History of St Albans

1290 Eleanor Crosses

1381 Peasant's Revolt

1447 Death of Humphrey of Lancaster

1461 Second Battle of St Albans

St Albans is in Hertfordshire.

Around 1192 Joan Nouwell 1192-1236 was born to Geoffrey Nouwell at St Albans.

Eleanor Crosses

On 12 Dec 1290 Eleanor of Castile (49) body rested at St Albans.

Peasant's Revolt

On 15 Jul 1381 John Ball 1338-1381 was hanged, drawn and quartered in St Albans in the presence of Richard II King England 1367-1400 (14).

Around Sep 1429 Richard Hankford 1397-1431 (32) was knighted at St Albans.

Second Battle of St Albans

On 17 Feb 1461 the Lancastrian army defeated the Yorkist army at Second Battle of St Albans and rescued Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (39). The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (30) and included Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (39), John Mowbray 3rd Duke Norfolk 1415-1461 (45), Henry Grey 4th or 7th Baron Grey Codnor 1435-1496 (26), Henry Roos -1504 and Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby de Eresby 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (33).
Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley 1427-1464 (33), William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme 1415-1464 (46), John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury 3rd Earl Waterford 1448-1473 (12) and Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 (41) were knighted.St Albans
The Yorkist army included Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (32), William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel 1417-1487 (43), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (61) and Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu 1st Earl Essex 1404-1483 (57). John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (30) was captured. Robert Poynings 1419-1461 (42) and James Luttrell Baron Dunster 1427-1461 (34) were killed.
John Grey 1432-1461 (29) was killed fighting for Lancaster. A death that was to have far reaching consequences; his widow Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (24) subsequently married Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18).

During the battle William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville 1392-1461 (68) and Thomas Kyriell 1396-1461 (65) were assigned to the protection of the King Henry VI (39). After the battle both were beheaded against all decent laws of battle.
William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville 1392-1461 (68) was beheaded. His great granddaughter Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset 1460-1529 succeeded 7th Baron Harington, 2nd Baron Bonville.
Thomas Kyriell 1396-1461 (65) was beheaded.

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Chronicle of Gregory 1461-1469. Ande the xvij day nexte folowynge Kyng Harry (39) roode to Synt Albonys, and the Duke of Northefolke (45) with hym, the Erle of Warwycke (32), the Erle of Arundelle (43), the Lorde Bouser (30), the Lorde Bonvyle (68), with many grete lordys, knyghtys, and squyers, and commyns of an C [Hundred] Mlmen. And there they hadde a grete batayle whythe the Quene (30), for she come ever on fro the jornaye of Wackefylde tylle sche come to Synt Albonys, with alle the lordys a fore sayde; and hyr mayny and every lorde ys men bare hyr lordys leverey, that every man myghte knowe hys owne feleschippe by hys lyverey. And be-syde alle that, every man and lorde bare the Pryncys (7) levery, that was a bende of crymesyn and blacke with esteryge ys fetherys. The substance that gate that fylde were howseholde men and feyd men. I wene there were not v Mlmen that fought in the Quenys party, for [t]emoste parte of Northeryn men fledde a-way, and sum were take and spoylyd owte of hyr harnysse by the way as they fledde. And sum of them robbyd evyr as they yede, a petyffulle thynge hit ys to hyre hit. But the day before that batayle there was a jornay at Dunstapyl; but the kyngys mayny lackyd good gydyng, for sum were but newe men of warre, for the chevyste captayne was a boucher of the same towne; and there were the kyngys mayny ovyr throughe only by the Northeryn men. And sone aftyr the bocher, for schame of hys sympylle gydynge and loste of the men, the nombyr of viij C, for very sorowe as hyt ys sayde, hynge hym selfe; and sum men sayde that hyt was for loste of hys goode, but dede he ys—God knowythe the trought.

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Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. 30 Jun 1528. R. O. St. P. I. 303. 4438. Hennege to Cardinal Thomas Wolsey 1473-1530 (55).
The King (37) begs you to be of good comfort, and do as he does. He is sorry that you are so far off, and thinks that if you were at St. Alban's you might every hour hear the one of the other, and his physicians attend upon you, should anything happen. News is come of the death of Sir Wm. Compton (46). Suits are made for his offices, and the King wishes to have a bill of them. All are in good health at the Court, and they that sickened on Sunday night are recovered. The King (37) is merry, and pleased with your "mynone house" here. Tuesday.
P.S.—I will not ask for any of those offices for myself, considering the little time I have been in the King's service. The King sent for Mr. Herytage today, to make a new window in your closet, because it is so little.

