History of Tyburn

1330 Execution of Roger Mortimer

1399 Epiphany Rising

1397 Murder of Thomas of Woodstock

1441 Trial and Punishment of Eleanor Cobham

1477 Execution of Burdett and Stacy

1486 Stafford and Lovell Rebellion

1499 Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick

1534 Execution of Elizabeth "Holy Maid of Kent" Barton

1537 Execution of the Fitzgeralds

1536 Pilgrimage of Grace

1537 Bigod's Rebellion

1541 Executions

1541 Catherine Howard Tyburn Executions

1549 Prayer Book Rebellion

1553 Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

1554 Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

1557 Scarborough Castle Rebellion

1613 Thomas Overbury Murder and Trial of his Murderers

1641 Irish Rebellion

1660 Trial and Execution of the Regicides

1661 Execution of Deceased Regicides

1662 Trial and Execution of Henry Vane "The Younger"

1683 Rye House Plot

1678 Popish Plot

1685 Argyll's Rising

1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III

1715 Battle of Preston

1760 Trial and Execution of Earl Ferrers

Tyburn is in Middlesex.

Execution of Roger Mortimer

On 29 Nov 1330 Roger Mortimer 1st Earl Dunbar aka March 1287-1330 (43) was hanged naked at Tyburn accused of assuming royal power and of various other high misdemeanours. His body hung at the gallows for two days and nights. Roger Mortimer 2nd Earl Dunbar aka March 1328-1360 (2) succeeded 2nd Earl March 1C 1328, 4th Baron Mortimer Wigmore.

Epiphany Rising

On 04 Feb 1400 Bernard Brocas 1354-1400 (46) was tried, and condemned to death, by Thomas Fitzalan 10th Earl Surrey 12th Earl Arundel 1381-1415 (18) at Tower of London for his role in the Epiphany Rising having been captured in Cirencester.

On 05 Feb 1400 Bernard Brocas 1354-1400 (46) was beheaded at Tyburn. He was buried at the Chapel of St Edmund.

Murder of Thomas of Woodstock

In 1404 William Serle -1404 was hanged at Tyburn for having been one of the murderers of Murder of Thomas of Woodstock.

Trial and Punishment of Eleanor Cobham

On 18 Nov 1441, Saturday, Roger Bolingbroke Astrologer -1441 was hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn.

Chronicle of Gregory 1447. 14 Jul 1447. And on Fryday the xiiij day of Juylle nexte folowynge by jugement at Westemyster, there by fore v [5] personys were dampnyd to be drawe, hanggyd and hyr bowellys i-brente by fore hem, and thenne hyr heddys to ben smetyn of, ande thenne to be quarteryde, and every parte to be sende unto dyvers placys by assygnement of the jugys. Whyche personys werethes: Arteys (20) the bastarde of the sayde Duke of Glouceter (56), Syr Rogger Chambyrlayne knyght, Mylton squyer, Thomas Harberde squyer, Nedam yeman, whyche were the sayde xiiij day of Juylle i-drawe fro Syn Gorgys thoroughe owte Sowthewerke and on Londyn Brygge, ande so forthe thorowe the cytte of London to the Tyborne, and there alle they were hanggyde, and the ropys smetyn a-sondyr, they beynge alle lyvynge, and thenne, ar any more of any markys of excecusyon were done, the Duke of Sowthefolke (50) brought them alle yn generalle pardon and grace from our lorde and soverayne Kynge Harry the vj (25)te.

On 29 Jul 1460 Thomas Browne Lord Treasurer Lord Chancellor 1402-1460 (58) was beheaded at Tyburn.

Execution of Burdett and Stacy

Before 13 Jun 1477 two servants of George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 were hanged at Tyburn for being sorcerers and planning the murder of Richard Beauchamp 2nd Baron Beauchamp Powick 1435-1503.

John Stacy -1477 and Thomas Burdett of Arrow in Warwickshire 1425-1477 (52) were hanged.

Stafford and Lovell Rebellion

Around Apr 1486 the Stafford and Lovell Rebellion was an armed uprising against Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (29). With the failure of the plot Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell 1456-1488 (30) fled to Margaret Duchess of Burgundy 1446-1503 (39) in Flanders.

On 08 Jul 1486 Humphrey Stafford 1426-1486 (60) and Thomas Stafford -1486 was executed at Tyburn.

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525 is believed to have painted the portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VII. 1499. This yeare, in June, deceased the third sonne of the Kinge named Duke of Somersett and was buried at Westminster. Perkin Werbeck (25) putt to death at Tybume Note. 22 Nov 1499; and the Earle of Warwyke (23), Sonne to the Duke of Clarence (49), who had bene kept in the Tower from the age of 11 years unto the end of 14 yeares, was beheaded at the Tower Hill Note. See Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick. A great pestilence throughout all England.

On 23 Nov 1499 Perkin Warbreck 1474-1499 (25) was hanged at Tyburn during the Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick.

On 05 Feb 1523 Agnes Cotell 1485-1523 (38) and William Mathewe were hanged at Tyburn for the murder of her first husband John Cotell -1518.

On 21 Apr 1529 John Throckmorton 1529-1556 was hanged at Tyburn.

Execution of Elizabeth "Holy Maid of Kent" Barton

On 20 Apr 1534 Elizabeth "Holy Maid of Kent" Barton 1506-1534 (28) was hanged at Tyburn for treason. Five of her supporters were executed alongside her: Edward Bocking, Benedictine monk of Christ Church, Canterbury, John Dering, Benedictine monk, Henry Gold, priest, Hugh Rich, Franciscan friar and Richard Risby, Franciscan friar.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VIII 1536 27th Year. 15 May 1536. After this, immediatliei the Lord of Rocheforde (33), her brother, was arreigned for treason, which was for knowinge the Queene, his sister, carnallie, moste detestable against the la we of God and nature allso, and treason to his Prince, and allso for conspiracie of the Kinges death: Whereunto he made aunswere so prudentlie and wiselie to all articles layde against him, that manreil it was to heare, and never would confesse anye thinge, but made himselfe as cleare as though he had never offended. Howbeit he was there condemned by 26 lordes and barons of treason, and then my Lord of Northfolke (63) gave him this judgment: That he should goo agayne to prison in the Tower from whence he came, and to be drawne from the saide Towre of London thorowe the Cittie of London to the place of execution called Tybume, and there to be hanged, beinge alyve cutt downe, and then his members cutt of and his bowells taken owt of his bodie and brent [burned] before him, and then his head cutt of and his bodie to be divided in 4 peeces, and his head and bodie to be sett at suche places as the King should assigne; and after this the court brake up for that tyme. The Major of London with certeyne Aldermen were present at this arreignment of the Queene and her brother, with the wardeins and 4 persons more of 12 of the principall craftes of London. See Trial of Anne Boleyn and her Co-Accused.

Hall's Chronicle Henry VIII The XXVII Year. IN the beginnyng of this yere the duke of Norffolke and the Bishop of Ely went to Caleys, and thether came the Admyral of Framnce. And the xix. day of June was thre Monkes of the Charterhouse hanged, drawen, and quartred at Tyborne and their quarters set up about Lodon for deniyng the kyng to be supreme head of the Churche. Their names were Exmewe, Myddlemore, and Nudigate, These men when they wer arreigned at Westminster, behaued the'm selfes very stifly & stubbornly, for hearyng their incitement red how trayterously they had spoken against the kynges Maiestie his croune and dignitie, they neither blushed nor bashed at it, but very folishly & hipocriticaily knowleged their treason whiche maliciously they auouched, hauyng no lernyng for their defece, but rather beyng asked dyuers questions, they vsed a malicious silence, .thinkyng as by their examinacions afterward in the Tower of London it did appeare, for so they sayd, y they thought those men which was y lorde Crumwel & other that there satte vpon them in Judgement to be heretiques and not of the Churche of God, and therfore not worthy to be either aunswered or spoken vnto. And therfore as they deserued, they receiued as you haue heard before.

Execution of the Fitzgeralds

On 03 Feb 1537 the six Fitzgeralds, nephew and five uncles, Thomas "Silken" Fitzgerald 10th Earl Kildare 1513-1537 (24), James Fitzgerald 1496-1537 (41), Oliver Fitzgerald 1496-1537 (41), Richard Fitzgerald -1537, John Fitzgerald -1537 and Walter Fitzgerald 1496-1537 (41) were executed at Tyburn.

Pilgrimage of Grace

Around 30 May 1537 the Abbots of Fountains Abbey, Marmaduke Bradley, and Guisborough Priory, Robert Pursglove, were hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn for their role in the Pilgrimage of Grace. Their heads were displayed on London Bridge.

Bigod's Rebellion

On 02 Jun 1537 Thomas Percy 1504-1537 (33), Francis Bigod 1507-1537 (29), and John Bulmer -1537 and Ralph Bulmer -1537 were hanged at Tyburn.

Pilgrimage of Grace

On 02 Jun 1537 Abbot Adam Sedbar 1502-1537 (35) and Prior William Wood -1537 were hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn for their role in the Pilgrimage of Grace. Their heads were displayed on London Bridge.

Bigod's Rebellion

On 12 Jul 1537 Robert Aske 1500-1537 (37) was hanged at York.

George aka William Lumley -1537 was hanged at Tyburn.

Nicholas Tempest 1480-1537 (57) was hanged at Tyburn.

In Aug 1540 Giles Heron 1504-1540 (36) was hanged at Tyburn for treason; not clear what his crime was?.

