History of Southwark

1051 Banishment of the Godwins

1052 Godwins Restored

1541 Catherine Howard Trial

1554 Wyatt's Rebellion

1554 Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

1613 The Globe Theatre Burns Down

1640 Attack on Lambeth Palace

1666 St James' Day Battle

1666 Great Fire of London

1666 Poll Bill

Southwark is in Surrey.

Banishment of the Godwins

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 1050-1065. 1051. This year came Archbishop Robert hither over sea with his pall from Rome, one day before St. Peter's eve: and he took his archiepiscopal seat at Christ-church on St. Peter's day, and soon after this went to the king. Then came Abbot Sparhawk to him with the king's writ and seal, to the intent that he should consecrate him Bishop o[oe] London; but the archbishop refused, saying that the pope had forbidden him. Then went the abbot to the archbishop again for the same purpose, and there demanded episcopal consecration; but the archbishop obstinately refused, repeating that the pope had forbidden him. Then went the abbot to London, and sat at the bishopric which the king had before given him, with his full leave, all the summer and the autumn. Then during the same year came Eustace (36), who had the sister (47) of King Edward (48) to wife, from beyond sea, soon after the bishop, and went to the king; and having spoken with him whatever he chose, he then went homeward. When he came to Canterbury eastward, there took he a repast, and his men; whence he proceeded to Dover. When he was about a mile or more on this side Dover, he put on his breast-plate; and so did all his companions: and they proceeded to Dover. When they came thither, they resolved to quarter themselves wherever they lived. Then came one of his men, and would lodge at the house of a master of a family against his will; but having wounded the master of the house, he was slain by the other. Then was Eustace (36) quickly upon his horse, and his companions upon theirs; and having gone to the master of the family, they slew him on his own hearth; then going up to the boroughward, they slew both within and without more than twenty men. The townsmen slew nineteen men on the other side, and wounded more, but they knew not how many. Eustace (36) escaped with a few men, and went again to the king (48), telling him partially how they had fared. The king (48) was very wroth with the townsmen, and sent off Earl Godwin (50), bidding him go into Kent with hostility to Dover. For Eustace (36) had told the king that the guilt of the townsmen was greater than his. But it was not so: and the earl (50) would not consent to the expedition, because he was loth to destroy his own people. Then sent the king after all his council, and bade them come to Gloucester nigh the after-mass of St. Mary. Meanwhile Godwin (50) took it much to heart, that in his earldom such a thing should happen. Whereupon be began to gather forces over all his earldom, and Earl Sweyne (30), his son, over his; and Harold (29), his other son, over his earldom: and they assembled all in Gloucestershire, at Langtree, a large and innumerable army, all ready for battle against the king; unless Eustace (36) and his men were delivered to them handcuffed, and also the Frenchmen that were in the castle. This was done seven nights before the latter mass of St. Mary, when King Edward (48) was sitting at Gloucester. Whereupon he sent after Earl Leofric, and north after Earl Siward (41), and summoned their retinues. At first they came to him with moderate aid; but when they found how it was in the south, then sent they north over all their earldom, and ordered a large force to the help of their lord. So did Ralph also over his earldom. Then came they all to Gloucester to the aid of the king (48), though it was late. So unanimous were they all in defence of the king (48), that they would seek Godwin's (50) army if the king (48) desired it. But some prevented that; because it was very unwise that they should come together; for in the two armies was there almost all that was noblest in England. They therefore prevented this, that they might not leave the land at the mercy of our foes, whilst engaged in a destructive conflict betwixt ourselves. Then it was advised that they should exchange hostages between them. And they issued proclamations throughout to London, whither all the people were summoned over all this north end in Siward's (41) earldom, and in Leofric's, and also elsewhere; and Earl Godwin (50) was to come thither with his sons to a conference; They came as far as Southwark, and very many with them from Wessex; but his army continually diminished more and more; for they bound over to the king (48) all the thanes that belonged to Earl Harold (29) his son, and outlawed Earl Sweyne (30) his other son. When therefore it could not serve his purpose to come to a conference against the king (48) and against the army that was with him, he went in the night away. In the morning the king (48) held a council, and proclaimed him (50) an outlaw, with his whole army; himself (50) and his wife, and all his three sons — Sweyne (30) and Tosty (25) and Grith (19). And he went south to Thorney, (67) with his wife, and Sweyne (30) his son, and Tosty (25) and his wife (18), a cousin of Baldwin of Bruges (38) [Note. Judith Flanders Duchess Bavaria 1033-1094 (18) was a sister of Baldwin "The Good" V Count Flanders 1012-1067 (38)], and his son Grith (19). Earl Harold (29) with Leofwine (16) went to Bristol in the ship that Earl Sweyne (30) had before prepared and provisioned for himself; and the king (48) sent Bishop Aldred from London with his retinue, with orders to overtake him ere he came to ship. But they either could not or would not: and he then went out from the mouth of the Avon; but he encountered such adverse weather, that he got off with difficulty, and suffered great loss. He then went forth to Ireland, as soon as the weather permitted. In the meantime the Welshmen had wrought a castle in Herefordshire, in the territory of Earl Sweyne (30), and brought as much injury and disgrace on the king's (48) men thereabout as they could. Then came Earl Godwin (50), and Earl Sweyne (30), and Earl Harold (29), together at Beverstone, and many men with them; to the intent that they might go to their natural lord, and to all the peers that were assembled with him; to have the king's (48) counsel and assistance, and that of all the peers, how they might avenge the insult offered to the king (48), and to all the nation. But the Welshmen were before with the king (48), and betrayed the earls, so that they were not permitted to come within the sight of his eyes; for they declared that they intended to come thither to betray the king (48). There was now assembled before the king (48) (68) Earl Siward (41), and Earl Leofric, and much people with them from the north: and it was told Earl Godwin (50) and his sons, that the king (48) and the men who were with him would take counsel against them; but they prepared themselves firmly to resist, though they were loth to proceed against their natural lord. Then advised the peers on either side, that they should abstain from all hostility: and the king (48) gave God's peace and his full friendship to each party. Then advised the king (48) and his council, that there should be a second time a general assembly of all the nobles in London, at the autumnal equinox: and the king (48) ordered out an army both south and north of the Thames, the best that ever was. Then was Earl Sweyne (30) proclaimed an outlaw; and Earl Godwin (50) and Earl Harold (29) were summoned to the council as early as they could come. When they came thither and were cited to the council, then required they security and hostages, that they might come into the council and go out without treachery. The king (48) then demanded all the thanes that the earls had; and they put them all into his hands. Then sent the king (48) again to them, and commanded them to come with twelve men to the king's (48) council. Then desired the earl again security and hostages, that he might answer singly to each of the things that were laid to his charge. But the hostages were refused; and a truce of five nights was allowed him to depart from the land. Then went Earl Godwin (50) and Earl Sweyne (30) to Bosham, and drew out their ships, and went beyond sea, seeking the protection of Baldwin (38); and there they abode all the winter. Earl Harold (29) went westward to Ireland, and was there all the winter on the king's (48) security. It was from Thorney (69) that Godwin (50) and those that were with him went to Bruges, to Baldwin's (38) land, in one ship, with as much treasure as they could lodge therein for each man. Wonderful would it have been thought by every man that was then in England, if any person had said before this that it would end thus! For he was before raised to such a height, that he ruled the king (48) and all England; his sons were earls, and the king's (48) darlings; and his daughter (25) wedded and united to the king (48). Soon after this took place, the king (48) dismissed the lady (25) who had been consecrated his queen, and ordered to be taken from her all that she had in land, and in gold, and in silver, and in all things; and committed her to the care of his sister at Wherwell. Soon after came Earl William (23) from beyond sea with a large retinue of Frenchmen; and the king (48) entertained him and as many of his companions as were convenient to him, and let him depart again. Then was Abbot Sparhawk driven from his bishopric at London; and William (23) the king's priest was invested therewith. Then was Oddy appointed earl over Devonshire, and over Somerset, and over Dorset, and over Wales; and Algar, the son of Earl Leofric, was promoted to the earldom which Harold (29) before possessed.
67. The ancient name of Westminster; which came into disuse because there was another Thorney in Cambridgeshire.
68. i.e. at Gloucester, according to the printed Chronicle; which omits all that took place in the meantime at London and Southwark.

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Godwins Restored

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 1050-1065. 1052. Then proceeded they to the Nore, and so toward London; but some of the ships landed on the Isle of Sheppey, and did much harm there; whence they steered to Milton Regis, and burned it all, and then proceeded toward London after the earls. When they came to London, there lay the king (49) and all his earls to meet them, with fifty ships. The earls (73) then sent to the king (49), praying that they might be each possessed of those things which had been unjustly taken from them. But the king (49) resisted some while; so long that the people who were with the earl (51) were very much stirred against the king (49) and against his people, so that the earl (51) himself with difficulty appeased them. When King Edward (49) understood that, then sent he upward after more aid; but they came very late. And Godwin (51) stationed himself continually before London with his fleet, till he came to Southwark; where he abode some time, until the flood (74) came up. On this occasion he also contrived with the burgesses that they should do almost all that he would. When he had arranged his whole expedition, then came the flood; and they soon weighed anchor, and steered through the bridge by the south side. The land-force meanwhile came above, and arranged themselves by the Strand; and they formed an angle with the ships against the north side, as if they wished to surround the king's (49) ships. The king (49) had also a great land-force on his side, to add to his shipmen: but they were most of them loth to fight with their own kinsmen—for there was little else of any great importance but Englishmen on either side; and they were also unwilling that this land should be the more exposed to outlandish people, because they destroyed each other. Then it was determined that wise men should be sent between them, who should settle peace on either side. Godwin (51) went up, and Harold (30) his son, and their navy, as many as they then thought proper. Then advanced Bishop Stigand with God's assistance, and the wise men both within the town and without; who determined that hostages should be given on either side.

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On 14 May 1471 Thomas "Bastard of Fauconberg" Neville 1429-1471 (42) reached Southwark with his army. The City of London refused him entry so Thomas "Bastard of Fauconberg" Neville 1429-1471 (42) burned Southwark.

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII April 1509. Apr 1509. Will of Henry VII (52):
At his manor of Richmond March 24 Hen. VII., the King (52) makes his last will, commending his soul to the Redeemer with the words he has used since his first "years of discretion," Domine Jesu Christe, qui me ex nichilo creasti, fecisti, redemisti et predestinasti ad hoc quod sum, Tu scis quid de me facere vis, fac de me secundum voluntatem Tuam cum misericordia, trusting in the grace of His Blessed Mother in whom, after Him, has been all his (testator's) trust, by whom in all his adversities he has had special comfort, and to whom he now makes his prayer (recited), as also to all the company of Heaven and especially his "accustumed avoures" St. Michael, St. John Baptist, St. John Evangelist, St. George, St. Anthony, St. Edward, St. Vincent, St. Anne, St. Mary Magdalene and St. Barbara, to defend him at the hour of death and be intercessors for the remission of his sins and salvation of his soul.
Desires to be buried at Westminster, where he was crowned, where lie buried many of his progenitors, especially his granddame Katharine wife to Henry V and daughter to Charles of France, and whereto he means shortly to translate the remains of Henry IV in the chapel which he has begun to build (giving full directions for the placing and making of his tomb and finishing of the said chapel according to the plan which he has "in picture delivered" to the prior of St. Bartholomew's beside Smithfield, master of the works for the same); and he has delivered beforehand to the abbot, &c., of Westminster, 5,000l., by indenture dated Richmond, 13 April 23 Hen VII, towards the cost.
His executors shall cause 10,000 masses in honor of the Trinity, the Five Wounds, the Five Joys of Our Lady, the Nine Orders of Angels, the Patriarchs, the Twelve Apostles and All Saints (numbers to each object specified) to be said within one month after his decease, at 6d. each, making in all 250l, and shall distribute 2,000l. in alms; and to ensure payment he has left 2,250l. with the abbot, &c., of West-minster, by indenture dated (blank) day of (blank) in the (blank) year of his reign.
His debts are then to be paid and reparation for wrongs made by his executors at the discretion of the following persons, by whom all complaints shall be tenderly weighed, viz, the abp of Canterbury (59), Richard bp of Winchester (61), the bps of London and Rochester (39), Thomas Earl of Surrey (66), Treasurer General, George Earl of Shrewsbury (41), Steward of the House, Sir Charles Somerset Lord Herbert (49), Chamberlain, the two Chief Justices, Mr. John Yong (44), Master of the Rolls, Sir Thos. Lovell (31), Treasurer of the House, Mr. Thomas Routhall, secretary, Sir Ric Emson (59), Chancellor of the Duchy, Edm. Dudley (47), the King's attorney at the time of his decease, and his confessor, the Provincial of the Friars Observants, and Mr. William Atwater, dean of the Chapel, or at least six of them and three of his executors.
His executors shall see that the officers of the Household and Wardrobe discharge any debts which may be due for charges of the same.
Lands to the yearly value of above 1,000 mks have been "amortised" for fulfilment of certain covenants (described) with the abbey of Westminster.
For the completion of the hospital which he has begun to build at the Savoie place beside Charingcrosse, and towards which 10,000 mks in ready money has been delivered to the dean and chapter of St. Paul's, by indenture dated (blank), his executors shall deliver any more money which may be necessary; and they shall also make (if he has not done it in his lifetime) two similar hospitals in the suburbs of York and Coventry.
Certain cathedrals, abbeys, &c., named in a schedule hereto annexed [not annexed now] have undertaken to make for him orisons, prayers and suffrages "while the world shall endure," in return for which he has made them large confirmations, licences and other grants; and he now wishes 6s. 8d. each to be delivered soon after his decease to the rulers of such cathedrals, &c., 3s. 4d. to every canon and monk, being priest, within the same and 20d. to every canon, monk, vicar and minister not being priest. His executors shall bestow 2,000l. upon the repair of the highways and bridges from Windsor to Richmond manor and thence to St. George's church beside Southwark, and thence to Greenwich manor, and thence to Canterbury.
To divers lords, as well of his blood as other, and also to knights, squires and other subjects, he has, for their good service, made grants of lands, offices and annuities, which he straitly charges his son, the Prince (17), and other heirs to respect; as also the enfeoffments of the Duchy of Lancaster made by Parliaments of 7 and 19 Hen. VII. for the fulfilment of his will.
Bequests for finishing of the church of the New College in Cambridge and the church of Westminster, for the houses of Friars Observants, for the altar within the King's grate (i.e. of his tomb), for the high altar within the King's chapel, for the image of the King to be made and set upon St. Edward's shrine, for the College of Windsor, for the monastery of Westminster, for the image of the King to be set at St. Thomas's shrine at Canterbury, and for chalices and pixes of a certain fashion to be given to all the houses of Friars and every parish church not suitably provided with such.
Bequest of a dote of 50,000l. for the marriage of Lady Mary (13) the King's daughter with Charles Prince of Spain (9), as contracted at Richmond (blank) Dec. 24 Hen. VIII., or (if that fail) her marriage with any prince out of the realm by "consent of our said son the Prince (17), his Council and our said executors.".