Around 1590 based on a work of around 1520.Unknown Painter. French. Portrait of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey 1473-1530.1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.

In 1560 Robert Wright Bishop 1560-1643 was born at St Albans.

John Evelyn's Diary 16 December 1685. 16 Dec 1685. I accompanied my Lord Lieutenant as far as St. Alban's, there going out of towne with him neere 200 coaches of all the greate officers and nobilitie. The next morning taking leave, I return'd to London.

John Evelyn's Diary 03 July 1688. 03 Jul 1688. I went with Dr. Godolphin (39) and his brother Sir William (48) to St. Alban's, to see a library he would have bought of the widow of Dr. Cartwright [NOTE. Assume Cartwright a typo for Carter], late Archdeacon of St. Alban's, a very good collection of books, especially in divinity; he was to give £300 for them. Having seen the GREAT CHURCH, now newly repaired by a public contribution, we returned home.

In 1815 Mildred Porteus 1744-1815 (70) died at St Albans.

Watling Street was a major Roman Road that travels from the Kent ports broadly north-west through London and St Albans to Viroconium Cornoviorum. Significant parts of Watling Street remain now being known as the A5.

Chronicle of Gregory 1461-1469. And in the myddys of the batayle Kynge Harry wente unto hys Quene and for-soke alle hys lordys, ande truste better to hyr party thenne unto hys owne lordys. And thenn thoroughe grete labur the Duke of Northefolke and the Erle of Warwycke a schapyd a-waye; the Byschoppe of Exceter, that tyme Chaunceler of Ingelond, and brother unto the Erle of Warwycke, the Lorde Bouser, whythe many othyr knyghtys, squyers, and comyns fledde, and many men slayne in bothe partys. And the Lorde Bonevyle was be-heddyd, the comyn sayynge that hys longage causyd hym to dye. The Prynce was jugge ys owne sylfe. Ande ther was slayne that manly knyght Syr Thomas Keryel. The nomber of ded men was xxxv C an moo [t]at were slayne. The lordys in Kyng Harrys party pycchyd a fylde and fortefyd hyt fulle stronge, and lyke unwyse men brake hyr raye and fyld and toke a-nothyr, and or that they were alle sette a buskyd to batayle, the Quenys parte was at hond whythe hem in towne of Synt Albonys, and then alle [t]yng was to seke and owte of ordyr, for hyr pryckyers come not home to bryng no tydyng howe ny that the Quene was, save one come and sayd that she was ix myle of. And ar the goners and borgeners couthe levylle hyr gonnys they were besely fyghtyng, and many a gynne of wer was ordaynyd that stode in lytylle a-vayle or nought; for the burgeners hadde suche instrumentys that wolde schute bothe pellettys of ledde and arowys of an elle of lenghthe with vj fetherys, iij in myddys and iij at the othyr ende, with a grete myghty hedde of yryn at the othyr ende, and wylde fyre with alle. Alle thes iij thyngys they myght schute welle and esely at onys, but in tyme of nede they couthe not schut not one of thes, but the fyre turnyd backe a-pon them that wold schute thys iij thyngys. Also they hadde nettys made of grete cordys of iiij fethem of lengthe and of iiij fote brode, lyke unto an haye, and at every ij knott there was an nayl stondyng uppe ryght, that there couthe no man passe ovyr hyt by lyckely hode but he shulde be hurte. Alle so they hadde pavysse bore as a dore i-made with a staffe foldynge uppe and downe to sette the pavys where the lykyd, and loupys with schyttyng wyndowys to schute owte at, they stondyng by hynde [t]e pavys, and the pavys as fulle of iijdnayle aftyr ordyr as they myght stonde. And whenn hyr schotte was spende and done they caste the pavysse by-fore hem, thenn there myght noo man come unto them ovyr the pavysse for the naylys that stode up-ryghte, but yf he wolde myschyffe hym sylfe. Alle so they hadde a thynge made lyke unto a latysse fulle of naylys as the net was, but hit wolde be mevyd as a man wolde; a man myght bryse hyt to-gedyr that the lengythe wolde be more then ij yerdys long, and yf he wolde he myght hale hyt a brode, thenn hit wolde be iiij square. And that servyd to lye at gappys there at horsemen wolde entyr yn, and many a caltrappe. And as the substaunce of men of worschyppe that wylle not glose nor cory favyl for no parcyallyte, they cowthe not undyrstond that alle thys ordenaunce dyd any goode or harme but yf hyt were a mong us in owre parte with Kyng Harry. There fore hyt ys moche lefte, and men take hem to mallys of ledde, bowys, swyrdys, gleyvys, and axys. As for speremen they ben good to ryde be-fore the foote men and ete and drynke uppe hyr vetayle, and many moo suche prety thyngys they doo, holde me excusyd thoughe I say the beste, for in the fote men ys alle the tryste.

