History of Whitehall Palace

1467 Tournament Bastard of Burgundy

1533 Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn

1536 Marriage of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour

1547 Death of Henry VIII

1571 Triple Wedding

1603 James I Pre-Coronation Knights

1603 James 1st Crowned

1608 Masque of The Hue and Cry After Cupid

1610 Tethy's Festival Masque

1613 Marriage of Elizabeth Stewart and Frederick V Elector Palatine

1648 Treaty of Newport

1649 Rump Parliament

1660 Knighting by Charles II

1661 Coronation of Charles II

1663 Storm Tide

1665 Battle of Lowestoft

1665 Great Plague of London

1666 Great Fire of London

1672 Battle of Solebay

1672 Attack on the Smyrna Fleet

1678 Popish Plot

1683 Rye House Plot

1685 Death and Burial of Charles II

1691 Destruction of Whitehall Palace by Fire

1698 Whitehall Palace Fire

1698 Burning of Whitehall Palace

1876 New Years Appointments

Whitehall Palace is in Westminster.

Tournament Bastard of Burgundy

On 08 Jun 1467 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (25) and John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 (40) went to Whitehall Palace to retrieve the Great Seal from George Neville Archbishop of York 1432-1476 (35). Considered as a slight against the Neville family to whom Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (25) was increasingly distant.

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII Volume 4 1524 1530. 24 Jan 1530. P. S. 6163. For Sir Thomas Boleyn, Earl of Wiltshire (53).
To be keeper of the Privy Seal, with 20s. a day, out of the following customs,—in the port of Pole, 80l., the petty customs in the port of London 200l., in the port of Bristol, 56l. 13s. 4d., and in the port of Brygewater, 18l. 6s. 8d.; vice Cuthbert bishop of London (56). York Place, 20 Jan. 21 Hen. VIII. Del. Westm., 24 Jan.
Pat. 21 Hen. VIII. p. 1, m. 4.
2. Wardship of Robt., kinsman and heir of Edward Knyvett; with custody of the possessions of the said Edward during the minority of Robt. York Place, 20 Jan. 21 Hen. VIII. Del. Westm., 24 Jan.
Pat. 21 Hen. VIII. p. 2, m. 23.

On 11 Nov 1530 Giles Alington 1499-1586 (31) was knighted by Henry VIII (39) at Whitehall Palace.

Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn

On 25 Jan 1533 Henry VIII (41) and Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (32) were married by Rowland Leigh Bishop Coventry and Lichfield (46) at Whitehall Palace. Anne Savage Baroness Berkeley 1496-1546 (37), Thomas Heneage 1480-1553 (53) and Henry Norreys 1482-1536 witnessed.
Sometime after the marriage Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland 1495-1551 (38) was appointed Lady in Waiting to Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (32). She would go to serve Henry's next three wives. He a son of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 and 2 x great grandson of Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France 1368-1422.

Marriage of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour

On 30 May 1536 Henry VIII (44) and Jane Seymour (27) were married at Whitehall Palace by Stephen Gardiner Bishop of Winchester (53). Jane (27) was appointed Queen Consort England.
Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland 1495-1551 (41) was appointed Lady in Waiting to Jane Seymour Queen Consort England 1509-1537 (27). He a son of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 and 2 x great grandson of Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France 1368-1422.

Death of Henry VIII

On 28 Jan 1547 Henry VIII (55) died at Whitehall Palace. His son Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553 (9) succeeded VI King England.

On 09 Apr 1553 James Dyer Speaker 1510-1582 (43) was knighted at Whitehall Palace.

On 25 Feb 1560 William Brooke 10th Baron Cobham 1527-1597 (32) and Frances Newton Baroness Cobham 1539-1592 (21) were married at Whitehall Palace. Frances Newton Baroness Cobham 1539-1592 (21) by marriage Baron Cobham.

1571 Triple Wedding

On 16 Dec 1571 a triple wedding was celebrated ...
Edward Dudley 4th Baron Dudley 1525-1586 (46) and Mary Howard Baroness Dudley were married. Mary Howard Baroness Dudley by marriage Baron Dudley.
Edward Vere 17th Earl Oxford 1550-1604 (21) and Anne Cecil Countess Oxford 1556-1588 (15) were married at Whitehall Palace. Anne Cecil Countess Oxford 1556-1588 (15) by marriage Earl Oxford 2C 1141.
Edward Somerset 4th Earl Worcester 1550-1628 (21) and Elizabeth Hastings Countess Worcester 1546- were married (he was her third cousin once removed). Elizabeth Hastings Countess Worcester 1546- by marriage Earl Worcester 5C 1514.

In 1576 Richard Bulkeley 1533-1621 (43) was knighted at Whitehall Palace.

James 1st Crowned

On 27 Jul 1603 William Wrey 1st Baronet Wrey -1636 was knighted at Whitehall Palace.

On 30 Jul 1603 Richard Preston 1st Earl Desmond was knighted at Whitehall Palace.

On 02 Feb 1608 John St John 1st Baronet St John Lydiard Tregoze 1585-1648 (22) was knighted at Whitehall Palace.

Masque of The Hue and Cry After Cupid

On 09 Feb 1608 John Ramsay 1st Earl Holderness 1580-1626 (28) and Elizabeth Radclyffe -1618 were married at Whitehall Palace. James I (41) gave the bride away and sent the bride a gold cup containing a grant of lands worth an income of £600 per year, also paid off Ramsay's debts of £10,000.
The marriage was celebrated with the Masque of The Hue and Cry After Cupid in the evening of 09 Feb 1608 at the Banqueting House written by Ben Johnson Playwright 1572-1637.
The principal masquers, nobles and gentlemen of the Court, appeared in the guise of the twelve signs of the Zodiac; the men, five English and seven Scottish courtiers, were:
Ludovic Stewart 2nd Duke Lennox 1st Duke Richmond 1574-1624 (33).
Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel 4th Earl Surrey 1st Earl Norfolk 1585-1646 (22).
Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Montgomery 1584-1650 (23).
William Herbert 3rd Earl Pembroke 1580-1630 (27).
Esmé Stewart 3rd Duke Lennox 1579-1624 (29).
Theophilus Howard 2nd Earl Suffolk 1582-1640 (25).
James Hay 1st Earl Carlisle 1580-1636 (28).
Robert Crichton 8th Lord Sanquhar -1612.
John Kennedy, Master of Mar.
Robert Rich 2nd Earl Warwick 1587-1658 (20).
Mr Erskine.

On 29 Apr 1609 Henry Berkeley of Bruton 1579-1667 (30) was knighted at Whitehall Palace.

Tethy's Festival Masque

On 05 Jun 1610 the Tethy's Festival Masque was performed at Whitehall Palace to celebrate the the investiture of Prince Frederick (16) as Prince of Wales. The script was written by Samuel Daniel at the request of the Queen (35), who appeared in person as Tethys a goddess of the sea. Inigo Jones Architect 1573-1652 (36) designed the staging and scenery.
Prince Charles (9) took the part of Zephyrus,.
Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 (13) appeared as the companion or daughter of Tethys, the "Nymph of Thames",.
Arbella Stewart 1575-1615 (35) took the part of the "Nymph of Trent",.
Alethea Talbot Countess Arundel (25) as "Nymph of Arun".
Elizabeth Vere Countess Derby 1575-1627 (34) as "Nymph of Derwent",.
Frances Howard Countess Essex Countess Somerset 1590-1632 (20) as "Nymph of Lee",.
Anne Clifford Countess Dorset Countess Pembroke 1590-1676 (20) as "Nymph of Air",.
Susan Vere Countess Montgomery 1587-1628 (23) as "Nymph of Severn",.
Elizabeth Radclyffe -1618 as "Nymph of Rother",.
Elizabeth Talbot Countess Kent 1582-1651 (28) as "Nymph of Medway",.
Four sisters, daughters of Edward Somerset 4th Earl Worcester 1550-1628 (60) and Elizabeth Hastings Countess Worcester 1546-, danced as the rivers of Monmouthshire:
Catherine Somerset Baroness Windsor 1575-1654 (35) the "Nymph of Usk".
Katherine Somerset Baroness Petre 1575-1625 (35) the "Nymph of Olwy".
Elizabeth Somerset 1590-1625 (20) the "Nymph of Dulesse" (Dulas), and.
Mary Wintour the "Nymph of Wye".