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Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525 is believed to have painted the portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.Before 1532 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of William Warham Archbishop of Canterbury 1450-1532.Around 1620 based on a work of 1526.Unknown Painter. Portrait of William Warham Archbishop of Canterbury 1450-1532.Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525. Portrait of Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 in the Masters Lodge St John's College. Commissioned by John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535. Note the Beaufort Arms on the wall beneath which is the Beafort Portcullis. Repeated in the window. She is wearing widow's clothes, or possibly that of a convent; Gabled Headress with Lappets. On 29 Mar 2019, St John's College, Cambridge, which she founded, announced the portrait was original work by Wewyck.1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.In 1544 Master John Painter. Portrait of Mary Tudor Queen Consort France 1496-1533.1548. Titian Painter 1488-1576. Equestrian Portrait of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558.1519. Bernard Van Orley Painter 1491-1541. Portrait of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558.

On 01 Mar 1534 Henry Brandon 1523-1534 (11) died at Southwark.

Wyatt's Rebellion

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1554. 03 Feb 1544. The iij day of Feybruary cam in to Sowthwarke ser Thomas Wyatt (23) and odur captaynes at after-none with ys army; and the morow after thay mayd trenchys in dyvers parts and dyvers placys, with ordenanse.

Diary of Henry Machyn August 1553. 09 Aug 1553. The ix day of August cam the bysshope of Wyncheaster (70) owt of the Towre (conducted) by the yerle of Arundell (41) to ys owen parish of sant Mare Overeys, and from thens with my lord of Arundell to dener to Bayth plasse.

Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 15 Feb 1554. 15 Feb 1554. The 15 of February were hanged of the rebells iii against St Magnus Churche, iii at Billingsgate, iii at Ledenhall, one at Moregate, one at Creplegate, one at Aldrigegate, two at Paules, iii in Holborne, iii at Tower hill, ii at Tyburne, and at 4 places in Sowthwerke 14. And divers others were executed at Kingston and other places.
Allso this daye about ix of the clock in the foorenoone was seene in London in the middest of the Element a raynebowe lyke fyre, the endes upward, and two sunnes, by the space of an hower and an halfe.

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1554. 24 Feb 1554. The sam day the qwyn('s) (38) grace gaff pardon unto serten of mo men of Kentt, in Sowthwarke; ther they cryd "God save quen Mare!" and cast ther alters on hed in the stretes and a-bowt, that sum had iiij or v halters.

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1554. 12 Apr 1554. The xij day of Aprell was ser Thomas Wyatt (33) sett a-pon the gallaus on Hay-hyll be-syd Hyd Parke; wher dyd hang iij men in chynes a-pon a stake wh .... cam to cum to London, and ther the qweyns men and [Wyatt's] men dyd skryssmys, wher he and ys captayns wher over-cum, thanke be unto God; and on quarter of ys sett a-pon a jubett on Mylle-end gren, and a-nodur at Nuwyngton be-yonde sant Gorges in Sowthwarke, and [the iij] be-syd sant Thomas of Waterynges, and the iiij quarter at (blank)

Attack on Lambeth Palace

John Evelyn's Diary 10 June 1640. 10 Jun 1640. I repaired with my brother (17) to the term, to go into our new lodgings (that were formerly in Essex-court), being a very handsome apartment just over against the Hall-court, but four pair of stairs high, which gave us the advantage of the fairer prospect; but did not much contribute to the love of that impolished study, to which (I suppose) my father (53) had designed me, when he paid £145 to purchase our present lives, and assignments afterward.
London, and especially the Court, were at this period in frequent disorders, and great insolences were committed by the abused and too happy City: in particular, the Bishop of Canterbury's (66) Palace at Lambeth was assaulted by a rude rabble from Southwark, my Lord Chamberlain (55) imprisoned and many scandalous libels and invectives scattered about the streets, to the reproach of Government, and the fermentation of our since distractions: so that, upon the 25th of June, I was sent for to Wotton, and the 27th after, my father's (53) indisposition augmenting, by advice of the physicians he repaired to the Bath.