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Bull Inn St Albans, Hertfordshire

Roger Whitley's Diary 1690 February. 06 Feb 1690. Thursday, severall people came to take leave of us (Tovey, Kent, Kenrick, brother &c). we took 3 coaches, set out past 8; stayd awhile at the Greene Man in Barnet; dined at Bull in St Albans; lay at the Sugar Loaf (the Crowne being full) at Dunstable.

Holywell House St Albans, Hertfordshire

On 05 Jun 1660 Sarah Jennings Duchess Marlborough 1660-1744 was born to Richard Jennings 1619-1668 (41) and Frances Thornhurst at Holywell House St Albans.

Before 24 May 1711 John Closterman Painter 1660-1711. Possibly school of. Portrait of Sarah Jennings Duchess Marlborough 1660-1744.Before 02 Nov 1739 Charles Jervas Painter 1675-1739. Portrait of Sarah Jennings Duchess Marlborough 1660-1744.

Old Gorhambury House St Albans, Hertfordshire

On 20 Feb 1579 Nicholas Bacon Lord Keeper 1510-1579 (68) died at Old Gorhambury House St Albans.

Unknown Painter. Posthumous portrait of Nicholas Bacon Lord Keeper 1510-1579.

Romeland, St Albans, Hertfordshire

3 Romeland, St Albans, Hertfordshire

On 23 Apr 1914 Edward Robert Hughes Painter 1851-1914 (62) died after an operation for appendicitis at his home 3 Romeland.

St Alban's Cathedral, St Albans, Hertfordshire

Flowers of History by Matthew of Westminster Volume 2 Chapter 1 1066 1087 The English being expelled by the Normans, are injuriously and wickedly treated. 24 Apr 1071. Lanfranc (66), abbot of Caen, was consecrated archbishop of Canterbury, on the twenty-fourth of April. And this Lanfranc, when archbishop, established the order of monks according to the rule of Saint Benedict in many of the convents of England. And he did so, first of all, in the church of Canterbury ; after that, in the church of Saint Alban, the protomartyr of the English, where also, when the abbot Frederic died, he appointed his [Lanfranc's] nephew Paul as his successor; who, relying on the support of his uncle (66), restored the church, and reformed the brotherhood, which had fallen into some irregularities.

Chronica Majora 1237 The emperor summons all the princes of Christendom. Before 24 Jun 1237. In the same year, the emperor Frederick (42), by special messengers and imperial letters, summoned all the great Christian princes of the world to assemble on the day of St. John the Baptist's nativity, at Vaucouleurs, which is on the confines, or near the confines, of the empire and the French kingdom, there to discuss some difficult matters concerning the empire as well as the kingdom. The king of France, as if entertaining suspicion of this conference, proceeded at the time fixed to the place appointed, attended by a large army, which he had assembled for the purpose, and thus set dreadful and pernicious example to others, inasmuch as he went to discuss matters of peace in the same way as he would to attack his enemies. The king of England (29) made reasonable excuses for not coming in person; but sent a peaceful embassy, consisting of some of the chief men of the kingdom; namely, Richard earl of Cornwall (28), his brother, with some other nobles, fit to manage a conference, under the guidance of the venerable archbishop of York (57) and the bishop of Ely, and other trustworthy persons selected for the purpose. The bishop of Winchester, although selected before all others, absolutely refused to go, and, not without reason, gave the following as the cause for excusing himself: " My lord king," said he " you lately laid a heavy complaint against me before the emperor, telling him that I, with some other nobles, disturbed your kingdom: whether you did this with justice, or unjustly, God knows; but I trust that I have saved my conscience in every respect. But if your words were now placed with confidence in my mouth and in your letters, and should declare that I was a familar and faithful friend of yours; all this would appear as contrary, and he would accuse both you and me of instability; and this would blacken your fame in a great degree. Therefore, because it would be manifestly to your dishonour, I will not go on any account." And in the opinion of many, this reply gave sufficient excuse for him. When all preparations had been made, and they were all ready to set sail on this journey, they were met by letters from the emperor, to say that he could not go to the conference then, as he had purposed; but that what he could not do then, should, by God's favour, be carried into effect on the Nativity of St. John the Baptist in the following year; and thus each and all of them returned without effecting anything. In this year, on the day of the Supper, the bishop of Hereford consecrated the holy unction in the church of St. Albans. About this time, too, John Scott (30), earl of Chester, closed his life about Whitsuntide, having been poisoned by the agency of his wife (19), the daughter of Llewellyn (65). The life of the bishop of Lincoln (69), too, was also attempted by the same means, and he was with difficulty recalled from the gates of death. In the same year, in the week before Whitsuntide, there fell storms of hail which exceeded the size of apples, killing the sheep; and they were followed by continued rain.

