History of Theatre Royal aka King's House

1661 Execution of the Fifth Monarchists

1661 Execution of Deceased Regicides

Theatre Royal aka King's House is in Lincoln's Inn Fields.

1660. Theatre Royal aka King's House. Originally a Real Tennis Court from around 1660 began to be used as a Theatre. It was destroyed by fire in 1809.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 December 1660. 04 Dec 1660. To Whitehall to Sir G. Carteret's (50) chamber, where all the officers met, and so we went up to the Duke of York (27), and he took us into his closet, and we did open to him our project of stopping the growing charge of the fleet by paying them in hand one moyety, and the other four months hence. This he do like, and we returned by his order to Sir G. Carteret's (50) chamber, and there we did draw up this design in order to be presented to the Parliament.

From thence I to my Lord's, and dined with him and told him what we had done to-day. Sir Tho. Crew (36) dined with my Lord to-day, and we were very merry with Mrs. Borfett, who dined there still as she has always done lately. After dinner Sir Tho. (36) and my Lady to the Playhouse to see "The Silent Woman". I home by water, and with Mr. Hater in my chamber all alone he and I did put this morning's design into order, which being done I did carry it to Sir W. Batten (59), where I found some gentlemen with him (Sir W. Pen (39) among the rest pretty merry with drink) playing at cards, and there I staid looking upon them till one o'clock in the morning, and so Sir W. Pen (39) and I went away, and I to bed. This day the Parliament voted that the bodies of Oliver (61), Ireton (49), Bradshaw (58), &c., should be taken up out of their graves in the Abbey, and drawn to the gallows, and there hanged and buried under it: which (methinks) do trouble me that a man of so great courage as he was, should have that dishonour, though otherwise he might deserve it enough.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King James II when Duke of York. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II wearing his Garter Robes. Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of King James II. Around 1707. Charles D'Agar Painter 1669-1723. Portrait of Thomas Crew 2nd Baron Crew 1624-1697. Around 1650. Robert Walker Painter 1599-1658. Portrait of Henry Ireton 1611-1651.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 December 1660. 05 Dec 1660. This morning the Proposal which I wrote the last night I showed to the officers this morning, and was well liked of, and I wrote it fair for Sir. G. Carteret (50) to show to the King, and so it is to go to the Parliament. I dined at home, and after dinner I went to the new Theatre and there I saw "The Merry Wives of Windsor" acted, the humours of the country gentleman and the French doctor very well done, but the rest but very poorly, and Sir J. Falstaffe t as bad as any.

From thence to Mr. Will. Montagu's (42) chamber to have sealed some writings tonight between Sir R. Parkhurst and myself about my Lord's £2000, but he not coming, I went to my father's (59) and there found my mother still ill of the stone, and had just newly voided one, which she had let drop into the chimney, and looked and found it to shew it me. From thence home and to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 31 December 1660. 31 Dec 1660. At the office all the morning and after that home, and not staying to dine I went out, and in Paul's Churchyard I bought the play of "Henry the Fourth", and so went to the new Theatre (only calling at Mr. Crew's (62) and eat a bit with the people there at dinner) and saw it acted; but my expectation being too great, it did not please me, as otherwise I believe it would; and my having a book, I believe did spoil it a little.

That being done I went to my Lord's (35), where I found him private at cards with my Lord Lauderdale (44) and some persons of honour. So Mr. Shepley and I over to Harper's, and there drank a pot or two, and so parted. My boy taking a cat home with him from my Lord's, which Sarah had given him for my wife (20) we being much troubled with mice.

At Whitehall inquiring for a coach, there was a Frenchman with one eye that was going my way, so he and I hired the coach between us and he set me down in Fenchurch Street. Strange how the fellow, without asking, did tell me all what he was, and how he had ran away from his father and come into England to serve the King (30), and now going back again.

Home and to bed.

Around 1650 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672. Before 05 Aug 1661 Cornelius Johnson Painter 1593-1661. Portrait of Thomas Hales 3rd Baronet Hales 1695-1762 and John Maitland 1st Duke Lauderdale 1616-1682. Ham House Ham Richmond. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of John Maitland 1st Duke Lauderdale 1616-1682. Around 1675 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of John Maitland 1st Duke Lauderdale 1616-1682 and Elizabeth Murray Duchess Lauderdale 1626-1698. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of John Maitland 1st Duke Lauderdale 1616-1682 wearing his Garter Robes. Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of John Maitland 1st Duke Lauderdale 1616-1682. Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes. Around 1661 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II

Diary of Samuel Pepys 03 January 1661. 03 Jan 1661. Early in the morning to the Exchequer, where I told over what money I had of my Lord's and my own there, which I found to be £970. Thence to Will's, where Spicer and I eat our dinner of a roasted leg of pork which Will did give us, and after that to the Theatre, where was acted "Beggars' Bush", it being very well done; and here the first time that ever I saw women come upon the stage1. From thence to my father's, where I found my mother gone by Bird, the carrier, to Brampton, upon my uncle's great desire, my aunt being now in despair of life. So home.

Note 1. Downes does not give the cast of this play. After the Restoration the acting of female characters by women became common. The first English professional actress was Mrs. Coleman, who acted Ianthe in Davenant's (55) "Siege of Rhodes", at Rutland House in 1656.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 January 1661. 04 Jan 1661. Office all the morning, my wife and Pall being gone to my father's to dress dinner for Mr. Honiwood, my mother being gone out of town. Dined at home, and Mr. Moore with me, with whom I had been early this morning at White Hall, at the Jewell Office1, to choose a piece of gilt plate for my Lord, in return of his offering to the King (which it seems is usual at this time of year, and an Earl gives twenty pieces in gold in a purse to the King). I chose a gilt tankard, weighing 31 ounces and a half, and he is allowed 30; so I paid 12s. for the ounce and half over what he is to have; but strange it was for me to see what a company of small fees I was called upon by a great many to pay there, which, I perceive, is the manner that courtiers do get their estates. After dinner Mr. Moore and I to the Theatre, where was "The Scornful Lady", acted very well, it being the first play that ever he saw. Thence with him to drink a cup of ale at Hercules Pillars, and so parted. I called to see my father, who told me by the way how Will and Mary Joyce do live a strange life together, nothing but fighting, &c., so that sometimes her father has a mind to have them divorced. Thence home.

Several of the Jewel Office rolls are in the British Museum. They recite all the sums of money given to the King, and the particulars of all the plate distributed in his name, as well as gloves and sweetmeats. The Museum possesses these rolls for the 4th, 9th, 18th, 30th, and 31st Eliz.; for the 13th Charles I; and the 23rd, 24th, 26th, and 27th of Charles II B.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 07 January 1661. 07 Jan 1661. This morning, news was brought to me to my bedside, that there had been a great stir in the City this night by the Fanatiques, who had been up and killed six or seven men, but all are fled1. My Lord Mayor and the whole City had been in arms, above 40,000. To the office, and after that to dinner, where my brother Tom (27) came and dined with me, and after dinner (leaving 12d. with the servants to buy a cake with at night, this day being kept as Twelfth day) Tom and I and my wife to the Theatre, and there saw "The Silent Woman". The first time that ever I did see it, and it is an excellent play. Among other things here, Kinaston (21), the boy; had the good turn to appear in three shapes: first, as a poor woman in ordinary clothes, to please Morose; then in fine clothes, as a gallant, and in them was clearly the prettiest woman in the whole house, and lastly, as a man; and then likewise did appear the handsomest man in the house.

From thence by link to my cozen Stradwick's, where my father and we and Dr. Pepys, Scott, and his wife, and one Mr. Ward and his; and after a good supper, we had an excellent cake, where the mark for the Queen (51) was cut, and so there was two queens, my wife and Mrs. Ward; and the King being lost, they chose the Doctor to be King, so we made him send for some wine, and then home, and in our way home we were in many places strictly examined, more than in the worst of times, there being great fears of these Fanatiques rising again: for the present I do not hear that any of them are taken. Home, it being a clear moonshine and after 12 o'clock at night. Being come home we found that my people had been very merry, and my wife tells me afterwards that she had heard that they had got young Davis and some other neighbours with them to be merry, but no harm.

Note 1. "A great rising in the city of the Fifth-monarchy men, which did very much disturb the peace and liberty of the people, so that all the train-bands arose in arms, both in London and Westminster, as likewise all the king's guards; and most of the noblemen mounted, and put all their servants on coach horses, for the defence of his Majesty, and the peace of his kingdom".—Rugge's Diurnal. The notorious Thomas Venner, the Fifth-monarchy man, a cooper and preacher to a conventicle in Swan Alley, Coleman Street, with a small following (about fifty in number) took arms on the 6th January for the avowed purpose of establishing the Millennium. He was a violent enthusiast, and persuaded his followers that they were invulnerable. After exciting much alarm in the City, and skirmishing with the Trained Bands, they marched to Caen Wood. They were driven out by a party of guards, but again entered the City, where they were overpowered by the Trained Bands. The men were brought to trial and condemned; four, however, were acquitted and two reprieved. The execution of some of these men is mentioned by Pepys under date January 19th and 21st. "A Relation of the Arraignment and Trial of those who made the late Rebellious Insurrections in London, 1661", is reprinted in "Somers Tracts", vol. vii. (1812), p. 469.

Around 1625 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 January 1661. 08 Jan 1661. My wife and I lay very long in bed to-day talking and pleasing one another in discourse. Being up, Mr. Warren came, and he and I agreed for the deals that my Lord is to, have. Then Will and I to Westminster, where I dined with my Lady. After dinner I took my Lord Hinchinbroke and Mr. Sidney to the Theatre, and shewed them "The Widdow", an indifferent good play, but wronged by the women being to seek in their parts. That being done, my Lord's coach waited for us, and so back to my Lady's, where she made me drink of some Florence wine, and did give me two bottles for my wife. From thence walked to my cozen Stradwick's, and there chose a small banquet and some other things against our entertainment on Thursday next. Thence to Tom Pepys and bought a dozen of trenchers, and so home. Some talk to-day of a head of Fanatiques that do appear about Barnett, but I do not believe it. However, my Lord Mayor, Sir Richd. Browne (59), hath carried himself very honourably, and hath caused one of their meeting-houses in London to be pulled down.

Execution of the Fifth Monarchists

Diary of Samuel Pepys 19 January 1661. 19 Jan 1661. To the Comptroller's (50), and with him by coach to White Hall; in our way meeting Venner and Pritchard upon a sledge, who with two more Fifth Monarchy men were hanged to-day, and the two first drawn and quartered.

Where we walked up and down, and at last found Sir G. Carteret (51), whom I had not seen a great while, and did discourse with him about our assisting the Commissioners in paying off the Fleet, which we think to decline. Here the Treasurer did tell me that he did suspect Thos. Hater to be an informer of them in this work, which we do take to be a diminution of us, which do trouble me, and I do intend to find out the truth.

Hence to my Lady, who told me how Mr. Hetley is dead of the smallpox going to Portsmouth with my Lord. My Lady went forth to dinner to her father's, and so I went to the Leg in King Street and had a rabbit for myself and my Will, and after dinner I sent him home and myself went to the Theatre, where I saw "The Lost Lady", which do not please me much. Here I was troubled to be seen by four of our office clerks, which sat in the half-crown box and I in the 1s. 6d.

