friday following, the 30th of July, to the universal grief of all that knew or heard of his great worth, nor had any a greater loss than myself. Oft would he say I was the oldest acquaintance he had in England (when his father was in Ireland), it being now of about thirty years, contracted abroad, when he rode in the Academy in Paris, and when we were seldom asunder.
His Majesty (50) never lost a worthier subject, nor father a better or more dutiful son; a loving, generous, good-natured, and perfectly obliging friend; one who had done innumerable kindnesses to several before they knew it; nor did he ever advance any that were not worthy; no one more brave, more modest; none more humble, sober, and every way virtuous. Unhappy England in this illustrious person's loss! Universal was the mourning for him, and the eulogies on him; I stayed night and day by his bedside to his last gasp, to close his dear eyes! O sad father, mother, wife, and children! What shall I add? He deserved all that a sincere friend, a brave soldier, a virtuous courtier, a loyal subject, an honest man, a bountiful master, and good Christian, could deserve of his prince and country. One thing more let me note, that he often expressed to me the abhorrence he had of that base and unworthy action which he was put upon, of engaging the Smyrna fleet in time of peace, in which though he behaved himself like a great captain, yet he told me it was the only blot in his life, and troubled him exceedingly. Though he was commanded, and never examined further when he was so, yet he always spoke of it with regret and detestation. The Countess (45) was at the seat of her daughter, the Countess of Derby (20), about 200 miles off.

Read More ...

In 1682 Henry Slingsby 1638-1701 (43) was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Portsmouth.

In 1685 William Legge -1685 was elected MP Portsmouth.

John Evelyn's Diary 15 September 1685. 15 Sep 1685. I accompanied Mr. Pepys (52) to Portsmouth, whither his Ma* (51) was going the first time since his coming to the Crowne, to see in what state the fortifications were. We tooke coach and six horses, late after dinner, yet got to Bagshot that night. Whilst supper was making ready I went and made a visit to Mrs. Graham (34), some time maid of honour to ye Queene Dowager (46), now wife to James Graham, Esq (36) of the privy purse to the King (55); her house being a walke in the forest, within a little quarter of a mile from Bagshot towne. Very importunate she was that I would sup, and abide there that night, but being obliged by my companion, I return'd to our inn, after she had shew'd me her house, wch was very commodious and well furnish'd, as she was an excellent housewife, a prudent and virtuous lady. There is a parke full of red deere about it. Her eldest son was now sick there of the small-pox, but in a likely way of recovery, and other of her children run about, and among the infected, wnh she said she let them do on purpose that they might whilst young pass that fatal disease she fancied they were to undergo one time or other, and that this would be the best: the severity of this cruell disease so lately in my poore family confirming much of what she affirmed.

Read More ...

John Evelyn's Diary 17 September 1685. 17 Sep 1685. Early next morning we went to Portsmouth, something before his Ma* (51) ariv'd. We found all the way full of people, the women in their best dress, in expectation of seeing the King (55) pass by, which he did riding on horseback a good part of the way. We found the Maior and Aldermen with their mace, and in their formalities, standing at the entrance of the fort, a mile on this side of the towne, where the Maior made a speech to the King (55), and then the guns of the fort were fired, as were those of the garrison so soone as the King (55) was come into Portsmouth. All the souldiers (neere 3000) were drawn up, and lining the streetes and platforme to God's-house (the name of the Governor's house), where, after he had view'd the new fortifications and ship-yard, his Ma* was entertain'd at a magnificent dinner by Sir Slingsby yc Lieut. Governor (47), all the gentlemen in his traine setting down at table with him, wch I also had don had I not ben before engag'd to Sir Rob Holmes (63), Gov of ye Isle of Wight, to dine with him at a private house, where likewise we had a very sumptuous and plentiful repast of excellent venison, fowle, fish, and fruit.
After dinner I went to wait on his Ma* (51) againe, who was pulling on his bootes in ye Townehall, adjoyning the house where he din'd, and then having saluted some ladys, who came to kiss his hand, he tooke horse for Winchester, whither he returned that night. This hall is artificialy hung round with armes of all sorts, like the Hall and Keep at Windsor.
I went hence to see the ship-yard and dock, the fortifications, and other things.
Portsmouth when finish'd will be very strong, and a noble key.
There were now 32 men of war in ye harbour. I was invited by Sir R. Beach ye Commissioner, where, after a greate supper, Mr. Secretary and myselfe lay that night, and the next morning set out for Guildford, where we ariv'd in good hour, and so the day after to London. I had twice before ben at Portsmouth, ye Isle of Wight, &c. many yeares since I found this part of Hampshire bravely wooded, especialy about ye house and estate of Col. Norton, who, tho' now in being, having formerly made his peace by means of Col. Legg, was formerly a very fierce commander in the first Rebellion. His house is large, and standing low, on the road from Winchester to Portsmouth. By what I observ'd in this journey, is that infinite industry, sedulity, gravity, and greate understanding and experience of affaires, in his Ma*, that I cannot but predict much happiness to yc Nation, as to its political government; and if he so persist, there could be nothing more desir'd to accomplish our prosperity but that he was of the National Religion.