In 1611 John Eyre 1580-1639 (31) and Dorothy Bulstrode Lady in Waiting 1592-1590 (19) attempted to murder Edward Herbert 1st Baron Herbert Chirbury 1582-1648 (28) who he suspected of having an affair with his wife (Dorothy Bulstrode Lady in Waiting 1592-1590 (19)). Eyre (31) and four accomplices caught up with Herbert (28) and his two footmen at Scotland Yard as he was leaving Whitehall Palace, and wounded his horse several times. Eyre (31) broke Herbert's sword. Twenty more men appeared, Herbert thought them Eyre's supporters and attendants of the Earl of Suffolk (49). Two other men helped Herbert, and after a prolonged struggle he wounded Eyre, who was carried to the Thames vomiting. A few days later Eyre sent a message that he would kill Herbert with "a musket out of a window". Meanwhile, because Eyre (31) claimed Dorothy had confessd to being unfaithful, she sent a letter to her aunt Lady Croke (Note. probably Prudence Croke 1567-1621 (44) possibly Elizabeth Croke denying this, and Herbert was able to give this letter to the Privy Council. The Duke of Lennox (36) said that John Eyre was "the most miserable man living" because of the shame of Dorothy's letter, and because his father had disinherited him on hearing of the assault.

On 20 Jan 1611 George Home 1st Earl Dunbar 1556-1611 (55) died at Whitehall Palace. He was buried at Dunbar Church, Dunbar.

On 08 Feb 1611 Richard Worsley 1st Baronet 1589-1621 (22) was knighted at Whitehall Palace.

On 24 May 1612 Lionel Tollemache 1st Baronet Talmash 1562-1621 (49) was knighted at Whitehall Palace.

On 07 Jun 1612 John Wray 2nd Baronet Glentworth 1586-1655 (25) was knighted at Whitehall Palace.

On 15 Nov 1612 Lionel Tollemache 2nd Baronet Talmash 1591-1640 (21) was knighted at Whitehall Palace.

In 1617 Roland Egerton 1st Baronet Egerton and Oulton -1646 was knighted at Whitehall Palace.

In May 1622 James Home 2nd Earl Home 1607-1633 (15) and Catherine Carey Countess Home 1609-1625 (13) were married at Whitehall Palace with James I King Scotland 1394-1437 present. Catherine Carey Countess Home 1609-1625 (13) by marriage Earl Home.

On 02 Mar 1625 James Hamilton 2nd Marquess Hamilton 1589-1625 (36) died at Whitehall Palace.

On 26 Jun 1627 Simon Harcourt 1603-1643 (24) was knighted at Whitehall Palace.

On 24 Jun 1630 Thomas Gower 2nd Baronet Gower 1605-1672 (25) was knighted at Whitehall Palace.

In 1632 Anne Hamilton Duchess Hamilton 1632-1716 was born to James Hamilton 1st Duke Hamilton 1606-1649 and Mary Feilding Duchess Hamilton 1613-1638 (19) in Whitehall Palace.

John Evelyn's Diary 11 April 1645. 11 Apr 1645Holy Thursday, the Pope said mass, and afterward carried the Host in procession about the chapel, with an infinity of tapers. This finished, his Holiness was carried in his open chair on men's shoulders to the place where, reading the Bull In Cœnâ Domini, he both curses and blesses all in a breath; then the guns are again fired. Hence, he went to the Ducal hall of the Vatican, where he washed the feet of twelve poor men, with almost the same ceremony as it is done at Whitehall; they have clothes, a dinner, and alms, which he gives with his own hands, and serves at their table; they have also gold and silver medals, but their garments are of white woolen long robes, as we paint the Apostles. The same ceremonies are done by the Conservators and other officers of state at St. John di Lateran; and now the table on which they say our blessed Lord celebrated his last supper is set out, and the heads of the Apostles. In every famous church they are busy in dressing up their pageantries to represent the Holy Sepulchre, of which we went to visit divers.
On Good Friday, we went again to St. Peter's, where the handkerchief, lance, and cross were all exposed, and worshiped together. All the confession seats were filled with devout people, and at night was a procession of several who most lamentably whipped themselves till the blood stained their clothes, for some had shirts, others upon the bare back, having visors and masks on their faces; at every three or four steps dashing the knotted and raveled whip cord over their shoulders, as hard as they could lay it on; while some of the religious orders and fraternities sung in a dismal tone, the lights and crosses going before, making all together a horrible and indeed heathenish pomp.
The next day, there was much ceremony at St. John di Laterano, so as the whole week was spent in running from church to church, all the town in busy devotion, great silence, and unimaginable superstition.

John Evelyn's Diary 26 April 1648. 26 Apr 1648. There was a great uproar in London, that the rebel army quartering at Whitehall, would plunder the City, on which there was published a Proclamation for all to stand on their guard.

John Evelyn's Diary 18 December 1648. 18 Dec 1648. I got privately into the council of the rebel army, at Whitehall, where I heard horrid villanies.
This was a most exceedingly wet year, neither frost nor snow all the winter for more than six days in all. Cattle died every where of a murrain.

On 23 Jan 1650 Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Montgomery 1584-1650 (65) died at Whitehall Palace. He was buried at Salisbury Cathedral. His son Philip Herbert 5th Earl Pembroke 1621-1669 (29) succeeded 5th Earl Pembroke 10C 1551.

John Evelyn's Diary 07 July 1650. 07 Jul 1650. Sunday. In the afternoon, having a mind to see what was doing among the Rebels, then in full possession at Whitehall, I went thither, and found one at exercise in the chapel, after their way; thence, to St. James's, where another was preaching in the court abroad.

John Evelyn's Diary 06 September 1651. 06 Sep 1651. I went with my wife (16) to St. Germains, to condole with Mr. Waller's (45) loss. I carried with me and treated at dinner that excellent and pious person the Dean of St. Paul's, Dr. Stewart, and Sir Lewis Dives (52) (half-brother to the Earl of Bristol (38)) [Note. Beatrice Walcott was mother to Lewis Dyve 1599-1669 (52) and George Digby 2nd Earl Bristol 1612-1677 (38) by her first and second husbands respectively. At the time of writing, 1651, the Earl of Bristol was John Digby 1st Earl Bristol 1580-1653 (71); a case of Evelyn writing hi sdiary retrospectively], who entertained us with his wonderful escape out of prison in Whitehall, the very evening before he was to have been put to death, leaping down out of a jakes two stories high into the Thames at high water, in the coldest of winter, and at night; so as by swimming he got to a boat that attended for him, though he was guarded by six musketeers. After this, he went about in women's habit, and then in a small-coal-man's, traveling 200 miles on foot, embarked for Scotland with some men he had raised, who coming on shore were all surprised and imprisoned on the Marquis of Montrose's score; he not knowing anything of their barbarous murder of that hero. This he told us was his fifth escape, and none less miraculous; with this note, that the charging through 1,000 men armed, or whatever danger could befall a man, he believed could not more confound and distract a man's thoughts than the execution of a premeditated escape, the passions of hope and fear being so strong. This knight was indeed a valiant gentleman; but not a little given to romance, when he spoke of himself. I returned to Paris the same evening.

John Evelyn's Diary 11 February 1656. 11 Feb 1656. I ventured to go to Whitehall, where of many years I had not been, and found it very glorious and well furnished, as far as I could safely go, and was glad to find they had not much defaced that rare piece of Henry VII., etc., done on the walls of the King's privy chamber.

John Evelyn's Diary 08 May 1656. 08 May 1656. I went to visit Dr. Wilkins (42), at Whitehall, when I first met with Sir P. Neal, famous for his optic glasses. Greatorix, the mathematical instrument maker, showed me his excellent invention to quench fire.

John Evelyn's Diary 25 December 1657. 25 Dec 1657. I went to London with my wife (22), to celebrate Christmas-day, Mr. Gunning (43) preaching in Exeter chapel, on Micah vii. 2. Sermon ended, as he was giving us the Holy Sacrament, the chapel was surrounded with soldiers, and all the communicants and assembly surprised and kept prisoners by them, some in the house, others carried away. It fell to my share to be confined to a room in the house, where yet I was permitted to dine with the master of it, the Countess of Dorset (35), Baroness Hatton, and some others of quality who invited me. In the afternoon, came Colonel Whalley, Goffe, and others, from Whitehall, to examine us one by one; some they committed to the marshal, some to prison. When I came before them, they took my name and abode, examined me why, contrary to the ordinance made, that none should any longer observe the superstitious time of the nativity (so esteemed by them), I durst offend, and particularly be at common prayers, which they told me was but the mass in English, and particularly pray for Charles Stuart (27); for which we had no Scripture. I told them we did not pray for Charles Stuart (27), but for all Christian kings, princes, and governors. They replied, in so doing we prayed for the king of Spain, too, who was their enemy and a Papist, with other frivolous and ensnaring questions, and much threatening; and, finding no color to detain me, they dismissed me with much pity of my ignorance. These were men of high flight and above ordinances, and spoke spiteful things of our Lord's nativity. As we went up to receive the Sacrament, the miscreants held their muskets against us, as if they would have shot us at the altar; but yet suffering us to finish the office of Communion, as perhaps not having instructions what to do, in case they found us in that action. So I got home late the next day; blessed be God!.

