History of St James' Square

St James' Square is in St James'.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 02 April 1661. 02 Apr 1661. Among my workmen early and then along with my wife and Pall to my Father's by coach there to have them lie a while till my house be done. I found my mother alone weeping upon my last night's quarrel and so left her, and took my wife to Charing Cross and there left her to see her mother who is not well. So I into St. James's Park, where I saw the Duke of York (27) playing at Pelemele1, the first time that ever I saw the sport. Then to my Lord's, where I dined with my Lady, and after we had dined in comes my Lord and Ned Pickering (43) hungry, and there was not a bit of meat left in the house, the servants having eat up all, at which my Lord was very angry, and at last got something dressed.

1. The game was originally played in the road now styled Pall Mall, near St. James's Square, but at the Restoration when sports came in fashion again the street was so much built over, that it became necessary to find another ground. The Mall in St. James's Park was then laid out for the purpose.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King James II when Duke of York. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II wearing his Garter Robes. Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of King James II.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 02 September 1663. 02 Sep 1663. Up betimes and to my office, and thence with Sir J. Minnes (64) by coach to White Hall, where met us Sir W. Batten (62), and there staid by the Council Chamber till the Lords called us in, being appointed four days ago to attend them with an account of the riott among the seamen the other day, when Sir J. Minnes (64) did as like a coxcomb as ever I saw any man speak in my life, and so we were dismissed, they making nothing almost of the matter.

We staid long without, till by and by my Lord Mayor (48) comes, who also was commanded to be there, and he having, we not being within with him, an admonition from the Lords to take better care of preserving the peace, we joyned with him, and the Lords having commanded Sir J. Minnes (64) to prosecute the fellows for the riott, we rode along with my Lord Mayor (48) in his coach to the Sessions House in the Old Bayley, where the Sessions are now sitting. Here I heard two or three ordinary tryalls, among others one (which, they say, is very common now-a-days, and therefore in my now taking of mayds I resolve to look to have some body to answer for them) a woman that went and was indicted by four names for entering herself a cookemayde to a gentleman that prosecuted her there, and after 3 days run away with a silver tankard, a porringer of silver, and a couple of spoons, and being now found is found guilty, and likely will be hanged.

By and by up to dinner with my Lord Mayor and the Aldermen, and a very great dinner and most excellent venison, but it almost made me sick by not daring to drink wine.

After dinner into a withdrawing room; and there we talked, among other things, of the Lord Mayor's sword. They tell me this sword, they believe, is at least a hundred or two hundred years old; and another that he hath, which is called the Black Sword, which the Lord Mayor wears when he mournes, but properly is their Lenten sword to wear upon Good Friday and other Lent days, is older than that.

Thence I, leaving Sir J. Minnes (64) to look after his indictment drawing up, I home by water, and there found my wife mightily pleased with a present of shells, fine shells given her by Captain Hickes, and so she and I up and look them over, and indeed they are very pleasant ones.

By and by in comes Mr. Lewellin, lately come from Ireland, to see me, and he tells me how the English interest falls mightily there, the Irish party being too great, so that most of the old rebells are found innocent, and their lands, which were forfeited and bought or given to the English, are restored to them; which gives great discontent there among the English.

He being gone, I to my office, where late, putting things in order, and so home to supper and to bed. Going through the City, my Lord Mayor (48) told me how the piller set up by Exeter House is only to show where the pipes of water run to the City; and observed that this City is as well watered as any city in the world, and that the bringing the water to the City hath cost it first and last above £300,000; but by the new building, and the building of St. James's by my Lord St. Albans (58)1, which is now about (and which the City stomach I perceive highly, but dare not oppose it), were it now to be done, it would not be done for a million of money.

1. It was at this time that the Earl of St. Albans (58) planned St. James's Square, which was first styled "The Piazza". The "Warrant for a grant to Baptist May and Abraham Cowley (45) on nomination of the Earl of St. Albans of several parcels of ground in Pall Mall described, on rental of £80, for building thereon a square of 13 or 14 great and good houses", was dated September 24th, 1664.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of John Mennes Comptroller 1599-1671. Around 1662 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of John Robinson Lord Mayor of London 1st Baronet 1615-1680. Around 1667 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Abraham Cowley Poet 1618-1667.