1541 Executions

On 29 Jun 1541 Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre Gilsland 1515-1541 (26) was hanged at Tyburn. He was buried at St Sepulchre without Newgate.

Around 1556 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Mary Neville Baroness Dacre Gilsland 1524-1576 with an inset portrait of husband Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre Gilsland 1515-1541.

Catherine Howard Tyburn Executions

On 10 Dec 1541. At Tyburn ....

Francis Dereham (28) was hanged.

Thomas Culpepper 1514-1541 (27) was beheaded. He was buried at St Sepulchre without Newgate.

On 07 Mar 1544 Thomas Larke Dean Martyr 1490-1544 (54) was hanged at Tyburn.

Diary of Henry Machyn September 1554. 20 Sep 1544. The xx day of September was ij men dran of ij hyrdles unto Tyburne and un-to hangyng, the ij for qwynnyng [coining] of noythy [naughty] money, and deseyvyng of the quen('s) subjects; the one dwelt in London sum tym.

Diary of Henry Machyn September 1554. 27 Sep 1544. The xxvij day of September wher iiij hangyd, on was a Spaneard, at Tyburne: ij wher goodly felows.

Prayer Book Rebellion

John Stow's Annales of England 1550. 27 Jan 1550. the 27 of January, Humfrey Arundell (37) esquire, Thomas Holmes, Winslowe and Bery, captaines of the rebels in Devonshire, were hanged and quartered at Tyboure.

John Stow's Annales of England 1550. 10 Feb 1550. The 10 of February one Bel a Suffolke man, was hanged and quartered at Tyborne, for moving a new rebellion in Suffolk and Essex.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1552. 02 May 1552. The ij day of May was a proclamasyon for haledaye[s and] fastyng days to be observyd and kept, and alle othur fe[asts;] and for korears and lethers sellers and tynkares, and pe[dlars.]

The sam day was hangyd at Tyborne ix fello[ns.]

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1552. 11 Jul 1552. The xj day of July hangyd one James Ellys, the grett pykke purs that ever was, and cutt-purs, and vij more for theyfft, at Tyburne.

Diary of Henry Machyn December 1552. 21 Dec 1552. The xxj day of Desember rod to Tyborne to be hangyd for a robery done on Honsley heth, iij talmen and a lake.

Diary of Henry Machyn January 1553. 21 Jan 1553. The xxj day of the sam monyth rod unto [Tyburn] ij felons, serten was for kyllyng of a gentylman [of] ser Edward North knyght, in Charturhowsse cheyr[ch yard?]—the vij yere of kyng Edward the vj.

Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

Diary of Henry Machyn August 1553. 18 Aug 1553. The xviij day of August was reynyd at Westmynster hall the marqwes of Northamton (41), and the duke (49), and th'erle of Warwyke (26), and so they wher condemnyd to be had to the place that thay cam fro, and from thens to be drane thrugh London onto Tyburne, and ther to be hangyd, and then to be cott downe, and ther bowells to be brentt, and ther heds to be sett on London bryge and odur [places.]

Around 1539 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton 1512-1571.

Diary of Henry Machyn January 1554. 13 Jan 1554. The xiij day of January ther was a man drane from the Towre thrugh London a-pone a sled unto Tyborne, and ther hangyd, dran, and quartered, for conterffeytyng the quen('s) senett [signet].

The sam day was had to the Flett doctur Crom, persun of Aldermare, for [preaching on Christmas-day without licenced]

Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 15 Feb 1554. 15 Feb 1554. The 15 of February were hanged of the rebells iii against St Magnus Churche, iii at Billingsgate, iii at Ledenhall, one at Moregate, one at Creplegate, one at Aldrigegate, two at Paules, iii in Holborne, iii at Tower hill, ii at Tyburne, and at 4 places in Sowthwerke 14. And divers others were executed at Kingston and other places.

Allso this daye about ix of the clock in the foorenoone was seene in London in the middest of the Element a raynebowe lyke fyre, the endes upward, and two sunnes, by the space of an hower and an halfe.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Mary I 1st Year 18 May 1554. 18 May 1554. Fridaye the xviiith of May William Thomas was drawne from the Tower of London to Tiburne, and there hanged, headed, and quartered, and after his head sett on London Bridge, and his quarters sett in 4 severall places, one myle out of the Cittie of London.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1554. 18 May 1554. The xviij day of May was drane a-pone a sled a proper man namyd Wylliam Thomas from the Towre unto Tyborne; the .. he was clarke to the consell; and he was hangyd, and after ys hed stryken of, and then quartered; and the morow after ys hed was sett on London bryge, and iij quarters set over Crepullgate.

Diary of Henry Machyn January 1555. 18 Jan 1555. The xviij day of January wher hangyd at Tyborne ij men and iiij women.

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1556. 07 Mar 1555. The vij day of Marche was hangyd at Tyborne x theyffes for robere and odur thynges.

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1555. 06 Jul 1555. The vj day of July rod to Tyburne to be hangyd iij men, and on drane [drawn] upon a hyrdyll unto Tyburne for qwynnyng [coining] of money.

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1556. 28 Apr 1556. The xxviij day of Aprell was drane from the Towre to Tyborne ij gentyll-men; on ys name was master Waddall captayn of the yle of Wyth, and the odur master John Frogmorton (27); and so hangyd, and aftar cut downe and quartered, and the morowe after ther hedes sett on London bryge—the iij of quen Mare.

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1556. 19 May 1556. The xix day of May was dran [drawn] from the Towre unto Tyborne captain Wylliam Stantun, and ther hangyd and quartered, and ys hed sett on London bryge the morow after.

Diary of Henry Machyn June 1556. 06 Jun 1556. The ix day of June was drane from the Towre unto Tyborne iij gentyllmen for a consperace, master Rosey, master Bedylle, and master Dethyke, and ther hangyd and quartered, and ther quarters bered, master Rosey('s) hed on London bryge, and Bedylle('s) hed over Ludgatt, and master Dethyke('s) over Althergatt.

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1556. 02 Jul 1556. The ij day of July rod in a care v. unto Tyborne; on was the hangman with the stump-lege for theft, [the] wyche he had hangyd mony a man and quartered mony, and hed [beheaded] mony a nobull man and odur.

Scarborough Castle Rebellion

Diary of Henry Machyn July 1557. Apr 1557. The (blank) day of Aprell suffered dethe in [several] plases in the Northe for entrying in-to Sk[arborough] castyll, (for) the wyche at London master Thomas [Stafford] (24) was heddyd on Towre hylle; and at Tyborne John Procter aleas Wylliamsun, Wyllyam Stowe, John Bradford, and more in dyvers plases; [in York]shyre, John Wylborne, Clement Tyllyd, John Cawsewelle, and Robart Hunter, at York, [by the] dethe of hangyng, drahyns, and quarter[ing].

Item, at Skarborow suffered dethe master Thomas Sp .., John Adames, John Wattsun, skott, John .. a frencheman.

At Hulle, John Browne, Owyn Jones, suffered.

At Beverley, Hary Gardener and John Thomas suffered.

At Whyttby, Thomas Warden and John Deyctam, skott.

Att Malton [Note. Assumed to be Melton since in the East Riding like the other places mentioned rather than Mlaton in the North Riding.], Wyllyam Palmer, John Mortfurth, scott.

Att Flamborow, at Assyley, Thomas Wylkynsun.

At Byrlyngton, John Wallys.

At Awdborowre, Antony Persevall.

At Hornesey, Wylliam Wyllamsun.

At Pawlle in Holdernes, Roger Thomas.

At Hassylle, Roger Raynoldes.

At Alefax, Lawransse Alssope.

At Donkester, in Yorkeshyre, Thomas Jordayn.

At Howden, John Grey, skotte.

At Wakefeld, Robert Hawgatt, skott; and all thes for enteryng in Skarborow castylle.

.... es Stanley, of Le, in Essex.

Thomas Thorley, of Prykkyllwell, in Essex.

Hare Ramsey, of Amwell, in conte of Harford.

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Diary of Henry Machyn April 1557. 06 Apr 1557. The vj day of Aprell hangyd at Tyborne viij f ....

Diary of Henry Machyn January 1560. 12 Jan 1560. The sam day was sessyons at Nuwgatt, and ther ... wher cast xij, and vj was bornyd in ther hand, and the .... was iij [3] cared to Tyburne, and ther hangyd, and on [one] rep[rieved].

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1560. 29 Apr 1560. The xxix day of Aprell whent to hangyng ix men and one woman to Tyburne.

Diary of Henry Machyn April 1561. 21 Apr 1561. The xxj day of Aprell wher hangyd ix, at Hyd parke korner iij, and vj at Tyborne.

Diary of Henry Machyn December 1561. 15 Dec 1561. The xv day of Desember was bered in sant Donstons in the whest master Norrey (51), alleas Dalton, kynge of armes of the North from Trent unto Barwyke [Berwick].... were hanged at Tyb]orne, and on [one] off them the sur[geons took] for a notyme [anatomy] in-to ther halle.

Diary of Henry Machyn Aprile 1562. 13 Apr 1562. The xiij day of Aprell was cared unto Tyburne ix, vij men and and a boy and on woman, to be hangyd ther.

Diary of Henry Machyn June 1562. 27 Jun 1562. The xxvij day of June whent to Tyburne v men and iiij women for to hange for thefte.