On 03 Sep 1658 Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (59) died at Whitehall Palace. His son Richard Cromwell Lord Protector 1626-1712 (31) succeeded Lord Protector.

Samuel Pepys' Diary 05 January 1660. 05 Jan 1660. Thursday. I went to my office, where the money was again expected from the Excise office, but none brought, but was promised to be sent this afternoon. I dined with Mr. Sheply, at my Lord's lodgings, upon his turkey pie. And so to my office again; where the Excise money was brought, and some of it told to soldiers till it was dark.
Then I went home, and after writing a letter to my Lord and told him the news that the Parliament hath this night voted that the members that were discharged from sitting in the years 1648 and 49, were duly discharged; and that there should be writs issued presently for the calling of others in their places, and that Monk (51) and Fairfax (47) were commanded up to town, and that the Prince's (40) lodgings were to be provided for Monk (51) at Whitehall.
Then my wife (19) and I, it being a great frost, went to Mrs. Jem's, in expectation to eat a sack-posset, but Mr. Edward (12) not coming it was put off; and so I left my wife (19) playing at cards with her, and went myself with my lanthorn to Mr. Fage, to consult concerning my nose, who told me it was nothing but cold, and after that we did discourse concerning public business; and he told me it is true the City had not time enough to do much, but they are resolved to shake off the soldiers; and that unless there be a free Parliament chosen, he did believe there are half the Common Council will not levy any money by order of this Parliament. From thence I went to my father's (58), where I found Mrs. Ramsey and her grandchild, a pretty girl, and staid a while and talked with them and my mother, and then took my leave, only heard of an invitation to go to dinner to-morrow to my cosen Thomas Pepys.
I went back to Mrs. Jem, and took my wife (19) and Mrs. Sheply, and went home.

Rump Parliament

John Evelyn's Diary 11 February 1660. 11 Feb 1660. A signal day. Monk (51), perceiving how infamous and wretched a pack of knaves would have still usurped the supreme power, and having intelligence that they intended to take away his commission, repenting of what he had done to the city, and where he and his forces were quartered, marches to Whitehall, dissipates that nest of robbers, and convenes the old Parliament, the Rump Parliament (so called as retaining some few rotten members of the other) being dissolved; and for joy whereof were many thousands of rumps roasted publicly in the streets at the bonfires this night, with ringing of bells, and universal jubilee. This was the first good omen.

1660 Knighting by Charles II

On 06 Jun 1660 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) created new knights at Whitehall Palace including William Wray 1st Baronet Ashby 1625-1669 (35) and John Talbot 1630-1714 (29).

On 15 Jun 1660 Thomas Tipping 1615-1693 (44) was knighted by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) at Whitehall Palace.

John Evelyn's Diary 18 June 1660. 18 Jun 1660. I proposed the embassy to Constantinople for Mr. Henshaw (42); but my Lord Winchelsea (32) struck in.
Goods that had been pillaged from Whitehall Palace during the Rebellion were now daily brought in, and restored upon proclamation; as plate, hangings, pictures, etc.

Coronation of Charles II

On 22 Apr 1661 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) rode from the Tower of London to Whitehall Palace. At the Lime Street end of Leadenhall he passed under a triumphal arch built after the Doric order, with Rebellion, her crimson robe alive with snakes, being crushed by Monarchy Restored, and a fine painting of his Majesty's landing at Dover, "with ships at sea, great guns going off, one kneeling and kissing the King's hand, soldiers, horse and foot and many people gazing".
Outside the East India House in Leadenhall Street, that loyal and honourable trading company expressed their dutiful affections to his Majesty by two Indian youths, one attended by two blackamoors and the other mounted upon a camel, which bore on its back two panniers filled with jewels, spices, and silks to be scattered among the spectators.
At the Conduit in Cornhill a special treat was prepared for the bachelor king in the shape of eight nymphs clad in white. A little further down the street, just opposite the Royal Exchange, was another arch, with stages against it depicting the River Thames and the upper deck of one of his Majesty's ships.
The procession included the Duke of York (27), the Lord High Constable (58) and the Lord Great Chamberlain (53).
The Sword of State was carried by Esmé Stewart 2nd Duke Richmond 5th Duke Lennox 1649-1660.

On 05 May 1661 Charles Stewart 1660-1661 died of smallpox at Whitehall Palace.

John Evelyn's Diary 16 December 1661. 16 Dec 1661. I saw a French comedy acted at Whitehall.

John Evelyn's Diary 23 August 1662. 23 Aug 1662. I was spectator of the most magnificent triumph that ever floated on the Thames, considering the innumerable boats and vessels, dressed and adorned with all imaginable pomp, but, above all, the thrones, arches, pageants, and other representations, stately barges of the Lord Mayor and companies, with various inventions, music, and peals of ordnance both from the vessels and the shore, going to meet and conduct the new Queen (23) from Hampton Court to Whitehall, at the first time of her coming to town. In my opinion, it far exceeded all the Venetian Bucentoras, etc., on the Ascension, when they go to espouse the Adriatic. His Majesty (32) and the Queen (23) came in an antique-shaped open vessel, covered with a state, or canopy, of cloth of gold, made in form of a cupola, supported with high Corinthian pillars, wreathed with flowers, festoons and garlands. I was in our newly built vessel, sailing among them.

John Evelyn's Diary 29 August 1662. 29 Aug 1662. The Council and Fellows of the Royal Society went in a body to Whitehall, to acknowledge his Majesty's (32) royal grace in granting our Charter, and vouchsafing to be himself our founder; when the President made an eloquent speech, to which his Majesty (32) gave a gracious reply and we all kissed his hand. Next day we went in like manner with our address to my Lord Chancellor (53), who had much promoted our patent: he received us with extraordinary favor. In the evening I went to the Queen-Mother's (52) Court, and had much discourse with her.

John Evelyn's Diary 03 October 1662. 03 Oct 1662. I was invited to the Royal College of Physicians, where Dr. Meret, a learned man and library-keeper, showed me the library, theater for anatomy, and divers natural curiosities; the statue and epigram under it of that renowned physician, Dr. Harvey, discoverer of the circulation of the blood. There I saw Dr. Gilbert, Sir William Paddy's and other pictures of men famous in their faculty.
Visited Mr. Wright (45), a Scotchman, who had lived long at Rome, and was esteemed a good painter. The pictures of the Judges at Guildhall are of his hand, and so are some pieces in Whitehall, as the roof in his Majesty's (32) old bedchamber, being Astræa, the St. Catherine, and a chimney-piece in the Queen's (23) privy chamber; but his best, in my opinion, is Lacy, the famous Roscius or comedian, whom he has painted in three dresses, as a gallant, a Presbyterian minister, and a Scotch highlander in his plaid. It is in his Majesty's (32) dining room at Windsor Castle. He had at his house an excellent collection, especially that small piece of Correggio, Scotus of de la Marca, a design of Paulo; and, above all, those ruins of Polydore, with some good agates and medals, especially a Scipio, and a Cæsar's head of gold.

John Evelyn's Diary 30 November 1662. 30 Nov 1662. St. Andrew's day. Invited by the Dean of Westminster (61) to his consecration dinner and ceremony, on his being made Bishop of Worcester. Dr. Bolton preached in the Abbey Church; then followed the consecration by the Bishops of London (64), Chichester (70), Winchester (64), Salisbury (70), etc. After this, was one of the most plentiful and magnificent dinners that in my life I ever saw; it cost near £600 as I was informed. Here were the judges, nobility, clergy, and gentlemen innumerable, this Bishop being universally beloved for his sweet and gentle disposition. He was author of those Characters which go under the name of Blount. He translated his late Majesty's (32) "Icon" into Latin, was Clerk of his Closet, Chaplain, Dean of Westminster (61), and yet a most humble, meek, and cheerful man, an excellent scholar, and rare preacher. I had the honor to be loved by him. He married me at Paris, during his Majesty's (32) and the Church's exile. When I took leave of him, he brought me to the cloisters in his episcopal habit. I then went to prayers at Whitehall, where I passed that evening.

John Evelyn's Diary 18 December 1663. 18 Dec 1663. Dined with the gentlemen of his Majesty's (33) bedchamber at Whitehall.

John Evelyn's Diary 07 October 1664. 07 Oct 1664. I dined at Sir Nicholas Strood's, one of the Masters of Chancery, in Great St. Bartholomew's; passing the evening at Whitehall, with the Queen (25), etc.