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In Aug 1673 Henry Fitzjames 1st Duke Albemarle 1673-1702 was born illegitimately to King James II (39) and Arabella Churchill 1648-1730 (25) at St James' Square.

In Oct 1673 Mary "Moll" Davis Actor 1648-1708 (25) bought a house in St James' Square paying £1800.

Around 1655 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Mary

In Jan 1684 Henry Jermyn 1st Earl St Albans 1605-1684 (78) died at St James' Square. His nephew Thomas Jermyn 2nd Baron Jermyn 1633-1703 (50) succeeded 2nd Baron Jermyn of St Edmundsbury in Suffolk. Mary Merry Baroness Jermyn by marriage Baroness Jermyn of St Edmundsbury in Suffolk. His nephew Thomas Jermyn 2nd Baron Jermyn 1633-1703 (50) succeeded 2nd Baron Jermyn of St Edmundsbury in Suffolk.

John Evelyn's Diary 13 November 1695. 13 Nov 1695. Famous fireworks and very chargeable, the King (45) being returned from his progress. He stayed seven or eight days at Lord Sunderland's (54) at Althorpe, where he was mightily entertained. These fireworks were shown before Lord Romney (54), Master of the Ordnance, in St. James's great square, where the King (45) stood.

Around 1680 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 wearing his Garter Collar.

On 12 Oct 1709 Anne Hamilton 1709-1748 was born to James Hamilton 4th Duke Hamilton 1st Duke Brandon 1658-1712 (51) and Elizabeth Gerard Duchess Brandon 1680-1743 (29) in St James' Square. He was named after his godmother Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714 (44). His other godparents were John Churchill 1st Duke Marlborough 1650-1722 (59) and Charles Spencer 3rd Earl of Sunderland 1675-1722 (34).

In 1703 John Closterman Painter 1660-1711. Portrait of Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714. Before 24 May 1711 John Closterman Painter 1660-1711. Possibly school of. Portrait of Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714. In 1686 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714. Around 1705. Michael Dahl Painter 1659-1743. Portrait of Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714. Before 24 May 1711 John Closterman Painter 1660-1711. Portrait of John Churchill 1st Duke Marlborough 1650-1722. Before 24 May 1711 John Closterman Painter 1660-1711. Portrait of John Churchill 1st Duke Marlborough 1650-1722 known as The Triumph of the John, 1st Duke of Marlborough. In 1702. Michael Dahl Painter 1659-1743. Portrait of John Churchill 1st Duke Marlborough 1650-1722. Before 1744 Enoch

On 10 Jul 1722 Esther de la Tour du Pin Marquise de Gouvernet -1722 died at her home in St James' Square.

Records of the Lumleys of Lumley Castle Chapter X The Second Earl His Tragic Death. We know nothing more of Lord Scarbrough (53) till his tragic death. The first account of this is quoted from William Ernst's "Memoirs of Lord Chesterfield," published in 1893: "At the beginning of the year 1740 Lord Chesterfield (45) had the misfortune to lose one of his earliest and dearest friends, Richard, Earl of Scarborough (53), who died by his own hand on the 29th January. Writing on the 15th February to the Rev. Dr. Chenevix, who had been, on the recommendation of Lord Scarborough, his chaplain at the Hague, Lord Chesterfield says: 'We have both lost a friend in Scarborough; nobody can replace him to me; I wish I could replace him to you; but as things stand, I see no great hopes of it.'"

Horace Walpole (22), younger brother of the Minister, writing to Robert Trevor on February 1st-12th, 1739-40, says: "During the debate about 8 o'clock Sir Thomas Saunderson and Lord Chesterfield who attended us were sent for out of the House, on account as it was immediately rumoured of Lord Scarbrough's being dead or at the extremity by a fit of an apoplexy; but the next morning the various accounts that had been given late the night before to those who sent or came to know how he did, the great caution taken not to let anybody into the house, not even his nearest relations, and other circumstances, gave an occasion to extraordinary surmises about the nature of his death, and nobody cared to talk about it but by whispers. The silence and caution continues still, but tete-a-tete among friends I believe nobody doubts his having been his own executioner, and it is said he did it with a pistol clapt so close to his mouth, that it did not make a great noise, at least it did not alarm the house, nor did the bullet go through his head. He had been out that morning, had dined at home alone had ordered his chair to carry him at six in the afternoon to Lady Harvey's to spend the evening, and bespoke his own supper; and his not calling to go out his valet de chambre went into his room and found him stone dead and cold. I believe this is a true account, but I must beg you not to mention it.... His will has been opened having not been made above a fortnight since and left in Sir Thomas Saunderson's custody, who 'tis said is greatly disappointed, for all the Scarbrough estate he has left to Mr. James Lumley (34), his youngest brother, charging it with; £20,000 to Sir Thomas Sanderson." After other details already given he concludes thus: " The said Mr. Lumley is made sole executor and has the absolute disposal of the whole estate besides, both real and personal."