Read More ...

Glorious Revolution

John Evelyn's Diary 04 November 1688. 04 Nov 1688. Fresh reports of the Prince (38) being landed somewhere about Portsmouth, or the Isle of Wight, whereas it was thought it would have been northward. The Court in great hurry.

John Evelyn's Diary 14 November 1688. 14 Nov 1688. The Prince (38) increases everyday in force. Several Lords go in to him. Lord Cornbury (26) carries some regiments, and marches to Honiton, the Prince's (38) headquarters. The city of London in disorder; the rabble pulled down the nunnery newly bought by the Papists of Lord Berkeley (60), at St. John's. The Queen (30) prepares to go to Portsmouth for safety, to attend the issue of this commotion, which has a dreadful aspect.

John Evelyn's Diary 02 December 1688. 02 Dec 1688. Dr. Tenison (52) preached at St. Martin's on Psalm xxxvi. 5, 6, 7, concerning Providence. I received the blessed Sacrament. Afterward, visited my Lord Godolphin (43), then going with the Marquis of Halifax (55) and Earl of Nottingham (41) as Commissioners to the Prince of Orange (38); he told me they had little power. Plymouth declared for the Prince (38). Bath, York, Hull, Bristol, and all the eminent nobility and persons of quality through England, declare for the Protestant religion and laws, and go to meet the Prince (38), who every day sets forth new Declarations against the Papists. The great favorites at Court, Priests and Jesuits, fly or abscond. Everything, till now concealed, flies abroad in public print, and is cried about the streets. Expectation of the Prince (38) coming to Oxford. The Prince of Wales and great treasure sent privily to Portsmouth, the Earl of Dover (52) being Governor. Address from the Fleet not grateful to his Majesty (55). The Papists in offices lay down their commissions, and fly. Universal consternation among them; it looks like a revolution.

Read More ...

Battle of the Boyne

John Evelyn's Diary 15 August 1690. 15 Aug 1690. I was desired to be one of the bail of the Earl of Clarendon, for his release from the Tower, with divers noblemen. The Bishop of St. Asaph (62) expounds his prophecies to me and Mr. Pepys (57), etc. The troops from Blackheath march to Portsmouth. That sweet and hopeful youth, Sir Charles Tuke (19), died of the wounds he received in the fight of the Boyne, to the great sorrow of all his friends, being (I think) the last male of that family, to which my wife (55) is related. A more virtuous young gentleman I never knew; he was learned for his age, having had the advantage of the choicest breeding abroad, both as to arts and arms; he had traveled much, but was so unhappy as to fall in the side of his unfortunate King (56).
The unseasonable and most tempestuous weather happening, the naval expedition is hindered, and the extremity of wet causes the Siege of Limerick to be raised, King William (39) returned to England. Lord Sidney (41) left Governor of what is conquered in Ireland, which is near three parts [in four].

Read More ...

On 27 Dec 1693 Sussex set sail from Portsmouth with a fleet of forty-eight warships and one hundred and sisty-six merchant ships.