John Evelyn's Diary 27 October 1664. 27 Oct 1664. Being casually in the privy gallery at Whitehall, his Majesty (34) gave me thanks before divers lords and noblemen for my book of "Architecture", and again for my "Sylva" saying they were the best designed and useful for the matter and subject, the best printed and designed (meaning the taille-douces of the Parallel of Architecture) that he had seen. He then caused me to follow him alone to one of the windows, and asked me if I had any paper about me unwritten, and a crayon; I presented him with both, and then laying it on the window-stool, he with his own hands designed to me the plot for the future building of Whitehall, together with the rooms of state, and other particulars. After this, he talked with me of several matters, asking my advice, in which I find his Majesty (34) had an extraordinary talent becoming a magnificent prince.
The same day at Council, there being Commissioners to be made to take care of such sick and wounded and prisoners of war, as might be expected upon occasion of a succeeding war and action at sea, war being already declared against the Hollanders, his Majesty (34) was pleased to nominate me to be one, with three other gentlemen, Parliament men, viz, Sir William Doily, Knt. and Bart., Sir Thomas Clifford, and Bullein Rheymes, Esq; with a salary of £1,200 a year among us, besides extraordinaries for our care and attention in time of station, each of us being appointed to a particular district, mine falling out to be Kent and Sussex, with power to constitute officers, physicians, chirurgeons, provost-marshals, and to dispose of half of the hospitals through England. After the Council, we kissed his Majesty's (34) hand. At this Council I heard Mr. Solicitor Finch plead most elegantly for the merchants trading to the Canaries, praying for a new Charter.

John Evelyn's Diary 02 November 1664. 02 Nov 1664. Her Majesty, the Queen-Mother (54), came across the gallery in Whitehall to give me thanks for my book of "Architecture", which I had presented to her, with a compliment that I did by no means deserve.

John Evelyn's Diary 25 January 1665. 25 Jan 1665. This night being at Whitehall, his Majesty (34) came to me standing in the withdrawing-room, and gave me thanks for publishing "The Mysteries of Jesuitism", which he said he had carried two days in his pocket, read it, and encouraged me; at which I did not a little wonder: I suppose Sir Robert Murray (57) had given it to him.

John Evelyn's Diary 20 April 1665. 20 Apr 1665. To Whitehall, to the King (34), who called me into his bedchamber as he was dressing, to whom, I showed the letter written to me from the Duke of York (31) from the fleet, giving me notice of young Evertzen, and some considerable commanders newly taken in fight with the Dartmouth and Diamond frigates, whom he had sent me as prisoners at war; I went to know of his Majesty (34) how he would have me treat them, when he commanded me to bring the young captain to him, and to take the word of the Dutch Ambassador (who yet remained here) for the other, that he should render himself to me whenever I called on him, and not stir without leave. Upon which I desired more guards, the prison being Chelsea House. I went also to Lord Arlington (47) (the Secretary Bennet lately made a Lord) about other business. Dined at my Lord Chancellor's (56); none with him but Sir Sackville Crowe (69), formerly Ambassador at Constantinople; we were very cheerful and merry.

John Evelyn's Diary 29 January 1666. 29 Jan 1666. I went to wait on his Majesty (35), now returned from Oxford to Hampton-Court, where the Duke of Albemarle (57) presented me to him; he ran toward me, and in a most gracious manner gave me his hand to kiss, with many thanks for my care and faithfulness in his service in a time of such great danger, when everybody fled their employments; he told me he was much obliged to me, and said he was several times concerned for me, and the peril I underwent, and did receive my service most acceptably (though in truth I did but do my duty, and O that I had performed it as I ought!). After this, his Majesty (35) was pleased to talk with me alone, near an hour, of several particulars of my employment, and ordered me to attend him again on the Thursday following at Whitehall. Then the Duke (57) came toward me, and embraced me with much kindness, telling me if he had thought my danger would have been so great, he would not have suffered his Majesty (35) to employ me in that station. Then came to salute me my Lord of St. Albans (60), Lord Arlington (48), Sir William Coventry (38), and several great persons; after which, I got home, not being very well in health.
The Court was now in deep mourning for the French Queen-Mother.

John Evelyn's Diary 02 February 1666. 02 Feb 1666. To London; his Majesty (35) now come to Whitehall, where I heard and saw my Lord Mayor (and brethren) make his speech of welcome, and the two Sheriffs were knighted.

Great Fire of London

John Evelyn's Diary 05 September 1666. 05 Sep 1666. It crossed toward Whitehall; but oh! the confusion there was then at that Court! It pleased his Majesty (36) to command me, among the rest, to look after the quenching of Fetter-lane end, to preserve (if possible) that part of Holborn, while the rest of the gentlemen took their several posts, some at one part, and some at another (for now they began to bestir themselves, and not till now, who hitherto had stood as men intoxicated, with their hands across), and began to consider that nothing was likely to put a stop but the blowing up of so many houses as might make a wider gap than any had yet been made by the ordinary method of pulling them down with engines. This some stout seamen proposed early enough to have saved near the whole city, but this some tenacious and avaricious men, aldermen, etc., would not permit, because their houses must have been of the first. It was, therefore, now commended to be practiced; and my concern being particularly for the Hospital of St. Bartholomew, near Smithfield, where I had many wounded and sick men, made me the more diligent to promote it; nor was my care for the Savoy less. It now pleased God, by abating the wind, and by the industry of the people, when almost all was lost infusing a new spirit into them, that the fury of it began sensibly to abate about noon, so as it came no farther than the Temple westward, nor than the entrance of Smithfield, north: but continued all this day and night so impetuous toward Cripplegate and the Tower, as made us all despair. It also broke out again in the Temple; but the courage of the multitude persisting, and many houses being blown up, such gaps and desolations were soon made, as, with the former three days' consumption, the back fire did not so vehemently urge upon the rest as formerly. There was yet no standing near the burning and glowing ruins by near a furlong's space.
The coal and wood wharfs, and magazines of oil, rosin, etc., did infinite mischief, so as the invective which a little before I had dedicated to his Majesty (36) and published, giving warning what probably might be the issue of suffering those shops to be in the city was looked upon as a prophecy.
The poor inhabitants were dispersed about St. George's Fields, and Moorfields, as far as Highgate, and several miles in circle, some under tents, some under miserable huts and hovels, many without a rag, or any necessary utensils, bed or board, who from delicateness, riches, and easy accommodations in stately and well-furnished houses, were now reduced to extreme misery and poverty.
In this calamitous condition, I returned with a sad heart to my house, blessing and adoring the distinguishing mercy of God to me and mine, who, in the midst of all this ruin, was like Lot, in my little Zoar, safe and sound.

John Evelyn's Diary 06 September 1666. 06 Sep 1666. Thursday. I represented to his Majesty (36) the case of the French prisoners at war in my custody, and besought him that there might be still the same care of watching at all places contiguous to unseized houses. It is not indeed imaginable how extraordinary the vigilance and activity of the King (36) and the Duke (32) was, even laboring in person, and being present to command, order, reward, or encourage workmen; by which he showed his affection to his people, and gained theirs. Having, then, disposed of some under cure at the Savoy, I returned to Whitehall, where I dined at Mr. Offley's [Note. Not clear who Mr Offley is? John Evelyn's (45) brother George Evelyn of Wotton 1617-1699 (49) was married to Mary Offley -1664], the groom-porter, who was my relation.

