History of St Paul's Cathedral Churchyard

1486 Marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth York

1554 Wyatt's Rebellion

1605 Gunpowder Plot

St Paul's Cathedral Churchyard is in Castle Baynard.

Marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth York

Vatican Regesta Vol. DCLXXXV Secretarum Tomus IV 2 Innocent VIII. 10 Kal. Aug. Decree, at the petition of king Henry (29) and queen Elizabeth (20), that a notarial copy of the process before James, bishop of Imola (7), Apostolic Nuncio with the power of a legate de latere, in regard to the dispensation granted by him to them to contract marriage, notwithstanding the impediment arising from their being related in the double fourth degree of kindred, shall have the same credence as the original letters of the said bishop (7). The Pope (54) exemplifies the said letters and process as follows:

Public instrument, setting forth that in the year of the Incarnation 1486, after the computation of the English church, the 4th indiction, anno 2 Innocent VIII [16 Jan 1486], in the chapel of St. Mary [the Virgin] on the east side of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London, before James, bishop of Imola (7), apostolic legate to England and Scotland, in presence of the below-written notaries public, appointed by the said bishop as scribes in the below-written matter of dispensation, and witnesses below-named, there appeared in person Master Robert Morton (51), Archdeacon of Winchester, and John de Giglis, I.U.D., as proctors of king Henry (29), and Richard Hill, dean of the chapel of the household of the said king, and David William, doctor of decrees, dean of St. Mary's Arches, London, as proctors of the lady Elizabeth (20), eldest daughter of the late king Edward IV (44), who produced their mandates of procuration and presented to the said legate a schedule of petition on behalf of the said king and lady, praying him to dispense them to marry, notwithstanding the impediment of their relationship in the fourth and fourth degrees of kindred, as was specified by the said Master Robert Morton (51).

The said instrument exemplifies the said procurations and schedule, as follows:

(i) A public instrument, setting forth that in the year of the Incarnation, etc., 1486, the 4th indiction, anno 2 Innocent VIII, January 14, in a certain great chamber within the palace royal at Westminster, before Thomas, archbishop of York (62) and legate of the apostolic see, John, bishop of Worcester (56), chancellor of England, and Jasper duke of Bedford (54), and many other nobles and magnates, in the presence of me, Richard Spencer, notary public below-written, the said king (29), present in person, appointed Masters John de Giglis, I.U.D., and Robert Morton (51), master or keeper of the rolls of the chancery of the said king, as his proctors to appear before the said bishop and legate (who, as is said, has faculty from the apostolic see to dispense a certain number of persons related in the fourth and fourth degrees of kindred and affinity to contract marriage), and to request him to exhibit, etc., the said letters, and execute them in accordance with the desire of the said king, etc. Of all which things, done on the above date and in the above place, in the presence of the above-named witnesses and of Richard Spencer, clerk, of the diocese of Lincoln, notary public by apostolic and imperial authorities, registrar-principal of the court of Canterbury, and keeper of the registers of the same court, the said notary has made the present public instrument, and, being otherwise engaged, has caused it to be written by another, and has published and drawn it up in this public form, and has signed it with his wonted sign and name;.

(ii) A like public instrument, setting forth that on the same date as in the preceding, and in a certain chamber within the royal palace of Westminster, before John, bishop of Worcester, chancellor of England (56), John lord de Wellys (36), Master William Smyth, dean of the chapel royal of Wymbourn in the diocese of Salisbury, and other witnesses, in the presence of the above notary, Richard Spencer, the above lady Elizabeth (20), present in person, appointed Masters Richard Hill, dean of the chapel of the king's household, and David William, doctor of decrees, dean of St. Mary's Arches, London, and commissary-general of the official of the court of Canterbury and president of the said court, in the absence of the said official, as her proctors to appear, etc., as in the preceding. Of all which things, done on the above date and in the above place, in the presence of the abovenamed witnesses and of … Richard Spencer, clerk, etc., as above, the said notary has made, written, subscribed, published, and drawn up in this public form the present public instrument, and has signed it with his wonted sign and name;.

(iii) The petition to James, bishop of Imola (7), apostolic legate to England and Scotland, on behalf of the most serene prince and lord, the lord Henry (29), by the grace of God king of England and France and lord of Ireland, of the one part, and of the most illustrious (clarissime) lady, the lady Elizabeth (20), eldest legitimate and natural daughter of the late Edward, sometime king of England and France and lord of Ireland, of the other part, setting forth that whereas the said king Henry has by God's providence won his realm of England, and is in peaceful possession thereof, and has been asked by all the lords of his realm, both spiritual and temporal, and also by the general council of the said realm, called Parliament, to take the said lady Elizabeth to wife, he, wishing to accede to the just petitions of his subjects, desires to take the said lady to wife, but cannot do so without dispensation, inasmuch as they are related in the fourth and fourth degrees of kindred, wherefore petition is made on their behalf to the said legate to grant them dispensation by his apostolic authority to contract marriage and remain therein, notwithstanding the said impediment of kindred, and to decree the offspring to be born thereof legitimate.