From thence by link, and bought two mouse traps of Thomas Pepys, the Turner, and so went and drank a cup of ale with him, and so home and wrote by post to Portsmouth to my Lord and so to bed.

Execution of Deceased Regicides

Diary of Samuel Pepys 28 January 1661. 28 Jan 1661. At the office all the morning; dined at home, and after dinner to Fleet Street, with my sword to Mr. Brigden (lately made Captain of the Auxiliaries) to be refreshed, and with him to an ale-house, where I met Mr. Davenport; and after some talk of Cromwell, Ireton and Bradshaw's bodies being taken out of their graves to-day1, I went to Mr. Crew's (63) and thence to the Theatre, where I saw again "The Lost Lady", which do now please me better than before; and here I sitting behind in a dark place, a lady spit backward upon me by a mistake, not seeing me, but after seeing her to be a very pretty lady, I was not troubled at it at all. Thence to Mr. Crew's (63), and there met Mr. Moore, who came lately to me, and went with me to my father's, and with him to Standing's, whither came to us Dr. Fairbrother, who I took and my father to the Bear and gave a pint of sack and a pint of claret.

He do still continue his expressions of respect and love to me, and tells me my brother John (20) will make a good scholar. Thence to see the Doctor at his lodging at Mr. Holden's, where I bought a hat, cost me 35s. So home by moonshine, and by the way was overtaken by the Comptroller's (50) coach, and so home to his house with him. So home and to bed. This noon I had my press set up in my chamber for papers to be put in.

Note 1. "The bodies of Oliver Cromwell, Henry Ireton, John Bradshaw, and Thomas Pride, were dug up out of their graves to be hanged at Tyburn, and buried under the gallows. Cromwell's vault having been opened, the people crowded very much to see him".—Rugge's Diurnal.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 31 January 1661. 31 Jan 1661. This morning with Mr. Coventry (33) at Whitehall about getting a ship to carry my Lord's deals to Lynne, and we have chosen the Gift. Thence at noon to my Lord's, where my Lady not well, so I eat a mouthfull of dinner there, and thence to the Theatre, and there sat in the pit among the company of fine ladys, &c.; and the house was exceeding full, to see Argalus and Parthenia, the first time that it hath been acted: and indeed it is good, though wronged by my over great expectations, as all things else are.

Thence to my father's to see my mother, who is pretty well after her journey from Brampton. She tells me my aunt is pretty well, yet cannot live long. My uncle pretty well too, and she believes would marry again were my aunt dead, which God forbid. So home.

Before 23 Jun 1686 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699. Portrait of William Coventry 1628-1686.

Execution of Deceased Regicides

Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 February 1661. 05 Feb 1661. Washing-day. My wife and I by water to Westminster. She to her mother's and I to Westminster Hall, where I found a full term, and here I went to Will's, and there found Shaw and Ashwell and another Bragrave (who knew my mother wash-maid to my Lady Veere), who by cursing and swearing made me weary of his company and so I went away. Into the Hall and there saw my Lord Treasurer (who was sworn to-day at the Exchequer, with a great company of Lords and persons of honour to attend him) go up to the Treasury Offices, and take possession thereof; and also saw the heads of Cromwell, Bradshaw, and Ireton, set up upon the further end of the Hall. Then at Mrs. Michell's in the Hall met my wife and Shaw, and she and I and Captain Murford to the Dog, and there I gave them some wine, and after some mirth and talk (Mr. Langley coming in afterwards) I went by coach to the play-house at the Theatre, our coach in King Street breaking, and so took another. Here we saw Argalus and Parthenia, which I lately saw, but though pleasant for the dancing and singing, I do not find good for any wit or design therein. That done home by coach and to supper, being very hungry for want of dinner, and so to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 12 February 1661. 12 Feb 1661. To my Lord's, and there with him all the morning, and then (he going out to dinner) I and Mr. Pickering, Creed, and Captain Ferrers to the Leg in the Palace to dinner, where strange Pickering's impertinences. Thence the two others and I after a great dispute whither to go, we went by water to Salsbury Court play-house, where not liking to sit, we went out again, and by coach to the Theatre, and there saw "The Scornful Lady", now done by a woman, which makes the play appear much better than ever it did to me. Then Creed and I (the other being lost in the crowd) to drink a cup of ale at Temple Bar, and there we parted, and I (seeing my father and mother by the way) went home.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 16 February 1661. 16 Feb 1661. To my Lord in the morning, who looked over my accounts and agreed to them. I did also get him to sign a bill (which do make my heart merry) for £60 to me, in consideration of my work extraordinary at sea this last voyage, which I hope to get paid. I dined with my Lord and then to the Theatre, where I saw "The Virgin Martyr", a good but too sober a play for the company. Then home.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 February 1661. 23 Feb 1661. This my birthday, 28 years. This morning Sir W. Batten (60), Pen, and I did some business, and then I by water to Whitehall, having met Mr. Hartlibb (61) by the way at Alderman Backwell's (43). So he did give me a glass of Rhenish wine at the Steeleyard, and so to Whitehall by water. He continues of the same bold impertinent humour that he was always of and will ever be. He told me how my Lord Chancellor (52) had lately got the Duke of York (27) and Duchess, and her woman, my Lord Ossory's and a Doctor, to make oath before most of the judges of the kingdom, concerning all the circumstances of their marriage. And in fine, it is confessed that they were not fully married till about a month or two before she was brought to bed; but that they were contracted long before, and time enough for the child to be legitimate1. But I do not hear that it was put to the judges to determine whether it was so or no.

To my Lord and there spoke to him about his opinion of the Light, the sea-mark that Captain Murford is about, and do offer me an eighth part to concern myself with it, and my Lord do give me some encouragement in it, and I shall go on. I dined herewith Mr. Shepley and Howe. After dinner to Whitehall Chappell with Mr. Child, and there did hear Captain Cooke (45) and his boy make a trial of an Anthem against tomorrow, which was brave musique.

Then by water to Whitefriars to the Play-house, and there saw "The Changeling", the first time it hath been acted these twenty years, and it takes exceedingly. Besides, I see the gallants do begin to be tyred with the vanity and pride of the Theatre actors who are indeed grown very proud and rich.

Then by link home, and there to my book awhile and to bed. I met to-day with Mr. Townsend, who tells me that the old man is yet alive in whose place in the Wardrobe he hopes to get my father, which I do resolve to put for. I also met with the Comptroller (50), who told me how it was easy for us all, the principal officers, and proper for us, to labour to get into the next Parliament; and would have me to ask the Duke's letter, but I shall not endeavour it because it will spend much money, though I am sure I could well obtain it. This is now 28 years that I am born. And blessed be God, in a state of full content, and great hopes to be a happy man in all respects, both to myself and friends.

Note 1. The Duke of York's (27) marriage took place September 3rd, 1660. Anne Hyde was contracted to the Duke at Breda, November 24th, 1659.

Around 1643. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 02 March 1661. 02 Mar 1661. Early with Mr. Moore about Sir Paul Neales' (48) business with my uncle and other things all the morning. Dined with him at Mr. Crew's (63), and after dinner I went to the Theatre, where I found so few people (which is strange, and the reason I did not know) that I went out again, and so to Salsbury Court, where the house as full as could be; and it seems it was a new play, "The Queen's Maske", wherein there are some good humours: among others, a good jeer to the old story of the Siege of Troy, making it to be a common country tale. But above all it was strange to see so little a boy as that was to act Cupid, which is one of the greatest parts in it. Then home and to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 11 March 1661. 11 Mar 1661. At the office all the morning, dined at home and my father and Dr. Thos. Pepys with him upon a poor dinner, my wife being abroad. After dinner I went to the Theatre, and there saw "Love's Mistress" done by them, which I do not like in some things as well as their acting in Salsbury Court. At night home and found my wife come home, and among other things she hath got her teeth new done by La Roche, and are indeed now pretty handsome, and I was much pleased with it. So to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 March 1661. 14 Mar 1661. With Sir W. Batten (60) and Pen (39) to Mr. Coventry's (33), and there had a dispute about my claim to the place of Purveyor of Petty-provisions, and at last to my content did conclude to have my hand to all the bills for these provisions and Mr. Turner to purvey them, because I would not have him to lose the place. Then to my Lord's, and so with Mr. Creed to an alehouse, where he told me a long story of his amours at Portsmouth to one of Mrs. Boat's daughters, which was very pleasant. Dined with my Lord and Lady, and so with Mr. Creed to the Theatre, and there saw "King and no King", well acted. Thence with him to the Cock alehouse at Temple Bar, where he did ask my advice about his amours, and I did give him it, which was to enquire into the condition of his competitor, who is a son of Mr. Gauden's, and that I promised to do for him, and he to make (what) use he can of it to his advantage. Home and to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 28 March 1661. 28 Mar 1661. Up early among my workmen, then Mr. Creed coming to see me I went along with him to Sir Robert Slingsby (50) (he being newly maister of that title by being made a Baronett) to discourse about Mr. Creed's accounts to be made up, and from thence by coach to my cozen Thomas Pepys, to borrow £1000 for my Lord, which I am to expect an answer to tomorrow.

So to my Lord's, and there staid and dined, and after dinner did get my Lord to view Mr. Shepley's accounts as I had examined them, and also to sign me a bond for my £500. Then with Mr. Shepley to the Theatre and saw "Rollo" ill acted. That done to drink a cup of ale and so by coach to London, and having set him down in Cheapside I went home, where I found a great deal of work done to-day, and also £70 paid me by the Treasurer upon the bill of exchange that I have had hopes of so long, so that, my heart in great content; I went to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 April 1661. 27 Apr 1661. In the morning to my Lord's, and there dined with my Lady, and after dinner with Mr. Creed and Captain Ferrers to the Theatre to see "The Chances", and after that to the Cock alehouse, where we had a harp and viallin played to us, and so home by coach to Sir W. Batten's (60), who seems so inquisitive when my house will be made an end of that I am troubled to go thither. So home with some trouble in my mind about it.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 16 May 1661. 16 May 1661. Up early to see whether the work of my house be quite done, and I found it to my mind. Staid at home all the morning, and about 2 o'clock went in my velvet coat by water to the Savoy, and there, having staid a good while, I was called into the Lords, and there, quite contrary to my expectations, they did treat me very civilly, telling me that what they had done was out of zeal to the King's service, and that they would joyne with the governors of the chest with all their hearts, since they knew that there was any, which they did not before. I give them very respectful answer and so went away to the Theatre, and there saw the latter end of "The Mayd's Tragedy", which I never saw before, and methinks it is too sad and melancholy.

Thence homewards, and meeting Mr. Creed I took him by water to the Wardrobe with me, and there we found my Lord newly gone away with the Duke of Ormond (50) and some others, whom he had had to the collation; and so we, with the rest of the servants in the hall, sat down and eat of the best cold meats that ever I eat on in all my life. From thence I went home (Mr. Moore with me to the waterside, telling me how kindly he is used by my Lord and my Lady since his coming hither as a servant), and to bed.

In 1715 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688. Around 1647 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688. Around 1678 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688 in his Garter Robes. Before 10 Sep 1687 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 25 May 1661. 25 May 1661. All the morning at home about business. At noon to the Temple, where I staid and looked over a book or two at Playford's (38), and then to the Theatre, where I saw a piece of "The Silent Woman", which pleased me.