Diary of Henry Machyn August 1562. 10 Aug 1562. The x day of August was drane from .... unto Tyborne Phelype Furney gold-smyth d[welling in] sant Barthelmuwe in Smythfeld for cowyning [coining], and hangyd after, and (blank) Walker was cared in a care to Tyburne, and hangyd for robere.

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1563. 08 Mar 1563. The viij day of Marche wher hangyd at Tyburne x men; [one] was Brutun, and (blank) after browth bake to sant Pulkurs ther to be bered, and ther master Veron the vecar mad a sermon for them.

Scarborough Castle Rebellion

Diary of Henry Machyn May 1557. 28 May 1577. [The xxviij day of May Thomas Stafford (44) was beheaded on Tower hill, by nine of the clock, master Wode being his] gostly father; and after ther wher iij more [drawn from the To] wre, and thrugh London unto Tyburne, and ther [they were] hangyd and quartered; and the morow after was master [Stafford] quartered, and hangyd on a care, and so to Nuwgatt to [boil.]

On 14 Feb 1601 Thomas Lee 1551-1601 (50) was hanged at Tyburn.

In 1594 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636. Portrait of Thomas Lee 1551-1601.

Thomas Overbury Murder and Trial of his Murderers

On 20 Nov 1616 Gervase Helwys 1561-1615 (55) was hanged at Tower Hill. He gave a speech to the crowd ...

... many others of seuerall dispositions. All you beeing thus assembled to see mee finish my dayes, the number of which is sum'd up, for the very minutes of my life may now be reckoned. Your expectation is to have mee say something, to give satisfaction to the World, and I will doe it so farre as I can, albeit in that speech of mine, I shall (as it was spoken unto me the last night) but chatter like a Crow. But whatsoeuer I deliuer, I beseech you to take from a wounded bosome, for my purpose is to rip up my very heart, and to leaue nothing there which may proue any clogge to my Conscience. Hither am I come to performe a worke which of all others is to Man the most easie and yet to Flesh and Blood is the hardest, and that is, To die. To hide therefore any thing, for any worldly respect, were to leaue a blot upon my owne Soule, which I trust shall be presented (through the mercies of my Maker, and merits of my Sauiour) acceptable before GODS high Tribunall. And first I will labour to satisfie some, who before my apprehension were well conceipted of mee, but since my Arraignment, as I vnderstand, carryed of mee but hard opinions, for that at the Barre I stood stiffly upon the Justice of my Innocence; and this they impute as a great fault, beeing afterwards that I was found guilty of the Crime. To which I answer, that I did it ignorantly: Nay I was so farre from thinking my selfe foule in the Fact, that untill these two Gentlemen, (Doctor Felton and Doctor Whiting, the Physitions for my Soule) told mee how deepely I had imbrewed my hands in the blood of that gentleman (35), making mee by GODS law as guilty in the Concealing, as if I had beene a personall Actor in it: till then I say, I held my selfe so ignorant of the deede, and my Conscience so cleere, that I did never aske GOD forgivenesse, nor once repent mee of the Fact, such was my blindnesse. So that it was not onely an error, or rather a horrible sinne, in mee to consent, but a worse, to deny it, so Bloody, so Treacherous, so Foule, so Filthy a Fact as that was; for which I must confesse the King, and the State have dealt honorably, roundly, and justly, with mee, in condemning mee unto this death. And thus have I laboured and done my best to cleere this point, being willing by all good meanes to reduce your first opinions of mee; that as formerly your conceipted well of mee, so you would now with a charitable affection performe the last duty of your Christian loues towards mee, praying to GOD, both with me, and for mee; to the intent that this Cup, whereof I am to drinke, may not be greiuous unto mee, but that it may be a ioyfull conueiance to a better and more blessed comfort.

Some perhaps will thinke it to be a Rigor of the State, or aggravation of my iudgement, that I should die in this place, but this doe I take as an honor unto me, & herein doe I acknowledge my selfe to stand much bound to the State, in that I have this favour vouchsafed me to suffer Death in sight of my Charge, even where I had sinned, on the Tower-hill, rather than in the place of common Execution, where every base Malefactor dyeth.

Many doe I see here whom I know well, and of whom I am likewise knowne: and now am I a Spectacle for them to be looked on, whom in former times (and in all mens accounts) they held never likely to come to such an end. But herein he hold the justice of God, who is so oppos'd against sinne, because that if we forget to seeke him whilst we may, he will finde us out when we would not be found of him.

It is expected I should say something of the fact which I have committed: And hither am I come resolued to cleare my conscience (before I depart this world) of all matters which I either knowe, or can now remember. And so much I have already delivered in writing to my Lo. Chiefe Justice (64) and to prove that which I wrote is true, I yesterday confirmed it with the receiuing of the blessed Sacrament, wishing unto you all as much comfort by those holy Mysteries, as I tooke by them: and I doe heere (though not with such a bloud) yet with mine own bloud, seale that which I have written. For my selfe, I will hide nothing to make my fault seeme lesse, but will rip open this very heart of mine, and confesse before God myne owne uncleannesse. I have sinned exceedingly against thee O my maker, and in this am I most faulty, that I did not reveale to the King (50), so soone as I my selfe had knowledge of the busines. But (alas) feare to loose these worldly pleasures, and the loue to promotion, made me forget my duty to my Soueraigne, and not to regard my God, who is a swift auenger of blood: and would to heaven I had trusted to his providence, and set the thinges of this world at nought, for heavens sake, and a good conscience. You see, Gentlemen, promotion cannot rescue us from the justice of God, which alwaies pursues after sinne: And therefore I exhort you not to trust in men (how great soeuer) for they cannot hide themselues when God is angry; neither can they protect you from shame, when God will consume you: he that sitteth in heaven, will deride and scorne their foolish Inventions. As for me, I will not spare to lay open my owne shame: Thinke you I care for the reputation of this world? No, I weigh it not. This my soule shall receiue more comfort from God in my upright dealing.

My sinne, in this foule fact, was great, for upon me lay all the blood, shed, and to be shed: I have made many children fatherles, many wives husbandles, many parents childelesse: and I my selfe leave a comfortlesse wife and eight children behinde me for it too: for if I had revealed it when I might, I had freed much blood from being spilt, in so much as I could wish (Gods Justice and charity reserved) I might hang in chaines, till I rotte away by peecemeale: nor cared I what tortures my body were put unto, so I might expaite or free the bloud of so many, (some in one place, and some in another) which is both like to bee shed, and is already shed, and the Lord knowes when it will have an end. Concerning my selfe, I will aggravate the crime, by speaking of every circumstance I can remember. And now it comes into my mind, what trust that gentleman put into me: hee reputed me to bee most faithfull unto him; (Oh the wildnesse of my heart!) I proved unfaithfull, and was his deadly deceitfull friend. And here (Gentlemen) I exhort you all that you would take notice of this, ever to bee faithfull to those who put you in trust. Sir Thomas O. (35) trusted me, and I was unfaithfull and treacherous to him, in drawing tickets for him to his disadvantage. I promised him secrecy, yet betrayed him, onely to satisfy greatnesse: But God, who sees the secret thoughts of mans heart, will disclose all unuist actions at last: nay, I am perswaded that whosoeuer they bee that commit sinne in their child-hood, at one time or other it will be revealed. In this place it commeth to my mind, that in my yonger dayes (as wel beyond the Seas as here) I was much addicted to that idle veyne of Gaming, I was bewitched with it indeed: And I played not for little for final sums neither, but for Great-ones, yet ever haunted with ill lucke: And upon a time, being much displeased at my losse, I sayd, not in a carelesse maner, Would I might be hanged; But seriously, and advisedly (betweene God and my selfe) clapping my hands upon my breast, I spake thus, If ever I play again, then let me be hangd. Now gentlemen here you may behold the justice of God, paying mee my wish and imprecation home. Bee carefull therefore I exhort you, that you vow nothing but that unto which you will give all diligence to performe: for the powerful God, before whom you make such vowes, will otherwise bee auegned: Jn this place Doctor VVhiting putting him in mind to satisfie the World touching his Religion thus he went on. THe matter you speake to mee of, faith hee, is well thought upon: for I heare that abroad hath beene some murmuring and questions made about mee for my Religion; Some giving out that I was infected with Anabaptisme: A fond, ridiculous, foolish and phantasticall opinion, which I never affected but rather despised. Many may thinke that the manner of my death doth much discourage mee, that I should dye in a halter: I would have you all to thinke that I scorne all such worldly thoughts: I care not for it, I value not any earthly shame at all, so as may have honour and glory anon in Heaven: and I make no doubt, but I shall sodainely be more happie then you all, and that I shall see GOD face to face: and if there be any point of innocency in mee at all, I doe utterly cast it from mee, and I doe commit it wholly to GOD.