John Evelyn's Diary 13 September 1660. 13 Sep 1660. I saw in Southwark, at St. Margaret's fair, monkeys and apes dance, and do other feats of activity on the high rope; they were gallantly clad á la monde, went upright, saluted the company, bowing and pulling off their hats; they saluted one another with as good a grace as if instructed by a dancing master; they turned heels over head with a basket having eggs in it, without breaking any; also, with lighted candles in their hands, and on their heads, without extinguishing them, and with vessels of water without spilling a drop. I also saw an Italian wench dance, and perform all the tricks on the high rope to admiration; all the Court went to see her. Likewise, here was a man who took up a piece of iron cannon of about 400lb. weight with the hair of his head only.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 February 1662. 24 Feb 1662. Long with Mr. Berkenshaw in the morning at my musique practice; finishing my song of "Gaze not on Swans", in two parts, which pleases me well, and I did give him £5 for this month or five weeks that he hath taught me, which is a great deal of money and troubled me to part with it.
Thence to the Paynter's (53), and set again for my picture in little, and thence over the water to Southwark to Mr. Berkenshaw's house, and there sat with him all the afternoon, he showing me his great card of the body of musique, which he cries up for a rare thing, and I do believe it cost much pains, but is not so useful as he would have it. Then we sat down and set "Nulla, nulla sit formido", and he has set it very finely.
So home and to supper, and then called Will up, and chid him before my wife for refusing to go to church with the maids yesterday, and telling his mistress that he would not be made a slave of, which vexes me.
So to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 15 August 1662. 15 Aug 1662. Up very early, and up about seeing how my work proceeds, and am pretty well pleased therewith; especially my wife's closet will be very pretty.
So to the office and there very busy, and many people coming to me.
At noon to the Change, and there hear of some Quakers that are seized on, that would have blown up the prison in Southwark where they are put.
So to the Swan in Old Fish Street, where Mr. Brigden and his father-in-law, Blackbury, of whom we had bought timber in the office, but have not dealt well with us, did make me a fine dinner only to myself; and after dinner comes in a jugler, which shewed us very pretty tricks. I seemed very pleasant, but am no friend to the man's dealings with us in the office.
After an hour or two sitting after dinner talking about office business, where I had not spent any time a great while, I went to Paul's Church Yard to my bookseller's; and there I hear that next Sunday will be the last of a great many Presbyterian ministers in town, who, I hear, will give up all. I pray God the issue may be good, for the discontent is great.
Home and to my office till 9 at night doing business, and so to bed. My mind well pleased with a letter I found at home from Mr. Coventry (34), expressing his satisfaction in a letter I writ last night, and sent him this morning, to be corrected by him in order to its sending down to all the Yards as a charge to them.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 March 1663. 17 Mar 1663. Up betimes and to my office a while, and then home and to Sir W. Batten (62), with whom by coach to St. Margaret's Hill in Southwark, where the judge of the Admiralty came, and the rest of the Doctors of the Civill law, and some other Commissioners, whose Commission of oyer and terminer was read, and then the charge, given by Dr. Exton, which methought was somewhat dull, though he would seem to intend it to be very rhetoricall, saying that justice had two wings, one of which spread itself over the land, and the other over the water, which was this Admiralty Court.
That being done, and the jury called, they broke up, and to dinner to a tavern hard by, where a great dinner, and I with them; but I perceive that this Court is yet but in its infancy (as to its rising again), and their design and consultation was, I could overhear them, how to proceed with the most solemnity, and spend time, there being only two businesses to do, which of themselves could not spend much time. In the afternoon to the court again, where, first, Abraham, the boatswain of the King's pleasure boat, was tried for drowning a man; and next, Turpin, accused by our wicked rogue Field, for stealing the King's timber; but after full examination, they were both acquitted, and as I was glad of the first, for the saving the man's life, so I did take the other as a very good fortune to us; for if Turpin had been found guilty, it would have sounded very ill in the ears of all the world, in the business between Field and us.
So home with my mind at very great ease, over the water to the Tower, and thence, there being nobody at the office, we being absent, and so no office could be kept. Sir W. Batten (62) and I to my Lord Mayor's, where we found my Lord with Colonel Strangways and Sir Richard Floyd, Parliament-men, in the cellar drinking, where we sat with them, and then up; and by and by comes in Sir Richard Ford. In our drinking, which was always going, we had many discourses, but from all of them I do find Sir R. Ford (49) a very able man of his brains and tongue, and a scholler. But my Lord Mayor (48) I find to be a talking, bragging Bufflehead, a fellow that would be thought to have led all the City in the great business of bringing in the King (32), and that nobody understood his plots, and the dark lanthorn he walked by; but led them and plowed with them as oxen and asses (his own words) to do what he had a mind when in every discourse I observe him to be as very a coxcomb as I could have thought had been in the City. But he is resolved to do great matters in pulling down the shops quite through the City, as he hath done in many places, and will make a thorough passage quite through the City, through Canning-street, which indeed will be very fine. And then his precept, which he, in vain-glory, said he had drawn up himself, and hath printed it, against coachmen and carrmen affronting of the gentry in the street; it is drawn so like a fool, and some faults were openly found in it, that I believe he will have so much wit as not to proceed upon it though it be printed.
Here we staid talking till eleven at night, Sir R. Ford (49) breaking to my Lord our business of our patent to be justices of the Peace in the City, which he stuck at mightily; but, however, Sir R. Ford (49) knows him to be a fool, and so in his discourse he made him appear, and cajoled him into a consent to it: but so as I believe when he comes to his right mind tomorrow he will be of another opinion; and though Sir R. Ford (49) moved it very weightily and neatly, yet I had rather it had been spared now. But to see how he do rant, and pretend to sway all the City in the Court of Aldermen, and says plainly that they cannot do, nor will he suffer them to do, any thing but what he pleases; nor is there any officer of the City but of his putting in; nor any man that could have kept the City for the King (32) thus well and long but him. And if the country can be preserved, he will undertake that the City shall not dare to stir again. When I am confident there is no man almost in the City cares a turd for him, nor hath he brains to outwit any ordinary tradesman.
So home and wrote a letter to Commissioner Pett (52) to Chatham by all means to compose the business between Major Holmes (41) and Cooper his master, and so to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 03 July 1663. 03 Jul 1663. Up and he home, and I with Sir J. Minnes (64) and Sir W. Batten (62) by coach to Westminster, to St. James's, thinking to meet Sir G. Carteret (53), and to attend the Duke (29), but he not coming we broke up, and so to Westminster Hall, and there meeting with Mr. Moore he tells me great news that my Baroness Castlemaine's (22) is fallen from Court, and this morning retired. He gives me no account of the reason of it, but that it is so: for which I am sorry: and yet if the King (33) do it to leave off not only her but all other mistresses, I should be heartily glad of it, that he may fall to look after business. I hear my Lord Digby (50) is condemned at Court for his speech, and that my Chancellor (54) grows great again.
Thence with Mr. Creed, whom I called at his chamber, over the water to Lambeth; but could not, it being morning, get to see the Archbishop's (81) hearse: so he and I walked over the fields to Southwark, and there parted, and I spent half an hour in Mary Overy's Church, where are fine monuments of great antiquity, I believe, and has been a fine church.
Thence to the Change, and meeting Sir J. Minnes (64) there, he and I walked to look upon Backwell's design of making another alley from his shop through over against the Exchange door, which will be very noble and quite put down the other two.
So home to dinner and then to the office, and entered in my manuscript book the Victualler's contract, and then over the water and walked to see Sir W. Pen (42), and sat with him a while, and so home late, and to my viall. So up comes Creed again to me and stays all night, to-morrow morning being a hearing before the Duke.
So to bed full of discourse of his business.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 10 August 1663. 10 Aug 1663. Up, though not so early this summer as I did all the last, for which I am sorry, and though late am resolved to get up betimes before the season of rising be quite past. To my office to fit myself to wait on the Duke this day.
By and by by water to White Hall, and so to St. James's, and anon called into the Duke's (29) chamber, and being dressed we were all as usual taken in with him and discoursed of our matters, and that being done, he walked, and I in the company with him, to White Hall, and there he took barge for Woolwich, and, I up to the Committee of Tangier, where my Lord Sandwich (38), pay Lord Peterborough (41), (whom I have not seen before since his coming back,) Sir Wm. Compton (38), and Mr. Povy (49). Our discourse about supplying my Lord Teviott with money, wherein I am sorry to see, though they do not care for him, yet they are willing to let him for civility and compliment only have money almost without expecting any account of it; but by this means, he being such a cunning fellow as he is, the King (33) is like to pay dear for our courtiers' ceremony.
Thence by coach with my Lords Peterborough (41) and Sandwich to my Lord Peterborough's house; and there, after an hour's looking over some fine books of the Italian buildings, with fine cuts; and also my Lord Peterborough's (41) bowes and arrows, of which he is a great lover, we sat down to dinner, my Lady (41) coming down to dinner also, and there being Mr. Williamson (30), that belongs to Sir H. Bennet (45), whom I find a pretty understanding and accomplished man, but a little conceited.
After dinner I took leave and went to Greatorex's (38), whom I found in his garden, and set him to work upon my ruler, to engrave an almanac and other things upon the brasses of it, which a little before night he did, but the latter part he slubbered over, that I must get him to do it over better, or else I shall not fancy my rule, which is such a folly that I am come to now, that whereas before my delight was in multitude of books, and spending money in that and buying alway of other things, now that I am become a better husband, and have left off buying, now my delight is in the neatness of everything, and so cannot be pleased with anything unless it be very neat, which is a strange folly.
Hither came W. Howe about business, and he and I had a great deal of discourse about my Lord Sandwich (38), and I find by him that my Lord do dote upon one of the daughters of Mrs. [Becke] where he lies, so that he spends his time and money upon her. He tells me she is a woman of a very bad fame and very impudent, and has told my Lord so, yet for all that my Lord do spend all his evenings with her, though he be at court in the day time, and that the world do take notice of it, and that Pickering (45) is only there as a blind, that the world may think that my Lord spends his time with him when he do worse, and that hence it is that my Lord has no more mind to go into the country than he has. In fine, I perceive my Lord is dabbling with this wench, for which I am sorry, though I do not wonder at it, being a man amorous enough, and now begins to allow himself the liberty that he says every body else at Court takes.
Here I am told that my Lord Bristoll (50) is either fled or concealed himself; having been sent for to the King (33), it is believed to be sent to the Tower, but he is gone out of the way.
Yesterday, I am told also, that Sir J. Lenthall (38), in Southwarke, did apprehend about one hundred Quakers, and other such people, and hath sent some of them to the gaole at Kingston, it being now the time of the Assizes.
Hence home and examined a piece of, Latin of Will's with my brother, and so to prayers and to bed. This evening I had a letter from my father that says that my wife will come to town this week, at which I wonder that she should come to town without my knowing more of it. But I find they have lived very ill together since she went, and I must use all the brains I have to bring her to any good when she do come home, which I fear will be hard to do, and do much disgust me the thoughts of it.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 26 October 1664. 26 Oct 1664. Up, my people rising mighty betimes, to fit themselves to go by water; and my boy, he could not sleep, but wakes about four o'clock, and in bed lay playing on his lute till daylight, and, it seems, did the like last night till twelve o'clock.
About eight o'clock, my wife, she and her woman, and Besse and Jane, and W. Hewer (22) and the boy, to the water-side, and there took boat, and by and by I out of doors, to look after the flaggon, to get it ready to carry to Woolwich. That being not ready, I stepped aside and found out Nellson, he that Whistler buys his bewpers of, and did there buy 5 pieces at their price, and am in hopes thereby to bring them down or buy ourselves all we spend of Nellson at the first hand. This jobb was greatly to my content, and by and by the flaggon being finished at the burnisher's, I home, and there fitted myself, and took a hackney-coach I hired, it being a very cold and foule day, to Woolwich, all the way reading in a good book touching the fishery, and that being done, in the book upon the statute of charitable uses, mightily to my satisfaction.
At Woolwich; I there up to the King (34) and Duke (31), and they liked the plate well. Here I staid above with them while the ship was launched, which was done with great success, and the King (34) did very much like the ship, saying, she had the best bow that ever he saw. But, Lord! the sorry talke and discourse among the great courtiers round about him, without any reverence in the world, but with so much disorder.
By and by the Queene (54) comes and her Mayds of Honour; one whereof, Mrs. Boynton, and the Duchesse of Buckingham (26), had been very siclee coming by water in the barge (the water being very rough); but what silly sport they made with them in very common terms, methought, was very poor, and below what people think these great people say and do.
The launching being done, the King (34) and company went down to take barge; and I sent for Mr. Pett (54), and put the flaggon into the Duke's (31) hand, and he, in the presence of the King (34), did give it, Mr. Pett (54) taking it upon his knee. This Mr. Pett (54) is wholly beholding to me for, and he do know and I believe will acknowledge it.
Thence I to Mr. Ackworth, and there eat and drank with Commissioner Pett (54) and his wife, and thence to Shelden's, where Sir W. Batten (63) and his Lady were.
By and by I took coach after I had enquired for my wife or her boat, but found none. Going out of the gate, an ordinary woman prayed me to give her room to London, which I did, but spoke not to her all the way, but read, as long as I could see, my book again. Dark when we came to London, and a stop of coaches in Southwarke. I staid above half an houre and then 'light, and finding Sir W. Batten's (63) coach, heard they were gone into the Beare at the bridge foot, and thither I to them. Presently the stop is removed, and then going out to find my coach, I could not find it, for it was gone with the rest; so I fair to go through the darke and dirt over the bridge, and my leg fell in a hole broke on the bridge, but, the constable standing there to keep people from it, I was catched up, otherwise I had broke my leg; for which mercy the Lord be praised! So at Fanchurch I found my coach staying for me, and so home, where the little girle hath looked to the house well, but no wife come home, which made me begin to fear [for] her, the water being very rough, and cold and darke. But by and by she and her company come in all well, at which I was glad, though angry.
Thence I to Sir W. Batten's (63), and there sat late with him, Sir R. Ford (50), and Sir John Robinson (49); the last of whom continues still the same foole he was, crying up what power he has in the City, in knowing their temper, and being able to do what he will with them. It seems the City did last night very freely lend the King (34) £100,000 without any security but the King's word, which was very noble. But this loggerhead and Sir R. Ford (50) would make us believe that they did it. Now Sir R. Ford (50) is a cunning man, and makes a foole of the other, and the other believes whatever the other tells him. But, Lord! to think that such a man should be Lieutenant of the Tower, and so great a man as he is, is a strange thing to me. With them late and then home and with my wife to bed, after supper.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 10 May 1665. 10 May 1665. Up betimes, and abroad to the Cocke-Pitt, where the Duke (56) [of Albemarle] did give Sir W. Batten (64) and me an account of the late taking of eight ships, and of his intent to come back to the Gunfleete1 with the fleete presently; which creates us much work and haste therein, against the fleete comes.
So to Mr. Povy (51), and after discourse with him home, and thence to the Guard in Southwarke, there to get some soldiers, by the Duke's order, to go keep pressmen on board our ships.
So to the 'Change and did much business, and then home to dinner, and there find my poor mother come out of the country today in good health, and I am glad to see her, but my business, which I am sorry for, keeps me from paying the respect I ought to her at her first coming, she being grown very weak in her judgement, and doating again in her discourse, through age and some trouble in her family. I left her and my wife to go abroad to buy something, and then I to my office.
In the evening by appointment to Sir W. Warren and Mr. Deering at a taverne hard by with intent to do some good upon their agreement in a great bargain of planks.
So home to my office again, and then to supper and to bed, my mother being in bed already.
Note 1. The Gunfleet Sand off the Essex coast.

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St James' Day Battle

Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 August 1666. 14 Aug 1666. Thanksgiving Day1. Up, and comes Mr. Foley and his man, with a box of a great variety of carpenter's and joyner's tooles, which I had bespoke, to me, which please me mightily; but I will have more. Then I abroad down to the Old Swan, and there I called and kissed Betty Michell, and would have got her to go with me to Westminster, but I find her a little colder than she used to be, methought, which did a little molest me.
So I away not pleased, and to White Hall, where I find them at Chappell, and met with Povy (52), and he and I together, who tells me how mad my letter makes my Lord Peterborough (44), and what a furious letter he hath writ to me in answer, though it is not come yet. This did trouble me; for though there be no reason, yet to have a nobleman's mouth open against a man may do a man hurt; so I endeavoured to have found him out and spoke with him, but could not.
So to the chappell, and heard a piece of the Dean of Westminster's (41) sermon, and a special good anthemne before the King (36), after a sermon, and then home by coach with Captain Cocke (49), who is in pain about his hempe, of which he says he hath bought great quantities, and would gladly be upon good terms with us for it, wherein I promise to assist him. So we 'light at the 'Change, where, after a small turn or two, taking no pleasure now-a-days to be there, because of answering questions that would be asked there which I cannot answer; so home and dined, and after dinner, with my wife and Mercer to the Beare-garden2, where I have not been, I think, of many years, and saw some good sport of the bull's tossing of the dogs: one into the very boxes. But it is a very rude and nasty pleasure. We had a great many hectors in the same box with us (and one very fine went into the pit, and played his dog for a wager, which was a strange sport for a gentleman), where they drank wine, and drank Mercer's health first, which I pledged with my hat off; and who should be in the house but Mr. Pierce the surgeon, who saw us and spoke to us.
Thence home, well enough satisfied, however, with the variety of this afternoon's exercise; and so I to my chamber, till in the evening our company come to supper. We had invited to a venison pasty Mr. Batelier and his sister Mary, Mrs. Mercer, her daughter Anne, Mr. Le Brun, and W. Hewer (24); and so we supped, and very merry.
And then about nine o'clock to Mrs. Mercer's gate, where the fire and boys expected us, and her son had provided abundance of serpents and rockets; and there mighty merry (my Lady Pen (42) and Pegg (15) going thither with us, and Nan Wright), till about twelve at night, flinging our fireworks, and burning one another and the people over the way. And at last our businesses being most spent, we into Mrs. Mercer's, and there mighty merry, smutting one another with candle grease and soot, till most of us were like devils. And that being done, then we broke up, and to my house; and there I made them drink, and upstairs we went, and then fell into dancing (W. Batelier dancing well), and dressing, him and I and one Mr. Banister (36) (who with his wife come over also with us) like women; and Mercer put on a suit of Tom's, like a boy, and mighty mirth we had, and Mercer danced a jigg; and Nan Wright and my wife and Pegg Pen (15) put on perriwigs. Thus we spent till three or four in the morning, mighty merry; and then parted, and to bed.
Note 1. A proclamation ordering August 14th to be observed in London and Westminster, and August 23rd in other places, as a day of thanksgiving for the late victory at sea over the Dutch, was published on August 6th.
Note 2. The Bear Garden was situated on Bankside, close to the precinct of the Clinke Liberty, and very near to the old palace of the bishops of Winchester. Stow, to his "Survey", says: "There be two Bear Gardens, the old and new Places". The name still exists in a street or lane at the foot of Southwark Bridge, and in Bear Garden Wharf.