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525 is believed to have painted the portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Around 1675 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500.

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Wyatt's Rebellion

Diary of Henry Machyn February 1554. 06 Feb 1544. The sam day was ij hangyd apon a jebett in Powles churche yerd; the on a spy of Wyatt (23), the thodur was under-shreyff of Leseter, for carryng letturs of the duke of Suffoke (27) and odur thinges.

Around 1550 based on a work of around 1540.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Thomas Wyatt 1521-1554.

Chronicle of Greyfriars King Edward VI. 19 Feb 1552. Item the xix. day of February was a man slayne within Powlles churcheyerde.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 10 Jun 1554. 10 Jun 1554. The xth of June, beinge Sundaye, an handgun was shott of neare to Paules Churchyeard in the sermon tyme, the pellett hittinge the churche wall next where the Lord Mayre satt and after fell on a mans shoulder, and taken up and delyvered to the Lord Mayre; and after the sermon was done, searche was made all about the precinct of Paules in everie howse, but no knowledge could be fownd but that a gonne was shott in Foster Lane neare St. Fausters Churche. But the partie that shott it (by reporte) fleed, and within vi dayes after was taken and examined afore the Lord Mayre and sent to prison, and divers witnesse allso examined for the same, which agreed not one with another, and the partie allso himselfe denieinge that he shott anye, nor no gun could be founde in the howsse that the reporte was spoken where it should be shott. So that after x or xii dayes imprisonment he was bayled upon suerties, and bound to be forthcomminge at all tymes when he should be sent for; and so was discharged out of warde.

Diary of Henry Machyn December 1554. 01 Dec 1554. The furst day of Desember was bered in Powlles chyrche-yerd Recherd Wethers penter [painter], the wyche he ded with-in Ludgat as a presoner, and he was a proper man and a conyng man as any ys now.

Diary of Henry Machyn January 1560. 09 Jan 1560. The ix day of January was sessyons in the Old Bayle, keft for one Wylliam North and ys man for the kyllyng of on master Wynborne with-owt the west dore of Powlles, be-syd master Harpfeld('s) howse, and ther they wher cast by the xij [12] men to be hangyd in Powlles chyrche-yerd by that plasse wher he was kyllyd.

Diary of Henry Machyn January 1560. 10 Jan 1560. The x day of January in the mornyng was a nuwe payre of galows sett up with-owtt the west dore of Powlles, and be-twyne ix and x of the cloke a-for none wher Wylliam North and ys man browth thether by the ij shreyffes, and ther hangyd boyth tyll iiij at after-non; and so the hangman cutt them downe, and cared (them) in-to sant Gregore chyrche-yerd, and ther was a grayff [grave] mad, and so they wher strypyd of all, and tumbelyd nakyd in-to the grayff, in the corner of the est syd of the chyrche-yerde.... ... abowt a xij of the [clock] .... gentyll-man with-in the Whyt frers ...

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1560. 12 Mar 1560. The tuwsday the xij day of Marche was slayne in Powlles chyrche-yerd on master Bodeley a gentyll-man of the Tempull by on of master Alcokes servands, wher he supyd the sam nyght, at the constabulle('s) howse of sant Martens the Sanctuarij.

Diary of Henry Machyn November 1560. 14 Nov 1560. The xiiij day of November was kyllyd in Powlles chyrche-yerde a hossear [hosier] by on Necolles a tayller.

Diary of Henry Machyn October 1561. 29 Oct 1561. The xxix day of October the nuw mare toke ys barge towhard Westmynster my nuw lorde mare master Harper (65), with the althermen in ther skarlett, and all the craftes of London in ther leverey, and ther barges with ther baners and streamers of evere occupasyon('s) armes; and ther was a goodly foist mad with stremars, targatts, and banars, and [arms], and grett shutyng of gunes and trumpettes blohyng; and at xij of the cloke my lord mare and the althermen landyd at Powlles warffe, and so to Powlles chyrche-yarde, and ther met ym a pagantt gorgyously mad [made], with chylderyn, with dyvers instrumentes playng and syngyng; and after-non to Powlles with trumpetes, and ther wher a (blank) men in bluw gownes and capes [caps] and hose and bluw saten slevys, and with targetts and shyldes of armes.