The next account given is from Dr. Maty's " Memoirs," p. 94: Lord Chesterfield "wished that all mention were dropped of past jealousies, since it now appeared that the division had not been between one party and another, but between the whole nation and the ministry. But, though he was supported in these sentiments by the earl of Scarborough, as well as by the dukes of Argyle and Bedford, he could not succeed in his endeavours, and this disappointment proved a fatal omen of what was to happen during the remainder of the session.

"Lord Scarborough's conduct, in this as well as in all other debates, cannot but inspire us with the most exalted ideas of his candor, delicacy and moderation. Strongly attached by principle to the government, and by inclination to the king, he supported the ministry a long time against the efforts of those he was most intimately connected with, and lived for many years upon the best terms both with Sir Robert Walpole and with Lord Chesterfield. [Note — As Sir Robert's and lord Chesterfield's houses were situated opposite to each other in St. James's Square, lord Scarborough was often seen going directly from the friend to the minister; and such was the opinion entertained by both of his integrity, that he never met on this account with the least controul or censure from either.) Forced at last by conviction to deviate from his former course, and to express his disapprobation of the late public measures, he did it with a becoming frankness and generosity, wishing earnestly to reconcile both parties at this interesting period and to unite them against the common enemies of their country. This attempt, however, was ill received; heads of parties seldom allow a latitude of thinking, and in affairs of state, still more than in matters of religion, intolerance is by every side disavowed, but too constantly practised by all.]

"Unfortunately a nobleman equally beloved by the nation and by his friends could not long resist the struggle between his former engagements and his present feelings. A turn to melancholy, which shewed itself in his countenance, joined to an ill state of health [Note — He had two shocks of apoplexy or palsy, which, in the opinion of lord Chesterfield, considerably affected his body and his mind], hurried him to an act of violence upon himself. The morning of the day on which he accomplished this resolution, he paid a long visit to lord Chesterfield, and opened himself to him with great earnestness on many subjects. As he appeared somewhat discomposed, his friend pressed him in vain to stay and dine with him; which he refused, but most tenderly embraced him at parting. It happened in the course of the conversation that something was spoken of which related to Sir William Temple's negociations, when the two friends not agreeing about the circumstances, lord Chesterfield, whose memory was at all times remarkably good, referred lord Scarborough to the page of Sir William's memoirs where the matter was mentioned. After his lordship's death, [Note — His body found surrounded with several books, which he had brought into the room, and piled about him, with the pistol in his mouth,] the book was found open at that very page. Thus he seems in his last moments to have been still attentive to his friend, and desirous that he should know he was so. This fatal catastrophe was universally lamented, tenderly censured, and entirely excused by those who considered the unaccountable effects of natural evils upon the human mind. But what must lord Chesterfield's situation have been upon his being informed of this unfortunate event? His excellent lady does not even now without the greatest emotion speak of the manner in which his lordship, on her return home at night, acquainted her with his loss of that amiable nobleman; and he ever after lamented that he did not detain him at his house, saying he might perhaps have been saved, if he had not been left to himself that day. [Note — I have sufficient authority to contradict the reports that were spread about the cause of this fatal resolution. The friend who knew him best, considered it merely as the effect of some distemper. Suicide never had an advocate in lord Chesterfield, but he was temperate in his censures, and ready to make allowances for it."]