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Great Fire of London

Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 September 1666. 06 Sep 1666. Up about five o'clock, and where met Mr. Gawden at the gate of the office (I intending to go out, as I used, every now and then to-day, to see how the fire is) to call our men to Bishop's-gate, where no fire had yet been near, and there is now one broke out which did give great grounds to people, and to me too, to think that there is some kind of plot1 in this (on which many by this time have been taken, and, it hath been dangerous for any stranger to walk in the streets), but I went with the men, and we did put it out in a little time; so that that was well again. It was pretty to see how hard the women did work in the cannells, sweeping of water; but then they would scold for drink, and be as drunk as devils. I saw good butts of sugar broke open in the street, and people go and take handsfull out, and put into beer, and drink it. And now all being pretty well, I took boat, and over to Southwarke, and took boat on the other side the bridge, and so to Westminster, thinking to shift myself, being all in dirt from top to bottom; but could not there find any place to buy a shirt or pair of gloves, Westminster Hall being full of people's goods, those in Westminster having removed all their goods, and the Exchequer money put into vessels to carry to Nonsuch; but to the Swan, and there was trimmed; and then to White Hall, but saw nobody; and so home. A sad sight to see how the River looks: no houses nor church near it, to the Temple, where it stopped.
At home, did go with Sir W. Batten (65), and our neighbour, Knightly (who, with one more, was the only man of any fashion left in all the neighbourhood thereabouts, they all removing their goods and leaving their houses to the mercy of the fire), to Sir R. Ford's (52), and there dined in an earthen platter—a fried breast of mutton; a great many of us, but very merry, and indeed as good a meal, though as ugly a one, as ever I had in my life.
Thence down to Deptford, and there with great satisfaction landed all my goods at Sir G. Carteret's (56) safe, and nothing missed I could see, or hurt. This being done to my great content, I home, and to Sir W. Batten's (65), and there with Sir R. Ford (52), Mr. Knightly, and one Withers, a professed lying rogue, supped well, and mighty merry, and our fears over. From them to the office, and there slept with the office full of labourers, who talked, and slept, and walked all night long there. But strange it was to see Cloathworkers' Hall on fire these three days and nights in one body of flame, it being the cellar full of oyle.
Note 1. The terrible disaster which overtook London was borne by the inhabitants of the city with great fortitude, but foreigners and Roman Catholics had a bad dime. As no cause for the outbreak of the fire could be traced, a general cry was raised that it owed its origin to a plot. In a letter from Thomas Waade to Williamson (dated "Whitby, Sept. 14th") we read, "The destruction of London by fire is reported to be a hellish contrivance of the French, Hollanders, and fanatic party" (Calendar of State Papers, 1666-67, p. 124).

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 September 1666. 23 Sep 1666. Lord's Day. Up, and after being trimmed, all the morning at the office with my people about me till about one o'clock, and then home, and my people with me, and Mr. Wayth and I eat a bit of victuals in my old closet, now my little dining-room, which makes a pretty room, and my house being so clean makes me mightily pleased, but only I do lacke Mercer or somebody in the house to sing with.
Soon as eat a bit Mr. Wayth and I by water to White Hall, and there at Sir G. Carteret's (56) lodgings Sir W. Coventry (38) met, and we did debate the whole business of our accounts to the Parliament; where it appears to us that the charge of the war from September 1st, 1664, to this Michaelmas, will have been but £3,200,000, and we have paid in that time somewhat about £2,200,000; so that we owe above £900,000: but our method of accounting, though it cannot, I believe, be far wide from the mark, yet will not abide a strict examination if the Parliament should be troublesome. Here happened a pretty question of Sir W. Coventry (38), whether this account of ours will not put my Lord Treasurer (59) to a difficulty to tell what is become of all the money the Parliament have 'give' in this time for the war, which hath amounted to about £4,000,000, which nobody there could answer; but I perceive they did doubt what his answer could be. Having done, and taken from Sir W. Coventry (38) the minutes of a letter to my Lord Treasurer (59), Wayth and I back again to the office, and thence back down to the water with my wife and landed him in Southwarke, and my wife and I for pleasure to Fox-Hall, and there eat and drank, and so back home, and I to the office till midnight drawing the letter we are to send with our accounts to my Lord Treasurer (59), and that being done to my mind, I home to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 November 1666. 04 Nov 1666. Lord's Day. Comes my taylor's man in the morning, and brings my vest home, and coate to wear with it, and belt, and silver-hilted sword. So I rose and dressed myself, and I like myself mightily in it, and so do my wife. Then, being dressed, to church; and after church pulled my Lady Pen (42) and Mrs. Markham into my house to dinner, and Sir J. Minnes (67) he got Mrs. Pegg along with him. I had a good dinner for them, and very merry; and after dinner to the waterside, and so, it being very cold, to White Hall, and was mighty fearfull of an ague, my vest being new and thin, and the coat cut not to meet before upon my breast. Here I waited in the gallery till the Council was up, and among others did speak with Mr. Cooling, my Lord Camberlain's secretary, who tells me my Lord Generall is become mighty low in all people's opinion, and that he hath received several slurs from the King (36) and Duke of York (33). The people at Court do see the difference between his and the Prince's (46) management, and my Lord Sandwich's (41). That this business which he is put upon of crying out against the Catholiques and turning them out of all employment, will undo him, when he comes to turn-out the officers out of the Army, and this is a thing of his own seeking. That he is grown a drunken sot, and drinks with nobody but Troutbecke, whom nobody else will keep company with. Of whom he told me this story: That once the Duke of Albemarle (57) in his drink taking notice as of a wonder that Nan Hide (29) should ever come to be Duchesse of York (29), "Nay", says Troutbecke, "ne'er wonder at that; for if you will give me another bottle of wine, I will tell you as great, if not greater, a miracle". And what was that, but that our dirty Besse (meaning his Duchesse (47)) should come to be Duchesse of Albemarle? Here we parted, and so by and by the Council rose, and out comes Sir G. Carteret (56) and Sir W. Coventry (38), and they and my Lord Bruncker (46) and I went to Sir G. Carteret's (56) lodgings, there to discourse about some money demanded by Sir W. Warren, and having done that broke up. And Sir G. Carteret (56) and I alone together a while, where he shows a long letter, all in cipher, from my Lord Sandwich (41) to him. The contents he hath not yet found out, but he tells me that my Lord is not sent for home, as several people have enquired after of me. He spoke something reflecting upon me in the business of pursers, that their present bad behaviour is what he did foresee, and had convinced me of, and yet when it come last year to be argued before the Duke of York (33) I turned and said as the rest did. I answered nothing to it, but let it go, and so to other discourse of the ill state of things, of which all people are full of sorrow and observation, and so parted, and then by water, landing in Southwarke, home to the Tower, and so home, and there began to read "Potter's Discourse upon 1666", which pleases me mightily, and then broke off and to supper and to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 November 1666. 09 Nov 1666. Up and to the office, where did a good deale of business, and then at noon to the Exchange and to my little goldsmith's, whose wife is very pretty and modest, that ever I saw any. Upon the 'Change, where I seldom have of late been, I find all people mightily at a losse what to expect, but confusion and fears in every man's head and heart. Whether war or peace, all fear the event will be bad.
Thence home and with my brother to dinner, my wife being dressing herself against night; after dinner I to my closett all the afternoon, till the porter brought my vest back from the taylor's, and then to dress myself very fine, about 4 or 5 o'clock, and by that time comes Mr. Batelier and Mercer, and away by coach to Mrs. Pierce's, by appointment, where we find good company: a fair lady, my Lady Prettyman, Mrs. Corbet, Knipp; and for men, Captain Downing, Mr. Lloyd, Sir W. Coventry's (38) clerk, and one Mr. Tripp, who dances well.
After some trifling discourse, we to dancing, and very good sport, and mightily pleased I was with the company. After our first bout of dancing, Knipp and I to sing, and Mercer and Captain Downing (who loves and understands musique) would by all means have my song of "Beauty, retire". which Knipp had spread abroad; and he extols it above any thing he ever heard, and, without flattery, I know it is good in its kind. This being done and going to dance again, comes news that White Hall was on fire; and presently more particulars, that the Horse-guard was on fire1 and so we run up to the garret, and find it so; a horrid great fire; and by and by we saw and heard part of it blown up with powder. The ladies begun presently to be afeard: one fell into fits. The whole town in an alarme. Drums beat and trumpets, and the guards every where spread, running up and down in the street. And I begun to have mighty apprehensions how things might be at home, and so was in mighty pain to get home, and that that encreased all is that we are in expectation, from common fame, this night, or to-morrow, to have a massacre, by the having so many fires one after another, as that in the City, and at same time begun in Westminster, by the Palace, but put out; and since in Southwarke, to the burning down some houses; and now this do make all people conclude there is something extraordinary in it; but nobody knows what.
By and by comes news that the fire has slackened; so then we were a little cheered up again, and to supper, and pretty merry. But, above all, there comes in the dumb boy that I knew in Oliver's time, who is mightily acquainted here, and with Downing; and he made strange signs of the fire, and how the King (36) was abroad, and many things they understood, but I could not, which I wondering at, and discoursing with Downing about it, "Why", says he, "it is only a little use, and you will understand him, and make him understand you with as much ease as may be". So I prayed him to tell him that I was afeard that my coach would be gone, and that he should go down and steal one of the seats out of the coach and keep it, and that would make the coachman to stay. He did this, so that the dumb boy did go down, and, like a cunning rogue, went into the coach, pretending to sleep; and, by and by, fell to his work, but finds the seats nailed to the coach. So he did all he could, but could not do it; however, stayed there, and stayed the coach till the coachman's patience was quite spent, and beat the dumb boy by force, and so went away. So the dumb boy come up and told him all the story, which they below did see all that passed, and knew it to be true. After supper, another dance or two, and then newes that the fire is as great as ever, which put us all to our wit's-end; and I mightily [anxious] to go home, but the coach being gone, and it being about ten at night, and rainy dirty weather, I knew not what to do; but to walk out with Mr. Batelier, myself resolving to go home on foot, and leave the women there. And so did; but at the Savoy got a coach, and come back and took up the women; and so, having, by people come from the fire, understood that the fire was overcome, and all well, we merrily parted, and home. Stopped by several guards and constables quite through the town, round the wall, as we went, all being in armes. We got well home .... Being come home, we to cards, till two in the morning, and drinking lamb's-wool2.
So to bed.
Note 1. "Nov. 9th. Between seven and eight at night, there happened a fire in the Horse Guard House, in the Tilt Yard, over against Whitehall, which at first arising, it is supposed, from some snuff of a candle falling amongst the straw, broke out with so sudden a flame, that at once it seized the north-west part of that building; but being so close under His Majesty's own eye, it was, by the timely help His Majesty and His Royal Highness caused to be applied, immediately stopped, and by ten o'clock wholly mastered, with the loss only of that part of the building it had at first seized".—The London Gazette, No. 103. B.
Note 2. A beverage consisting of ale mixed with sugar, nutmeg, and the pulp of roasted apples. "A cupp of lamb's-wool they dranke unto him then". the King (36) and the Miller of Mansfield (Percy's "Reliques", Series III, book ii., No. 20).