So homewards, and in my way bought "The Bondman" in Paul's Churchyard, and so home, where I found all clean, and the hearth and range, as it is now enlarged, set up, which pleases me very much.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 June 1661. 04 Jun 1661. The Comptroller (50) came this morning to get me to go see a house or two near our office, which he would take for himself or Mr. Turner, and then he would have me have Mr. Turner's lodgings and himself mine and Mr. Davis's. But the houses did not like us, and so that design at present is stopped. Then he and I by water to the bridge, and then walked over the Bank-side till we came to the Temple, and so I went over and to my father's, where I met with my cozen J. Holcroft, and took him and my father and my brother Tom (27) to the Bear tavern and gave them wine, my cozen being to go into the country again to-morrow.

From thence to my Lord Crew's to dinner with him, and had very good discourse about having of young noblemen and gentlemen to think of going to sea, as being as honourable service as the land war. And among other things he told us how, in Queen Elizabeth's time, one young nobleman would wait with a trencher at the back of another till he came to age himself. And witnessed in my young Lord of Kent, that then was, who waited upon my Lord Bedford at table, when a letter came to my Lord Bedford that the Earldom of Kent was fallen to his servant, the young Lord; and so he rose from table, and made him sit down in his place, and took a lower for himself, for so he was by place to sit. From thence to the Theatre and saw "Harry the 4th", a good play. That done I went over the water and walked over the fields to Southwark, and so home and to my lute. At night to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 June 1661. 08 Jun 1661. To Whitehall to my Lord, who did tell me that he would have me go to Mr. Townsend, whom he had ordered to discover to me the whole mystery of the Wardrobe, and none else but me, and that he will make me deputy with him for fear that he should die in my Lord's absence, of which I was glad.

Then to the Cook's with Mr. Shepley and Mr. Creed, and dined together, and then I went to the Theatre and there saw Bartholomew Fayre, the first time it was acted now a-days. It is a most admirable play and well acted, but too much prophane and abusive.

From thence, meeting Mr. Creed at the door, he and I went to the tobacco shop under Temple Bar gate, and there went up to the top of the house and there sat drinking Lambeth ale a good while.

Then away home, and in my way called upon Mr. Rawlinson (my uncle Wight being out of town), for his advice to answer a letter of my uncle Robert, wherein he do offer me a purchase to lay some money upon, that joynes upon some of his own lands, and plainly telling me that the reason of his advice is the convenience that it will give me as to his estate, of which I am exceeding glad, and am advised to give up wholly the disposal of my money to him, let him do what he will with it, which I shall do. So home and to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 June 1661. 22 Jun 1661. Abroad all the morning about several businesses. At noon went and dined with my Lord Crew (63), where very much made of by him and his lady. Then to the Theatre, "The Alchymist",1 which is a most incomparable play. And that being done I met with little Luellin and Blirton, who took me to a friend's of theirs in Lincoln's Inn fields, one Mr. Hodges, where we drank great store of Rhenish wine and were very merry. So I went home, where I found my house now very clean, which was great content to me.

Note 1. Comedy by Ben Jonson, first printed in 1612.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 July 1661. 04 Jul 1661. At home all the morning; in the afternoon I went to the Theatre, and there I saw "Claracilla" (the first time I ever saw it), well acted. But strange to see this house, that used to be so thronged, now empty since the Opera begun; and so will continue for a while, I believe.

Called at my father's, and there I heard that my uncle Robert1 continues to have his fits of stupefaction every day for 10 or 12 hours together.

From thence to the Exchange at night, and then went with my uncle Wight to the Mitre and were merry, but he takes it very ill that my father would go out of town to Brampton on this occasion and would not tell him of it, which I endeavoured to remove but could not. Here Mr. Batersby the apothecary was, who told me that if my uncle had the emerods [Haemorrhoids or piles.] (which I think he had) and that now they are stopped, he will lay his life that bleeding behind by leeches will cure him, but I am resolved not to meddle in it. Home and to bed.

Note 1. Robert Pepys, of Brampton, who died on the following day.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 July 1661. 23 Jul 1661. Put on my mourning. Made visits to Sir W. Pen (40) and Batten. Then to Westminster, and at the Hall staid talking with Mrs. Michell a good while, and in the afternoon, finding myself unfit for business, I went to the Theatre, and saw "Brenoralt", I never saw before. It seemed a good play, but ill acted; only I sat before Mrs. Palmer (20), the King's mistress, and filled my eyes with her, which much pleased me.

Then to my father's, where by my desire I met my uncle Thomas (66), and discoursed of my uncle's will to him, and did satisfy (him) as well as I could. So to my uncle Wight's, but found him out of doors, but my aunt I saw and staid a while, and so home and to bed. Troubled to hear how proud and idle Pall is grown, that I am resolved not to keep her.

Before 07 Nov 1666. William Faithorne Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 and her son Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton as Madonna and Child. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. One of the Windsor Beauties. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1690 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 25 July 1661. 25 Jul 1661. This morning came my box of papers from Brampton of all my uncle's papers, which will now set me at work enough. At noon I went to the Exchange, where I met my uncle Wight, and found him so discontented about my father (whether that he takes it ill that he has not been acquainted with things, or whether he takes it ill that he has nothing left him, I cannot tell), for which I am much troubled, and so staid not long to talk with him.

Thence to my mother's, where I found my wife and my aunt Bell and Mrs. Ramsey, and great store of tattle there was between the old women and my mother, who thinks that there is, God knows what fallen to her, which makes me mad, but it was not a proper time to speak to her of it, and so I went away with Mr. Moore, and he and I to the Theatre, and saw "The Jovial Crew", the first time I saw it, and indeed it is as merry and the most innocent play that ever I saw, and well performed.

From thence home, and wrote to my father and so to bed. Full of thoughts to think of the trouble that we shall go through before we come to see what will remain to us of all our expectations.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 31 July 1661. 31 Jul 1661. Singing-master came to me this morning; then to the office all the morning.

In the afternoon I went to the Theatre, and there I saw "The Tamer Tamed" well done.

And then home, and prepared to go to Walthamstow to-morrow. This night I was forced to borrow £40 of Sir W. Batten (60).

Diary of Samuel Pepys 10 August 1661. 10 Aug 1661. This morning came the maid that my wife hath lately hired for a chamber maid. She is very ugly, so that I cannot care for her, but otherwise she seems very good. But however she do come about three weeks hence, when my wife comes back from Brampton, if she go with my father.

By and by came my father to my house, and so he and I went and found out my uncle Wight at the Coffee House, and there did agree with him to meet the next week with my uncle Thomas and read over the Captain's will before them both for their satisfaction. Having done with him I went to my Lady's and dined with her, and after dinner took the two young gentlemen and the two ladies and carried them and Captain Ferrers to the Theatre, and shewed them "The Merry Devill of Edmunton1", which is a very merry play, the first time I ever saw it, which pleased me well.

And that being done I took them all home by coach to my house and there gave them fruit to eat and wine. So by water home with them, and so home myself.

Note 1. A comedy acted at the Globe, and first printed in 1608. In the original entry in the Stationers' books it is said to be by T. B., which may stand for Tony or Anthony Brewer. The play has been attributed without authority both to Shakespeare and to Drayton. Note. This note was attached to the next paragraph after the words 'only to see the two'? Moved to here since believed to refer to The Merry Devil of Edmonton.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 August 1661. 14 Aug 1661. This morning Sir W. Batten (60) and Sir W. Pen (40) and I, waited upon the Duke of York (27) in his chamber, to give him an account of the condition of the Navy for lack of money, and how our own very bills are offered upon the Exchange, to be sold at 20 in the 100 loss. He is much troubled at it, and will speak to the King and Council of it this morning.

So I went to my Lady's and dined with her, and found my Lord Hinchingbroke somewhat better. After dinner Captain Ferrers and I to the Theatre, and there saw "The Alchymist" and there I saw Sir W. Pen (40), who took us when the play was done and carried the Captain to Paul's and set him down, and me home with him, and he and I to the Dolphin, but not finding Sir W. Batten (60) there, we went and carried a bottle of wine to his house, and there sat a while and talked, and so home to bed.

At home I found a letter from Mr. Creed of the 15th of July last, that tells me that my Lord is rid of his pain (which was wind got into the muscles of his right side) and his feaver, and is now in hopes to go aboard in a day or two, which do give me mighty great comfort.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 15 August 1661. 15 Aug 1661. To the Privy Seal and Whitehall, up and down, and at noon Sir W. Pen (40) carried me to Paul's, and so I walked to the Wardrobe and dined with my Lady, and there told her, of my Lord's sickness (of which though it hath been the town-talk this fortnight, she had heard nothing) and recovery, of which she was glad, though hardly persuaded of the latter. I found my Lord Hinchingbroke better and better, and the worst past.

Thence to the Opera, which begins again to-day with "The Witts", never acted yet with scenes; and the King and Duke (27) and Duchess (24) were there (who dined to-day with Sir H. Finch (39), reader at the Temple, in great state); and indeed it is a most excellent play, and admirable scenes. So home and was overtaken by Sir W. Pen (40) in his coach, who has been this afternoon with my Lady Batten, &c., at the Theatre.

So I followed him to the Dolphin, where Sir W. Batten (60) was, and there we sat awhile, and so home after we had made shift to fuddle Mr. Falconer of Woolwich. So home.

Around 1661 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. Around 1662 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. One of the Windsor Beauties. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666. In 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Heneage Finch 1st Earl Nottingham 1621-1682.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 26 August 1661. 26 Aug 1661. This morning before I went out I made even with my maid Jane, who has this day been my maid three years, and is this day to go into the country to her mother. The poor girl cried, and I could hardly forbear weeping to think of her going, for though she be grown lazy and spoilt by Pall's coming, yet I shall never have one to please us better in all things, and so harmless, while I live. So I paid her her wages and gave her 2s. 6d. over, and bade her adieu, with my mind full of trouble at her going.

Hence to my father, where he and I and Thomas together setting things even, and casting up my father's accounts, and upon the whole I find that all he hath in money of his own due to him in the world is but £45, and he owes about the same sum: so that I cannot but think in what a condition he had left my mother if he should have died before my uncle Robert.

Hence to Tom Trice for the probate of the will and had it done to my mind, which did give my father and me good content.

From thence to my Lady at the Wardrobe and thence to the Theatre, and saw the "Antipodes", wherein there is much mirth, but no great matter else.

Hence with Mr. Bostock whom I met there (a clerk formerly of Mr. Phelps) to the Devil tavern, and there drank and so away. I to my uncle Fenner's, where my father was with him at an alehouse, and so we three went by ourselves and sat talking a great while about a broker's daughter that he do propose for a wife for Tom, with a great portion, but I fear it will not take, but he will do what he can.

So we broke up, and going through the street we met with a mother and son, friends of my father's man, Ned's, who are angry at my father's putting him away, which troubled me and my father, but all will be well as to that. We have news this morning of my uncle Thomas and his son Thomas being gone into the country without giving notice thereof to anybody, which puts us to a stand, but I fear them not.