Great Plague of London

John Evelyn's Diary 07 September 1666. 07 Sep 1666. I went this morning on foot from Whitehall as far as London Bridge, through the late Fleet Street, Ludgate hill by St. Paul's, Cheapside, Exchange, Bishops-gate, Aldersgate, and out to Moorfields, thence through Cornhill, etc., with extraordinary difficulty, clambering over heaps of yet smoking rubbish, and frequently mistaking where I was; the ground under my feet so hot, that it even burnt the soles of my shoes. In the meantime, his Majesty (36) got to the Tower by water, to demolish the houses about the graff, which, being built entirely about it, had they taken fire and attacked the White Tower, where the magazine of powder lay, would undoubtedly not only have beaten down and destroyed all the bridge, but sunk and torn the vessels in the river, and rendered the demolition beyond all expression for several miles about the country.
At my return, I was infinitely concerned to find that goodly Church, St. Paul's — now a sad ruin, and that beautiful portico (for structure comparable to any in Europe, as not long before repaired by the late King) now rent in pieces, flakes of large stones split asunder, and nothing remaining entire but the inscription in the architrave showing by whom it was built, which had not one letter of it defaced! It was astonishing to see what immense stones the heat had in a manner calcined, so that all the ornaments, columns, friezes, capitals, and projectures of massy Portland stone, flew off, even to the very roof, where a sheet of lead covering a great space (no less than six acres by measure) was totally melted. The ruins of the vaulted roof falling, broke into St. Faith's, which being filled with the magazines of books belonging to the Stationers, and carried thither for safety, they were all consumed, burning for a week following. It is also observable that the lead over the altar at the east end was untouched, and among the divers. Monuments the body of one bishop remained entire. Thus lay in ashes that most venerable church, one of the most ancient pieces of early piety in the Christian world, besides near one hundred more. The lead, ironwork, bells, plate, etc., melted, the exquisitely wrought Mercers' Chapel, the sumptuous Exchange, the august fabric of Christ Church, all the rest of the Companies' Halls, splendid buildings, arches, entries, all in dust; the fountains dried up and ruined, while the very waters remained boiling; the voragos of subterranean cellars, wells, and dungeons, formerly warehouses, still burning in stench and dark clouds of smoke; so that in five or six miles traversing about I did not see one load of timber unconsumed, nor many stones but what were calcined white as snow.
The people, who now walked about the ruins, appeared like men in some dismal desert, or rather, in some great city laid waste by a cruel enemy; to which was added the stench that came from some poor creatures' bodies, beds, and other combustible goods. Sir Thomas Gresham's statue, though fallen from its niche in the Royal Exchange, remained entire, when all those of the Kings since the Conquest were broken to pieces. Also the standard in Cornhill, and Queen Elizabeth's effigies, with some arms on Ludgate, continued with but little detriment, while the vast iron chains of the city streets, hinges, bars, and gates of prisons, were many of them melted and reduced to cinders by the vehement heat. Nor was I yet able to pass through any of the narrow streets, but kept the widest; the ground and air, smoke and fiery vapor, continued so intense, that my hair was almost singed, and my feet insufferably surbated. The by-lanes and narrow streets were quite filled up with rubbish; nor could one have possibly known where he was, but by the ruins of some Church, or Hall, that had some remarkable tower, or pinnacle remaining.
I then went towards Islington and Highgate, where one might have seen 200,000 people of all ranks and degrees dispersed, and lying along by their heaps of what they could save from the fire, deploring their loss; and, though ready to perish for hunger and destitution, yet not asking one penny for relief, which to me appeared a stranger sight than any I had yet beheld. His Majesty (36) and Council indeed took all imaginable care for their relief, by proclamation for the country to come in, and refresh them with provisions.
In the midst of all this calamity and confusion, there was, I know not how, an alarm begun that the French and Dutch, with whom we were now in hostility, were not only landed, but even entering the city. There was, in truth, some days before, great suspicion of those two nations joining; and now that they had been the occasion of firing the town. This report did so terrify, that on a sudden there was such an uproar and tumult that they ran from their goods, and, taking what weapons they could come at, they could not be stopped from falling on some of those nations whom they casually met, without sense or reason. The clamor and peril grew so excessive, that it made the whole Court amazed, and they did with infinite pains and great difficulty, reduce and appease the people, sending troops of soldiers and guards, to cause them to retire into the fields again, where they were watched all this night. I left them pretty quiet, and came home sufficiently weary and broken. Their spirits thus a little calmed, and the affright abated, they now began to repair into the suburbs about the city, where such as had friends, or opportunity, got shelter for the present to which his Majesty's (36) proclamation also invited them.
Still, the plague continuing in our parish, I could not, without danger, adventure to our church.

John Evelyn's Diary 27 November 1666. 27 Nov 1666. Sir Hugh Pollard (63), Comptroller of the Household, died at Whitehall, and his Majesty (36) conferred the white staff on my brother Commissioner for sick and wounded, Sir Thomas Clifford (36), a bold young gentleman, of a small fortune in Devon, but advanced by Lord Arlington (48), Secretary of State, to the great astonishment of all the Court. This gentleman (36) was somewhat related to me by the marriage of his mother to my nearest kinsman, Gregory Coale, and was ever my noble friend, a valiant and daring person, but by no means fit for a supple and flattering courtier.

On 27 Nov 1666 Hugh Pollard 2nd Baronet 1603-1666 (63) died at Whitehall Palace.

John Evelyn's Diary 23 April 1667. 23 Apr 1667. In the morning, his Majesty (36) went to chapel with the Knights of the Garter, all in their habits and robes, ushered by the heralds; after the first service, they went in procession, the youngest first, the Sovereign last, with the Prelate of the Order and Dean, who had about his neck the book of the Statutes of the Order; and then the Chancellor of the Order (old Sir Henry de Vic (68)), who wore the purse about his neck; then the Heralds and Garter King-at-Arms, Clarencieux, Black Rod. But before the Prelate and Dean of Windsor went the gentlemen of the chapel and choristers, singing as they marched; behind them two doctors of music in damask robes; this procession was about the courts at Whitehall. Then, returning to their stalls and seats in the chapel, placed under each knight's coat-armor and titles, the second service began. Then, the King (36) offered at the altar, an anthem was sung; then, the rest of the Knights offered, and lastly proceeded to the banqueting-house to a great feast. The King (36) sat on an elevated throne at the upper end at a table alone; the Knights at a table on the right hand, reaching all the length of the room; over against them a cupboard of rich gilded plate; at the lower end, the music; on the balusters above, wind music, trumpets, and kettle-drums. the King (36) was served by the lords and pensioners who brought up the dishes. About the middle of the dinner, the Knights drank the King's (36) health, then the King (36), theirs, when the trumpets and music played and sounded, the guns going off at the Tower. At the Banquet, came in the Queen (28), and stood by the King's (36) left hand, but did not sit. Then was the banqueting-stuff flung about the room profusely. In truth, the crowd was so great, that though I stayed all the supper the day before, I now stayed no longer than this sport began, for fear of disorder. The cheer was extraordinary, each Knight having forty dishes to his mess, piled up five or six high; the room hung with the richest tapestry.

John Evelyn's Diary 14 November 1668. 14 Nov 1668. To London, invited to the consecration of that excellent person, the Dean of Ripon, Dr. Wilkins (54), now made Bishop of Chester; it was at Ely House, the Archbishop of Canterbury (70), Dr. Cosin (73), Bishop of Durham, the Bishops of Ely (77), Salisbury (51), Rochester (43), and others officiating. Dr. Tillotson (38) preached. Then, we went to a sumptuous dinner in the hall, where were the Duke of Buckingham (40), Judges, Secretaries of State, Lord-Keeper, Council, Noblemen, and innumerable other company, who were honorers of this incomparable man, universally beloved by all who knew him.
This being the Queen's birthday, great was the gallantry at Whitehall, and the night celebrated with very fine fireworks.
My poor brother (66) continuing ill, I went not from him till the 17th, when, dining at the Groom Porters, I heard Sir Edward Sutton play excellently on the Irish harp; he performs genteelly, but not approaching my worthy friend, Mr. Clark, a gentleman of Northumberland, who makes it execute lute, viol, and all the harmony an instrument is capable of; pity it is that it is not more in use; but, indeed, to play well, takes up the whole man, as Mr. Clark has assured me, who, though a gentleman of quality and parts, was yet brought up to that instrument from five years old, as I remember he told me.

On 30 Dec 1669 Christopher Monck 2nd Duke Albemarle 1653-1688 (16) and Elizabeth "Mad Duchess" Cavendish Duchess Albermarle Duchess Montagu 1654-1734 (15) were married at Whitehall Palace. He a 4 x great grandson of Edward IV King England 1442-1483.

John Evelyn's Diary 18 January 1671. 18 Jan 1671. This day I first acquainted his Majesty (40) with that incomparable young man, Gibbon (22), whom I had lately met with in an obscure place by mere accident, as I was walking near a poor solitary thatched house, in a field in our parish, near Sayes Court. I found him shut in; but looking in at the window, I perceived him carving that large cartoon, or crucifix, of Tintoretto, a copy of which I had myself brought from Venice, where the original painting remains. I asked if I might enter; he opened the door civilly to me, and I saw him about such a work as for the curiosity of handling, drawing, and studious exactness, I never had before seen in all my travels. I questioned him why he worked in such an obscure and lonesome place; he told me it was that he might apply himself to his profession without interruption, and wondered not a little how I found him out. I asked if he was unwilling to be made known to some great man, for that I believed it might turn to his profit; he answered, he was yet but a beginner, but would not be sorry to sell off that piece; on demanding the price, he said £100. In good earnest, the very frame was worth the money, there being nothing in nature so tender and delicate as the flowers and festoons about it, and yet the work was very strong; in the piece was more than one hundred figures of men, etc. I found he was likewise musical, and very civil, sober, and discreet in his discourse. There was only an old woman in the house. So, desiring leave to visit him sometimes, I went away.
Of this young artist (22), together with my manner of finding him out, I acquainted the King (40), and begged that he would give me leave to bring him and his work to Whitehall Palace, for that I would adventure my reputation with his Majesty (40) that he had never seen anything approach it, and that he would be exceedingly pleased, and employ him. The King (40) said he would himself go see him. This was the first notice his Majesty (40) ever had of Mr. Gibbon (22).