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Poll Bill

Diary of Samuel Pepys 29 April 1667. 29 Apr 1667. Up, being visited very early by Creed newly come from Hinchingbrooke, who went thither without my knowledge, and I believe only to save his being taxed by the Poll Bill. I did give him no very good countenance nor welcome, but took occasion to go forth and walked (he with me) to St. Dunstan's, and thence I to Sir W. Coventry's (39), where a good while with him, and I think he pretty kind, but that the nature of our present condition affords not matter for either of us to be pleased with any thing. We discoursed of Carcasse, whose Lord, he tells me, do make complaints that his clerk should be singled out, and my Lord Berkeley (65) do take his part. So he advises we would sum up all we have against him and lay it before the Duke of York (33); he condemned my Lord Bruncker (47).
Thence to Sir G. Carteret (57), and there talked a little while about office business, and thence by coach home, in several places paying my debts in order to my evening my accounts this month, and thence by and by to White Hall again to Sir G. Carteret (57) to dinner, where very good company and discourse, and I think it my part to keep in there now more than ordinary because of the probability of my Lord's coming soon home. Our Commissioners for the treaty set out this morning betimes down the river. Here I hear that the Duke of Cambridge (3), the Duke of York's (33) son, is very sick; and my Lord Treasurer (60) very bad of the stone, and hath been so some days.
After dinner Sir G. Carteret (57) and I alone in his closet an hour or more talking of my Lord Sandwich's (41) coming home, which, the peace being likely to be made here, he expects, both for my Lord's sake and his own (whose interest he wants) it will be best for him to be at home, where he will be well received by the King (36); he is sure of his service well accepted, though the business of Spain do fall by this peace. He tells me my Lord Arlington (49) hath done like a gentleman by him in all things. He says, if my Lord [Sandwich] were here, he were the fittest man to be Lord Treasurer (60) of any man in England; and he thinks it might be compassed; for he confesses that the King's matters do suffer through the inability of this man, who is likely to die, and he will propound him to the King (36). It will remove him from his place at sea, and the King (36) will have a good place to bestow. He says to me, that he could wish, when my Lord comes, that he would think fit to forbear playing, as a thing below him, and which will lessen him, as it do my Lord St. Albans (62), in the King's esteem: and as a great secret tells me that he hath made a match for my Lord Hinchingbrooke (19) to a daughter (22) of my Lord Burlington's (54), where there is a great alliance, £10,000 portion; a civil family, and relation to my Chancellor (58), whose son (5) hath married one of the daughters (4); and that my Chancellor (58) do take it with very great kindness, so that he do hold himself obliged by it. My Lord Sandwich (41) hath referred it to my Lord Crew (69), Sir G. Carteret (57), and Mr. Montagu (49), to end it. My Lord Hinchingbrooke (19) and the lady know nothing yet of it. It will, I think, be very happy. Very glad of this discourse, I away mightily pleased with the confidence I have in this family, and so away, took up my wife, who was at her mother's, and so home, where I settled to my chamber about my accounts, both Tangier and private, and up at it till twelve at night, with good success, when news is brought me that there is a great fire in Southwarke: so we up to the leads, and then I and the boy down to the end of our, lane, and there saw it, it seeming pretty great, but nothing to the fire of London, that it made me think little of it. We could at that distance see an engine play—that is, the water go out, it being moonlight.
By and by, it begun to slacken, and then I home and to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 June 1667. 09 Jun 1667. Lord's Day. Up, and by water to White Hall, and so walked to St. James's, where I hear that the Duke of Cambridge (3), who was given over long since by the Doctors, is now likely to recover; for which God be praised!
To Sir W. Coventry (39), and there talked with him a great while; and mighty glad I was of my good fortune to visit him, for it keeps in my acquaintance with him, and the world sees it, and reckons my interest accordingly. In comes my Lord Barkeley (65), who is going down to Harwich also to look after the militia there: and there is also the Duke of Monmouth (18), and with him a great many young Hectors, the Lord Chesterfield (33), my Lord Mandeville (33), and others: but to little purpose, I fear, but to debauch the country women thereabouts. My Lord Barkeley (65) wanting some maps, and Sir W. Coventry (39) recommending the six maps of England that are bound up for the pocket, I did offer to present my Lord with them, which he accepted: and so I will send them him.
Thence to White Hall, and there to the Chapel, where I met Creed, and he and I staid to hear who preached, which was a man who begun dully, and so we away by water and landed in Southwarke, and to a church in the street where we take water beyond the bridge, which was so full and the weather hot that we could not stand there.
So to my house, where we find my father and wife at dinner, and after dinner Creed and I by water to White Hall, and there we parted, and I to Sir G. Carteret's (57), where, he busy, I up into the house, and there met with a gentleman, Captain Aldrige, that belongs to my Lord Barkeley (65), and I did give him the book of maps for my Lord, and so I to Westminster Church and there staid a good while, and saw Betty Michell there.
So away thence, and after church time to Mrs. Martin's, and then hazer what I would with her, and then took boat and up, all alone, a most excellent evening, as high as Barne Elmes, and there took a turn; and then to my boat again, and home, reading and making an end of the book I lately bought a merry satyr called "The Visions", translated from Spanish by L'Estrange, wherein there are many very pretty things; but the translation is, as to the rendering it into English expression, the best that ever I saw, it being impossible almost to conceive that it should be a translation. Being come home I find an order come for the getting some fire-ships presently to annoy the Dutch, who are in the King's Channel, and expected up higher. So Sir W. Batten (66) and Sir W. Pen (46) being come this evening from their country houses to town we did issue orders about it, and then home to supper and, to bed,

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 February 1668. 23 Feb 1668. Lord's Day. Up, and, being desired by a messenger from Sir G. Carteret (58), I by water over to Southwarke, and so walked to the Falkon, on the Bank-side, and there got another boat, and so to Westminster, where I would have gone into the Swan; but the door was locked; and the girl could not let me in, and so to Wilkinson's in King Street, and there wiped my shoes, and so to Court, where sermon not yet done I met with Brisband; and he tells me, first, that our business of tickets did come to debate yesterday, it seems, after I was gone away, and was voted a miscarriage in general. He tells me in general that there is great looking after places, upon a presumption of a great many vacancies; and he did shew me a fellow at Court, a brother of my Lord Fanshaw's (36), a witty but rascally fellow, without a penny in his purse, that was asking him what places there were in the Navy fit for him, and Brisband tells me, in mirth, he told him the Clerke of the Acts, and I wish he had it, so I were well and quietly rid of it; for I am weary of this kind of trouble, having, I think, enough whereon to support myself.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 11 August 1668. 11 Aug 1668. Up, and by water to Sir W. Coventry (40) to visit him, whom I find yet troubled at the Commissioners of Accounts, about this business of Sir W. Warren, which is a ridiculous thing, and can come to nothing but contempt, and thence to Westminster Hall, where the Parliament met enough to adjourne, which they did, to the 10th of November next, and so by water home to the office, and so to dinner, and thence at the Office all the afternoon till night, being mightily pleased with a little trial I have made of the use of a tube-spectacall of paper, tried with my right eye. This day I hear that, to the great joy of the Nonconformists, the time is out of the Act against them, so that they may meet: and they have declared that they will have a morning lecture1 up again, which is pretty strange; and they are connived at by the King (38) every where, I hear, in City and country.
So to visit W. Pen (47), who is yet ill, and then home, where W. Batelier and Mrs. Turner (45) come and sat and supped with us, and so they gone we to bed. This afternoon my wife, and Mercer, and Deb., went with Pelting to see the gypsies at Lambeth, and have their fortunes told; but what they did, I did not enquire.
Note 1. During the troubled reign of Charles I, the House of Commons gave parishioners the right of appointing lecturers at the various churches without the consent of rector or vicar, and this naturally gave rise to many quarrels. In the early period of the war between the King (38) and the parliament, a course of sermons or lectures was projected in aid of the parliamentary cause. These lectures, which were preached by eminent Presbyterian divines at seven o'clock on the Sunday mornings, were commenced in the church of St. Mary Magdalen in Milk Street, but were soon afterwards removed to St. Giles's, Cripplegate. After the Restoration the lectures were collected in four volumes, and published under the title of the "Cripplegate Morning Exercises", vol. i. in 1661; vol. ii. in 1674; vol. iii. in 1682; and vol. iv. in 1690. In addition there were two volumes which form a supplement to the work, viz., "The Morning Exercises methodized", preached at St. Giles's-in-the-Fields, edited by the Rev. Thomas Case in 1660, and the "Exercises against Popery", preached in Southwark, and published in 1675 (see Demon's "Records of St. Giles's, Crinnlegate", 1883, pp. 55-56).

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 21 September 1668. 21 Sep 1668. Up, and betimes Sir D. Gauden with me talking about the Victualling business, which is now under dispute for a new contract, or whether it shall be put into a Commission. He gone, comes Mr. Hill (38) to talk with me about Lanyon's business, and so being in haste I took him to the water with me, and so to White Hall, and there left him, and I to Sir W. Coventry (40), and shewed him my answer to the Duke of York's (34) great letter, which he likes well. We also discoursed about the Victualling business, which he thinks there is a design to put into a way of Commission, but do look upon all things to be managed with faction, and is grieved under it.
So to St. James's, and there the Duke of York (34) did of his own accord come to me, and tell me that he had read, and do like of, my answers to the objections which he did give me the other day, about the Navy; and so did W. Coventry (40) too, who told me that the Duke of York (34) had shown him them: So to White Hall a little and the Chequer, and then by water home to dinner with my people, where Tong was also this day with me, whom I shall employ for a time, and so out again and by water to Somerset House, but when come thither I turned back and to Southwarke-Fair, very dirty, and there saw the puppet-show of Whittington, which was pretty to see; and how that idle thing do work upon people that see it, and even myself too! And thence to Jacob Hall's dancing on the ropes, where I saw such action as I never saw before, and mightily worth seeing; and here took acquaintance with a fellow that carried me to a tavern, whither come the musick of this booth, and by and by Jacob Hall himself, with whom I had a mind to speak, to hear whether he had ever any mischief by falls in his time. He told me, "Yes, many; but never to the breaking of a limb:" he seems a mighty strong man. So giving them a bottle or two of wine, I away with Payne, the waterman. He, seeing me at the play, did get a link to light me, and so light me to the Beare, where Bland, my waterman, waited for me with gold and other things he kept for me, to the value of £40 and more, which I had about me, for fear of my pockets being cut. So by link-light through the bridge, it being mighty dark, but still weather, and so home, where I find my draught of "The Resolution" come, finished, from Chatham; but will cost me, one way or other, about £12 or £13, in the board, frame, and garnishing, which is a little too much, but I will not be beholden to the King's officers that do it.
So to supper, and the boy to read to me, and so to bed. This day I met Mr. Moore in the New Exchange, and had much talk of my Lord's concernments. This day also come out first the new five-pieces in gold, coined by the Guiny Company; and I did get two pieces of Mr. Holder1. 22nd. Up, and to the Office, where sitting all the morning at noon, home to dinner, with my people, and so to the Office again, where busy all the afternoon, and in the evening spent my time walking in the dark, in the garden, to favour my eyes, which I find nothing but ease to help. In the garden there comes to me my Lady Pen (44) and Mrs. Turner (45) and Markham, and we sat and talked together, and I carried them home, and there eat a bit of something, and by and by comes Sir W. Pen (47), and eat with us, and mighty merry-in appearance, at least, he being on all occasions glad to be at friendship with me, though we hate one another, and know it on both sides. They gone, Mrs. Turner (45) and I to walk in the garden.... So led her home, and I back to bed. This day Mr. Wren (39) did give me, at the Board, Commissioner Middleton's answer to the Duke of York's (34) great letter; so that now I have all of them.
Note 1. Guineas took their name from the gold brought from Guinea by the African Company in 1663, who, as an encouragement to bring over gold to be coined, were permitted by their charter from Charles II to have their stamp of an elephant upon the coin. When first coined they were valued at 20s., but were worth 30s. in 1695. There were likewise fivepound pieces, like the guinea, with the inscription upon the rim.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 21 March 1669. 21 Mar 1669. Lord's Day. Up, and by water over to Southwarke; and then, not getting a boat, I forced to walk to Stangate; and so over to White Hall, in a scull; where up to the Duke of York's (35) dressing-room, and there met Harry Saville (27), and understand that Sir W. Coventry (41) is come to his house last night. I understand by Mr. Wren (40) that his friends having, by Secretary Trevor (45) and my Lord Keeper (63), applied to the King (38) upon his first coming home, and a promise made that he should be discharged this day, my Lord Arlington (51) did anticipate them, by sending a warrant presently for his discharge which looks a little like kindness, or a desire of it; which God send! though I fear the contrary: however, my heart is glad that he is out.
Thence up and down the House. Met with Mr. May (47), who tells me the story of his being put by Sir John Denham's (54) place, of Surveyor of the King's Works, who it seems, is lately dead, by the unkindness of the Duke Buckingham (41), who hath brought in Dr. Wren (45): though, he tells me, he hath been his servant for twenty years together in all his wants and dangers, saving him from want of bread by his care and management, and with a promise of having his help in his advancement, and an engagement under his hand for £1000 not yet paid, and yet the Duke of Buckingham (41) so ungrateful as to put him by: which is an ill thing, though Dr. Wren is a worthy man. But he tells me that the King (38) is kind to him, and hath promised him a pension of £300 a-year out of the Works; which will be of more content to him than the place, which, under their present wants of money, is a place that disobliges most people, being not able to do what they desire to their lodgings. Here meeting with Sir H. Cholmly (36) and Povy (55), that tell me that my Lord_Middleton (61) is resolved in the Cabal that he shall not go to Tangier; and that Sir Edward Harlow [Harley], whom I know not, is propounded to go, who was Governor of Dunkirke, and, they say, a most worthy brave man, which I shall be very glad of.
So by water (H. Russell coming for me) home to dinner, where W. Howe comes to dine with me; and after dinner propounds to me my lending him £500, to help him to purchase a place-the Master of the Patent Office, of Sir Richard Piggott. I did give him a civil answer, but shall think twice of it; and the more, because of the changes we are like to have in the Navy, which will not make it fit for me to divide the little I have left more than I have done, God knowing what my condition is, I having not attended, and now not being able to examine what my state is, of my accounts, and being in the world, which troubles me mightily. He gone, I to the office to enter my journall for a week. News is lately come of the Algerines taking £3000 in money, out of one of our Company's East India ships, outward bound, which will certainly make the war last; which I am sorry for, being so poor as we are, and broken in pieces. At night my wife to read to me, and then to supper, where Pelling comes to see and sup with us, and I find that he is assisting my wife in getting a licence to our young people to be married this Lent, which is resolved shall be done upon Friday next, my great day, or feast, for my being cut of the stone. So after supper to bed, my eyes being very bad.