And for any matter of Glory, I doe with the Saints of GOD expect it through the merits of Christ, at the Resurrection: yea it is my glorie to die thus. I might have died in my Bedde, or shooting the Bridge or else have fallen downe sodainly, in which death I should have wanted this space to repent, being the sweet comfort and assured hope of Gods favour which of his mercy he hath vouchsafed mee; So that it swalloweth up all feare of death or reproch of the World: wishing unto all you (Gentlemen) who now behold mee, that wheresoeuer you shall dye, (either in your Beddes or else-where howsoewer) you may feele such comfort and resolution as God in his mercy hath bestowed uppon mee and my wounded Soule for this and the rest of my grieuous Sinnes. But mee thinkes I heare some of you conjecture and say, that I expresse no great Arguments or signes of sorrow: You think my heart should rather dissolue and melt into teares, then to appeare so insensible of feare as I may seeme: but I must tell you, teares were never common in mee: I may therefore feare though I do not weepe. I have been couragious both beyond the Seas and heere in mine owne Country: but (Gentlemen) that was when there was no perill before mee. But now the stroke of death is upon mee. It affrights mee, and there is cause to feare: yet notwithstanding, my heart seemeth unto you to be rather of stone than of flesh. But I would have you understand, that this boldnes doth not proceed from any manly fortitude, for I am a man, fraile as you are, and dare as little look death in the face as any other: ther terors of death doe as much trouble my humane sense, as of any man whatsoeuer: but that which swalloweth up all manner of feare in me, & maketh me to glory and to reioyce in, is, the full assurance which I conceiue of the vnspeakable love of God to those who are his, of which number I perswade my selfe to bee one, and that I shall presently enioy it.

I confesse I have sinned exceedingly, against thee (oh God) many wayes, in prophaning thy holy Sabaoths, in taking thy glorious name in vaine, in my concupiscence in turning all thy graces into wantonnes, in my Riotous wasting so many of thy good Creatures, as would have belieued many poore people, whose prayers I might have had this day. I have sinned against thee in my Child-hood: but Childrens sinnes are childishly performed: but I confirmed them in my manhood, there was my sinne. I am perswaded, there is no sinne, that a man committeth in his life, knowing it to be a sin, and not repenting of it, but the Lord will iudge it. I admonish you therefore that are heere assembled, to take good notice of your sinnes, and let none escape you vnrepented. And yet when you have done the best you can, there will lie buried some one sinne or other sufficent to condemne you. O Lord clense mee from my secret sinnes, which are in me so rife. I abused the tender education of my Parents. You perhaps that knew mee will say no; I liued in an honest forme, and was not bad in my life. But I know best my selfe what I was: & if I who was so esteemed of amongst Men, shall scarcely be saued, what will become of those, whom you point at for notorious lievers? The last night God put into my mind the remembrance of one sinne of mine, which heere I will lay open, that others may take heed. I tooke a vaine pride in my pen, and some of my friendes would tell me I had some induments and speciall gift that way: (though I say nor so my selfe) but mark the iudgement of God in this; that Pen which I was so proud of, hatch struck mee dead, and like Absolons hayre hath hanged me: for there hath dropt a word or two from my Pen, in a letter of mine, which upon my Saluation I am not able to answer, or to give any good accompt of. At my Arraignment I pleaded hard for life, & protested my Innocency, but when my owne Pen came against mee, I was forthwith not able to speake anything for my selfe: for I stood as one amazed, or that had no Tongue. See (Gentlemen) the just Iudgement of GOD, who made that thing of which I was most proud, to be my bane: take notice how strangely sinne is punished, and learne every-one to striue against it.

I have heard the word of GOD, and often read it (but without vse) for I must tell you these two worthy, Gentlemen (to whom I am so much bounden, God reward them for their loue) even they begat mee very lately, for I am not ashamed to confesse that I was to be begotten unto Christ within these three daies: yea I have often prayed against sinne, and made many vowes to forsake it, but uppon the next occasion, my foule heart hath beene ready to runne with the wicked. Had I learned but this one lesson in the 119. Psalme, (Depart from mee ye wicked, I will keepe the Commandements of my God &c.) I had beene likely to have enioyed many dayes heere on eath: whereas now you all see mee ready to bee cut short by reason of my sinne. But (O LORD) albeit thou slayest mee, yet will I put my trust in thee: let the LORD doe to me what hee will, I will dye upon this hand (of trusting in him) if I faile many a soule hath miss'd, but I have sure hope of mercy in him; hee hath sufficed and succoured mee, I am sure, euer since the sentence of death hath passed uppon mee: such comfort flowing from the Godly indeauors of these Gentlemen (the Diuines) that neither the Reproach of this Death, nor the Torment of it hath any whit discouraged me; nay, let me tell you, the last night when I heard the time was appoynted, and saw the warrant in Master Sheriffs hand for my death, it no whit daunted me: But what put this courage into me? onely the hope which I had in GODS mercies. This Hope was a Seede, and this Seed must come from a Roote; I looked upon my selfe, and there was rather cause despaire; and just cause, that I should not approach GODS presence. Thus then I disputed with GOD: This Hope being a Seede must have a Roote, and this Roote is not any thing in Man, no, it is Praescientia (thy fore-knowledge,) O God, who hast elected me from eternity. I will tell you, I receiued more comfort this morning, comming along the streetes, than euer I did in all my life. I saw much people gathered together, all the way as I came, to see mee brought to this shamefull end: who with their hearty prayers and well wishings gladded and comforted my very soule: insomuch as I could wish that I had come from Westminster hither. I protest unto you, I thinke I could never have dyed so happily in my bed. But you will say, these are but speechees, and that I being so neere death, my heart cannot be so free, as I seeme in my speech: I confesse, there are in my brest frailties, which doe terrifie, and will still be busie with me, but I beseech you when I am at the stroake of death, that you would praie to GOD (with mee) that neither Sathans power, nor my weakenesse, may hinder my confidence. And I beseech God that amongst all who this daie heare mee, some may profit by my end: If I get but one Soule, I shall have much comfort in that; for that one soule my beget another, and that other another. I have held you too long, but I will draw to an end: intreating you all to ioyne in praier to God for me.

The summe of his Prayer.

O Lord God omnipotent, who sittest in Heaven, and seest all things which are done on earth: to whom are knowne all occasions of men; And who dost deride and laugh to scorne their Foolish inuentions: thou (Lord) who art powerfull to Saue at an instant, bow downe the heavens, and behold Mee (wretched sinner!) vnworthy to looke up, or lift up my hands unto thee. Remember not (O Lord) the sinnes which I have committed. Driue away this Mist which is before mee; and breake those thick Clowdes which my sinnes have made, and may let my request to come into thy presence. Strengthen mee in the middest of Death, in the assurance of thy.

Mercies; and give mee a ioyfull Passage into thy Heavenly Rest, now and for euer. Amen.

After hee had thus Prayed, hee tooke his leaue of all, with these words.

Gentlemen, I shall see your faces now no more: and pulling down his Cap in his eyes, said some privat prayer; in which time the Doctors prayed, and called to him, that hee would remember his assurance, and not be dismaied at the Cup, that hee was not drinke of: Hee answered, I will drinke it up, and never looke what is in it. And after a little time more spent in privat prayer, hee said, Lord receaue my Soule: And so yeelded up the Ghost. His Meditation and Vow. not long before his Death. When I considered Herods State, who though hee heard John Baptist gladly, yet was he intangled with Herodias: and how Agrippa liked so well of Paul as hee was perswaded almost to become a Christian, and how young mans will was good to follow Chirst yet was there one thing wanting: meethought the state of sinfull man was not vnlike. For also how the Angler though hauing caught a Fish but by the the chaps accounts it as his owne: the Bird taken but by the heele is a prey unto the Fowler: the Iayler also holds his prisoner by one ioint as safe, as cast in iron chaines: then did I think what do these motions good, if not effected to the full? what though not notoriously evill? one sinne sufficent to condemn: and is he guilty of all that guilty is of one? then said I vnto the Lord I will freely cleanse my waies and wash my hands in innocency: I will take heed that I offend not in my tongue. Lord let my thoughts be such as I may al-waies say, try and examine mee if there be any vnrighteousnes in mee. Sir Geruase Ellowis.

Before 1634 Gilbert Jackson Painter 1595-1648. Portrait of Edward Coke Lord Chief Justice 1552-1634. 1593. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Edward Coke Lord Chief Justice 1552-1634. Around 1600 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 painted the portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. Around 1605 John Critz Painter 1551-1642. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 with Garter Collar and Leg Garter. In 1621 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 wearing his Garter Collar and Leg Garter. Around 1632 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. In 1583 Pieter Bronckhorst Painter -1583. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. 1623. Adam de Colone 1572-1651. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. 1580. Adrian Vanson -1602. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625.

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1641 Irish Rebellion

In 1645 Connor Maguire 2nd Baron of Enniskillen 1616-1645 (29) was hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn.

1660 Trial and Execution of the Regicides

On 19 Oct 1660 at Tyburn ...

Daniel Axtell Regicide 1622-1660 (38) was hanged, drawn and quartered. His head was set on Westminster Hall.

Francis Hacker Regicide -1660 was hanged. His body was returned to his friends for burial.

Execution of Deceased Regicides

Diary of Samuel Pepys 28 January 1661. 28 Jan 1661. At the office all the morning; dined at home, and after dinner to Fleet Street, with my sword to Mr. Brigden (lately made Captain of the Auxiliaries) to be refreshed, and with him to an ale-house, where I met Mr. Davenport; and after some talk of Cromwell, Ireton and Bradshaw's bodies being taken out of their graves to-day1, I went to Mr. Crew's (63) and thence to the Theatre, where I saw again "The Lost Lady", which do now please me better than before; and here I sitting behind in a dark place, a lady spit backward upon me by a mistake, not seeing me, but after seeing her to be a very pretty lady, I was not troubled at it at all. Thence to Mr. Crew's (63), and there met Mr. Moore, who came lately to me, and went with me to my father's, and with him to Standing's, whither came to us Dr. Fairbrother, who I took and my father to the Bear and gave a pint of sack and a pint of claret.