1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III

John Evelyn's Diary 26 February 1696. 26 Feb 1696. There was now a conspiracy of about thirty knights, gentlemen, captains, many of them Irish and English Papists, and Nonjurors or Jacobites (so called), to murder King William (45) on the first opportunity of his going either from Kensington, or to hunting, or to the chapel; and upon signal of fire to be given from Dover Cliff to Calais, an invasion was designed. In order to it there was a great army in readiness, men-of-war and transports, to join a general insurrection here, the Duke of Berwick (25) having secretly come to London to head them, King James (62) attending at Calais with the French army. It was discovered by some of their own party. £1,000 reward was offered to whoever could apprehend any of the thirty named. Most of those who were engaged in it, were taken and secured. The Parliament, city, and all the nation, congratulate the discovery; and votes and resolutions were passed that, if King William (45) should ever be assassinated, it should be revenged on the Papists and party through the nation; an Act of Association drawing up to empower the Parliament to sit on any such accident, till the Crown should be disposed of according to the late settlement at the Revolution. All Papists, in the meantime, to be banished ten miles from London. This put the nation into an incredible disturbance and general animosity against the French King and King James. The militia of the nation was raised, several regiments were sent for out of Flanders, and all things put in a posture to encounter a descent. This was so timed by the enemy, that while we were already much discontented by the greatness of the taxes, and corruption of the money, etc., we had like to have had very few men-of-war near our coasts; but so it pleased God that Admiral Rooke (46) wanting a wind to pursue his voyage to the Straits, that squadron, with others at Portsmouth and other places, were still in the Channel, and were soon brought up to join with the rest of the ships which could be got together, so that there is hope this plot may be broken. I look on it as a very great deliverance and prevention by the providence of God. Though many did formerly pity King James's condition, this design of assassination and bringing over a French army, alienated many o£ his friends, and was likely to produce a more perfect establishment of King William.

Read More ...

John Evelyn's Diary 01 January 1704. 01 Jan 1704. The King of Spain (20) landing at Portsmouth, came to Windsor, where he was magnificently entertained by the Queen (38), and behaved himself so nobly, that everybody was taken with his graceful deportment. After two days, having presented the great ladies, and others, with valuable jewels, he went back to Portsmouth, and immediately embarked for Spain.

In 1708 Thomas Littleton 3rd Baronet 1647-1709 (60) was elected MP Portsmouth.

On 11 Oct 1743 John Wallop 1st Earl Portsmouth 1690-1762 (53) was created 1st Earl Portsmouth. Elizabeth Griffin Countess Portsmouth 1691- (51) by marriage Countess Portsmouth.

Before 02 Nov 1739 Charles Jervas Painter 1675-1739. Portrait of Elizabeth Griffin Countess Portsmouth 1691-.

On 22 Nov 1762 John Wallop 1st Earl Portsmouth 1690-1762 (72) died. His grandson John Wallop 2nd Earl Portsmouth 1742-1797 (20) succeeded 2nd Earl Portsmouth.

On 16 May 1797 John Wallop 2nd Earl Portsmouth 1742-1797 (54) died. His son John Wallop 3rd Earl Portsmouth 1767-1853 (29) succeeded 3rd Earl Portsmouth.

On 19 Nov 1799 John Wallop 3rd Earl Portsmouth 1767-1853 (31) and Grace Norton Countess Portsmouth -1831 were married. She by marriage Countess Portsmouth.

In 1820 Newton Wallop aka Fellowes 4th Earl of Portsmouth 1772-1854 (47) and Catherine Fortescue Countess Portsmouth 1787-1854 (33) were married. She by marriage Countess Portsmouth.

In 1826 Francis Baring 1st Baron Northbrook 1796-1866 (29) was elected MP Portsmouth.

1833. George Hayter Painter 1792-1871. Portrait of Francis Baring 1st Baron Northbrook 1796-1866.

On 14 Jul 1853 John Wallop 3rd Earl Portsmouth 1767-1853 (85) died. His brother Newton Wallop aka Fellowes 4th Earl of Portsmouth 1772-1854 (81) succeeded 4th Earl Portsmouth. He died six months later.