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John Evelyn's Diary 21 September 1689. 21 Sep 1689. I went to visit the Archbishop of Canterbury (72) since his suspension, and was received with great kindness. A dreadful fire happened in Southwark.

John Evelyn's Diary 15 September 1692. 15 Sep 1692. There happened an earthquake, which, though not so great as to do any harm in England, was universal in all these parts of Europe. It shook the house at Wotton, but was not perceived by any save a servant or two, who were making my bed, and another in a garret. I and the rest being at dinner below in the parlor, were not sensible of it. The dreadful one in Jamaica this summer was profanely and ludicrously represented in a puppet play, or some such lewd pastime, in the fair of Southwark, which caused the Queen (30) to put down that idle and vicious mock show.

On 01 Jul 1718 Thomas Tipping 1st Baronet Tipping 1653-1718 (65) died in debt in prison in Southwark.

On 24 Nov 1740 John Bacon 1740-1799 was born to Thomas Bacon Clothworker in Southwark.

Bear Garden. Situated on Bankside, close to the precinct of the Clinke Liberty, and very near to the old palace of the bishops of Winchester. Stow, to his "Survey", says: "There be two Bear Gardens, the old and new Places". The name still exists in a street or lane at the foot of Southwark Bridge, and in Bear Garden Wharf.

Bankside, Southwark, Surrey

Diary of Henry Machyn December 1554. 09 Dec 1554. The sam day at after-non was a bere-beytyn [bear-baiting] on the Banke syde, and ther the grett blynd bere broke losse, and in ronnyng away he chakt [caught] servyng man by the calff of the lege, and bytt a gret pesse away, and after by the hokyll-bone, that with-in iij days after he ded.

Great Fire of London

John Evelyn's Diary 03 September 1666. 03 Sep 1666. I had public prayers at home. The fire continuing, after dinner, I took coach with my wife (31) and son, and went to the Bankside in Southwark, where we beheld that dismal spectacle, the whole city in dreadful flames near the waterside; all the houses from the Bridge, all Thames street, and upward toward Cheapside, down to the Three Cranes, were now consumed; and so returned, exceedingly astonished what would become of the rest.
The fire having continued all this night (if I may call that night which was light as day for ten miles round about, after a dreadful manner), when conspiring with a fierce eastern wind in a very dry season, I went on foot to the same place; and saw the whole south part of the city burning from Cheapside to the Thames, and all along Cornhill (for it likewise kindled back against the wind as well as forward), Tower street, Fenchurch Street, Gracious street, and so along to Baynard's Castle, and was now taking hold of St. Paul's church, to which the scaffolds contributed exceedingly. The conflagration was so universal, and the people so astonished, that, from the beginning, I know not by what despondency, or fate, they hardly stirred to quench it; so that there was nothing heard, or seen, but crying out and lamentation, running about like distracted creatures, without at all attempting to save even their goods; such a strange consternation there was upon them, so as it burned both in breadth and length, the churches, public halls, Exchange, hospitals. Monuments, and ornaments; leaping after a prodigious manner, from house to house, and street to street, at great distances one from the other. For the heat, with a long set of fair and warm weather, had even ignited the air, and prepared the materials to conceive the fire, which devoured, after an incredible manner, houses, furniture, and every thing. Here, we saw the Thames covered with goods floating, all the barges and boats laden with what some had time and courage to save, as, on the other side, the carts, etc., carrying out to the fields, which for many miles were strewn with movables of all sorts, and tents erecting to shelter both people and what goods they could get away. Oh, the miserable and calamitous spectacle! such as haply the world had not seen since the foundation of it, nor can be outdone till the universal conflagration thereof. All the sky was of a fiery aspect, like the top of a burning oven, and the light seen above forty miles round about for many nights. God grant mine eyes may never behold the like, who now saw above 10,000 houses all in one flame! The noise and cracking and thunder of the impetuous flames, the shrieking of women and children, the hurry of people, the fall of towers, houses, and churches, was like a hideous storm; and the air all about so hot and inflamed, that at the last one was not able to approach it, so that they were forced to stand still, and let the flames burn on, which they did, for near two miles in length and one in breadth. The clouds also of smoke were dismal, and reached, upon computation, near fifty miles in length. Thus, I left it this afternoon burning, a resemblance of Sodom, or the last day. It forcibly called to my mind that passage—"non enim hic habemus stabilem civitatem"; the ruins resembling the picture of Troy. London was, but is no more! Thus, I returned.

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Bear Garden, Bankside, Southwark, Surrey

Bear Garden. Situated on Bankside, close to the precinct of the Clinke Liberty, and very near to the old palace of the bishops of Winchester. Stow, to his "Survey", says: "There be two Bear Gardens, the old and new Places". The name still exists in a street or lane at the foot of Southwark Bridge, and in Bear Garden Wharf.

St James' Day Battle

Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 August 1666. 14 Aug 1666. Thanksgiving Day1. Up, and comes Mr. Foley and his man, with a box of a great variety of carpenter's and joyner's tooles, which I had bespoke, to me, which please me mightily; but I will have more. Then I abroad down to the Old Swan, and there I called and kissed Betty Michell, and would have got her to go with me to Westminster, but I find her a little colder than she used to be, methought, which did a little molest me.
So I away not pleased, and to White Hall, where I find them at Chappell, and met with Povy (52), and he and I together, who tells me how mad my letter makes my Lord Peterborough (44), and what a furious letter he hath writ to me in answer, though it is not come yet. This did trouble me; for though there be no reason, yet to have a nobleman's mouth open against a man may do a man hurt; so I endeavoured to have found him out and spoke with him, but could not.
So to the chappell, and heard a piece of the Dean of Westminster's (41) sermon, and a special good anthemne before the King (36), after a sermon, and then home by coach with Captain Cocke (49), who is in pain about his hempe, of which he says he hath bought great quantities, and would gladly be upon good terms with us for it, wherein I promise to assist him. So we 'light at the 'Change, where, after a small turn or two, taking no pleasure now-a-days to be there, because of answering questions that would be asked there which I cannot answer; so home and dined, and after dinner, with my wife and Mercer to the Beare-garden2, where I have not been, I think, of many years, and saw some good sport of the bull's tossing of the dogs: one into the very boxes. But it is a very rude and nasty pleasure. We had a great many hectors in the same box with us (and one very fine went into the pit, and played his dog for a wager, which was a strange sport for a gentleman), where they drank wine, and drank Mercer's health first, which I pledged with my hat off; and who should be in the house but Mr. Pierce the surgeon, who saw us and spoke to us.
Thence home, well enough satisfied, however, with the variety of this afternoon's exercise; and so I to my chamber, till in the evening our company come to supper. We had invited to a venison pasty Mr. Batelier and his sister Mary, Mrs. Mercer, her daughter Anne, Mr. Le Brun, and W. Hewer (24); and so we supped, and very merry.
And then about nine o'clock to Mrs. Mercer's gate, where the fire and boys expected us, and her son had provided abundance of serpents and rockets; and there mighty merry (my Lady Pen (42) and Pegg (15) going thither with us, and Nan Wright), till about twelve at night, flinging our fireworks, and burning one another and the people over the way. And at last our businesses being most spent, we into Mrs. Mercer's, and there mighty merry, smutting one another with candle grease and soot, till most of us were like devils. And that being done, then we broke up, and to my house; and there I made them drink, and upstairs we went, and then fell into dancing (W. Batelier dancing well), and dressing, him and I and one Mr. Banister (36) (who with his wife come over also with us) like women; and Mercer put on a suit of Tom's, like a boy, and mighty mirth we had, and Mercer danced a jigg; and Nan Wright and my wife and Pegg Pen (15) put on perriwigs. Thus we spent till three or four in the morning, mighty merry; and then parted, and to bed.
Note 1. A proclamation ordering August 14th to be observed in London and Westminster, and August 23rd in other places, as a day of thanksgiving for the late victory at sea over the Dutch, was published on August 6th.
Note 2. The Bear Garden was situated on Bankside, close to the precinct of the Clinke Liberty, and very near to the old palace of the bishops of Winchester. Stow, to his "Survey", says: "There be two Bear Gardens, the old and new Places". The name still exists in a street or lane at the foot of Southwark Bridge, and in Bear Garden Wharf.

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John Evelyn's Diary 16 June 1670. 16 Jun 1670. I went with some friends to the Bear Garden, where was cock-fighting, dog-fighting, bear and bull-baiting, it being a famous day for all these butcherly sports, or rather barbarous cruelties. The bulls did exceedingly well, but the Irish wolf dog exceeded, which was a tall greyhound, a stately creature indeed, who beat a cruel mastiff. One of the bulls tossed a dog full into a lady's lap as she sat in one of the boxes at a considerable height from the arena. Two poor dogs were killed, and so all ended with the ape on horseback, and I most heartily weary of the rude and dirty pastime, which I had not seen, I think, in twenty years before.

Falcon Inn, Bankside, Southwark, Surrey

Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 January 1665. 27 Jan 1665. Called up by Mr. Creed to discourse about some Tangier business, and he gone I made me ready and found Jane Welsh, Mr. Jervas his mayde, come to tell me that she was gone from her master, and is resolved to stick to this sweetheart of hers, one Harbing (a very sorry little fellow, and poor), which I did in a word or two endeavour to dissuade her from, but being unwilling to keep her long at my house, I sent her away and by and by followed her to the Exchange, and thence led her about down to the 3 Cranes, and there took boat for the Falcon, and at a house looking into the fields there took up and sat an hour or two talking and discoursing ...
Thence having endeavoured to make her think of making herself happy by staying out her time with her master and other counsels, but she told me she could not do it, for it was her fortune to have this man, though she did believe it would be to her ruine, which is a strange, stupid thing, to a fellow of no kind of worth in the world and a beggar to boot.
Thence away to boat again and landed her at the Three Cranes again, and I to the Bridge, and so home, and after shifting myself, being dirty, I to the 'Change, and thence to Mr. Povy's (51) and there dined, and thence with him and Creed to my Lord Bellasses' (50), and there debated a great while how to put things in order against his going, and so with my Lord in his coach to White Hall, and with him to my Lord Duke of Albemarle (56), finding him at cards. After a few dull words or two, I away to White Hall again, and there delivered a letter to the Duke of Yorke (31) about our Navy business, and thence walked up and down in the gallery, talking with Mr. Slingsby (44), who is a very ingenious person, about the Mint and coynage of money. Among other things, he argues that there being £700,000 coined in the Rump time, and by all the Treasurers of that time, it being their opinion that the Rump money was in all payments, one with another, about a tenth part of all their money. Then, says he, to my question, the nearest guess we can make is, that the money passing up and down in business is £7,000,000. To another question of mine he made me fully understand that the old law of prohibiting bullion to be exported, is, and ever was a folly and an injury, rather than good. Arguing thus, that if the exportations exceed importations, then the balance must be brought home in money, which, when our merchants know cannot be carried out again, they will forbear to bring home in money, but let it lie abroad for trade, or keepe in foreign banks: or if our importations exceed our exportations, then, to keepe credit, the merchants will and must find ways of carrying out money by stealth, which is a most easy thing to do, and is every where done; and therefore the law against it signifies nothing in the world. Besides, that it is seen, that where money is free, there is great plenty; where it is restrained, as here, there is a great want, as in Spayne. These and many other fine discourses I had from him.
Thence by coach home (to see Sir J. Minnes (65) first), who is still sick, and I doubt worse than he seems to be. Mrs. Turner (42) here took me into her closet, and there did give me a glass of most pure water, and shewed me her Rocke, which indeed is a very noble thing but a very bawble. So away to my office, where late, busy, and then home to supper and to bed.