He do still continue his expressions of respect and love to me, and tells me my brother John (20) will make a good scholar. Thence to see the Doctor at his lodging at Mr. Holden's, where I bought a hat, cost me 35s. So home by moonshine, and by the way was overtaken by the Comptroller's (50) coach, and so home to his house with him. So home and to bed. This noon I had my press set up in my chamber for papers to be put in.

Note 1. "The bodies of Oliver Cromwell, Henry Ireton, John Bradshaw, and Thomas Pride, were dug up out of their graves to be hanged at Tyburn, and buried under the gallows. Cromwell's vault having been opened, the people crowded very much to see him".—Rugge's Diurnal.

John Evelyn's Diary 30 January 1661. 30 Jan 1661. Was the first solemn fast and day of humiliation to deplore the sins which had so long provoked God against this afflicted church and people, ordered by Parliament to be annually celebrated to expiate the guilt of the execrable murder of the late King.

This day (Oh, the stupendous and inscrutable judgments of God!) were the carcasses of those arch-rebels, Cromwell (61), Bradshawe (59) (the judge who condemned his Majesty (30)), and Ireton (50) (son-in-law to the Usurper), dragged out of their superb tombs in Westminster among the Kings, to Tyburn, and hanged on the gallows there from nine in the morning till six at night, and then buried under that fatal and ignominious. Monument in a deep pit; thousands of people who had seen them in all their pride being spectators. Look back at October 22 1658, and be astonished! and fear God and honor the King (30); but meddle not with them who are given to change!

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes. Around 1661 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II Around 1650. Robert Walker Painter 1599-1658. Portrait of Henry Ireton 1611-1651.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 30 January 1661. 30 Jan 1661. Fast Day. The first time that this day hath been yet observed: and Mr. Mills made a most excellent sermon, upon "Lord forgive us our former iniquities;" speaking excellently of the justice of God in punishing men for the sins of their ancestors. Home, and John Goods comes, and after dinner I did pay him £30 for my Lady, and after that Sir W. Pen (39) and I into Moorfields and had a brave talk, it being a most pleasant day, and besides much discourse did please ourselves to see young Davis and Whitton, two of our clerks, going by us in the field, who we observe to take much pleasure together, and I did most often see them at play together.

Back to the Old James in Bishopsgate Street, where Sir W. Batten (60) and Sir Wm. Rider met him about business of the Trinity House.

So I went home, and there understand that my mother is come home well from Brampton, and had a letter from my brother John (20), a very ingenious one, and he therein begs to have leave to come to town at the Coronacion. Then to my Lady Batten's; where my wife and she are lately come back again from being abroad, and seeing of Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw hanged and buried at Tyburn. Then I home1.

Note 1. "Jan. 30th was kept as a very solemn day of fasting and prayer. This morning the carcases of Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw (which the day before had been brought from the Red Lion Inn, Holborn), were drawn upon a sledge to Tyburn, and then taken out of their coffins, and in their shrouds hanged by the neck, until the going down of the sun. They were then cut down, their heads taken off, and their bodies buried in a grave made under the gallows. The coffin in which was the body of Cromwell was a very rich thing, very full of gilded hinges and nails".—Rugge's Diurnal.

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On 21 Jun 1661 William Monson 1st Viscount Monson 1599-1672 (62) surrendered himself to Parliament and was imprisoned at Fleet Prison for being a Regicide. On 01 Jul 1661 he was brought up to the bar of the House of Commons, and, after being made to confess his crime, was degraded from all his honours and titles and deprived of his property. He was also sentenced to be drawn from the Tower through the city of London to Tyburn, and so back again, with a halter about his neck, and to be imprisoned for life.

On 01 Jul 1661 Henry Mildmay 1593-1668 (68) was sentenced and degraded from his honours and titles and to be drawn every year on the anniversary of the king's sentence (27 Jan) upon a sledge through the streets to and under the gallows at Tyburn, with a rope about his neck, and so back to the Tower of London, there to remain a prisoner during his life.

Trial and Execution of Henry Vane "The Younger"

Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 June 1662. 14 Jun 1662. Up by four o'clock in the morning and upon business at my office. Then we sat down to business, and about 11 o'clock, having a room got ready for us, we all went out to the Tower-hill; and there, over against the scaffold, made on purpose this day, saw Sir Henry Vane (49) brought1. A very great press of people. He made a long speech, many times interrupted by the Sheriff and others there; and they would have taken his paper out of his hand, but he would not let it go. But they caused all the books of those that writ after him to be given the Sheriff; and the trumpets were brought under the scaffold that he might not be heard. Then he prayed, and so fitted himself, and received the blow; but the scaffold was so crowded that we could not see it done. But Boreman, who had been upon the scaffold, came to us and told us, that first he began to speak of the irregular proceeding against him; that he was, against Magna Charta, denied to have his exceptions against the indictment allowed; and that there he was stopped by the Sheriff. Then he drew out his, paper of notes, and begun to tell them first his life; that he was born a gentleman, that he was bred up and had the quality of a gentleman, and to make him in the opinion of the world more a gentleman, he had been, till he was seventeen years old, a good fellow, but then it pleased God to lay a foundation of grace in his heart, by which he was persuaded, against his worldly interest, to leave all preferment and go abroad, where he might serve God with more freedom. Then he was called home, and made a member of the Long Parliament; where he never did, to this day, any thing against his conscience, but all for the glory of God. Here he would have given them an account of the proceedings of the Long Parliament, but they so often interrupted him, that at last he was forced to give over: and so fell into prayer for England in generall, then for the churches in England, and then for the City of London: and so fitted himself for the block, and received the blow. He had a blister, or issue, upon his neck, which he desired them not hurt: he changed not his colour or speech to the last, but died justifying himself and the cause he had stood for; and spoke very confidently of his being presently at the right hand of Christ; and in all, things appeared the most resolved man that ever died in that manner, and showed more of heat than cowardize, but yet with all humility and gravity. One asked him why he did not pray for the King (32). He answered, "Nay", says he, "you shall see I can pray for the King (32): I pray God bless him!" the King (32) had given his body to his friends; and, therefore, he told them that he hoped they would be civil to his body when dead; and desired they would let him die like a gentleman and a Christian, and not crowded and pressed as he was.

So to the office a little, and so to the Trinity-house all of us to dinner; and then to the office again all the afternoon till night.

So home and to bed. This day, I hear, my Lord Peterborough (40) is come unexpected from Tangier, to give the King (32) an account of the place, which, we fear, is in none of the best condition. We had also certain news to-day that the Spaniard is before Lisbon with thirteen sail; six Dutch, and the rest his own ships; which will, I fear, be ill for Portugall. I writ a letter of all this day's proceedings to my Lord, at Hinchingbroke, who, I hear, is very well pleased with the work there.

Note 1. Sir Harry Vane (49) the younger was born 1612. Charles (32) signed on June 12th a warrant for the execution of Vane by hanging at Tyburn on the 14th, which sentence on the following day "upon humble suit made" to him, Charles was "graciously pleased to mitigate", as the warrant terms it, for the less ignominious punishment of beheading on Tower Hill, and with permission that the head and body should be given to the relations to be by them decently and privately interred.— Lister's Life of Clarendon, ii, 123.

Around 1658 Gilbert Soest Painter 1605-1681. Portrait of Henry Vane

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 29 May 1663. 29 May 1663. This day is kept strictly as a holy-day, being the King's Coronation. We lay long in bed, and it rained very hard, rain and hail, almost all the morning.

By and by Creed and I abroad, and called at several churches; and it is a wonder to see, and by that to guess the ill temper of the City at this time, either to religion in general, or to the King (33), that in some churches there was hardly ten people in the whole church, and those poor people.

So to a coffee-house, and there in discourse hear the King of France (24) is likely to be well again.

So home to dinner, and out by water to the Royall Theatre, but they not acting to-day, then to the Duke's house, and there saw "The Slighted Mayde", wherein Gosnell acted Pyramena, a great part, and did it very well, and I believe will do it better and better, and prove a good actor. The play is not very excellent, but is well acted, and in general the actors, in all particulars, are better than at the other house.

Thence to the Cocke alehouse, and there having drunk, sent them with Creed to see "The German Princess1, at the Gatehouse, at Westminster, and I to my brother's, and thence to my uncle Fenner's to have seen my aunt James (who has been long in town and goes away to-morrow and I not seen her), but did find none of them within, which I was glad of, and so back to my brother's to speak with him, and so home, and in my way did take two turns forwards and backwards through the Fleete Ally to see a couple of pretty [strumpets] that stood off the doors there, and God forgive me I could scarce stay myself from going into their houses with them, so apt is my nature to evil after once, as I have these two days, set upon pleasure again.

So home and to my office to put down these two days' journalls, then home again and to supper, and then Creed and I to bed with good discourse, only my mind troubled about my spending my time so badly for these seven or eight days; but I must impute it to the disquiet that my mind has been in of late about my wife, and for my going these two days to plays, for which I have paid the due forfeit by money and abating the times of going to plays at Court, which I am now to remember that I have cleared all my times that I am to go to Court plays to the end of this month, and so June is the first time that I am to begin to reckon.