At night at home I found a letter from my Lord Sandwich (36), who is now very well again of his feaver, but not yet gone from Alicante, where he lay sick, and was twice let blood. This letter dated the 22nd July last, which puts me out of doubt of his being ill. In my coming home I called in at the Crane tavern at the Stocks by appointment, and there met and took leave of Mr. Fanshaw, who goes to-morrow and Captain Isham (33) toward their voyage to Portugal. Here we drank a great deal of wine, I too much and Mr. Fanshaw till he could hardly go. So we took leave one of another.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 August 1661. 27 Aug 1661. This morning to the Wardrobe, and there took leave of my Lord Hinchingbroke and his brother, and saw them go out by coach toward Rye in their way to France, whom God bless. Then I was called up to my Lady's bedside, where we talked an hour about Mr. Edward Montagu's disposing of the £5000 for my Lord's departure for Portugal, and our fears that he will not do it to my Lord's honour, and less to his profit, which I am to enquire a little after. Hence to the office, and there sat till noon, and then my wife and I by coach to my cozen, Thos. Pepys, the Executor, to dinner, where some ladies and my father and mother, where very merry, but methinks he makes but poor dinners for such guests, though there was a poor venison pasty. !Hence my wife and I to the Theatre, and there saw "The Joviall Crew", where the King, Duke (27) and Duchess (24), and Madame Palmer (20), were; and my wife, to her great content, had a full sight of them all the while. The play full of mirth.

Hence to my father's, and there staid to talk a while and so by foot home by moonshine. In my way and at home, my wife making a sad story to me of her brother Balty's (21) a condition, and would have me to do something for him, which I shall endeavour to do, but am afeard to meddle therein for fear I shall not be able to wipe my hands of him again, when I once concern myself for him. I went to bed, my wife all the while telling me his case with tears, which troubled me.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 September 1661. 06 Sep 1661. This morning my uncle Fenner by appointment came and drank his morning draft with me, and from thence he and I go to see my aunt Kite (my wife holding her resolution to go this morning as she resolved yesterday, and though there could not be much hurt in it, yet my own jealousy put a hundred things into my mind, which did much trouble me all day), whom we found in bed and not like to live as we think, and she told us her mind was that if she should die she should give all she had to her daughter, only £5 apiece to her second husband's children, in case they live to come out of their apprenticeships, and that if her daughter should die before marrying, then £10 to be divided between Sarah Kite's children and the rest as her own daughter shall dispose of it, and this I set down that I may be able to swear in case there should be occasion.

From thence to an alehouse while it rained, which kept us there I think above two hours, and at last we were fain to go through the rainy street home, calling on his sister Utbeck and drank there. !Then I home to dinner all alone, and thence my mind being for my wife's going abroad much troubled and unfit for business, I went to the Theatre, and saw "Elder Brother" ill acted; that done, meeting here with Sir G. Askew, Sir Theophilus Jones, and another Knight, with Sir W. Pen (40), we to the Ship tavern, and there staid and were merry till late at night, and so got a coach, and Sir Wm. and I home, where my wife had been long come home, but I seemed very angry, as indeed I am, and did not all night show her any countenance, neither before nor in bed, and so slept and rose discontented.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 07 September 1661. 07 Sep 1661. At the office all the morning. At noon Mr. Moore dined with me, and then in comes Wm. Joyce to answer a letter of mine I wrote this morning to him about a maid of his that my wife had hired, and she sent us word that she was hired to stay longer with her master, which mistake he came to clear himself of; and I took it very kindly. So I having appointed the young ladies at the Wardrobe to go with them to a play to-day, I left him and my brother Tom (27) who came along with him to dine, and my wife and I took them to the Theatre, where we seated ourselves close by the King, and Duke of York (27), and Madame Palmer (20), which was great content; and, indeed, I can never enough admire her beauty. And here was "Bartholomew Fayre", with the puppet-show, acted to-day, which had not been these forty years (it being so satyricall against Puritanism, they durst not till now, which is strange they should already dare to do it, and the King do countenance it), but I do never a whit like it the better for the puppets, but rather the worse.

Thence home with the ladies, it being by reason of our staying a great while for the King's coming, and the length of the play, near nine o'clock before it was done, and so in their coach home, and still in discontent with my wife, to bed, and rose so this morning also.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 25 September 1661. 25 Sep 1661. By coach with Sir W. Pen (40) to Covent Garden. By the way, upon my desire, he told me that I need not fear any reflection upon my Lord for their ill success at Argier, for more could not be done than was done. I went to my cozen, Thos. Pepys, there, and talked with him a good while about our country business, who is troubled at my uncle Thomas his folly, and so we parted; and then meeting Sir R. Slingsby (50) in St. Martin's Lane, he and I in his coach through the Mewes, which is the way that now all coaches are forced to go, because of a stop at Charing Cross, by reason of a drain there to clear the streets. To Whitehall, and there to Mr. Coventry (33), and talked with him, and thence to my Lord Crew's and dined with him, where I was used with all imaginable kindness both from him and her. And I see that he is afraid that my Lord's reputacon will a little suffer in common talk by this late success; but there is no help for it now. The Queen (22) of England (as she is now owned and called) I hear doth keep open Court, and distinct at Lisbon. Hence, much against my nature and will, yet such is the power of the Devil over me I could not refuse it, to the Theatre, and saw "The Merry Wives of Windsor", ill done. And that ended, with Sir W. Pen (40) and Sir G. More to the tavern, and so home with him by coach, and after supper to prayers and to bed. In full quiet of mind as to thought, though full of business, blessed be God.

Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza. Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 26 September 1661. 26 Sep 1661. At the office all the morning, so dined at home, and then abroad with my wife by coach to the Theatre to shew her "King and no King", it being very well done. And so by coach, though hard to get it, being rainy, home. So to my chamber to write letters and the journal for these six last days past.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 28 September 1661. 28 Sep 1661. At the office in the morning, dined at home, and then Sir W. Pen (40) and his daughter and I and my wife to the Theatre, and there saw "Father's own Son", a very good play, and the first time I ever saw it, and so at night to my house, and there sat and talked and drank and merrily broke up, and to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 02 October 1661. 02 Oct 1661. All this morning at Pegg Kite's with my uncle Fenner, and two friends of his, appraising her goods that her mother has left; but the slut is like to prove so troublesome that I am out of heart with troubling myself in her business. After we had done we all went to a cook's shop in Bishopsgate Street and dined, and then I took them to the tavern and did give them a quart of sack, and so parted. I home and then took my wife out, and in a coach of a gentlewoman's that had been to visit my Lady Batten and was going home again our way, we went to the Theatre, but coming late, and sitting in an ill place, I never had so little pleasure in a play in my life, yet it was the first time that ever I saw it, "Victoria Corombona". Methinks a very poor play. Then at night troubled to get my wife home, it being very dark, and so we were forced to have a coach. So to supper and to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 October 1661. 04 Oct 1661. By coach to White Hall with Sir W. Pen (40). So to Mr. Montagu, where his man, Mons. Eschar, makes a great com plaint against the English, that they did help the Spaniards against the French the other day; and that their Embassador do demand justice of our King, and that he do resolve to be gone for France the next week; which I, and all that I met with, are very glad of. Thence to Paternoster Row, where my Will did receive the £50 I borrowed yesterday. I to the Wardrobe to dinner, and there staid most of the afternoon very merry with the ladies. Then Captain Ferrers and I to the Theatre, and there came too late, so we staid and saw a bit of "Victoria", which pleased me worse than it did the other day. So we staid not to see it out, but went out and drank a bottle or two of China ale, and so home, where I found my wife vexed at her people for grumbling to eat Suffolk cheese, which I also am vexed at. So to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 October 1661. 08 Oct 1661. At the office all the morning. After office done, went and eat some Colchester oysters with Sir W. Batten (60) at his house, and there, with some company; dined and staid there talking all the afternoon; and late after dinner took Mrs. Martha out by coach, and carried her to the Theatre in a frolique, to my great expense, and there shewed her part of the "Beggar's Bush", without much pleasure, but only for a frolique, and so home again.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 October 1661. 09 Oct 1661. This morning went out about my affairs, among others to put my Theorbo out to be mended, and then at noon home again, thinking to go with Sir Williams both to dinner by invitation to Sir W. Rider's, but at home I found Mrs. Pierce, la belle, and Madam Clifford, with whom I was forced to stay, and made them the most welcome I could; and I was (God knows) very well pleased with their beautiful company, and after dinner took them to the Theatre, and shewed them "The Chances;" and so saw them both at home and back to the Fleece Tavern, in Covent Garden, where Luellin and Blurton, and my old friend Frank Bagge, was to meet me, and there staid till late very merry. Frank Bagge tells me a story of Mrs. Pepys that lived with my Lady Harvy (22), Mr. Montagu's sister, a good woman; that she had been very ill, and often asked for me; that she is in good condition, and that nobody could get her to make her will; but that she did still enquire for me, and that now she is well she desires to have a chamber at my house. Now I do not know whether this is a trick of Bagge's, or a good will of hers to do something for me; but I will not trust her, but told him I should be glad to see her, and that I would be sure to do all that I could to provide a place for her. So by coach home late.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 10 October 1661. 10 Oct 1661. At the office all the morning; dined at home, and after dinner Sir W. Pen (40) and my wife and I to the Theatre (she first going into Covent Garden to speak a word with a woman to enquire of her mother, and I in the meantime with Sir W. Pen's (40) coach staying at W. Joyce's), where the King came to-day, and there was "The Traytor" most admirably acted; and a most excellent play it is. So home, and intended to be merry, it being my sixth wedding night; but by a late bruise.... I am in so much pain that I eat my supper and in pain to bed, yet my wife and I pretty merry.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 26 October 1661. 26 Oct 1661. This morning Sir W. Pen (40) and I should have gone out of town with my Lady Batten, to have met Sir William coming back from Portsmouth; at Kingston, but could not, by reason that my Lord of Peterborough (39) (who is to go Governor of Tangier) came this morning, with Sir G. Carteret (51), to advise with us about completing of the affairs and preparacions for that place.

So at the office all the morning, and in the afternoon Sir W. Pen (40), my wife and I to the Theatre, and there saw "The Country Captain", the first time it hath been acted this twenty-five years, a play of my Lord Newcastle's (68), but so silly a play as in all my life I never saw, and the first that ever I was weary of in my life.

So home again, and in the evening news was brought that Sir R. Slingsby (50), our Comptroller (50) (who hath this day been sick a week), is dead; which put me into so great a trouble of mind, that all the night I could not sleep, he being a man that loved me, and had many qualitys that made me to love him above all the officers and commissioners in the Navy. Coming home we called at Dan Rawlinson's; and there drank good sack, and so home.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 28 October 1661. 28 Oct 1661. At the office all the morning, and dined at home, and so to Paul's Churchyard to Hunt's, and there found my Theorbo done, which pleases me very well, and costs me 26s. to the altering. But now he tells me it is as good a lute as any is in England, and is worth well £10.

Hither I sent for Captain Ferrers to me, who comes with a friend of his, and they and I to the Theatre, and there saw "Argalus and Parthenia", where a woman acted Parthenia, and came afterwards on the stage in men's clothes, and had the best legs that ever I saw, and I was very well pleased with it.