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Bear-Garden, Southwark, Surrey

Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 September 1667. 09 Sep 1667. Up; and to the office, where all the morning, and at noon comes Creed to dine with me.
After dinner, he and I and my wife to the Bear-Garden, to see a prize fought there. But, coming too soon, I left them there and went on to White Hall, and there did some business with the Lords of the Treasury; and here do hear, by Tom Killigrew (55) and Mr. Progers, that for certain news is come of Harman's (42) having spoiled nineteen of twenty-two French ships, somewhere about the Barbadoes, I think they said; but wherever it is, it is a good service, and very welcome. Here I fell in talk with Tom Killigrew (55) about musick, and he tells me that he will bring me to the best musick in England (of which, indeed, he is master), and that is two Italians and Mrs. Yates, who, he says, is come to sing the Italian manner as well as ever he heard any: says that Knepp won't take pains enough, but that she understands her part so well upon the stage, that no man or woman in the House do the like.
Thence I by water to the Bear-Garden, where now the yard was full of people, and those most of them seamen, striving by force to get in, that I was afeard to be seen among them, but got into the ale-house, and so by a back-way was put into the bull-house, where I stood a good while all alone among the bulls, and was afeard I was among the bears, too; but by and by the door opened, and I got into the common pit; and there, with my cloak about my face, I stood and saw the prize fought, till one of them, a shoemaker, was so cut in both his wrists that he could not fight any longer, and then they broke off: his enemy was a butcher. The sport very good, and various humours to be seen among the rabble that is there.
Thence carried Creed to White Hall, and there my wife and I took coach and home, and both of us to Sir W. Batten's (66), to invite them to dinner on Wednesday next, having a whole buck come from Hampton Court, by the warrant which Sir Stephen Fox (40) did give me.
And so home to supper and to bed, after a little playing on the flageolet with my wife, who do outdo therein whatever I expected of her.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 12 April 1669. 12 Apr 1669. Up, and by water to White Hall, where I of the whole Office attended the Duke of York (35) at his meeting with Sir Thomas Allen (36) and several flag-officers, to consider of the manner of managing the war with Algiers; and, it being a thing I was wholly silent in, I did only observe; and find that; their manner of discourse on this weighty affair was very mean and disorderly, the Duke of York (35) himself being the man that I thought spoke most to the purpose. Having done here, I up and down the house, talking with this man and that, and: then meeting Mr. Sheres, took him to see the fine flower-pot I saw yesterday, and did again offer £20 for it; but he [Verelst] insists upon £50.
Thence I took him to St. James's, but there was no musique, but so walked to White Hall, and, by and by to my wife at Unthanke's, and with her was Jane, and so to the Cocke (52), where they, and I, and Sheres, and Tom dined, my wife having a great desire to eat of their soup made of pease, and dined very well, and thence by water to the Bear-Garden, and there happened to sit by Sir Fretcheville Hollis (26), who is still full of his vain-glorious and prophane talk. Here we saw a prize fought between a soldier and country fellow, one Warrell, who promised the least in his looks, and performed the most of valour in his boldness and evenness of mind, and smiles in all he did, that ever I saw and we were all both deceived and infinitely taken with him. He did soundly beat the soldier, and cut him over the head.
Thence back to White Hall, mightily pleased, all of us, with this sight, and particularly this fellow, as a most extraordinary man for his temper and evenness in fighting. And there leaving Sheres, we by our own coach home, and after sitting an hour, thrumming upon my viall, and singing, I to bed, and left my wife to do something to a waistcoat and petticoat she is to wear to-morrow. This evening, coming home, we overtook Alderman Backewell's (51) coach and his lady, and followed them to their house, and there made them the first visit, where they received us with extraordinary civility, and owning the obligation. But I do, contrary to my expectation, find her something a proud and vain-glorious woman, in telling the number of her servants and family and expences: he is also so, but he was ever of that strain. But here he showed me the model of his houses that he is going to build in Cornhill and Lumbard Street; but he hath purchased so much there, that it looks like a little town, and must have cost him a great deal of money.

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Bear Garden Stairs, Bear-Garden, Southwark, Surrey

Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 May 1667. 27 May 1667. Up, and there comes Greeting my flagelette master, and I practised with him. There come also Richardson, the bookbinder, with one of Ogilby's Bibles in quires for me to see and buy, it being Mr. Cade's, my stationer's; but it is like to be so big that I shall not use it, it being too great to stir up and down without much trouble, which I shall not like nor do intend it for.
So by water to White Hall, and there find Sir G. Carteret (57) at home, and talked with him a while, and find that the new Commissioners of the Treasury did meet this morning. So I to find out Sir W. Coventry (39), but missed, only I do hear that they have chosen Sir G. Downing (42) for their Secretary; and I think in my conscience they have done a great thing in it; for he is a business active man, and values himself upon having of things do well under his hand; so that I am mightily pleased in their choice.
Here I met Mr. Pierce, who tells me that he lately met Mr. Carcasse, who do mightily inveigh against me, for that all that has been done against him he lays on me, and I think he is in the right and I do own it, only I find what I suspected, that he do report that Sir W. Batten (66) and I, who never agreed before, do now, and since this business agree even more, which I did fear would be thought, and therefore will find occasion to undeceive the world in that particular by promoting something shortly against Sir W. Batten.
So home, and there to sing with my wife before dinner, and then to dinner, and after dinner comes Carcasse to speak with me, but I would not give him way to enlarge on anything, but he would have begun to have made a noise how I have undone him and used all the wit I could in the drawing up of his report, wherein he told me I had taken a great deal of pains to undo him. To which I did not think fit to enter into any answer, but dismissed him, and so I again up to my chamber, vexed at the impudence of this rogue, but I think I shall be wary enough for him.
So to my chamber, and there did some little business, and then abroad, and stopped at the Bear-garden-stairs, there to see a prize fought. But the house so full there was no getting in there, so forced to go through an alehouse into the pit, where the bears are baited; and upon a stool did see them fight, which they did very furiously, a butcher and a waterman. The former had the better all along, till by and by the latter dropped his sword out of his hand, and the butcher, whether not seeing his sword dropped I know not, but did give him a cut over the wrist, so as he was disabled to fight any longer. But, Lord! to see how in a minute the whole stage was full of watermen to revenge the foul play, and the butchers to defend their fellow, though most blamed him; and there they all fell to it to knocking down and cutting many on each side. It was pleasant to see, but that I stood in the pit, and feared that in the tumult I might get some hurt. At last the rabble broke up, and so I away to White Hall and so to St. James's, but I found not Sir W. Coventry (39), so into the Park and took a turn or two, it being a most sweet day, and so by water home, and with my father and wife walked in the garden, and then anon to supper and to bed. The Duke of Cambridge (3) very ill still.

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Bermondsey, Southwark, Surrey

On 28 Feb 1155 Henry the Young King was born to Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 (21) and Eleanor of Aquitaine (33) at Bermondsey.

On 08 Jun 1492 Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (55) died at Bermondsey. She was buried at the Altar, St George's Chapel.

Diary of Henry Machyn October 1558. 04 Oct 1558. The sam day a'for-non was bered at Barmes ... in Suthwarke master Whettley, justes of pesse, with ij whyt branchys and xij torchys, and iiij grett tapurs and ij dosen skochyons, and dyvers morners.

Bermondsey Abbey, Southwark, Surrey

Before 1483 John Marlow Abbot Bermondsey was appointed Abbot Bermondsey.

In May 1513 Matthew Baker Governor of Jersey -1513 died in Bermondsey Abbey.

Jamaica House, Bermondsey, Southwark, Surrey

Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 April 1667. 14 Apr 1667. Lord's Day. Up, and to read a little in my new History of Turkey, and so with my wife to church, and then home, where is little Michell and my pretty Betty and also Mercer, and very merry. A good dinner of roast beef.
After dinner I away to take water at the Tower, and thence to Westminster, where Mrs. Martin was not at home.
So to White Hall, and there walked up and down, and among other things visited Sir G. Carteret (57), and much talk with him, who is discontented, as he hath reason, to see how things are like to come all to naught, and it is very much that this resolution of having of country Admirals should not come to his eares till I told him the other day, so that I doubt who manages things.
From him to Margaret's Church, and there spied Martin, and home with her.... but fell out to see her expensefullness, having bought Turkey work, chairs, &c.
By and by away home, and there took out my wife, and the two Mercers, and two of our mayds, Barker and Jane, and over the water to the Jamaica House, where I never was before, and there the girls did run for wagers over the bowling-green; and there, with much pleasure, spent little, and so home, and they home, and I to read with satisfaction in my book of Turkey, and so to bed.

Bishopsgate Without Ward, Southwark, Surrey

Houndsditch, Bishopsgate Without Ward, Southwark, Surrey

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1561. 10 Jun 1561. [The x day of July the Queen (27) came by water] unto the Towre of London by x [of the clock, until] v at nyght, and whent and sa(w) all her my[nts; and they gave the] Quen serten pesses of gold, and gayff the [lord] of Hunsdon (35) had on, and my lord marques of [Northampton,] (49) and her grace whent owt of the yron gatt [over] Towre hyll unto Algatt chyrche, and so down Hondyche [to the] Spyttyll, and so downe Hoge lane, and so over the feldes to the Charter howse my lord North('s) (65) plase, with trumpetes and the penssyonars and the haroldes of armes and the servantes, and then cam gentyllmen rydyng, and after lordes, and then [the] lord of Hunsdon (35) and bare the sword a-for the quen, and then cam [ladies] rydyng; and the feldes full of pepull, gret nombur [as ever was] sene; and ther tared tylle Monday.

Bridge Without Ward, Southwark, Surrey

On 29 Jan 1639 Isaac Penington Lord Mayor 1584-1661 (55) was appointed Alderman of Bridge Without Ward.

On 23 Jan 1711 Francis Eyles 1st Baronet Eyles -1716 was appointed Alderman of Bridge Without Ward which position he held for life.

On 22 Jul 1737 John Eyles 2nd Baronet Eyles 1683-1745 (54) was appointed Alderman of Bridge Without Ward.

Charlton, Southwark, Surrey

St Luke's Church Charlton, Southwark, Surrey

On 28 Jul 1726 John Blackwood 1696-1777 (29) and Anne Shovell were married at St Luke's Church Charlton.

Dulwich, Southwark, Surrey

John Evelyn's Diary 05 August 1677. 05 Aug 1677. I went to visit my Lord Brounker (57), now taking the waters at Dulwich.

Dulwich College, Southwark, Surrey

In 1619 Edward Alleyn Comedian 1566-1626 (52) founded the College of God's Gift now known as Dulwich College.

John Evelyn's Diary 02 September 1675. 02 Sep 1675. I went to see Dulwich College, being the pious foundation of one Alleyn, a famous comedian, in King James's time. The chapel is pretty, the rest of the hospital very ill contrived; it yet maintains divers poor of both sexes. It is in a melancholy part of Camberwell parish. I came back by certain medicinal Spa waters, at a place called Sydenham Wells, in Lewisham parish, much frequented in summer.

Great Union Street, Southwark, Surrey

On 21 Feb 1861 Major-General Sir Charles Vere Ferrers Townshend 1861–1924 was born to Charles Thornton Townshend 1840–1889 (21) at Great Union Street.

Kent Road, Southwark, Surrey

8 Kent Road, Southwark, Surrey

1851. C1851 Surrey Southwark Kent Road Page 12. 8 Kent Road.
Charles Crooke Siddall 1801- (50). Head. 50.
Charles Robert Siddall 1827- (23). Son. 24.
Elizabeth Siddal Model 1829-1862 (21). Daughter. 21.

King's Bench Prison

Marshalsea, Southwark, Surrey

On 06 Jan 1437 Edward Hastings 8th Baron Hastings 1382-1437 (54) died at Marshalsea. His son John Hastings 9th Baron Hastings 1412-1477 (25) succeeded 9th Baron Hastings 1C 1290. Anne Morley Baroness Hastings 1413-1471 (24) by marriage Baroness Hastings.

Winchester Palace, Marshalsea, Southwark, Surrey

Catherine Howard Trial

On 07 Nov 1541 Catherine Howard (18) was interrogated by Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury (52) and John Gresham Lord Mayor (46) at Winchester Palace in Southwark.

1533 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556.In 1544 Gerlach Flicke Painter 1520-1558. Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 2nd Year 17 Aug 1554. 17 Aug 1554. The 17 of Augusta the King (27) and Queen (38) came by water from Richmond in the after noone, and landed at my Lord Chancellors stayers in St. Marye Overies, and there had a banquett in the Lord Chauncellors (71) howsse, and then passed throughe the parke to the howse at St. Georges, of which Sir John Gage, Lord Chamberlayne to the Queene (74), had the keepinge, and there lay that night and dyned there the next daye.
a. The authorities differ widely as to this date. The Grey Friars' Chronicle (p. 91 ) says: "They came not unto London tyll it was the 18th day of Angnst, and then came hothe unto the place in Sothwarke, and lay there that nyght, and the 19th day came into London." And Stow (p. 625): "The 11 of August, the King and Queene remooued to Richmond, from thence by water to Southwarke, &c. And the next day, heing the 12 of August, they rode through Southwarke oner the bridge, and so through London, &c." While Baker's Chronicle reads: "The eleventh of August they remoued to Richmond, the seven-and-twentieth to Suffolk Place in Southwark, and the next day to London," &c. (p. 342).