Note 1. Mary Moders (21), alias Stedman alias Carleton, a notorious impostor, who pretended to be a German princess. Her arrival as the German princess "at the Exchange Tavern, right against the Stocks betwixt the Poultry and Cornhill, at 5 in the morning...., with her marriage to Carleton the taverner's wife's brother", are incidents fully narrated in Francis Kirkman's "Counterfeit Lady Unveiled", 1673 ("Boyne's Tokens", ed. Williamson, vol. i., p. 703). Her adventures formed the plot of a tragi-comedy by T. P., entitled "A Witty Combat, or the Female Victor", 1663, which was acted with great applause by persons of quality in Whitsun week. Mary Carleton was tried at the Old Bailey for bigamy and acquitted, after which she appeared on the stage in her own character as the heroine of a play entitled "The German Princess". Pepys went to the Duke's house to see her on April 15th, 1664. The rest of her life was one continued course of robbery and fraud, and in 1678 she was executed at Tyburn for stealing a piece of plate in Chancery Lane.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 May 1666. 23 May 1666. Up by 5 o'clock and to my chamber settling several matters in order. So out toward White Hall, calling in my way on my Lord Bellassis (51), where I come to his bedside, and did give me a full and long account of his matters, how he left them at Tangier. Declares himself fully satisfied with my care: seems cunningly to argue for encreasing the number of men there. Told me the whole story of his gains by the Turky prizes, which he owns he hath got about £5000 by. Promised me the same profits Povy (52) was to have had; and in fine, I find him a pretty subtle man; and so I left him, and to White Hall before the Duke and did our usual business, and eased my mind of two or three things of weight that lay upon me about Lanyon's salary, which I have got to be £150 per annum.

Thence to Westminster to look after getting some little for some great tallys, but shall find trouble in it.

Thence homeward and met with Sir Philip Warwicke (56), and spoke about this, in which he is scrupulous. After that to talk of the wants of the Navy. He lays all the fault now upon the new Act, and owns his owne folly in thinking once so well of it as to give way to others' endeavours about it, and is grieved at heart to see what passe things are like to come to.

Thence to the Excise Office to the Commissioners to get a meeting between them and myself and others about our concernments in the Excise for Tangier, and so to the 'Change awhile, and thence home with Creed, and find my wife at dinner with Mr. Cooke, who is going down to Hinchinbrooke.

After dinner Creed and I and wife and Mercer out by coach, leaving them at the New Exchange, while I to White Hall, and there staid at Sir G. Carteret's (56) chamber till the Council rose, and then he and I, by agreement this morning, went forth in his coach by Tiburne, to the Parke; discoursing of the state of the Navy as to money, and the state of the Kingdom too, how ill able to raise more: and of our office as to the condition of the officers; he giving me caution as to myself, that there are those that are my enemies as well as his, and by name my Lord Bruncker (46), who hath said some odd speeches against me. So that he advises me to stand on my guard; which I shall do, and unless my too-much addiction to pleasure undo me, will be acute enough for any of them. We rode to and again in the Parke a good while, and at last home and set me down at Charing Crosse, and thence I to Mrs. Pierce's to take up my wife and Mercer, where I find her new picture by Hales do not please her, nor me indeed, it making no show, nor is very like, nor no good painting.

Home to supper and to bed, having my right eye sore and full of humour of late, I think, by my late change of my brewer, and having of 8s. beer.

Around 1634 Gilbert Jackson Painter 1595-1648. Portrait of John Belasyse 1st Baron Belasyse 1614-1689. Around 1669 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of John Belasyse 1st Baron Belasyse 1614-1689. Around 1657 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Thomas Povey Master of Requests 1614-1705.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 12 July 1666. 12 Jul 1666. But was up again by five o'clock, and was forced to rise, having much business, and so up and dressed myself (enquiring, was told that Mrs. Tooker was gone hence to live at London) and away with Poundy to the Tower, and thence, having shifted myself, but being mighty drowsy for want of sleep, I by coach to St. James's, to Goring House, there to wait on my Lord Arlington (48) to give him an account of my night's worke, but he was not up, being not long since married: so, after walking up and down the house below,—being the house I was once at Hartlib's (66) sister's wedding, and is a very fine house and finely furnished,—and then thinking it too much for me to lose time to wait my Lord's rising, I away to St. James's, and there to Sir W. Coventry (38), and wrote a letter to my Lord Arlington (48) giving him an account of what I have done, and so with Sir W. Coventry (38) into London, to the office. And all the way I observed him mightily to make mirth of the Duke of Albemarle (57) and his people about him, saying, that he was the happiest man in the world for doing of great things by sorry instruments. And so particularized in Sir W. Clerke (43), and Riggs, and Halsey, and others. And then again said that the only quality eminent in him was, that he did persevere; and indeed he is a very drudge, and stands by the King's business. And this he said, that one thing he was good at, that he never would receive an excuse if the thing was not done; listening to no reasoning for it, be it good or bad. But then I told him, what he confessed, that he would however give the man, that he employs, orders for removing of any obstruction that he thinks he shall meet with in the world, and instanced in several warrants that he issued for breaking open of houses and other outrages about the business of prizes, which people bore with either for affection or fear, which he believes would not have been borne with from the King (36), nor Duke (32), nor any man else in England, and I thinke he is in the right, but it is not from their love of him, but from something else I cannot presently say. Sir W. Coventry (38) did further say concerning Warcupp, his kinsman, that had the simplicity to tell Sir W. Coventry (38), that the Duke (32) did intend to go to sea and to leave him his agent on shore for all things that related to the sea. But, says Sir W. Coventry (38), I did believe but the Duke of Yorke (32) would expect to be his agent on shore for all sea matters. And then he begun to say what a great man Warcupp was, and something else, and what was that but a great lyer; and told me a story, how at table he did, they speaking about antipathys, say, that a rose touching his skin any where, would make it rise and pimple; and, by and by, the dessert coming, with roses upon it, the Duchesse (29) bid him try, and they did; but they rubbed and rubbed, but nothing would do in the world, by which his lie was found at then.

He spoke contemptibly of Holmes and his mermidons, that come to take down the ships from hence, and have carried them without any necessaries, or any thing almost, that they will certainly be longer getting ready than if they had staid here.

In fine, I do observe, he hath no esteem nor kindnesse for the Duke's matters, but, contrarily, do slight him and them; and I pray God the Kingdom do not pay too dear by this jarring; though this blockheaded Duke I did never expect better from.

At the office all the morning, at noon home and thought to have slept, my head all day being full of business and yet sleepy and out of order, and so I lay down on my bed in my gowne to sleep, but I could not, therefore about three o'clock up and to dinner and thence to the office, where. Mrs. Burroughs, my pretty widow, was and so I did her business and sent her away by agreement, and presently I by coach after and took her up in Fenchurch Streete and away through the City, hiding my face as much as I could, but she being mighty pretty and well enough clad, I was not afeard, but only lest somebody should see me and think me idle.

I quite through with her, and so into the fields Uxbridge way, a mile or two beyond Tyburne, and then back and then to Paddington, and then back to Lyssen green, a place the coachman led me to (I never knew in my life) and there we eat and drank and so back to Chasing Crosse, and there I set her down. All the way most excellent pretty company. I had her lips as much as I would, and a mighty pretty woman she is and very modest and yet kinde in all fair ways. All this time I passed with mighty pleasure, it being what I have for a long time wished for, and did pay this day 5s. forfeite for her company.

She being gone, I to White Hall and there to Lord Arlington's (48), and met Mr. Williamson (32), and find there is no more need of my trouble about the Galliott, so with content departed, and went straight home, where at the office did the most at the office in that wearied and sleepy state I could, and so home to supper, and after supper falling to singing with Mercer did however sit up with her, she pleasing me with her singing of "Helpe, helpe", 'till past midnight and I not a whit drowsy, and so to bed.

Around 1676 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington 1618-1685 wearing his Garter Robes. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington 1618-1685. Before 23 Jun 1686 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699. Portrait of William Coventry 1628-1686. Before 03 Jan 1670  Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670. Before 03 Jan 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670 in his Garter Robes. Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King James II when Duke of York. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II wearing his Garter Robes. Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of King James II. Around 1661 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. Around 1662 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. One of the Windsor Beauties. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 April 1668. 05 Apr 1668. Lord's Day. Up, and to my chamber, and there to the writing fair some of my late musique notions, and so to church, where I have not been a good while, and thence home, and dined at home, with W. Hewer (26) with me; and after dinner, he and I a great deal of good talk touching this Office, how it is spoiled by having so many persons in it, and so much work that is not made the work of any one man, but of all, and so is never done; and that the best way to have it well done, were to have the whole trust in one, as myself, to set whom I pleased to work in the several businesses of the Office, and me to be accountable for the whole, and that would do it, as I would find instruments: but this is not to be compassed; but something I am resolved to do about Sir J. Minnes (69) before it be long. Then to my chamber again, to my musique, and so to church; and then home, and thither comes Captain Silas Taylor (43) to me, the Storekeeper of Harwich, where much talk, and most of it against Captain Deane (34), whom I do believe to be a high, proud fellow; but he is an active man, and able in his way, and so I love him. He gone, I to my musique again, and to read a little, and to sing with Mr. Pelling, who come to see me, and so spent the evening, and then to supper and to bed. I hear that eight of the ringleaders in the late tumults of the 'prentices at Easter are condemned to die1.

Note 1. Four were executed on May 9th, namely, Thomas Limmerick, Edward Cotton, Peter Massenger, and Richard Beasley. They were drawn, hanged, and quartered at Tyburn, and two of their heads fixed upon London Bridge ("The London Gazette", No. 259). See "The Tryals of such persons as under the notion of London Apprentices were tumultuously assembled in Moore Fields, under colour of pulling down bawdy-houses", 4to., London, 1668. "It is to be observed", says "The London Gazette", "to the just vindication of the City, that none of the persons apprehended upon the said tumult were found to be apprentices, as was given out, but some idle persons, many of them nursed in the late Rebellion, too readily embracing any opportunity of making their own advantages to the disturbance of the peace, and injury of others".