Diary of Henry Machyn December 1561. 15 Dec 1561. The sam day was a pelere sett up in Powlles chyrche-yerd agaynst the byshope('s) plase for a man that mayd a fray in Powlles chyrche, and ys ere [ear] nayllyd to the post, and after cutt off, for a fray in Powlles chyrche.

Diary of Henry Machyn October 1562. 29 Oct 1562. The xxix day of October the nuw mare (53) [went by] water unto Westmynster, and all the althermen and the craftes of London in barges deckyd with stremars, [and there] was a goodly fuste [feast] decked with stremars and banars, with drumes, trumpetes, and gones to Westmynster playce [palace], [where] he toke ys oythe, and so home to Beynard castylle, [and] with all the artheralthmen; and in Powlles chyrcheyerd ther mett (him) all the bachelars in cremesun damaske hodes, with drumes and flutes and trumpettes blohyng, and a lx powre men in bluw gownes and red capes [caps], and with targettes and jaffelyns [and] grett standardes, and iiij grett banars of armes and ... and after a goodly pagantt with goodly musyke plahyng; and to Yeld-halle to dener, for ther dynyd mony of the consell and all the juges and mony nobull men and women; and after dener the mare and all the althermen yede to Powlles with all musyke.

Gunpowder Plot

On 30 Jan 1606 Everard Digby 1578-1606 (28) and Robert Wintour 1568-1606 (38) were hanged, drawn and quartered at Old St Paul's Cathedral Churchyard

On 31 Jan 1606 at Old St Paul's Cathedral Churchyard Thomas Wintour 1571-1606 (35) and Guy Fawkes 1570-1606 (35) were hanged, drawn and quartered.

On 03 May 1606 Henry Garnet Jesuit 1555-1606 (50) was hanged in St Paul's Cathedral Churchyard.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 10 December 1663. 10 Dec 1663. Up, pretty well, the weather being become pretty warm again, and to the office, where we sat all the morning, and I confess having received so lately a token from Mrs. Russell, I did find myself concerned for our not buying some tallow of her (which she bought on purpose yesterday most unadvisedly to her great losse upon confidence of putting it off to us). So hard it is for a man not to be warped against his duty and master's interest that receives any bribe or present, though not as a bribe, from any body else. But she must be contented, and I to do her a good turn when I can without wrong to the King's service.

Then home to dinner (and did drink a glass of wine and beer, the more for joy that this is the shortest day in the year, [Old Style] which is a pleasant consideration) with my wife. She in bed but pretty well, and having a messenger from my brother, that he is not well nor stirs out of doors, I went forth to see him, and found him below, he has not been well, but is not ill. I found him taking order for the distribution of Mrs. Ramsey's coals, a thing my father for many years did, and now he after him, which I was glad to see, as also to hear that Mr. Wheatly begins to look after him. I hope it is about his daughter.

Thence to St. Paul's Church Yard, to my bookseller's, and having gained this day in the office by my stationer's bill to the King (33) about 40s. or £3, I did here sit two or three hours calling for twenty books to lay this money out upon, and found myself at a great losse where to choose, and do see how my nature would gladly return to laying out money in this trade. I could not tell whether to lay out my money for books of pleasure, as plays, which my nature was most earnest in; but at last, after seeing Chaucer, Dugdale's History of Paul's, Stows London, Gesner, History of Trent, besides Shakespeare, Jonson, and Beaumont's plays, I at last chose Dr. Fuller's (55) Worthys, the Cabbala or Collections of Letters of State, and a little book, Delices de Hollande, with another little book or two, all of good use or serious pleasure: and Hudibras, both parts, the book now in greatest fashion for drollery, though I cannot, I confess, see enough where the wit lies.

My mind being thus settled, I went by linke home, and so to my office, and to read in Rushworth; and so home to supper and to bed.

Calling at Wotton's, my shoemaker's, today, he tells me that Sir H. Wright (26) is dying; and that Harris is come to the Duke's house again; and of a rare play to be acted this week of Sir William Davenant's (57): the story of Henry the Eighth with all his wives.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes. Around 1661 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 26 September 1666. 26 Sep 1666. Up, and with Sir J. Minnes (67) to St. James's, where every body going to the House, I away by coach to White Hall, and after a few turns, and hearing that our accounts come into the House but to-day, being hindered yesterday by other business, I away by coach home, taking up my wife and calling at Bennet's, our late mercer, who is come into Covent Garden to a fine house looking down upon the Exchange; and I perceive many Londoners every day come; and Mr. Pierce hath let his wife's closett, and the little blind bed chamber, and a garret to a silke man for £50 fine, and £30 per annum, and £40 per annum more for dieting the master and two prentices.