Around 1573 Sofonisba Anguissola Painter 1532-1625. Portrait of Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain 1527-1598.Around 1560 Antonis Mor Painter 1517-1577. Portrait of Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain 1527-1598.Around 1550. Titian Painter 1488-1576. Portrait of Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain 1527-1598.Around 1554. Titian Painter 1488-1576. Portrait of Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain 1527-1598.Around 1594. Juan Pantoja de La Cruz Painter 1553–1608. Portrait of Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain 1527-1598. Around 1554 Antonis Mor Painter 1517-1577. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558.Around 1556 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558.

Diary of Henry Machyn January 1555. 22 Jan 1555. The xxij day of Januarij was raynyd at my lord chansseler (72) plasse by-syd sant Mare Overes ser John Hoper (60) latt bysshope of Glosetur, doctur C[rome], as the parsun of Wyttyngtun colege, harold Tomson, Rogars parsun or veker of sant Pulkers, and dyvers odur.

Diary of Henry Machyn October 1559. 05 Oct 1559. [The] v day of October cam to [London by Ald]gatt the prynse of Sweythen (25), and [so to Leadenhall], and done [down] Gracyous-strett corner in a howse stod [the lord] marques of Northamtun (47) and my lord Ambros Dudley (29) [and other gentlemen and] lades; and my lord of Oxford (43) browth (him) from Col[chester] and my lord Robart Dudley (27), the master of the quen('s) horse; and trumpettes bloyng in dyvers places; and thay had [a great] nombur of gentyllmen ryd with cheynes a-for them, and after them a ij C [200] of yomen rydyng, and so rydyng over the bryge unto the bysshope of Wynchastur plasse, for [it] was rychely hangyd with ryche cloth of arres, wrought with gold and sylver and sylke, and ther he remanyth.

Newington Causeway, Southwark, Surrey

Stane Street to Chichester is a 91km Roman Road from Noviomagus Reginorum aka Chichester to London crossing the land of the Atrebates in use by 70AD. Its route took it from London Bridge along Newington Causeway past Merton Priory to Ewell, through Sutton, past the boundary of Nonsuch Palace to Thirty Acre Barn, then near to Juniper Hall Field Centre near Mickleham, then crossing the River Mole near to Burford Bridge southwards to Dorking (although the route here is vague) to North Holmwood, Ockley, Rowhook after which it crossed the River Arun at Alfodean Bridge where some of the timber piles on which the bridge was built are still present in the river bed. Thereafter the road travels broadly straight to Billingshurst, Pulborough where it crosses the River Arun again, then passing the Roman Villa at Bignor before entering the East Gate at Noviomagus Reginorum aka Chichester.

Old Kent Road

Paris Garden, Southwark, Surrey

Diary of Henry Machyn October 1552. 09 Oct 1552. The ix day of October was taken and brought thrugh and undur London bryge and so to Parys garden, and the next day up to Westmynster thes ij grett fysshes, the one the malle and the feymalle.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1559. 26 May 1559. The xxvj day of May they whent from the byshope('s) howsse to Powlles warff, and toke barge, and so to Parys garden, for ther was boyth bare [bear] and bull baytyng, and the capten with a C [100] of the gard to kepe rowm for them to see the baytyng.
The sam day was a proclamassyon of v of the actes; on was for (unfinished)

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1560. 23 Feb 1560. The xxiij day of Feybruary was cared from (Black) frers over the water to Parys garden, and ther was a hors-lytter rede to care her to Blechyng-led, [my] lade Carden, the wyff of ser Thomas Carden, to be bered.

Southwark Cathedral

St Georges Fields, Southwark, Surrey

Great Fire of London

John Evelyn's Diary 05 September 1666. 05 Sep 1666. It crossed toward Whitehall; but oh! the confusion there was then at that Court! It pleased his Majesty (36) to command me, among the rest, to look after the quenching of Fetter-lane end, to preserve (if possible) that part of Holborn, while the rest of the gentlemen took their several posts, some at one part, and some at another (for now they began to bestir themselves, and not till now, who hitherto had stood as men intoxicated, with their hands across), and began to consider that nothing was likely to put a stop but the blowing up of so many houses as might make a wider gap than any had yet been made by the ordinary method of pulling them down with engines. This some stout seamen proposed early enough to have saved near the whole city, but this some tenacious and avaricious men, aldermen, etc., would not permit, because their houses must have been of the first. It was, therefore, now commended to be practiced; and my concern being particularly for the Hospital of St. Bartholomew, near Smithfield, where I had many wounded and sick men, made me the more diligent to promote it; nor was my care for the Savoy less. It now pleased God, by abating the wind, and by the industry of the people, when almost all was lost infusing a new spirit into them, that the fury of it began sensibly to abate about noon, so as it came no farther than the Temple westward, nor than the entrance of Smithfield, north: but continued all this day and night so impetuous toward Cripplegate and the Tower, as made us all despair. It also broke out again in the Temple; but the courage of the multitude persisting, and many houses being blown up, such gaps and desolations were soon made, as, with the former three days' consumption, the back fire did not so vehemently urge upon the rest as formerly. There was yet no standing near the burning and glowing ruins by near a furlong's space.
The coal and wood wharfs, and magazines of oil, rosin, etc., did infinite mischief, so as the invective which a little before I had dedicated to his Majesty (36) and published, giving warning what probably might be the issue of suffering those shops to be in the city was looked upon as a prophecy.
The poor inhabitants were dispersed about St. George's Fields, and Moorfields, as far as Highgate, and several miles in circle, some under tents, some under miserable huts and hovels, many without a rag, or any necessary utensils, bed or board, who from delicateness, riches, and easy accommodations in stately and well-furnished houses, were now reduced to extreme misery and poverty.
In this calamitous condition, I returned with a sad heart to my house, blessing and adoring the distinguishing mercy of God to me and mine, who, in the midst of all this ruin, was like Lot, in my little Zoar, safe and sound.

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St Georges Parish, Southwark, Surrey

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1561. 06 Mar 1561. The vj day of Marche was bered in sant Gorge parryche in Sowthwarke, the wyche he cam owtt of the kynges bynche, master Seth Holand, latt dene of Vossetur, [Worcester] and the master of All Solles colege in Oxford, and a lx men of gentyllmen of the in of the corttes, and of Oxford, browth ym to the chyrche, for he was a grett lernydman.

St Olave's Church Southwark, Surrey

Diary of Henry Machyn November 1556. 03 Nov 1556. The iij day of November was bered in the parryche of sant Towlys in Sowthwarke master (blank) Goodyere, sum-tyme altherman of London and letherseller, marchand of the stapull of Callys, with ij whytt branchys, xij stayffes torchys, and iiij grett tapurs, and mony mornars in blake, boythe men and vomen, and the compene of the Lethersellers, in ther levere.

St Thomas's Hospital, Southwark, Surrey

John Evelyn's Diary 02 December 1664. 02 Dec 1664. We delivered the Privy Council's letters to the Governors of St Thomas's Hospital, in Southwark, that a moiety of the house should be reserved for such sick and wounded as should from time to time be sent from the fleet during the war. This being delivered at their Court, the President and several Aldermen, Governors of that Hospital, invited us to a great feast in Fishmongers' Hall.

St Thomas-a-Watering Church, Southwark, Surrey

Diary of Henry Machyn October 1559. 03 Oct 1559. The iij day of October was sett up ij nuw payre of galows, one at sant Thomas of wattrynges, and the thodur at the low-water marke at Wapyng.

The Globe Theatre, Southwark, Surrey

The Globe Theatre Burns Down

On 28 Jun 1613 The Globe Theatre burned down. A second Globe Theatre was built on the same site by June 1614.

Letters of the Court of James I 1613 Reverend Thomas Lorkin to Sir Thomas Puckering Baronet 30 Jun 1613. 30 Jun 1613. London. Reverend Thomas Lorkin to Thomas Puckering 1st Baronet 1592-1637 (21).
My last letters advertised you of what had lately happened concerning Cotton, who yielding himself to the king's clemency, doth nevertheless utterly disavow the book, and constantly denieth to be the author of it. Hereupon, his study hath been searched, and there divers papers found, containing many several pieces of the said book, and (which renders the man more odious) certain relics of the late saints of the gunpowder treason, as one of Digby's (35) fingers, Percy's (53) toe, some other part either of Catesby (41) or Bookwood (whether I well remember not), with the addition of a piece of one of Peter Lambert's ribs, to make up the full mess of them. If the proofs which are against him will not extend to the touching of his life, at least they will serve to work him either misery and affliction enough.
Upon Saturday last, being the 26th of this present, there was found, in the stone gallery at Whitehall, a certain letter, bearing address unto the king, which advertiseth him of a treasonable practice against his majesty's own person, to be put in execution the 4th day of the next month, as he went a-hunting (if the commodity so served), or otherwise, as they should find their opportunity; affirming that divers Catholics had therein joined hands, as finding no other means to relieve themselves in the liberty of their conscience; and how there was one great nobleman about his majesty that could give him further instructions of the particulars. That himself was appointed to have been an actor in it; but, touched with a remorse of dyeing his hands in his prince's blood, moved likewise with the remembrance of some particular favours which his father (saith he) had formerly received from his majesty, he could do no less than give him a general notice and warning of it. But because he instanceth not in any one particular, neither subscribed his name, it is held to be a mere invention to intimidate the king, and to beget some strange jealousies in his head of such as are conversant about him.
The prince is as to-morrow to begin housekeeping at Richmond. Sir David Murray and Sir Robert Car (35) have newly procured to be sworn (with Sir James Fullerton (50)), gentlemen of the bedchamber. Sir Robert Carey (50) hath taken no oath, and remains in the same nature that Sir Thomas Chaloner (54) did to the late prince (19) deceased. Sir Arthur Mainwaring (33), Varnam, and Sir Edward Lewys (53), have at length, with much suit, obtained to be sworn gentlemen of his highness's privy chamber.
The great officers must rest still in a longer expectance, unless this occasion help them. The king (47) is desirous to relieve his wants by making estates out of the prince's lands; and having taken the opinion of the best lawyers what course is fittest to be followed, their judgment is, that no good assurance can be made unless the prince himself join likewise in the action. Now, this cannot be done without his council and officers for that purpose; so that it is supposed that some time in Michaelmas term next, before any conveyance be made, certain of these officers, if not all, shall be put again into the possession of their former places.
My Lord of Southampton (39) hath lately got licence to make a voyage over the Spa, whither he is either already gone, or means to go very shortly. He pretends to take remedy against I know not what malady; but his greatest sickness is supposed to be a discontentment conceived, that he cannot compass to be made one of the privy council; which, not able to brook here well at home, he will try if he can better digest it abroad.
No longer since than yesterday, while Burbage's company were acting at the Globe the play of Henry VIII, and there shooting off certain chambers in way of triumph, the fire catched and fastened upon the thatch of the house, and there burned so furiously, as it consumed the whole house, all in less than two hours, the people having enough to do to save themselves1.
You have heretofore heard of Widdrington's book2, wherein he maintains against the usurpation of popes, the right of kings in matters temporal. This book hath been undertaken to be confuted by some in France; but the author hath proceeded so far in his confutation against kings' prerogatives, as the Court of Parliament at Paris have censured the book, and given order to have the sentence printed.
It is bruited abroad here, that Sir Thomas Puckering (21) is grown a very hot and zealous Catholic. Sir Thomas Badger reports to have heard it very confidently avouched at a great man's table; and I assure you, it is the general opinion, or rather fear, of the most that know you and honour you. How far this may prejudice you, I leave to your wise consideration. I myself rest fully assured to the contrary, and so endeavour to possess others. Your care will be in the mean time to avoid all occasions whereby to increase this suspicion and jealousy.
Note 1. Barbage was Shakspeare's associate. The play was Shakespeare's, and the theatre was the one in which he had achieved his brilliant reputation.
Note 2. Probably that printed at Frankfort in 1613, and entitled "Apologia Card. Bellarmini pro jare principam contra anas ipsins rationes pro Aactoritate Papali Principes deponendi."

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Before 1619 Robert "The Elder" Peake Painter 1551-1619. Portrait of Henry Frederick Stewart Prince of Wales 1594-1612 in his Garter Robes and Leg Garter.After 07 Feb 1612 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662. Elizabeth's standing collar of reticella is worked with the Royal coat of arms with its lion and unicorn supporters. She wears a gown of Italian silk brocade. The black armband is thought to be a sign of mourning for her brother Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales who died on 07 Feb 1612.Around 1600 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 painted the portrait of James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625.Around 1605 John Critz Painter 1551-1642. Portrait of James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 with Garter Collar and Leg Garter.In 1621 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 wearing his Garter Collar and Leg Garter.Around 1632 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625.In 1583 Pieter Bronckhorst Painter -1583. Portrait of James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625.Around 1603 John Critz Painter 1551-1642. Portrait of Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl of Southampton 1573-1624. The Latin inscription 'In vinculis invictus' ("in chains unconquered")In 1618 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl of Southampton 1573-1624.