John Evelyn's Diary 01 March 1671. 01 Mar 1671. I caused Mr. Gibbon (22) to bring to Whitehall his excellent piece of carving, where being come, I advertised his Majesty (40), who asked me where it was; I told him in Sir Richard Browne's (66) (my father-in-law) chamber, and that if it pleased his Majesty (40) to appoint whither it should be brought, being large and though of wood, heavy, I would take care for it. "No", says the King (40), "show me the way, I'll go to Sir Richard's (66) chamber", which he immediately did, walking along the entries after me; as far as the ewry, till he came up into the room, where I also lay. No sooner was he entered and cast his eyes on the work, but he was astonished at the curiosity of it; and having considered it a long time, and discoursed with Mr. Gibbon (22), whom I brought to kiss his hand, he commanded it should be immediately carried to the Queen's (32) side to show her. It was carried up into her bedchamber, where she (32) and the King (40) looked on and admired it again; the King (40), being called away, left us with the Queen (32), believing she would have bought it, it being a crucifix; but, when his Majesty (40) was gone, a French peddling woman, one Madame de Boord, who used to bring petticoats and fans, and baubles, out of France to the ladies, began to find fault with several things in the work, which she understood no more than an ass, or a monkey, so as in a kind of indignation, I caused the person who brought it to carry it back to the chamber, finding the Queen (32) so much governed by an ignorant Frenchwoman, and this incomparable artist had his labor only for his pains, which not a little displeased me; and he was fain to send it down to his cottage again; he not long after sold it for £80, though well worth £100, without the frame, to Sir George Viner (32).
His Majesty's (40) Surveyor, Mr. Wren (47), faithfully promised me to employ him (22). I having also bespoke his Majesty (40) for his work at Windsor Castle, which my friend, Mr. May (49), the architect there, was going to alter, and repair universally; for, on the next day, I had a fair opportunity of talking to his Majesty (40) about it, in the lobby next the Queen's (32) side, where I presented him with some sheets of my history. I thence walked with him through St. James's Park to the garden, where I both saw and heard a very familiar discourse between ... and Mrs. Nelly (21), as they called an impudent comedian, she looking out of her garden on a terrace at the top of the wall, and ... [Note. the elipsis here is John Evelyn being coy about the King's (40) conversation with Nell Gwyn.] standing on the green walk under it. I was heartily sorry at this scene. Thence the King (40) walked to the Duchess of Cleveland (30), another lady of pleasure, and curse of our nation.

John Evelyn's Diary 12 February 1672. 12 Feb 1672. At the Council, we entered on inquiries about improving the plantations by silks, galls, flax, senna, etc., and considered how nutmegs and cinnamon might be obtained and brought to Jamaica, that soil and climate promising success. Dr. Worsley being called in, spoke many considerable things to encourage it. We took order to send to the plantations, that none of their ships should adventure homeward single, but stay for company and convoys. We also deliberated on some fit person to go as commissioner to inspect their actions in New England, and, from time to time, report how that people stood affected. In future, to meet at Whitehall.

1672 Battle of Solebay

John Evelyn's Diary 31 May 1672. 31 May 1672. I received another command to repair to the seaside; so I went to Rochester, where I found many wounded, sick, and prisoners, newly put on shore after the engagement on the 28th, in which the Earl of Sandwich, that incomparable person and my particular friend, and divers more whom I loved, were lost. My Lord (who was Admiral of the Blue) was in the "Prince", which was burnt, one of the best men-of-war that ever spread canvas on the sea. There were lost with this brave man, a son of Sir Charles Cotterell (57) (Master of the Ceremonies), and a son of Sir Charles Harbord (his Majesty's (42) Surveyor-General), two valiant and most accomplished youths, full of virtue and courage, who might have saved themselves; but chose to perish with my Lord, whom they honored and loved above their own lives.
Here, I cannot but make some reflections on things past. It was not above a day or two that going to Whitehall to take leave of his Lordship, who had his lodgings in the Privy-Garden, shaking me by the hand he bid me good-by, and said he thought he would see me no more, and I saw, to my thinking, something boding in his countenance: "No", says he, "they will not have me live. Had I lost a fleet (meaning on his return from Bergen when he took the East India prize) I should have fared better; but, be as it pleases God—I must do something, I know not what, to save my reputation". Something to this effect, he had hinted to me; thus I took my leave. I well remember that the Duke of Albemarle, and my now Lord Clifford (41), had, I know not why, no great opinion of his courage, because, in former conflicts, being an able and experienced seaman (which neither of them were), he always brought off his Majesty's (42) ships without loss, though not without as many marks of true courage as the stoutest of them; and I am a witness that, in the late war, his own ship was pierced like a colander. But the business was, he was utterly against this war from the beginning, and abhorred the attacking of the Smyrna fleet; he did not favor the heady expedition of Clifford at Bergen, nor was he so furious and confident as was the Duke of Albemarle, who believed he could vanquish the Hollanders with one squadron. My Lord Sandwich was prudent as well as valiant, and always governed his affairs with success and little loss; he was for deliberation and reason, they for action and slaughter without either; and for this, whispered as if my Lord Sandwich was not so gallant, because he was not so rash, and knew how fatal it was to lose a fleet, such as was that under his conduct, and for which these very persons would have censured him on the other side. This it was, I am confident, grieved him, and made him enter like a lion, and fight like one too, in the midst of the hottest service, where the stoutest of the rest seeing him engaged, and so many ships upon him, dared not, or would not, come to his succor, as some of them, whom I know, might have done. Thus, this gallant person perished, to gratify the pride and envy of some I named.
Deplorable was the loss of one of the best accomplished persons, not only of this nation, but of any other. He was learned in sea affairs, in politics, in mathematics, and in music: he had been on divers embassies, was of a sweet and obliging temper, sober, chaste, very ingenious, a true nobleman, an ornament to the Court and his Prince; nor has he left any behind him who approach his many virtues.
He had, I confess, served the tyrant Cromwell, when a young man, but it was without malice, as a soldier of fortune; and he readily submitted, and that with joy, bringing an entire fleet with him from the Sound, at the first tidings of his Majesty's (42) restoration. I verily believe him as faithful a subject as any that were not his friends. I am yet heartily grieved at this mighty loss, nor do I call it to my thoughts without emotion.

John Evelyn's Diary 25 April 1675. 25 Apr 1675. Dr. Barrow (44), that excellent, pious, and most learned man, divine, mathematician, poet, traveler, and most humble person, preached at Whitehall Palace to the household, on Luke xx. 27 [Note. This reference should be Luke x. 27], of love and charity to our neighbors.

John Evelyn's Diary 10 September 1675. 10 Sep 1675. I was casually shown the Duchess of Portsmouth's (26) splendid apartment at Whitehall, luxuriously furnished, and with ten times the richness and glory beyond the Queen's (36); such massy pieces of plate, whole tables, and stands of incredible value.

John Evelyn's Diary 29 September 1675. 29 Sep 1675. I saw the Italian Scaramuccio (66) act before the King (45) at Whitehall, people giving money to come in, which was very scandalous, and never so before at Court diversions. Having seen him act before in Italy, many years past, I was not averse from seeing the most excellent of that kind of folly.

John Evelyn's Diary 27 October 1675. 27 Oct 1675. Lord Berkeley (47) coming into Council, fell down in the gallery at Whitehall, in a fit of apoplexy, and being carried into my Lord Chamberlain's (57) lodgings, several famous doctors were employed all that night, and with much ado he was at last recovered to some sense, by applying hot fire pans and spirit of amber to his head; but nothing was found so effectual as cupping him on the shoulders. It was almost a miraculous restoration. The next day he was carried to Berkeley House. This stopped his journey for the present, and caused my stay in town. He had put all his affairs and his whole estate in England into my hands during his intended absence, which though I was very unfit to undertake, in regard of many businesses which then took me up, yet, upon the great importunity of my lady (23) and Mr. Godolphin (30) (to whom I could refuse nothing) I did take it on me. It seems when he was Deputy in Ireland, not long before, he had been much wronged by one he left in trust with his affairs, and therefore wished for some unmercenary friend who would take that trouble on him; this was to receive his rents, look after his houses and tenants, solicit supplies from the Lord Treasurer (43), and correspond weekly with him, more than enough to employ any drudge in England; but what will not friendship and love make one do?.

John Evelyn's Diary 27 February 1676. 27 Feb 1676. Dr. Pritchard, Bishop of Gloucester, preached at Whitehall, on Isaiah v. 5, very allegorically, according to his manner, yet very gravely and wittily.

John Evelyn's Diary 28 April 1676. 28 Apr 1676. My wife (41) entertained her Majesty (45) at Deptford, for which the Queen (37) gave me thanks in the withdrawing room at Whitehall.
The University of Oxford presented me with the "Marmora Oxoniensia Arundeliana"; the Bishop of Oxford writing to desire that I would introduce Mr. Prideaux, the editor (a young man most learned in antiquities) to the Duke of Norfolk (49), to present another dedicated to his Grace (49), which I did, and we dined with the Duke (49) at Arundel House, and supped at the Bishop of Rochester's (51) with Isaac Vossius (58).