On 09 Jan 1854 Newton Wallop aka Fellowes 4th Earl of Portsmouth 1772-1854 (81) died. His son Isaac Newton Wallop 5th Earl of Portsmouth 1825-1891 (28) succeeded 5th Earl Portsmouth.

On 15 Feb 1855 Isaac Newton Wallop 5th Earl of Portsmouth 1825-1891 (30) and Eveline Howard Herbert Countess Portsmouth 1834-1906 (20) were married. They were third cousins once removed. She by marriage Countess Portsmouth.

Commissioner's Residence Portsmouth Dockyard, Hampshire

On 03 Oct 1828 George Grey 1st Baronet 1767-1828 (60) died at the Commissioner's Residence Portsmouth Dockyard. His son George Grey 2nd Baronet 1799-1882 (29) succeeded 2nd Baronet Grey of Fallodon.

Dockyard Chapel Portsmouth, Hampshire

On 07 Apr 1825 Francis Baring 1st Baron Northbrook 1796-1866 (28) and Jane Grey 1804-1838 (20) were married at Dockyard Chapel Portsmouth.

Greyhound Pub Portsmouth, Hampshire

Muder of the Duke of Buckingham

On 23 Aug 1628 George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (35) was murdered at Greyhound Pub Portsmouth by a disgruntled soldier John Felton. He was buried at Westminster Abbey. His son George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 succeeded 2nd Duke of Buckingham 2C 1623, 2nd Earl Buckingham 5C 1617, 19th Baron Ros Helmsley.

Before 1628 Michiel Janszoon van Mierevelt Painter 1566-1641. Portrait of George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628.In 1616 William Larkin Painter 1582-1619. Portrait of George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 wearing his Garter Robes and Leg Garter.Around 1620 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628.In 1619 Cornelius Johnson Painter 1593-1661. Portrait of George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628.Around 1625 Peter Paul Rubens Painter 1577-1640. Portrait of George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628. Around 1675 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 wearing his Garter Collar.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 02 May 1661. 02 May 1661. Up, and Mr. Creed and I to walk round the town upon the walls. Then to our inn, and there all the officers of the Yard to see me with great respect, and I walked with them to the Dock and saw all the stores, and much pleased with the sight of the place. Back and brought them all to dinner with me, and treated them handsomely; and so after dinner by water to the Yard, and there we made the sale of the old provisions. Then we and our wives all to see the Montagu, which is a fine ship, and so to the town again by water, and then to see the room where the Duke of Buckingham (68) was killed by Felton.—1628. So to our lodging, and to supper and to bed. To-night came Mr. Stevens to town to help us to pay off the Fox.

Red Lyon Tavern, Portsmouth, Hampshire

Diary of Samuel Pepys 01 May 1661. 01 May 1661. Up early, and bated at Petersfield, in the room which the King lay in lately at his being there. Here very merry, and played us and our wives at bowls. Then we set forth again, and so to Portsmouth, seeming to me to be a very pleasant and strong place; and we lay at the Red Lyon, where Haselrigge (60) and Scott and Walton did hold their councill, when they were here, against Lambert and the Committee of Safety. Several officers of the Yard came to see us to-night, and merry we were, but troubled to have no better lodgings.

Royal Garrison Church, Portsmouth, Hampshire

On 13 Oct 1828 the Hapmshire Telegraph reported on his funeral:
The remains of the Hon. Sir Geo. Grey, Bart. (61) were this morning deposited in the Chapel of this Garrison, the Burial Service being performed by Rev. W.S. Dusauloy... The pall was borne by Admiral the Hon. Sir Robert Stopford, Vice-Admiral Sir Harry Burrard-Neale, 2nd Baronet, Rear-Admiral Gifford, Major-General Sir Colin Campbell and Captains Loring and Chetham. the principal Officers in his Majesty's Dockyard in mourning coaches, and several hundred of the shipwrights and other artificers of the yard, on foot, followed. On the Grand Parade, a passage to prevent interruption, was formed by the military and the whole was conducted in the most solemn and impressive manner..."

Southsea Castle, Portsmouth, Hampshire

In 1547 Anthony Knyvet 1517-1554 (30) was appointed Governor of Portsmouth and oversaw the construction of Southsea Castle.