Thence to the Ringo alehouse, and thither sent for a belt-maker, and bought of him a handsome belt for second mourning, which cost me 24s., and is very neat.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 01 November 1661. 01 Nov 1661. I went this morning with Sir W. Pen (40) by coach to Westminster, and having done my business at Mr. Montagu's, I went back to him at Whitehall, and from thence with him to the 3 Tun Tavern, at Charing Cross, and there sent for up the maister of the house's dinner, and dined very well upon it, and afterwards had him and his fayre sister (who is very great with Sir W. Batten (60) and Sir W. Pen (40) in mirth) up to us, and looked over some medals that they shewed us of theirs; and so went away to the Theatre, to "The Joviall Crew", and from hence home, and at my house we were very merry till late, having sent for his son, Mr. William Pen (17)1, lately come from Oxford. And after supper parted, and to bed.

Note 1. The celebrated Quaker, and founder of Pennsylvania.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 November 1661. 13 Nov 1661. By appointment, we all went this morning to wait upon the Duke of York (28), which we did in his chamber, as he was dressing himself in his riding suit to go this day by sea to the Downs. He is in mourning for his wife's grandmother (80), which is thought a great piece of fondness1. After we had given him our letter relating the bad condition of the Navy for want of money, he referred it to his coming back and so parted, and I to Whitehall and to see la belle Pierce, and so on foot to my Lord Crew's, where I found him come to his new house, which is next to that he lived in last; here I was well received by my Lord and Sir Thomas, with whom I had great talk: and he tells me in good earnest that he do believe the Parliament (which comes to sit again the next week), will be troublesome to the Court and Clergy, which God forbid! But they see things carried so by my Lord Chancellor (52) and some others, that get money themselves, that they will not endure it.

From thence to the Theatre, and there saw "Father's own Son" again, and so it raining very hard I went home by coach, with my mind very heavy for this my expensefull life, which will undo me, I fear, after all my hopes, if I do not take up, for now I am coming to lay out a great deal of money in clothes for my wife, I must forbear other expenses. To bed, and this night began to lie in the little green chamber, where the maids lie, but we could not a great while get Nell to lie there, because I lie there and my wife, but at last, when she saw she must lie there or sit up, she, with much ado, came to bed.

Note 1. Fondness, foolishness. "Fondness it were for any, being free, To covet fetters, tho' they golden be". Spenser, Sonnet 37,—M. B.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 18 November 1661. 18 Nov 1661. By coach with Sir W. Pen (40); my wife and I toward Westminster, but seeing Mr. Moore in the street I light and he and I went to Mr. Battersby's the minister, in my way I putting in at St. Paul's, where I saw the quiristers in their surplices going to prayers, and a few idle poor people and boys to hear them, which is the first time I have seen them, and am sorry to see things done so out of order, and there I received £50 more, which make up £100 that I now have borrowed of him, and so I did burn the old bond for £50, and paying him the use of it did make a new bond for the whole £100.

Here I dined and had a good dinner, and his wife a good pretty woman. There was a young Parson at the table that had got himself drunk before dinner, which troubled me to see. After dinner to Mr. Bowers at Westminster for my wife, and brought her to the Theatre to see "Philaster", which I never saw before, but I found it far short of my expectations. So by coach home.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 25 November 1661. 25 Nov 1661. To Westminster Hall in the morning with Captain Lambert, and there he did at the Dog give me and some other friends of his, his foy, he being to set sail to-day towards the Streights. Here we had oysters and good wine. Having this morning met in the Hall with Mr. Sanchy, we appointed to meet at the play this afternoon.

At noon, at the rising of the House, I met with Sir W. Pen (40) and Major General Massy1, who I find by discourse to be a very ingenious man, and among other things a great master in the secresys of powder and fireworks, and another knight to dinner, at the Swan, in the Palace yard, and our meat brought from the Legg; and after dinner Sir W. Pen (40) and I to the Theatre, and there saw "The Country Captain", a dull play, and that being done, I left him with his Torys2 and went to the Opera, and saw the last act of "The Bondman", and there found Mr. Sanchy and Mrs. Mary Archer, sister to the fair Betty, whom I did admire at Cambridge, and thence took them to the Fleece in Covent Garden, there to bid good night to Sir W. Pen (40) who staid for me; but Mr. Sanchy could not by any argument get his lady to trust herself with him into the tavern, which he was much troubled at, and so we returned immediately into the city by coach, and at the Mitre in Cheapside there light and drank, and then yet her at her uncle's in the Old Jewry.

And so he and I back again thither, and drank till past 12 at night, till I had drank something too much. He all the while telling me his intention to get a girl who is worth £1000, and many times we had her sister Betty's health, whose memory I love. At last parted, and I well home, only had got cold and was hoarse and so to bed.

Note 1. Major-General Edward Massey (or Massie), son of John Massie, was captain of one of the foot companies of the Irish Expedition, and had Oliver Cromwell as his ensign (see Peacock's "Army Lists in 1642", p. 65). He was Governor of Gloucester in its obstinate defence against the royal forces, 1643; dismissed by the self- denying ordinance when he entered Charles II's service. He was taken prisoner at the battle of Worcester, September 3rd, 1651, but escaped abroad.

Note 2. This is a strange use of the word Tory, and an early one also. The word originally meant bogtrotters or wild Irish, and as Penn was Governor of Kildare these may have been some of his Irish followers. The term was not used politically until about 1679.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 November 1661. 27 Nov 1661. This morning our maid Dorothy and my wife parted, which though she be a wench for her tongue not to be borne with, yet I was loth to part with her, but I took my leave kindly of her and went out to Savill's (52), the painter, and there sat the first time for my face with him; thence to dinner with my Lady; and so after an hour or two's talk in divinity with my Lady, Captain Ferrers and Mr. Moore and I to the Theatre, and there saw "Hamlett" very well done, and so I home, and found that my wife had been with my aunt Wight and Ferrers to wait on my Lady to-day this afternoon, and there danced and were very merry, and my Lady very fond as she is always of my wife. So to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 29 November 1661. 29 Nov 1661. I lay long in bed, till Sir Williams both sent me word that we were to wait upon the Duke of York (28) to-day; and that they would have me to meet them at Westminster Hall, at noon: so I rose and went thither; and there I understand that they are gone to Mr. Coventry's (33) lodgings, in the Old Palace Yard, to dinner (the first time I knew he had any); and there I met them two and Sir G. Carteret (51), and had a very fine dinner, and good welcome, and discourse; and so, by water, after dinner to White Hall to the Duke, who met us in his closet; and there he did discourse to us the business of Holmes, and did desire of us to know what hath been the common practice about making of forrayne ships to strike sail to us, which they did all do as much as they could; but I could say nothing to it, which I was sorry for.

So indeed I was forced to study a lie, and so after we were gone from the Duke, I told Mr. Coventry (33) that I had heard Mr. Selden often say, that he could prove that in Henry the 7th's time, he did give commission to his captains to make the King of Denmark's ships to strike to him in the Baltique.

From thence Sir W. Pen (40) and I to the Theatre, but it was so full that we could hardly get any room, so he went up to one of the boxes, and I into the 18d. places, and there saw "Love at First Sight", a play of Mr. Killigrew's (49), and the first time that it hath been acted since before the troubles, and great expectation there was, but I found the play to be a poor thing, and so I perceive every body else do.

So home, calling at Paul's Churchyard for a "Mare Clausum", having it in my mind to write a little matter, what I can gather, about the business of striking sayle, and present it to the Duke, which I now think will be a good way to make myself known. So home and to bed.

Around 1635 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Thomas Killigrew Playwright 1612-1683. In 1638 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Thomas Killigrew Playwright 1612-1683 and (probably) William Crofts 1st Baron Crofts 1611-1677.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 01 January 1662. 01 Jan 1662. Waking this morning out of my sleep on a sudden, I did with my elbow hit my wife a great blow over her face and nose, which waked her with pain, at which I was sorry, and to sleep again. Up and went forth with Sir W. Pen (40) by coach towards Westminster, and in my way seeing that "The Spanish Curate" was acted today, I light and let him go alone, and I home again and sent to young Mr. Pen and his sister to go anon with my wife and I to the Theatre.

That done, Mr. W. Pen (40) came to me and he and I walked out, and to the Stacioner's, and looked over some pictures and traps for my house, and so home again to dinner, and by and by came the two young Pens, and after we had eat a barrel of oysters we went by coach to the play, and there saw it well acted, and a good play it is, only Diego the Sexton did overdo his part too much.

From thence home, and they sat with us till late at night at cards very merry, but the jest was Mr. W. Pen (40) had left his sword in the coach, and so my boy and he run out after the coach, and by very great chance did at the Exchange meet with the coach and got his sword again.

So to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 February 1662. 05 Feb 1662. Early at the office. Sir G. Carteret (52), the two Sir Williams and myself all alone reading of the Duke's institutions for the settlement of our office, whereof we read as much as concerns our own duties, and left the other officers for another time. I did move several things for my purpose, and did ease my mind.

At noon Sir W. Pen (40) dined with me, and after dinner he and I and my wife to the Theatre, and went in, but being very early we went out again to the next door, and drank some Rhenish wine and sugar, and so to the House again, and there saw "Rule a wife and have a wife" very well done. And here also I did look long upon my Baroness Castlemaine's (21), who, notwithstanding her late sickness, continues a great beauty.

Home and supped with Sir W. Pen (40) and played at cards with him, and so home and to bed, putting some cataplasm to my.... which begins to swell again.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 26 February 1662. 26 Feb 1662. Mr. Berkenshaw with me all the morning composing of musique to "This cursed jealousy, what is it", a song of Sir W. Davenant's (56).

After dinner I went to my Bookseller's, W. Joyce's, and several other places to pay my debts and do business, I being resolved to cast up my accounts within a day or two, for I fear I have run out too far.

In coming home I met with a face I knew and challenged him, thinking it had been one of the Theatre musicians, and did enquire for a song of him, but finding it a mistake, and that it was a gentleman that comes sometimes to the office, I was much ashamed, but made a pretty good excuse that I took him for a gentleman of Gray's Inn who sings well, and so parted.

Home for all night and set things in order and so to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 07 May 1662. 07 May 1662. Walked to Westminster; where I understand the news that Mr. Montagu (27) is this last night come to the King (31) with news, that he left the Queen (23) and fleet in the Bay of Biscay, coming this wayward; and that he believes she is now at the Isle of Scilly.

So at noon to my Lord Crew's and there dined, and after dinner Sir Thos. Crew and I talked together, and among other instances of the simple light discourse that sometimes is in the Parliament House, he told me how in the late business of Chymny money, when all occupiers were to pay, it was questioned whether women were under that name to pay, and somebody rose and said that they were not occupiers, but occupied.

Thence to Paul's Church Yard; where seeing my Lady's Sandwich and Carteret, and my wife (who this day made a visit the first time to my Baroness Carteret (60)), come by coach, and going to Hide Park, I was resolved to follow them; and so went to Mrs. Turner's (39): and thence found her out at the Theatre, where I saw the last act of the "Knight of the Burning Pestle", which pleased me not at all.

And so after the play done, she and The. Turner (10) and Mrs. Lucin and I, in her coach to the Park; and there found them out, and spoke to them; and observed many fine ladies, and staid till all were gone almost. And so to Mrs. Turner's (39), and there supped, and so walked home, and by and by comes my wife home, brought by my Baroness Carteret (60) to the gate, and so to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 19 May 1662. 19 May 1662. Long in bed, sometimes scolding with my wife, and then pleased again, and at last up, and put on my riding cloth suit, and a camelott coat new, which pleases me well enough. To the Temple about my replication, and so to my brother Tom's (28), and there hear that my father will be in town this week.