John Evelyn's Diary 22 February 1678. 22 Feb 1678. Dr. Pierce preached at Whitehall, on 2 Thessalonians iii. 6, against our late schismatics, in a rational discourse, but a little over-sharp, and not at all proper for the auditory there.

On 03 Sep 1678 Francis Godolphin 2nd Earl Godolphin 1678-1766 was born to Sidney Godolphin 1st Earl Godolphin 1645-1712 (33) and Margaret Blagge Maid of Honour 1652-1678 (26) at Whitehall Palace. His mother died six days later.

John Evelyn's Diary 08 September 1678. 08 Sep 1678. While I was at church came a letter from Mr. Godolphin (33), that my dear friend his lady (26) was exceedingly ill, and desiring my prayers and assistance. My wife (43) and I took boat immediately, and went to Whitehall, where, to my inexpressible sorrow, I found she had been attacked with a new fever, then reigning this excessive hot autumn, and which was so violent, that it was not thought she could last many hours.

On 09 Sep 1678 Margaret Blagge Maid of Honour 1652-1678 (26) died in childbirth at Whitehall Palace. He was buried at St Breage's Church Breage.

John Evelyn's Diary 30 January 1679. 30 Jan 1679. Dr. Cudworth preached before the King (48) at Whitehall, on 2 Timothy iii. 5, reckoning up the perils of the last times, in which, among other wickedness, treasons should be one of the greatest, applying it to the occasion, as committed under a form of reformation and godliness; concluding that the prophecy did intend more particularly the present age, as one of the last times; the sins there enumerated, more abundantly reigning than ever.

John Evelyn's Diary 25 January 1680. 25 Jan 1680. Dr. Cave (42), author of "Primitive Christianity", etc., a pious and learned man, preached at Whitehall to the household, on James iii. 17, concerning the duty of grace and charity.

John Evelyn's Diary 02 September 1680. 02 Sep 1680. I had an opportunity, his Majesty (50) being still at Windsor, of seeing his private library at Whitehall, at my full ease. I went with expectation of finding some curiosities, but, though there were about 1,000 volumes, there were few of importance which I had not perused before. They consisted chiefly of such books as had from time to time been dedicated, or presented to him; a few histories, some Travels and French books, abundance of maps and sea charts, entertainments and pomps, buildings and pieces relating to the navy, some mathematical instruments; but what was most rare, were three or four Romish breviaries, with a great deal of miniature and monkish painting and gilding, one of which is most exquisitely done, both as to the figures, grotesques, and compartments, to the utmost of that curious art. There is another in which I find written by the hand of King Henry VII., his giving it to his dear daughter, Margaret, afterward Queen of Scots, in which he desires her to pray for his soul, subscribing his name at length. There is also the process of the philosophers' great elixir, represented in divers pieces of excellent miniature, but the discourse is in high Dutch, a MS. There is another MS. in quarto, of above 300 years old, in French, being an institution of physic, and in the botanical part the plants are curiously painted in miniature; also a folio MS. of good thickness, being the several exercises, as Themes, Orations, Translations, etc., of King Edward VI., all written and subscribed by his own hand, and with his name very legible, and divers of the Greek interleaved and corrected after the manner of schoolboys' exercises, and that exceedingly well and proper; with some epistles to his preceptor, which show that young prince to have been extraordinarily advanced in learning, and as Cardan, who had been in England affirmed, stupendously knowing for his age. There is likewise his journal, no less testifying his early ripeness and care about the affairs of state.
There are besides many pompous volumes, some embossed with gold, and intaglios on agates, medals, etc. I spent three or four entire days, locked up, and alone, among these books and curiosities. In the rest of the private lodgings contiguous to this, are divers of the best pictures of the great masters, Raphael, Titian, etc., and in my esteem, above all, the "Noli me tangere" of our blessed Savior to Mary Magdalen after his Resurrection, of Hans Holbein; than which I never saw so much reverence and kind of heavenly astonishment expressed in a picture.
There are also divers curious clocks, watches, and pendules of exquisite work, and other curiosities. An ancient woman who made these lodgings clean, and had all the keys, let me in at pleasure for a small reward, by means of a friend.

John Evelyn's Diary 31 October 1680. 31 Oct 1680. I spent this whole day in exercises. A stranger preached at Whitehall on Luke xvi. 30, 31. I then went to St. Martin's, where the Bishop of St. Asaph (53) [Note. The next post refers to William Lloyd Bishop 1617-1717 (53) being made Bishop of St Asaph. The previous incumbent Isaac Barrow had died 24 Jun 1680] preached on 1 Peter iii. 15; the Holy Communion followed, at which I participated, humbly imploring God's assistance in the great work I was entering into. In the afternoon, I heard Dr. Sprat (45), at St. Margaret's, on Acts xvii. 11.
I began and spent the whole week in examining my life, begging pardon for my faults, assistance and blessing for the future, that I might, in some sort, be prepared for the time that now drew near, and not have the great work to begin, when one can work no longer. The Lord Jesus help and assist me! I therefore stirred little abroad till the 5th of November, when I heard Dr. Tenison (44), the now vicar of St. Martin's; Dr. Lloyd (53), the former incumbent, being made Bishop of St. Asaph.

On 17 Nov 1681 Jean Chardin Traveller 1643-1713 (38) was knighted at Whitehall Palace by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (51). The same day Jean Chardin Traveller 1643-1713 (38) and Esther Lardinière Peigné were married. He a son of Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 and grandson of Henry IV King France 1553-1610.

John Evelyn's Diary 24 January 1682. 24 Jan 1682. To the Royal Society, where at the Council we passed a new law for the more accurate consideration of candidates, as whether they would really be useful; also concerning the honorary members, that none should be admitted but by diploma.
This evening I was at the entertainment of the Morocco Ambassador at the Duchess of Portsmouth's (32) glorious apartments at Whitehall, where was a great banquet of sweetmeats and music; but at which both the Ambassador and his retinue behaved themselves with extraordinary moderation and modesty, though placed about a long table, a lady between two Moors, and among these were the King's (51) natural children, namely, Lady Lichfield (17) and Sussex (20), the Duchess of Portsmouth (32), Nelly (31), etc., concubines, and cattle of that sort, as splendid as jewels and excess of bravery could make them; the Moors neither admiring nor seeming to regard anything, furniture or the like, with any earnestness, and but decently tasting of the banquet. They drank a little milk and water, but not a drop of wine; they also drank of a sorbet and jacolatt; did not look about, or stare on the ladies, or express the least surprise, but with a courtly negligence in pace, countenance, and whole behavior, answering only to such questions as were asked with a great deal of wit and gallantry, and so gravely took leave with this compliment, that God would bless the Duchess of Portsmouth (32) and the Prince (9), her son meaning the little Duke of Richmond. The King (51) came in at the latter end, just as the Ambassador was going away. In this manner was this slave (for he was no more at home) entertained by most of the nobility in town, and went often to Hyde Park on horseback, where he and his retinue showed their extraordinary activity in horsemanship, and flinging and catching their lances at full speed; they rode very short, and could stand upright at full speed, managing their spears with incredible agility. He went sometimes to the theaters, where, upon any foolish or fantastical action, he could not forbear laughing, but he endeavored to hide it with extraordinary modesty and gravity. In a word, the Russian Ambassador, still at Court behaved himself like a clown compared to this civil heathen.

On 19 Mar 1683 Thomas Killigrew Playwright 1612-1683 (71) died at Whitehall Palace.

John Evelyn's Diary 21 March 1683. 21 Mar 1683. Dr. Tenison (46) preached at Whitehall on 1 Cor. vi. 12; I esteem him to be one of the most profitable preachers in the Church of England, being also of a most holy conversation, very learned and ingenious. The pains he takes and care of his parish will, I fear, wear him out, which would be an inexpressible loss.

John Evelyn's Diary 06 April 1683. 06 Apr 1683. Good Friday. There was in the afternoon, according to custom, a sermon before the King (52), at Whitehall; Dr. Sprat (48) preached for the Bishop of Rochester (58).

John Evelyn's Diary 19 July 1683. 19 Jul 1683. George, Prince of Denmark (30), who had landed this day, came to marry the Lady Anne (18), daughter to the Duke (49); so I returned home, having seen the young gallant at dinner at Whitehall.

Rye House Plot

John Evelyn's Diary 23 November 1683. 23 Nov 1683. The Duke of Monmouth (34), till now proclaimed traitor on the pretended plot for which Lord Russell was lately beheaded, came this evening to Whitehall and rendered himself, on which were various discourses.