Dr. Maty has take the kinder way to consider the tragedy, but it is to be feared that the reports may have been correct. Both sides of the question are given in Elwin's edition of Pope's works. In "1740, a Poem" (line 78), Pope says:

Before 1723 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of Richard Lumley 2nd Earl Scarborough 1686-1740. 1742. William Hoare 1707-1792. Portrait of Philip Stanhope 4th Earl Chesterfield 1694-1773. Before 28 May 1745 Johnathan Around 1745 George Knapton 1698-1778. Portrait of Philip Stanhope 4th Earl Chesterfield 1694-1773. In 1730 John Vanderbank Painter 1694-1739. Portrait of Philip Stanhope 4th Earl Chesterfield 1694-1773 in his Garter Robes 1752. Arthur Devis 1712-1787. Portrait of Joshua Vanneck 1st Baronet 1701-1777 and Family. Sitters believed to be left to right: Joshua Vanneck 1st Baronet 1701-1777, Mrs. de la Mont (likely his sister), Henry Uthoff (Anna Maria's husband), Gerard (son), Gertrude (daughter, with telescope), Joshua (son, on ground), Margaret (youngest daughter, on ground), Anna Mara, Elizabeth (eldest daughter), and Thomas Walpole (Elizabeth's husband and cousin of Horace Walpole).

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On 03 Oct 1767 Alexander Hamilton 10th Duke Hamilton 7th Duke Brandon 1767-1852 was born to Archibald Hamilton 9th Duke Hamilton 6th Duke Brandon 1740-1819 (27) and Harriet Stewart Duchess Hamilton Duchess Brandon -1788 at St James' Square.

On 23 Dec 1779 Augustus John Hervey 3rd Earl Bristol 1724-1779 (55) died due to a gout in the stomach in St James' Square. His brother Frederick Augustus Hervey 4th Earl Bristol 1730-1803 (49) succeeded 4th Earl Bristol 2C 1714. Elizabeth Davers Countess Bristol 1733-1800 (46) by marriage Countess Bristol.

In 1767 Thomas Gainsborough 1727-1788. Portrait of Augustus John Hervey 3rd Earl Bristol 1724-1779. In 1770 Joshua Reynolds 1723-1788. Portrait of Augustus John Hervey 3rd Earl Bristol 1724-1779. Around 1766 Johan Joseph Zoffany 1733-1810. Portrait of Frederick Augustus Hervey 4th Earl Bristol 1730-1803. In 1790 Élisabeth Louise Vigée Le Brun Painter 1755-1842. Portrait of Frederick Augustus Hervey 4th Earl Bristol 1730-1803. Around 1805. Hugh Douglas Hamilton 1740-1808. Portrait of Frederick Augustus Hervey 4th Earl Bristol 1730-1803.

On 05 May 1783 George Cadogan 3rd Earl Cadogan 1783-1864 was born to Charles Sloane Cadogan 1st Earl Cadogan 1728-1807 (54) and Mary Churchill Countess Cadogan 1758- (25) in St James' Square.

On 23 Mar 1789 Thomas Osborne 4th Duke Leeds 1713-1789 (75) died at St James' Square. He was buried at the Osborne Family Chapel at All Hallows' Church Harthill. His son Francis Osborne 5th Duke Leeds 1751-1799 (38) succeeded 5th Duke Leeds. Catherine Anguish Duchess Leeds 1764-1837 (25) by marriage Duchess Leeds.

Around 1769 Benjamin West 1738-1820. Portrait of Francis Osborne 5th Duke Leeds 1751-1799.

On 21 Oct 1816 William Lygon 1st Earl Beauchamp 1747-1816 (69) died at St James' Square. His son William Lygon 2nd Earl Beauchamp 1783-1823 (33) succeeded 2nd Earl Beauchamp.

On 28 Mar 1898 George Byng 3rd Earl Strafford 1830-1898 (68) died at St James' Square. His brother Henry Byng 4th Earl Strafford 1831-1899 (66) succeeded 4th Earl Strafford 3C 1847, 4th Viscount Enfield of Enfield in Middlesex, 4th Baron Strafford of Harmondsworth in Middlesex. Henrietta Louisa Elizabeth Danneskiold Samsøe Countess Strafford 1836-1880 (62) by marriage Countess Strafford.

10 St James' Square, Westminster

On 02 Jul 1839 Ralph King Milbanke 2nd Earl of Lovelace 1839-1906 was born to William King Noel 1st Earl Lovelace 1805-1893 (34) and Augusta Ada Byron Countess Lovelace 1815-1852 (23) at 10 St James' Square.

Around 1836. Margaret Sarah Carpenter 1793-1872. Portrait of Augusta Ada Byron Countess Lovelace 1815-1852.