So home, the shops being but some shut and some open. I hear that the House of Commons do think much that they should be forced to huddle over business this morning against the afternoon, for the King (31) to pass their Acts, that he may go out of town1. But he, I hear since, was forced to stay till almost nine o'clock at night before he could have done, and then he prorogued them; and so to Gilford, and lay there.

Home, and Mr. Hunt dined with me, and were merry.

After dinner Sir W. Pen (41) and his daughter, and I and my wife by coach to the Theatre, and there in a box saw "The Little Thiefe" well done.

Thence to Moorefields, and walked and eat some cheesecake and gammon of bacon, but when I was come home I was sick, forced to vomit it up again. So my wife walking and singing upon the leads till very late, it being pleasant and moonshine, and so to bed.

Note 1. To ears accustomed to the official words of speeches from the throne at the present day, the familiar tone of the following extracts from Charles's speech to the Commons, on the 1st of March; will be amusing: "I will conclude with putting you in mind of the season of the year, and the convenience of your being in the country, in many respects, for the good and welfare of it; for you will find much tares have been sowed there in your absence. The arrival of my wife, who I expect some time this month, and the necessity of my own being out of town to meet her, and to stay some time before she comes hither, makes it very necessary that the Parliament be adjourned before Easter, to meet again in the winter.... The mention of my wife's arrival puts me in mind to desire you to put that compliment upon her, that her entrance into the town may be with more decency than the ways will now suffer it to be; and, to that purpose, I pray you would quickly pass such laws as are before you, in order to the amending those ways, and that she may not find Whitehall surrounded with water". Such a bill passed the Commons on the 24th June. From Charles's Speech, March 1st, 1662. B.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 21 May 1662. 21 May 1662. My wife and I by water to Westminster, and after she had seen her father (of whom lately I have heard nothing at all what he does or her mother), she comes to me to my Lord's lodgings, where she and I staid walking in White Hall garden. And in the Privy-garden saw the finest smocks and linnen petticoats of my Baroness Castlemaine's (21), laced with rich lace at the bottom, that ever I saw; and did me good to look upon them.

So to Wilkinson's, she and I and Sarah to dinner, where I had a good quarter of lamb and a salat. Here Sarah told me how the King (31) dined at my Baroness Castlemaine's (21), and supped, every day and night the last week; and that the night that the bonfires were made for joy of the Queen's (23) arrivall, the King (31) was there; but there was no fire at her door, though at all the rest of the doors almost in the street; which was much observed: and that the King (31) and she did send for a pair of scales and weighed one another; and she, being with child, was said to be heaviest. But she is now a most disconsolate creature, and comes not out of doors, since the King's going.

But we went to the Theatre to "French Dancing Master", and there with much pleasure gazed upon her (Baroness Castlemaine (21)); but it troubles us to see her look dejectedly and slighted by people already. The play pleased us very well; but Lacy's part, the Dancing Master, the best in the world.

Thence to my brother Tom's (28), in expectation to have met my father to-night come out of the country, but he is not yet come, but here we found my uncle Fenner and his old wife, whom I had not seen since the wedding dinner, nor care to see her. They being gone, my wife and I went and saw Mrs. Turner (39), whom we found not well, and her two boys Charles and Will come out of the country, grown very plain boys after three years being under their father's care in Yorkshire.

Thence to Tom's again, and there supped well, my she cozen Scott being there and my father being not come, we walked home and to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 May 1662. 22 May 1662. This morning comes an order from the Secretary of State, Nicholas (69), for me to let one Mr. Lee, a Councellor, to view what papers I have relating to passages of the late times, wherein Sir H. Vane's (49) hand is employed, in order to the drawing up his charge; which I did, and at noon he, with Sir W. Pen (41) and his daughter, dined with me, and he to his work again, and we by coach to the Theatre and saw "Love in a Maze". The play hath little in it but Lacy's part of a country fellow, which he did to admiration.

So home, and supped with Sir W. Pen (41), where Sir W. Batten (61) and Captn. Cocke came to us, to whom I have lately been a great stranger. This night we had each of us a letter from Teddiman from the Streights, of a peace made upon good terms, by Sir J. Lawson (47), with the Argier men, which is most excellent news? He hath also sent each of us some anchovies, olives, and muscatt; but I know not yet what that is, and am ashamed to ask. After supper home, and to bed, resolving to make up this week in seeing plays and pleasure, and so fall to business next week again for a great while.

Around 1658 Gilbert Soest Painter 1605-1681. Portrait of Henry Vane Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Admiral John Lawson 1615-1665. One of the Flagmen of Lowestoft.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 29 September 1662. 29 Sep 1662. Twelfth Day. This day my oaths for drinking of wine and going to plays are out, and so I do resolve to take a liberty to-day, and then to fall to them again.

Up and by coach to White Hall, in my way taking up Mr. Moore, and walked with him, talking a good while about business, in St. James's Park, and there left him, and to Mr. Coventry's (34), and so with him and Sir W. Pen (41) up to the Duke, where the King (32) came also and staid till the Duke was ready. It being Collarday, we had no time to talk with him about any business. They went out together.

So we parted, and in the park Mr. Cooke by appointment met me, to whom I did give my thoughts concerning Tom's match and their journey tomorrow, and did carry him by water to Tom's, and there taking up my wife, maid, dog, and him, did carry them home, where my wife is much pleased with my house, and so am I fully. I sent for some dinner and there dined, Mrs. Margaret Pen being by, to whom I had spoke to go along with us to a play this afternoon, and then to the King's Theatre, where we saw "Midsummer's Night's Dream", which I had never seen before, nor shall ever again, for it is the most insipid ridiculous play that ever I saw in my life. I saw, I confess, some good dancing and some handsome women, which was all my pleasure.

Thence set my wife down at Madam Turner's, and so by coach home, and having delivered Pegg Pen to her father safe, went home, where I find Mr. Deane, of Woolwich, hath sent me the modell he had promised me; but it so far exceeds my expectations, that I am sorry almost he should make such a present to no greater a person; but I am exceeding glad of it, and shall study to do him a courtesy for it.

So to my office and wrote a letter to Tom's mistress's mother to send by Cooke to-morrow. Then came Mr. Moore thinking to have looked over the business of my Brampton papers against the Court, but my mind was so full of other matters (as it is my nature when I have been a good while from a business, that I have almost forgot it, I am loth to come to it again) that I could not set upon it, and so he and I past the evening away in discourse, and to my lodgings and to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 February 1663. 23 Feb 1663. It being done, we got a coach and got well home about 12 at night. Now as my mind was but very ill satisfied with these two plays themselves, so was I in the midst of them sad to think of the spending so much money and venturing upon the breach of my vow, which I found myself sorry for, I bless God, though my nature would well be contented to follow the pleasure still. But I did make payment of my forfeiture presently, though I hope to save it back again by forbearing two plays at Court for this one at the Theatre, or else to forbear that to the Theatre which I am to have at Easter. But it being my birthday and my day of liberty regained to me, and lastly, the last play that is likely to be acted at Court before Easter, because of the Lent coming in, I was the easier content to fling away so much money.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 February 1663. 27 Feb 1663. Up and to my office, whither several persons came to me about office business. About 11 o'clock, Commissioner Pett (52) and I walked to Chyrurgeon's Hall (we being all invited thither, and promised to dine there); where we were led into the Theatre; and by and by comes the reader, Dr. Tearne, with the Master and Company, in a very handsome manner: and all being settled, he begun his lecture, this being the second upon the kidneys, ureters, &c., which was very fine; and his discourse being ended, we walked into the Hall, and there being great store of company, we had a fine dinner and good learned company, many Doctors of Phisique, and we used with extraordinary great respect. Among other observables we drank the King's health out of a gilt cup given by King Henry VIII to this Company, with bells hanging at it, which every man is to ring by shaking after he hath drunk up the whole cup. There is also a very excellent piece of the King, done by Holbein, stands up in the Hall, with the officers of the Company kneeling to him to receive their Charter.

1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 May 1663. 08 May 1663. Thence to my brother's, and there took up my wife and Ashwell to the Theatre Royall, being the second day of its being opened. The house is made with extraordinary good contrivance, and yet hath some faults, as the narrowness of the passages in and out of the Pitt, and the distance from the stage to the boxes, which I am confident cannot hear; but for all other things it is well, only, above all, the musique being below, and most of it sounding under the very stage, there is no hearing of the bases at all, nor very well of the trebles, which sure must be mended. The play was "The Humerous Lieutenant", a play that hath little good in it, nor much in the very part which, by the King's command, Lacy now acts instead of Clun. In the dance, the tall devil's actions was very pretty. The play being done, we home by water, having been a little shamed that my wife and woman were in such a pickle, all the ladies being finer and better dressed in the pitt than they used, I think, to be.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 28 May 1663. 28 May 1663. Up this morning, and my wife, I know not for what cause, being against going to Chelsey to-day, it being a holy day (Ascension Day) and I at leisure, it being the first holy day almost that we have observed ever since we came to the office, we did give Ashwell leave to go by herself, and I out to several places about business. Among others to Dr. Williams, to reckon with him for physique that my wife has had for a year or two, coming to almost £4.

Then to the Exchange, where I hear that the King (32) had letters yesterday from France that the King (24) there is in a [way] of living again, which I am glad to hear. At the coffee-house in Exchange Alley I bought a little book, "Counsell to Builders", by Sir Balth. Gerbier. It is dedicated almost to all the men of any great condition in England, so that the Epistles are more than the book itself, and both it and them not worth a turd, that I am ashamed that I bought it.

Home and there found Creed, who dined with us, and after dinner by water to the Royall Theatre; but that was so full they told us we could have no room.

And so to the Duke's house; and there saw "Hamlett" done, giving us fresh reason never to think enough of Betterton (27). Who should we see come upon the stage but Gosnell, my wife's maid? but neither spoke, danced, nor sung; which I was sorry for. But she becomes the stage very well.

Thence by water home, after we had walked to and fro, backwards and forwards, six or seven times in the Temple walks, disputing whether to go by land or water. By land home, and thence by water to Halfway House, and there eat some supper we carried with us, and so walked home again, it being late we were forced to land at the dock, my wife and they, but I in a humour not willing to daub my shoes went round by the Custom House.

So home, and by and by to bed, Creed lying with me in the red chamber all night.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 29 May 1663. 29 May 1663. This day is kept strictly as a holy-day, being the King's Coronation. We lay long in bed, and it rained very hard, rain and hail, almost all the morning.

By and by Creed and I abroad, and called at several churches; and it is a wonder to see, and by that to guess the ill temper of the City at this time, either to religion in general, or to the King (33), that in some churches there was hardly ten people in the whole church, and those poor people.

So to a coffee-house, and there in discourse hear the King of France (24) is likely to be well again.

So home to dinner, and out by water to the Royall Theatre, but they not acting to-day, then to the Duke's house, and there saw "The Slighted Mayde", wherein Gosnell acted Pyramena, a great part, and did it very well, and I believe will do it better and better, and prove a good actor. The play is not very excellent, but is well acted, and in general the actors, in all particulars, are better than at the other house.