In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of William Hewer 1642-1715. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of John Mennes Comptroller 1599-1671.

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Gazette 259. 09 May 1668. London. This day Thomas Limmerick, Edward Cotton, Peter Messenger and Richard Beasly, four of the persons formerly apprehended in the Tumult during the Easter-holidays, having upon their Trial at Hicks-Hall been found guilty, and since sentenced as Traytors, were accordingly Drawn, Hang'd and Quartered at Tyburn, where they shewed many signs of there Penitence, their Quarters permitted Burial, only Two of their Heads ordered to be fixt upon London-bridge.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 October 1668. 23 Oct 1668. Up, and plasterers at work and painters about my house. Commissioner Middleton and I to St. James's, where with the rest of our company we attended on our usual business the Duke of York (35).

Thence I to White Hall, to my Lord Sandwich's (43), where I find my Lord within, but busy, private; and so I staid a little talking with the young gentlemen: and so away with Mr. Pierce, the surgeon, towards Tyburne, to see the people executed; but come too late, it being done; two men and a woman hanged, and so back again and to my coachmaker's, and there did come a little nearer agreement for the coach, and so to Duck Lane, and there my bookseller's, and saw his moher, but elle is so big-bellied that elle is not worth seeing.

So home, and there all alone to dinner, my wife and W. Hewer (26) being gone to Deptford to see her mother, and so I to the office all the afternoon. In the afternoon comes my cozen, Sidney Pickering (18), to bring my wife and me his sister's Favour for her wedding, which is kindly done, and he gone, I to business again, and in the evening home, made my wife read till supper time, and so to bed. This day Pierce do tell me, among other news, the late frolick and debauchery of Sir Charles Sidly (29) and Buckhurst (25), running up and down all the night with their arses bare, through the streets; and at last fighting, and being beat by the watch and clapped up all night; and how the King (38) takes their parts; and my Lord Chief Justice Keeling (61) hath laid the constable by the heels to answer it next Sessions: which is a horrid shame. How the King (38) and these gentlemen did make the fiddlers of Thetford, this last progress, to sing them all the bawdy songs they could think of. How Sir W. Coventry (40) was brought the other day to the Duchesse of York (31) by the Duke (35), to kiss her hand; who did acknowledge his unhappiness to occasion her so much sorrow, declaring his intentions in it, and praying her pardon; which she did give him upon his promise to make good his pretences of innocence to her family, by his faithfulness to his master, the Duke of York (35). That the Duke of Buckingham (40) is now all in all, and will ruin Coventry (40), if he can: and that W. Coventry (40) do now rest wholly upon the Duke of York (35) for his standing, which is a great turn. He tells me that my Baroness Castlemayne (27), however, is a mortal enemy to the Duke of Buckingham (40), which I understand not; but, it seems, she is disgusted with his greatness, and his ill usage of her. That the King (38) was drunk at Saxam with Sidly (29), Buckhurst (25), &c., the night that my Lord Arlington (50) come thither, and would not give him audience, or could not which is true, for it was the night that I was there, and saw the King (38) go up to his chamber, and was told that the King (38) had been drinking. He tells me, too, that the Duke of York (35) did the next day chide Bab. May (40) for his occasioning the King's giving himself up to these gentlemen, to the neglecting of my Lord Arlington (50): to which he answered merrily, that, by God, there was no man in England that had heads to lose, durst do what they do, every day, with the King (38), and asked the Duke of York's (35) pardon: which is a sign of a mad world. God bless us out of it!

Around 1650 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672. Around 1675 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 wearing his Garter Collar. Before 07 Nov 1666. William Faithorne Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 and her son Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton as Madonna and Child. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. One of the Windsor Beauties. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1690 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709.

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On 22 Jan 1673 Mary Moders 1642-1673 (31) was hanged at Tyburn.

Rye House Plot

John Evelyn's Diary 20 July 1683. 20 Jul 1683. Several of the conspirators of the lower form were executed at Tyburn; and the next day.

John Evelyn's Diary 22 June 1684. 22 Jun 1684. Last Friday Sir Tho. Armstrong (51) was executed at Tyburn for treason, without tryal, having ben outlaw'd and apprehended in Holland, on the conspiracy of the Duke of Monmouth (35), Lord Russell (44), &c. which gave occasion of discourse to people and lawyers, in reguard it was on an outlawry that judgment was given and execution.

Around 1670. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685. Before 21 Jul 1683. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of William Russell 1639-1683. Before 1681 Gilbert Soest Painter 1605-1681. Portrait of William Russell 1639-1683.

Popish Plot

In 1685, following his accession, King James II (51) had Titus Oates 1649-1705 (35) retried. He was found guilty of perjury on two separate indictments.

His sentence read ... First, The Court does order for a fine, that you pay 1000 marks upon each Indictment. Secondly, That you be stript of all your Canonical Habits. Thirdly, the Court does award, That you do stand upon the Pillory, and in the Pillory, here before Westminster-hall gate, upon Monday next, for an hour's time, between the hours of 10 and 12; with a paper over your head (which you must first walk with round about to all the Courts in Westminister-hall) declaring your crime. And that is upon the first Indictment.

Fourthly, (on the Second Indictment), upon Tuesday, you shall stand upon, and in the Pillory, at the Royal Exchange in London, for the space of an hour, between the hours of twelve and two; with the same inscription. You shall upon the next Wednesday be whipped from Aldgate to Newgate. Upon Friday, you shall be whipped from Newgate to Tyburn, by the hands of the common hangman.

According to his sentence, Oates was to stand every year of his life in the pillory on five different days: before the gate of Westminster Hall on the 9th of August, at Charing Cross on the 10th, at the Temple on the 11th, at the Royal Exchange on the 2nd of September, and at Tyburn on the 24th of April; but, fortunately for the infamous creature, the Revolution deprived his determined enemies of power, and turned the criminal into a pensioner on Government."

The presiding judge was George "Hanging Judge" Jeffreys 1st Baron Jeffreys 1645-1689 (39). Robert Sawyer Attorney General 1633-1692 (52) acted for the prosecution.

Around 1685 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of George Around 1675 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of George

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Argyll's Rising

John Evelyn's Diary 22 May 1685. 22 May 1685. In the morning I went with a French gentleman, and my Lord Privy Seale, to the House of Lords, where we were plac'd by his lordship next the Bar, just below yc Bishops, very commodiously both for hearing and seeing. After a short space came in ye Queene (26) and Princesse of Denmark (20), and stood next above the Archbishops, at the side of the House on the right hand of the throne. In the interim divers of the Lords, who had not finish'd before, tooke the Test and usual Oathes, so that her Ma*, the Spanish and other Ambassadors, who stood behind the throne, heard the Pope and worship of the Virgin Mary, &c. renounc'd very decently, as likewise the prayers which follow'd, standing all the while. Then came in the King (51), the Crowne on his head, and being seated, the Commons were introduced, and the House being full, he drew forth a paper containing his speech, which he read distinctly enough, to this effect: " That he resolv'd to call a Parliament from the moment of his brother's decease, as the best meanes to settle all the concernes of the Nation, so as to be most easy and happy to himselfe and his subjects; that he would confirme whatever he had said in his declaration at the first Council concerning his opinion of the principles of the Church of England, for their loyaltie, and would defend and support it, and preserve its government as by law now establish'd; that, as he would invade no man's property, so he would never depart from his owne prerogative; and as he had ventur'd his life in defence of the Nation, so he would proceede to do still; that, having given this assurance of his care of our Religion (his word was your Religion) and Property (wch he had not said by chance but solemnly), so he doubted not of suitable returnes of his subjects duty and kindnesse, especialy as to settling his Revenue for life, for yte many weighty necessities of go vernment, weh he would not suffer to be precarious; that some might possibly suggest that it were better to feede and supply him from time to time only, out of their inclination to frequent Parliaments, but that that would be a very improper method to take with him, since the best way to engage him to meete oftener would be always to use him well, and therefore he expected their compliance speedily, that this Session being but short, they might meet againe to satisfaction". At every period of this the House gave loud shouts. Then he acquainted them with that morning's news of Argyle's (56) being landed in the West High lands of Scotland from Holland, and the treasonous declaration he had published, which he would communicate to them, and that he should take the best care he could it should meete with the reward It deserv'd, not questioning the Parliament's zeale and readinesse to assist him as he desir'd; at which there follow'd another Vive le Roi, and so his Ma* retlr'd.

So soone as ye Commons were return'd and had put themselves into a grand Committee, they immediately put the question, and unanimously voted the Revenue to his Ma* for life. Mr. Seymour made a bold speech against many Elections, and would have had those members who (he pretended) were obnoxious, to withdraw, till they had clear'd the matter of their being legally return'd; but no one seconded him. The truth is, there were many of the new members whose Elections and Returns were universally censur'd, many of them being persons of no condition or interest in the Nation, or places for which they serv'd, especially in Devon, Cornwall, Norfolk, &c. said to have ben recommended by the Court and from the effect of the new charters changing ye electors. It was reported that Lord Bath (56) carried down with him [into Cornwall] no fewer than 15 charters, so that some call'd him the Prince Elector; whence Seymour told the House in his speech that if this was digested, they might introduce what religion and lawes they pleas'd, and that tho' he never gave heed to ye feares and jealousies of the people before, he now was really apprehensive of Popery. By the printed list of Members of 505 there did not appeare to be above 135 who had ben in former Parliaments, especialy that lately held at Oxford. In ye Lords House Lord Newport (65) made an exception against two or three young Peeres, who wanted some moneths, and some only four or five daies of being of age.