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Death of Humphrey of Lancaster

On 20 Feb 1447 Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester 1390-1447 (56) was arrested on a charge of treason by John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont 1409-1460 (37), Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham 1402-1460 (44), Edmund Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (41), Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (47) and Ralph Boteler 6th Baron Sudeley 1389-1473 (58).
On 23 Feb 1447 Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester 1390-1447 (56) died at Bury St Edmunds. He was possibly poisoned although more likely he died from a stroke. He was buried at St Alban's Cathedral. His death left England with no heir to the throne in a direct line. Richard 3rd Duke York (35) became heir presumptive until the birth of Edward of Westinster Prince of Wales 1453-1471 six years later.

After 22 May 1455 Thomas Clifford 8th Baron Clifford 1414-1455 was buried at St Alban's Cathedral.

After 22 May 1455 Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland 1393-1455 was buried at St Alban's Cathedral.

On 09 Aug 1683 Edward Carter Archdeacon -1688 was appointed Archdeacon St Albans.

John Evelyn's Diary 03 July 1688. 03 Jul 1688. I went with Dr. Godolphin (39) and his brother Sir William (48) to St. Alban's, to see a library he would have bought of the widow of Dr. Cartwright [NOTE. Assume Cartwright a typo for Carter], late Archdeacon of St. Alban's, a very good collection of books, especially in divinity; he was to give £300 for them. Having seen the GREAT CHURCH, now newly repaired by a public contribution, we returned home.

On 29 Apr 1905 Edmund Beckett 1st Baron Grimthorpe 1816-1905 (88) died after a fall. He was buried at St Alban's Cathedral. His nephew Ernest William Becket 2nd Baron Grimthorpe 1856-1917 (48) succeeded 2nd Baron Grimthorpe, 6th Baronet Beckett of Leeds.

St Albans School, Hertfordshire

Around 1805 Aubrey Spencer Bishop Newfoundland Bishop Jamaica 1795-1872 (9) educated at St Albans School.

Tyttenhanger St Albans, Hertfordshire

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. 21 Jul 1528. R.O. St. P.I. 321. 4536. Duke of Richmond (9) to Henry VIII (37).
I have received two of your letters, dated Tittenhanger, the 10th, desiring the preferment of Sir Giles Strangwisshe (42) and Sir Edw. Seymer, master of my horse, to rooms vacant by the death of Sir Wm. Compton (46). I send a list of the offices and the fees appertaining. I presume you mean that one of the said gentlemen is to be preferred to the stewardship of Canforde.
It was signified to me by the Cardinal that it was your pleasure, when any office fell vacant, that I should dispose of it, considering the great number of my servants who have no other reward. Hearing, then, that the stewardship of my lands in Dorset and Somerset shires was void, I have disposed of one of them to Sir Wm. Parre, and the other to Geo. Coton, who attends upon me. Sheriffhutton, 21 July. Signed.

Tyttenhanger House St Albans, Tyttenhanger St Albans, Hertfordshire

On 26 May 1858 Elizabeth Lindsay Countess Hardwicke 1763-1858 (94) died at Tyttenhanger House St Albans.

Verlamion, St Albans, Hertfordshire

20BC. Verlamion was an Iron Age settlement of the Catuvellauni.

Verulamium, St Albans, Hertfordshire

Around 50AD the Roman settlement of Verulamium was granted the rank of municipium.

Watling Street 1d Marble Arch to St Albans. From Marble Arch Watling Street continues north-west along the Edgeware Road, Maida Vale, Cricklewood, Sulloniacis, Radlett, Park Street to Verulamium aka St Albans.

Watling Street 1e St Albans to Towcester. From Verulamium aka St Albans Watling Street continues north-west through Redbourn, Friars Wash, Durocobrivis, Hockcliffe, Little Brick Hill, Kelly's Kitchen Roundabout, Magiovinium aka Dropshort, Stony Stratford and Lactodorum.