So home, not agreeing for silk for a petticoat for her which she desired, but home to dinner and then back to White Hall, leaving my wife by the way to buy her petticoat of Bennet, and I to White Hall waiting all day on the Duke of Yorke (32) to move the King (36) for getting Lanyon some money at Plymouth out of some oyle prizes brought in thither, but could get nothing done, but here Mr. Dugdale I hear the great loss of books in St. Paul's Church-yarde, and at their Hall also, which they value about £150,000; some booksellers being wholly undone, among others, they say, my poor Kirton. And Mr. Crumlu all his books and household stuff burned; they trusting St. Fayth's, and the roof of the church falling, broke the arch down into the lower church, and so all the goods burned. A very great loss. His father hath lost above £1000 in books; one book newly printed, a Discourse, it seems, of Courts. Here I had the hap to see my Lady Denham (26): and at night went into the dining-room and saw several fine ladies; among others, Castlemayne (25), but chiefly Denham (26) again; and the Duke of Yorke (32) taking her aside and talking to her in the sight of all the world, all alone; which was strange, and what also I did not like.

Here I met with good Mr. Evelyn (45), who cries out against it, and calls it bitchering1, for the Duke of Yorke (32) talks a little to her, and then she goes away, and then he follows her again like a dog. He observes that none of the nobility come out of the country at all to help the King (36), or comfort him, or prevent commotions at this fire; but do as if the King (36) were nobody; nor ne'er a priest comes to give the King (36) and Court good council, or to comfort the poor people that suffer; but all is dead, nothing of good in any of their minds: he bemoans it, and says he fears more ruin hangs over our heads.

Thence away by coach, and called away my wife at Unthanke's, where she tells me she hath bought a gowne of 15s. per yard; the same, before her face, my Baroness Castlemayne (25) this day bought also, which I seemed vexed for, though I do not grudge it her, but to incline her to have Mercer again, which I believe I shall do, but the girle, I hear, has no mind to come to us again, which vexes me.

Being come home, I to Sir W. Batten (65), and there hear our business was tendered to the House to-day, and a Committee of the whole House chosen to examine our accounts, and a great many Hotspurs enquiring into it, and likely to give us much trouble and blame, and perhaps (which I am afeard of) will find faults enow to demand better officers. This I truly fear. Away with Sir W. Pen (45), who was there, and he and I walked in the garden by moonlight, and he proposes his and my looking out into Scotland about timber, and to use Pett (56) there; for timber will be a good commodity this time of building the City; and I like the motion, and doubt not that we may do good in it. We did also discourse about our Privateer, and hope well of that also, without much hazard, as, if God blesses us, I hope we shall do pretty well toward getting a penny. I was mightily pleased with our discourse, and so parted, and to the office to finish my journall for three or four days, and so home to supper, and to bed. Our fleete abroad, and the Dutch too, for all we know; the weather very bad; and under the command of an unlucky man, I fear. God bless him, and the fleete under him!

Note 1. This word was apparently of Evelyn's own making.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of John Mennes Comptroller 1599-1671. Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King James II when Duke of York. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II wearing his Garter Robes. Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of King James II. Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Margaret Brooke Lady Denham 1640-1667. One of the Windsor Beauties. Before 07 Nov 1666. William Faithorne Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 and her son Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton as Madonna and Child. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. One of the Windsor Beauties. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1690 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1644. Robert Walker Painter 1599-1658. Portrait of John Evelyn 1620-1706. In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of John Evelyn 1620-1706. Around 1650 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of John Evelyn 1620-1706.

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Samson Tavern, St Paul's Cathedral Churchyard, Castle Baynard, City of London

Diary of Samuel Pepys 21 June 1661. 21 Jun 1661. This morning going to my father's I met him, and so he and I went and drank our morning draft at the Samson in Paul's Churchyard, and eat some gammon of bacon, &c., and then parted, having bought some green Say1 for curtains in my parler. Home, and so to the Exchequer, where I met with my uncle Wight, and home with him to dinner, where among others (my aunt being out of town), Mr. Norbury and I did discourse of his wife's house and land at Brampton, which I find too much for me to buy. Home, and in the afternoon to the office, and much pleased at night to see my house begin to be clean after all the dirt.

Note 1. A woollen cloth. "Saye clothe serge".—Palsgrave.

St Paul's Cross