Thence to the Cocke alehouse, and there having drunk, sent them with Creed to see "The German Princess1, at the Gatehouse, at Westminster, and I to my brother's, and thence to my uncle Fenner's to have seen my aunt James (who has been long in town and goes away to-morrow and I not seen her), but did find none of them within, which I was glad of, and so back to my brother's to speak with him, and so home, and in my way did take two turns forwards and backwards through the Fleete Ally to see a couple of pretty [strumpets] that stood off the doors there, and God forgive me I could scarce stay myself from going into their houses with them, so apt is my nature to evil after once, as I have these two days, set upon pleasure again.

So home and to my office to put down these two days' journalls, then home again and to supper, and then Creed and I to bed with good discourse, only my mind troubled about my spending my time so badly for these seven or eight days; but I must impute it to the disquiet that my mind has been in of late about my wife, and for my going these two days to plays, for which I have paid the due forfeit by money and abating the times of going to plays at Court, which I am now to remember that I have cleared all my times that I am to go to Court plays to the end of this month, and so June is the first time that I am to begin to reckon.

Note 1. Mary Moders (21), alias Stedman alias Carleton, a notorious impostor, who pretended to be a German princess. Her arrival as the German princess "at the Exchange Tavern, right against the Stocks betwixt the Poultry and Cornhill, at 5 in the morning...., with her marriage to Carleton the taverner's wife's brother", are incidents fully narrated in Francis Kirkman's "Counterfeit Lady Unveiled", 1673 ("Boyne's Tokens", ed. Williamson, vol. i., p. 703). Her adventures formed the plot of a tragi-comedy by T. P., entitled "A Witty Combat, or the Female Victor", 1663, which was acted with great applause by persons of quality in Whitsun week. Mary Carleton was tried at the Old Bailey for bigamy and acquitted, after which she appeared on the stage in her own character as the heroine of a play entitled "The German Princess". Pepys went to the Duke's house to see her on April 15th, 1664. The rest of her life was one continued course of robbery and fraud, and in 1678 she was executed at Tyburn for stealing a piece of plate in Chancery Lane.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 01 June 1663. 01 Jun 1663. Begun again to rise betimes by 4 o'clock, and made an end of "The Adventures of Five Hours", and it is a most excellent play.

So to my office, where a while and then about several businesses, in my way to my brother's, where I dined (being invited) with Mr. Peter and Dean Honiwood, where Tom did give us a very pretty dinner, and we very pleasant, but not very merry, the Dean being but a weak man, though very good. I was forced to rise, being in haste to St. James's to attend the Duke (29), and left them to end their dinner; but the Duke (29) having been a-hunting to-day, and so lately come home and gone to bed, we could not see him, and Mr. Coventry (35) being out of the house too, we walked away to White Hall and there took coach, and I with Sir J. Minnes (64) to the Strand May-pole; and there 'light out of his coach, and walked to the New Theatre, which, since the King's players are gone to the Royal one, is this day begun to be employed by the fencers to play prizes at. And here I came and saw the first prize I ever saw in my life: and it was between one Mathews, who did beat at all weapons, and one Westwicke, who was soundly cut several times both in the head and legs, that he was all over blood: and other deadly blows they did give and take in very good earnest, till Westwicke was in a most sad pickle. They fought at eight weapons, three bouts at each weapon. It was very well worth seeing, because I did till this day think that it has only been a cheat; but this being upon a private quarrel, they did it in good earnest; and I felt one of their swords, and found it to be very little, if at all blunter on the edge, than the common swords are. Strange to see what a deal of money is flung to them both upon the stage between every bout. But a woful rude rabble there was, and such noises, made my head ake all this evening.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of John Mennes Comptroller 1599-1671.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 12 June 1663. 12 Jun 1663. Up and my office, there conning my measuring Ruler, which I shall grow a master of in a very little time.

At noon to the Exchange and so home to dinner, and abroad with my wife by water to the Royall Theatre; and there saw "The Committee", a merry but indifferent play, only Lacey's part, an Irish footman, is beyond imagination. Here I saw my Lord Falconbridge (36), and his Lady, my Lady Mary Cromwell (26), who looks as well as I have known her, and well clad; but when the House began to fill she put on her vizard1, and so kept it on all the play; which of late is become a great fashion among the ladies, which hides their whole face.

So to the Exchange, to buy things with my wife; among others, a vizard for herself. And so by water home and to my office to do a little business, and so to see Sir W. Pen (42), but being going to bed and not well I could not see him.

So home and to supper and bed, being mightily troubled all night and next morning with the palate of my mouth being down from some cold I took to-day sitting sweating in the playhouse, and the wind blowing through the windows upon my head.

Note 1. Masks were commonly used by ladies in the reign of Elizabeth, and when their use was revived at the Restoration for respectable women attending the Theatre, they became general. They soon, however, became the mark of loose women, and their use was discontinued by women of repute. On June 1st, 1704, a song was sung at the Theatre in Lincoln's Inn Fields called "The Misses' Lamentation for want of their Vizard Masques at the Theatre". Mr. R. W. Lowe gives several references to the use of vizard masks at the Theatre in his interesting biography, "Thomas Betterton (27)"..

1651. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Thomas Belasyse 1st Earl Fauconberg 1627-1700. Inscribed M D Hout. Around 1657 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Mary Cromwell Countess Fauconberg 1637-1713.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 June 1663. 13 Jun 1663. Up and betimes to Thames Street among the tarr men, to look the price of tarr and so by water to Whitehall thinking to speak with Sir G. Carteret (53), but he lying in the city all night, and meeting with Mr. Cutler the merchant, I with him in his coach into the city to Sir G. Carteret (53), but missing him there, he and I walked to find him at Sir Tho. Allen's in Bread Street, where not finding him he and I walked towards our office, he discoursing well of the business of the Navy, and particularly of the victualling, in which he was once I perceive concerned, and he and I parted and I to the office and there had a difference with Sir W. Batten (62) about Mr. Bowyer's tarr, which I am resolved to cross, though he sent me last night, as a bribe, a barrel of sturgeon, which, it may be, I shall send back, for I will not have the King (33) abused so abominably in the price of what we buy, by Sir W. Batten's (62) corruption and underhand dealing.

So from the office, Mr. Wayth with me, to the Parliament House, and there I spoke and told Sir G. Carteret (53) all, with which he is well pleased, and do recall his willingness yesterday, it seems, to Sir W. Batten (62), that we should buy a great quantity of tarr, being abused by him.

Thence with Mr. Wayth after drinking a cupp of ale at the Swan, talking of the corruption of the Navy, by water. I landed him at Whitefriars, and I to the Exchange, and so home to dinner, where I found my wife's brother, and thence after dinner by water to the Royall Theatre, where I resolved to bid farewell, as shall appear by my oaths tomorrow against all plays either at publique houses or Court till Christmas be over. Here we saw "The Faithfull Sheepheardesse", a most simple thing, and yet much thronged after, and often shown, but it is only for the scenes' sake, which is very fine indeed and worth seeing; but I am quite out of opinion with any of their actings, but Lacy's, compared with the other house.

Thence to see Mrs. Hunt, which we did and were much made of; and in our way saw my Baroness Castlemaine's (22), who, I fear, is not so handsome as I have taken her for, and now she begins to decay something. This is my wife's opinion also, for which I am sorry.

Thence by coach, with a mad coachman, that drove like mad, and down byeways, through Bucklersbury home, everybody through the street cursing him, being ready to run over them.

So home, and after writing letters by the post, home to supper and bed.

Yesterday, upon conference with the King (33) in the Banqueting House, the Parliament did agree with much ado, it being carried but by forty-two voices, that they would supply him with a sum of money; but what and how is not yet known, but expected to be done with great disputes the next week. But if done at all, it is well.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 02 January 1664. 02 Jan 1664. Up and to the office, and there sitting all the morning, and at noon to the 'Change, in my going met with Luellin and told him how I had received a letter and bill for £50 from Mr. Deering, and delivered it to him, which he told me he would receive for me. To which I consented, though professed not to desire it if he do not consider himself sufficiently able by the service I have done, and that it is rather my desire to have nothing till he be further sensible of my service.

From the 'Change I brought him home and dined with us, and after dinner I took my wife out, for I do find that I am not able to conquer myself as to going to plays till I come to some new vowe concerning it, and that I am now come, that is to say, that I will not see above one in a month at any of the publique theatres till the sum of 50s. be spent, and then none before New Year's Day next, unless that I do become worth £1000 sooner than then, and then am free to come to some other terms, and so leaving him in Lombard Street I took her to the King's house, and there met Mr. Nicholson, my old colleague, and saw "The Usurper", which is no good play, though better than what I saw yesterday. However, we rose unsatisfied, and took coach and home, and I to the office late writing letters, and so to supper and to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 01 February 1664. 01 Feb 1664. Up (my maids rising early this morning to washing), and being ready I found Mr. Strutt the purser below with 12 bottles of sacke, and tells me (which from Sir W. Batten (63) I had heard before) how young Jack Davis has railed against Sir W. Batten (63) for his endeavouring to turn him out of his place, at which for the fellow's sake, because it will likely prove his ruin, I am sorry, though I do believe he is a very arch rogue.

I took Strutt by coach with me to White Hall, where I set him down, and I to my Lord's, but found him gone out betimes to the Wardrobe, which I am glad to see that he so attends his business, though it troubles me that my counsel to my prejudice must be the cause of it. They tell me that he goes into the country next week, and that the young ladies come up this week before the old lady.

Here I hear how two men last night, justling for the wall about the New Exchange, did kill one another, each thrusting the other through; one of them of the King's Chappell, one Cave, and the other a retayner of my Lord Generall Middleton's (56).

Thence to White Hall; where, in the Duke's chamber, the King (33) came and stayed an hour or two laughing at Sir W. Petty (40), who was there about his boat; and at Gresham College in general; at which poor Petty was, I perceive, at some loss; but did argue discreetly, and bear the unreasonable follies of the King's objections and other bystanders with great discretion; and offered to take oddes against the King's best boates; but the King (33) would not lay, but cried him down with words only. Gresham College he mightily laughed at, for spending time only in weighing of ayre, and doing nothing else since they sat.

Thence to Westminster Hall, and there met with diverse people, it being terme time. Among others I spoke with Mrs. Lane, of whom I doubted to hear something of the effects of our last meeting about a fortnight or three weeks ago, but to my content did not. Here I met with Mr. Pierce, who tells me of several passages at Court, among others how the King (33), coming the other day to his Theatre to see "The Indian Queen" (which he commends for a very fine thing), my Baroness Castlemaine (23) was in the next box before he came; and leaning over other ladies awhile to whisper to the King (33), she rose out of the box and went into the King's, and set herself on the King's right hand, between the King (33) and the Duke of York (30); which, he swears, put the King (33) himself, as well as every body else, out of countenance; and believes that she did it only to show the world that she is not out of favour yet, as was believed.

Thence with Alderman Maynell by his coach to the 'Change, and there with several people busy, and so home to dinner, and took my wife out immediately to the King's Theatre, it being a new month, and once a month I may go, and there saw "The Indian Queen" acted; which indeed is a most pleasant show, and beyond my expectation; the play good, but spoiled with the ryme, which breaks the sense. But above my expectation most, the eldest Marshall did do her part most excellently well as I ever heard woman in my life; but her voice not so sweet as Ianthe's (27); but, however, we came home mightily contented. Here we met Mr. Pickering (46) and his mistress, Mrs. Doll Wilde (31); he tells me that the business runs high between the Chancellor (54) and my Lord Bristoll (51) against the Parliament; and that my Lord Lauderdale (47) and Cooper (42) open high against the Chancellor (54); which I am sorry for.