The Popish Lords who had ben sometime before releas'd from their confinement about the Plot, were now discharg'd of their impeachment, of wch I gave Lord Arundel of Wardour (52) joy.

Oates (35), who had but two dayes before ben pilloried at severall places and whipt at ye carts taile from Newgate to Aldgate, was this day plac'd on a sledge, being not able to go by reason of so late scourging, and dragg'd from prison to Tyburn, and whipt againe all ye way, which some thought to be very severe and extraordinary; but if he was guilty of the perjuries, and so of the death of many innocents, as I feare he was, his punishment was but what he deserv'd. I chanc'd to pass just as execution was doing on him. A strange revolution!

Before 1661. Remigius van Leemput Painter 1607-1675. Copy of Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 portrait of Henry Hyde, Viscount Cornbury and his first wife Theodosia Capell. In 1687 Studio of Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718. In 1698. Francois de Troy Painter 1645-1730. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718. Around 1685 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718. Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718. In 1703 John Closterman Painter 1660-1711. Portrait of Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714. Before 24 May 1711 John Closterman Painter 1660-1711. Possibly school of. Portrait of Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714. In 1686 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714. Around 1705. Michael Dahl Painter 1659-1743. Portrait of Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714.

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John Evelyn's Diary 20 December 1690. 20 Dec 1690. Dr. Hough (39), President of Magdalen College, Oxford, who was displaced with several of the Fellows for not taking the oath imposed by King James, now made a Bishop. Most of this month cold and frost. One Johnson (42), a Knight, was executed at Tyburn for being an accomplice with Campbell (30), brother to Lord Argyle (32), in stealing a young heiress (13).

On 23 Dec 1690 John Johnston 3rd Baronet Caskiebean 1648-1690 (42) was executed at Tyburn for having assisted Captain James Campbell 1660-1713 (30) in the abduction and forced marriage of Mary Wharton 1677-1726 (13).

In 1691 John Ashton Jacobite -1691 was hanged at Tyburn.

1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III

John Evelyn's Diary 19 April 1696. 19 Apr 1696. Great offense taken at the three ministers who absolved Sir William Perkins (47) and Friend at Tyburn. One of them (Snatt) was a son of my old schoolmaster. This produced much altercation as to the canonicalness of the action.

1715 Battle of Preston

The 1715 Battle of Preston was the final action of the 1715 Jacobite Rebellion. It commenced on 09 Nov 1715 when Jacobite cavalry entered Preston. Royalist troops arrived in number over the next few days surrounding Preston forcing the Jaocbite surrender. 1463 were taken prisoner of which 463 were English. The Scottish prisoners included:

George Seton 5th Earl of Winton 1678-1749 (37). The only prisoner to plead not guilty, sentenced to death, escaped from the Tower of London on 04 Aug 1716 around nine in the evening. Travelled to France then to Rome.

On 24 Feb 1716 William Gordon 6th Viscount Kenmure 1672-1716 was beheaded on Tower Hill.

William Maxwell 5th Earl Nithsale 1676-1744. On 09 Feb 1716 he was sentenced to be executed on 24 Feb 1716. The night before his wife (35) effected his escape from the Tower of London by exchanging his clothes with those of her maid. They travelled to Paris then to Rome where the court of James "Old Pretender" Stewart 1688-1766 (26) was.

James Radclyffe 3rd Earl Derwentwater 1689-1716 (25) was imprisoned in the Tower of London. He was examined by the Privy Council on 10 Jan 1716 and impeached on 19 Jan 1716. He pleaded guilty in the expectation of clemency. He was attainted and condemned to death. Attempts were made to procure his pardon. His wife Anna Maria Webb Countess Derwentwater 1692-1723 (23), her sister Mary Webb Countess Waldegrave 1695-1719 (20) [Note. Assumed to be her sister Mary], their aunt Anne Brudenell Duchess Richmond 1671-1722 (44), Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 (74) appealed to King George I of Great Britain and Ireland 1660-1727 (54) in person without success. On 24 Feb 1716 James Radclyffe 3rd Earl Derwentwater 1689-1716 (25) was beheaded on Tower Hill.

William Murray 2nd Lord Nairne 1665-1726 was tried on 09 Feb 1716 for treason, found guilty, attainted, and condemned to death. He survived long enough to benefit from the Indemnity Act of 1717.

On 14 May 1716 Henry Oxburgh -1716 was hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn. He was buried at Church of St Gile's in the Fields. His head was spiked on Temple Bar.

The trials and sentences were overseen by the Lord High Steward William Cowper 1st Earl Cowper 1665-1723 (50) for which he subsequently received his Earldom.

Around 1698. Francois de Troy Painter 1645-1730. Portrait of James Before 1727. Michael Dahl Painter 1659-1743. Portrait of King George I of Great Britain and Ireland 1660-1727. Before 1723 Johnathan

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Trial and Execution of Earl Ferrers

On 05 May 1760 Laurence Shirley 4th Earl Ferrers 1720-1760 (39) was hanged at Tyburn (the last peer to be hanged) for having shot his old family steward. His estates were forfeited however in 1763 King George III (21) granted the title Earl Ferrers and the family estates to his brother Washington Shirley 5th Earl Ferrers 1722-1778 (37).

In 1782 Thomas Gainsborough 1727-1788. Portrait of King George III. In 1781 Thomas Gainsborough 1727-1788. Portrait of King George III. In 1781 Thomas Gainsborough 1727-1788. Portrait of King George III. In 1782 Thomas Gainsborough 1727-1788. Portrait of King George III. Around 1768. Nathaniel Dance Holland Painter 1735-1811. Portrait of King George III. In 1804. Samuel Woodford Painter 1763-1817. Portrait of King George III. Around 1800. William Beechey Painter 1753-1839. Portrait of King George III. Around 1762. Allan Ramsay Painter 1713-1784. Portrait of King George III. In 1754 Jean Etienne Liotard Painter 1702-1789. Portrait of King George III.

Diary of Mrs Philip Lybbe-Powys aka Caroline Girle May 1760. 06 May 1760. Earl Ferrers (39) was carried from the Tower to Tyburn executed by a party of Horse and Foot Guards, a Clergyman and the two Sherifs were in the Coach with him he poor unhappy man was drest in his wedding suit, dating as he himself said his whole unhappy conduct from a forced marriage He observed that the apparatus, and being made a spectacle of to so vast a multitude was greatly worse than death itself the procession was two hours & 3/4 from setting out, the Landau & six in which he was ye Sheriffs each in their Chariots one mourning Coach and a Hearse attended, and return'd thro' Lincoln's Inn Fields about one, I think I never shall forget a procession so moving, to know a man an hour before in perfect health then a Lifeless course, yet a just victim to his Country, for the abuse of of that power his rank in Life had given him a Title too, his rank indeed caused his punishment, as the good Old King, in answer to numerous petitions of his greatly to be pitied Family made this memorable speech, " That for the last years of his Life, he had been beyond his most Sanguine hopes successful, for which he should ever return thanks to God, and on his part he had and always would endeavor to Administer justice as he ought, as Events had shown by the punishment of his most exalted Subjects". This was a noble answer. yet none could help pitying this unhappy Lord, his intellects most probably was rather more in fault than his heart in the murder for which he Suffer'd, and had he been low born his majesty would have shewn more Mercy without such strict Justice.

Execution of Burdett and Stacy

Croyland Chronicle 1478. The indignation of the duke was probably still further increased by this; and now each began to look upon the other with no very fraternal eyes. You might then have seen, (as such men are generally to be found in the courts of all princes), flatterers running to and fro, from the one side to the other, and carrying backwards and forwards the words which had fallen from the two brothers, even if they had happened to be spoken in the most secret closet. The arrest of the duke for the purpose of compelling him to answer the charges brought against him, happened under the following circumstances. One Master John Stacy, a person who was called an astronomer, when in reality he was rather a great sorcerer, formed a plot in conjunction with one Burdet, an esquire, and one of the said duke's household; upon which, he was accused, among numerous other charges, of having made leaden images and other things to procure thereby the death of Richard, lord Beauchamp, at the request of his adulterous wife1. Upon being questioned in a very severe examination as to his practice of damnable arts of this nature, he made confession of many matters, which told both against himself and the said Thomas Burdet. The consequence was, that Thomas was arrested as well; and at last judgment of death was pronounced upon them both, at Westminster, from the Bench of our lord the king, the judges being there seated, together with nearly all the lords temporal of the kingdom. Being drawn to the gallows at Tyburn, they were permitted briefly to say what they thought fit before being put to death; upon which, they protested their innocence, Stacy indeed but faintly; while, on the other hand, Burdet spoke at great length, and with much spirit, and, as his last words, exclaimed with Susanna,28 'Behold! I must die; whereas I never did such things as these."

Note 28. Hist. Susanna, v. 43.

Note 1. This is somewhat confusing since Elizabeth Stafford 1435-, wife of Richard Beauchamp 2nd Baron Beauchamp Powick 1435-1503 died on 27 Jan 1466? It may be a reference to his mother Margaret Ferrers Baroness Beauchamp Powick 1413-1487 whose husband John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp Powick 1409-1475 died in 1475.

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