23 St James' Square, Westminster

On 04 Apr 1865 Edward George Villiers Stanley 17th Earl Derby 1865-1948 was born to Frederick Arthur Stanley 16th Earl Derby 1841-1908 (24) and Constance Villiers Countess Derby 1840-1922 (25) at 23 St James' Square.

Cleveland House Number 16 St James' Square, Westminster

John Evelyn's Diary 04 December 1679. 04 Dec 1679. I dined, together with Lord Ossory (45) and the Earl of Chesterfield (45), at the Portugal Ambassador's (53), now newly come, at Cleveland House, a noble palace, too good for that infamous.... [Note. Probably a reference to Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 (39)] The staircase is sumptuous, and the gallery and garden; but, above all, the costly furniture belonging to the Ambassador, especially the rich Japan cabinets, of which I think there were a dozen. There was a billiard table, with as many more hazards as ours commonly have; the game being only to prosecute the ball till hazarded, without passing the port, or touching the pin; if one miss hitting the ball every time, the game is lost, or if hazarded. It is more difficult to hazard a ball, though so many, than in our table, by reason the bound is made so exactly even, and the edges not stuffed; the balls are also bigger, and they for the most part use the sharp and small end of the billiard stick, which is shod with brass, or silver. The entertainment was exceedingly civil; but, besides a good olio, the dishes were trifling, hashed and condited after their way, not at all fit for an English stomach, which is for solid meat. There was yet good fowls, but roasted to coal, nor were the sweetmeats good.

Before 07 Nov 1666. William Faithorne Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 and her son Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton as Madonna and Child. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. One of the Windsor Beauties. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1690 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709.

On 21 Aug 1891 Harry George Powlett 4th Duke Cleveland 1803-1891 (88) died at Cleveland House Number 16 St James' Square. Duke Cleveland 2C 1833 extinct. His third cousin once removed Henry de Vere Vane 9th Baron Barnard 1854-1918 (37) succeeded 9th Baron Barnard. Catherine Sarah Cecil Baroness Barnard 1861-1918 (30) by marriage Baroness Barnard.

Before 1891. George Frederick Watts 1817-1904. Portrait of Harry George Powlett 4th Duke Cleveland 1803-1891.

Norfolk House St James' Square, Westminster

On 04 Jun 1738 King George III was born to Frederick Louis Hanover Prince of Wales 1707-1751 (31) and Augusta Saxe Coburg Altenburg 1719-1772 (18) at Norfolk House St James' Square. He a grandson of King George II of Great Britain and Ireland 1683-1760.

In 1782 Thomas Gainsborough 1727-1788. Portrait of King George III. In 1781 Thomas Gainsborough 1727-1788. Portrait of King George III. In 1781 Thomas Gainsborough 1727-1788. Portrait of King George III. In 1782 Thomas Gainsborough 1727-1788. Portrait of King George III. Around 1768. Nathaniel Dance Holland Painter 1735-1811. Portrait of King George III. In 1804. Samuel Woodford Painter 1763-1817. Portrait of King George III. Around 1800. William Beechey 1753-1839. Portrait of King George III. Around 1762. Allan Ramsay 1713-1784. Portrait of King George III. In 1754 Jean Etienne Liotard Painter 1702-1789. Portrait of King George III. In 1750 Thomas Hudson Painter 1701-1779. Portrait of Frederick Louis Hanover Prince of Wales 1707-1751. In 1754 Jean Etienne Liotard Painter 1702-1789. Portrait of Frederick Louis Hanover Prince of Wales 1707-1751. Around 1750 Thomas Hudson Painter 1701-1779 (attributed). Portrait of Augusta Saxe Coburg Altenburg 1719-1772.

On 22 Mar 1886 Augusta Mary Minna Catherine Lyons Duchess Norfolk (64) died at Norfolk House St James' Square. She was buried at the Fitzalan Chapel Arundel Castle.

Warren's Hotel St James' Square, Westminster

On 08 Jan 1811 Ernest Brudenell Bruce 3rd Marquess Ailesbury 1811-1886 was born to Charles Brudenell 1st Marquess Ailesbury 1773-1856 (37) and Henrietta Maria Hill -1831 at Warren's Hotel St James' Square.

Before 28 Jan 1839. William Beechey 1753-1839. Portrait of Charles Brudenell 1st Marquess Ailesbury 1773-1856.