In my way home I 'light and to the Coffee-house, where I heard Lt. Coll. Baron tell very good stories of his travels over the high hills in Asia above the clouds, how clear the heaven is above them, how thicke like a mist the way is through the cloud that wets like a sponge one's clothes, the ground above the clouds all dry and parched, nothing in the world growing, it being only a dry earth, yet not so hot above as below the clouds. The stars at night most delicate bright and a fine clear blue sky, but cannot see the earth at any time through the clouds, but the clouds look like a world below you.

Thence home and to supper, being hungry, and so to the office, did business, specially about Creed, for whom I am now pretty well fitted, and so home to bed. This day in Westminster Hall W. Bowyer told me that his father is dead lately, and died by being drowned in the river, coming over in the night; but he says he had not been drinking. He was taken with his stick in his hand and cloake over his shoulder, as ruddy as before he died. His horse was taken overnight in the water, hampered in the bridle, but they were so silly as not to look for his master till the next morning, that he was found drowned.

Before 12 Dec 1676 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of John Middleton 1st Earl Middleton 1608-1674. Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of George Digby 2nd Earl Bristol 1612-1677 and William Russell 1st Duke Bedford 1616-1700. Around 1638 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of George Digby 2nd Earl Bristol 1612-1677. Around 1672 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Anthony Ashley-Cooper 1st Earl Shaftesbury 1621-1683. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Anthony Ashley-Cooper 1st Earl Shaftesbury 1621-1683.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 30 December 1667. 30 Dec 1667. Up before day, and by coach to Westminster, and there first to Sir H. Cholmly (35), and there I did to my great content deliver him up his little several papers for sums of money paid him, and took his regular receipts upon his orders, wherein I am safe.

Thence to White Hall, and there to visit Sir G. Carteret (57), and there was with him a great while, and my Lady and they seem in very good humour, but by and by Sir G. Carteret (57) and I alone, and there we did talk of the ruinous condition we are in, the King (37) being going to put out of the Council so many able men; such as my Lord Anglesey (53), Ashly (46), Hollis (68), Secretary Morrice (65) (to bring in Mr. Trevor), and the Archbishop of Canterbury (69), and my Lord Bridgewater (44). He tells me that this is true, only the Duke of York (34) do endeavour to hinder it, and the Duke of York (34) himself did tell him so: that the King (37) and the Duke of York (34) do not in company disagree, but are friendly; but that there is a core in their hearts, he doubts, which is not to be easily removed; for these men do suffer only for their constancy to the Chancellor (58), or at least from the King's ill-will against him: that they do now all they can to vilify the clergy, and do accuse Rochester [Dolben]... and so do raise scandals, all that is possible, against other of the Bishops. He do suggest that something is intended for the Duke of Monmouth (18), and it may be, against the Queene (58) also: that we are in no manner sure against an invasion the next year: that the Duke of Buckingham (39) do rule all now, and the Duke of York (34) comes indeed to the Caball, but signifies little there. That this new faction do not endure, nor the King (37), Sir W. Coventry (39); but yet that he is so usefull that they cannot be without him; but that he is not now called to the Caball. That my Lord of Buckingham (39), Bristoll (55), and Arlington (49), do seem to agree in these things; but that they do not in their hearts trust one another, but do drive several ways, all of them. In short, he do bless himself that he is no more concerned in matters now; and the hopes he hath of being at liberty, when his accounts are over, to retire into the country. That he do give over the Kingdom for wholly lost. So after some other little discourse, I away, meeting with Mr. Cooling. I with him by coach to the Wardrobe, where I never was since the fire in Hatton Garden, but did not 'light: and he tells me he fears that my Lord Sandwich (42) will suffer much by Mr. Townsend's being untrue to him, he being now unable to give the Commissioners of the Treasury an account of his money received by many thousands of pounds, which I am troubled for.

Thence to the Old Exchange together, he telling me that he believes there will be no such turning out of great men as is talked of, but that it is only to fright people, but I do fear there may be such a thing doing. He do mightily inveigh against the folly of the King (37) to bring his matters to wrack thus, and that we must all be undone without help. I met with Cooling at the Temple-gate, after I had been at both my booksellers and there laid out several pounds in books now against the new year. From the 'Change (where I met with Captain Cocke (50), who would have borrowed money of me, but I had the grace to deny him, he would have had 3 or £400) I with Cocke (50) and Mr. Temple (whose wife was just now brought to bed of a boy, but he seems not to be at all taken with it, which is a strange consideration how others do rejoice to have a child born), to Sir G. Carteret's (57), in Lincoln's Inn Fields, and there did dine together, there being there, among other company, Mr. Attorney Montagu (49), and his fine lady, a fine woman.

After dinner, I did understand from my Lady Jemimah that her brother Hinchingbroke's business was to be ended this day, as she thinks, towards his match, and they do talk here of their intent to buy themselves some new clothes against the wedding, which I am very glad of.

After dinner I did even with Sir G. Carteret (57) the accounts of the interest of the money which I did so long put out for him in Sir R. Viner's (36) hands, and by it I think I shall be a gainer about £28, which is a very good reward for the little trouble I have had in it.

Thence with Sir Philip Carteret (26) to the King's playhouse, there to see "Love's Cruelty", an old play, but which I have not seen before; and in the first act Orange Moll come to me, with one of our porters by my house, to tell me that Mrs. Pierce and Knepp did dine at my house to-day, and that I was desired to come home. So I went out presently, and by coach home, and they were just gone away so, after a very little stay with my wife, I took coach again, and to the King's playhouse again, and come in the fourth act; and it proves to me a very silly play, and to everybody else, as far as I could judge. But the jest is, that here telling Moll how I had lost my journey, she told me that Mrs. Knepp was in the house, and so shews me to her, and I went to her, and sat out the play, and then with her to Mrs. Manuel's, where Mrs. Pierce was, and her boy and girl; and here I did hear Mrs. Manuel and one of the Italians, her gallant, sing well. But yet I confess I am not delighted so much with it, as to admire it: for, not understanding the words, I lose the benefit of the vocalitys of the musick, and it proves only instrumental; and therefore was more pleased to hear Knepp sing two or three little English things that I understood, though the composition of the other, and performance, was very fine.

Thence, after sitting and talking a pretty while, I took leave and left them there, and so to my bookseller's, and paid for the books I had bought, and away home, where I told my wife where I had been. But she was as mad as a devil, and nothing but ill words between us all the evening while we sat at cards—W. Hewer (25) and the girl by—even to gross ill words, which I was troubled for, but do see that I must use policy to keep her spirit down, and to give her no offence by my being with Knepp and Pierce, of which, though she will not own it, yet she is heartily jealous. At last it ended in few words and my silence (which for fear of growing higher between us I did forbear), and so to supper and to bed without one word one to another.

This day I did carry money out, and paid several debts. Among others, my tailor, and shoemaker, and draper, Sir W. Turner (52), who begun to talk of the Commission of accounts, wherein he is one; but though they are the greatest people that ever were in the nation as to power, and like to be our judges, yet I did never speak one word to him of desiring favour, or bidding him joy in it, but did answer him to what he said, and do resolve to stand or fall by my silent preparing to answer whatever can be laid to me, and that will be my best proceeding, I think. This day I got a little rent in my new fine camlett cloak with the latch of Sir G. Carteret's (57) door; but it is darned up at my tailor's, that it will be no great blemish to it; but it troubled me. I could not but observe that Sir Philip Carteret (26) would fain have given me my going into a play; but yet, when he come to the door, he had no money to pay for himself, I having refused to accept of it for myself, but was fain; and I perceive he is known there, and do run upon the score for plays, which is a shame; but I perceive always he is in want of money1. In the pit I met with Sir Ch. North (31), formerly Mr. North, who was with my Lord at sea; and he, of his own accord, was so silly as to tell me he is married; and for her (36) quality (being a Lord's daughter, my Lord Grey (74)), and person, and beauty, and years, and estate, and disposition, he is the happiest man in the world. I am sure he is an ugly fellow; but a good scholar and sober gentleman; and heir to his father, now Lord North (74), the old Lord being dead.

Note 1. The practice of gallants attending the Theatre without payment is illustrated by Mr. Lowe in his "Betterton (32)", from Shadwell's "True Widow": "1st Doorkeeper. Pray, sir, pay me: my masters will make me pay it. 3d Man. Impudent rascal, do you ask me for money? Take that, sirrah. 2nd Doorkeeper. Will you pay me, sir? 4th Man. No; I don't intend to stay. 2nd Doorkeeper. So you say every day, and see two or three acts for nothing"..

In 1676 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Arthur Annesley 1st Earl Anglesey 1614-1686. Before 12 Dec 1676 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of William Morice 1602-1676. Around 1670. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685. Around 1675 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 wearing his Garter Collar. Around 1676 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington 1618-1685 wearing his Garter Robes. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington 1618-1685. Before 24 May 1711 John Closterman Painter 1660-1711. Portrait of Edward Montagu 3rd Earl Sandwich 1670-1729. Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Robert Vyner Banker 1st Baronet 1631-1688 and Mary Whitchurch Lady Vyner -1674 and their children. In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of William Hewer 1642-1715.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 April 1669. 23 Apr 1669. Going to rise, without saying anything, my wife stopped me; and, after a little angry talk, did tell me how she spent all day yesterday with M. Batelier and her sweetheart, and seeing a play at the New Nursery, which is set up at the house in Lincoln's Inn Fields, which was formerly the King's house. So that I was mightily pleased again, and rose a with great content; and so by water to White Hall, and there to the Council-Chamber, and heard two or three causes: among others, that of the complaint of Sir Philip Howard (38) and Watson, the inventors, as they pretend, of the business of varnishing and lackerworke, against the Company of Painters, who take upon them to do the same thing; where I saw a great instance of the weakness of a young Counsel not used to such an audience, against the Solicitor-General and two more able Counsel used to it. Though he had the right of, his side, and did prevail for what he pretended to against the rest, yet it was with much disadvantage and hazard. Here, also I heard Mr. Papillion (45) make his defence to the King (38), against some complaints of the Farmers of Excise; but it was so weak, and done only by his own seeking, that it was to his injury more than profit, and made his case the worse, being ill managed, and in a cause against the King (38).

Thence at noon, the Council rising, I to Unthanke's, and there by agreement met my wife, and with her to the Cocke (52), and did give her a dinner, but yet both of us but in an ill humour, whatever was the matter with her, but thence to the King's playhouse, and saw "The Generous Portugalls", a play that pleases me better and better every time we see it; and, I thank God! it did not trouble my eyes so much as I was afeard it would. Here, by accident, we met Mr. Sheres, and yet I could not but be troubled, because my wife do so delight to talk of him, and to see him. Nevertheless, we took him with us to our mercer's, and to the Exchange, and he helped me to choose a summer-suit of coloured camelott, coat and breeches, and a flowered tabby vest very rich; and so home, where he took his leave, and down to Greenwich, where he hath some friends; and I to see Colonel Middleton, who hath been ill for a day or two, or three; and so home to supper, and to bed.

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