John Evelyn's Diary 30 December 1683. 30 Dec 1683. Dr. Sprat (48), now made Deane of Westminster, preached to the King (53) at Whitehall, on 6 Matt. 24. Recollecting the passages of the past yeare, I gave God thanks for his mercies, praying his blessing for the future.

John Evelyn's Diary 15 March 1684. 15 Mar 1684. At Whitehall preached Mr. Henry Godolphin (35), a prebend of St. Paules, and brother to my deare friend Sydnie (38), on 55 Isaiah 7. I dined at the Lord Keeper's (46), and brought to him Sir John Chardin (40), who shewed him his accurate draughts of his travells in Persia.

John Evelyn's Diary 15 November 1684. 15 Nov 1684. Being the Queene's (45) birth-day, there were fire-works on the Thames before Whitehall, with pageants of castles, forts, and other devices of gyrondolas, serpents, the King (54) and Queene's (45) armes and mottos, all represented in fire, such as had not ben seen here. But the most remarkable was the severall fires and skirmishes in the very water, which actually mov'd a long way, burning under the water, now and then appearing above it, giving reports like muskets and cannon, with granados and innumerable other devices. It is said it cost £.1500. It was concluded with a ball, where all the young ladys and gallants daunced in the greate hall. The Court had not ben seene so brave and rich in apparell since his Ma*'s Restauration.

Death and Burial of Charles II

On 06 Feb 1685 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (54) died at 1145 in the morning at Whitehall Palace attended by Charles Scarburgh Physician 1615-1694 (69). His brother James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (51) succeeded II King England Scotland and Ireland. Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (26) by marriage Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland. His brother James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (51), William Chiffinch 1602-1691 (83), Richard Mason 1633-1685 (52) and William Sancroft Archbishop of Canterbury 1617-1693 (68) were present.

John Evelyn's Diary 05 March 1685. 05 Mar 1685. To my griefe I saw the new pulpit set up in the Popish Oratorie at Whitehall Palace for the Lent preaching, masse being publicly said, and the Romanists swarming at Court with greater confidence than had ever ben seene in England since the Reformation, so as every body grew jealous to what this would tend.
A Parliament was now summon'd, and greate industry us'd to obtaine elections which might promote the Court interest, most of the Corporations being now by their new Charters impower'd to make what returnes of members they pleas'd.
There came over divers envoyes and greate persons to condole the death of the late King, who were receiv'd by the Queene Dowager (46) on a bed of mourning, the whole chamber, cieling and floore hung with black, and tapers were lighted, so as nothing could be more lugubrous and solemne. The Queene Consort sat out under a state on a black foot-cloth, to entertaine the circle (as the Queene us'd to do), and hat very decently.

John Evelyn's Diary 08 April 1685. 08 Apr 1685. Being now somewhat compos'd after my greate affliction, I went to London to hear Dr. Tenison (48) (it being on a Wednesday in Lent) at Whitehall. I observ'd that tho' the King (51) was not in his seate above in the chapell, the Doctor made his three congees, which they were not us'd to do when the late King was absent, making then one bowing onely. I ask'd the reason; it was sayd he had a special order so to do. The Princesse of Denmark (34) was in the King's Closet, but sat on the left hand of the chaire, the Clearke of the Closet (50) standing by His Ma*s chaire, as If he had ben present. I met the Queene Dowager (46) going now first from Whitehall to dwell at Somerset-house. This day my brother of Wotton and Mr. Onslow (30) were candidates for Surrey against Sr Adam Brown and my cousin Sr Edwd Evelyn, and were circumvented in their election by a trick of the Sheriff's* taking advantage of my brother's party going out of the small village of Leatherhead to seek shelter and lodging, the afternoone being tempestuous, proceeding to the Election when they were gon; they expecting the next morning; whereas before and then they exceeded the other party by many hundreds, as I am assur'd. The Duke of Norfolk (30) led Sr Edw. Evelyn's and Sr Adam Brown's party. For this Parliament, very meane and slight persons (some of them gentlemen's servants, clearkes, and persons neither of reputation nor interest) were set up, but the country would choose my brother whether he would or no, and he miss'd it by the trick above mentioned. Sr Adam Brown was so deafe that he could not heare one word. S1 Edw. Evelyn was an honest gent much in favour with his Majesty.

Popish Plot

John Evelyn's Diary 10 April 1685. 10 Apr 1685. I went early to Whitehall to heare Dr. Tillotson, Deane of Canterbury (54), preaching on 9 Eccles. 18. I returned in the evening, and visited Lady Tuke, and found with her Sr Geo Wakeman, the physician, whom I had seene tried and acquitted J, amongst the plotters for poisoning the late King, on the accusation of the famous Oates (35); and surely I believ'd him guiltlesse.

John Evelyn's Diary 09 July 1685. 09 Jul 1685. Just as I was coming into the lodgings at Whitehall, a little before dinner, my Lord of Devonshire (45) standing very neere his Ma's (51) bed-chamber doore in the lobby, came Col. Culpeper (50), and in a rude manner looking my Lord in the face, asked whether this was a time and place for excluders to appeare; my Lord at first tooke little notice of what he said, knowing him to be a hot-headed fellow, but he reiterating it, my Lord ask'd Culpeper whether he meant him; he said, yes, he meant his Lordship. My Lord told him he was no excluder (as indeed he was not); the other affirming it againe, my Lord told him he lied, on which Culpeper struck him a box on the eare, which my Lord return'd and fell'd him. They were soone parted, Culpeper was seiz'd, and his Ma*, who was all the while in his bed-chamber, order'd him to be carried to the Green Cloth Officer, who sent him to the Marshalsea as he deserv'd. My Lord Devon had nothing said to him. I supp'd this night at Lambeth at my old friend's Mr. Elias Ashmole's (68), with my Lady Clarendon, ye Bishop of St. Asaph (57), and Dr. Tenison (48), when we were treated at a greate feast.

After 09 Jul 1685 Thomas Culpepper 1637-1708 was imprisoned in Marshalsea Prison for having insulted his litagee by striking him within the precincts of the court at Whitehall Palace on 9 Jul 1685, and was sentenced to losing a hand; his wife's intervention saved him.

John Evelyn's Diary 14 October 1685. 14 Oct 1685. I went to London about finishing my lodgings at Whitehall.

John Evelyn's Diary 13 December 1685. 13 Dec 1685. Dr Patrick, Dean of Peterborough (59), preach'd at Whitehall before ye Princesse of Denmark (20); who since his Ma* (52) came to the Crown, allways sate in the King's closet, and had the same bowings and ceremonies applied to the place where she was, as his Ma* had when there in person.
Dining at Mr. Pepys's, Dr. Slayer shewed us an experiment of a wonderful nature, pouring first a very cold liquor into a glass, and super-fusing on it another, to appearance cold and cleare liquor also; it first produced a white cloud, then boiling, divers cormscations and actual flames of fire mingled with the liquor, which being a little shaken together, fixed divers sunns and starrs of real fire, perfectly globular, on the sides of the glasse, and which there stuck like so many constellations, burning most vehemently, and resembling starrs and heavenly bodies, and that for a long space. It seemed to exhiblte a theorie of the eduction of light out of the chaos, and the fixing or gathering of the universal light into luminous bodys. This matter or phosphorus was made out of human blood and urine, elucidating the vital flame or heate in animal bodys. A very noble experiment.

John Evelyn's Diary 20 December 1685. 20 Dec 1685. Dr Turner, brother to yc Bp. of Ely (48), and sometime Tutor to my son, preach'd at Whitehall on 8 Mark 38, concerning ye submission of Christians to their persecutors, in were some passages indiscreete enough, considering yc time, and the rage of the inhumane French tyrant against the poore Protestants.

John Evelyn's Diary 06 February 1686. 06 Feb 1686. Being the day on wcb his Ma* (52) began his reign, by order of Council it was to be solemniz'd with a particular Office and Sermon, which the Bp. of Ely (48) preach'd at Whitehall on 11 Numb. 12; a Court oration upon the Regal office. It was much wonder'd at that this day, weh was that of his late Ma*'s death, should be kept as a festival, and not [instead of] the day of the present King's coronation. It is said to have ben formerly ye costom, tho' not till now since ye reigne of King James I.
The Dutchesse of Monmouth (34) being in ye same seate with me at church, appear'd with a very sad and afflicted countenance.

John Evelyn's Diary 08 February 1686. 08 Feb 1686. I tooke the Test in Westminster Hall, before the Lord Chief Justice. I now came to lodge at Whitehall in the Lord Privy Seal's lodgings.

John Evelyn's Diary 17 March 1686. 17 Mar 1686. I went to my house in the country, refusing to be present at what was to passe at the Privy Seale the next day. In the morning Dr. Tenison (49) preached an incomparable discourse at Whitehall, on 2 Timothy 3, 4.

John Evelyn's Diary 29 December 1686. 29 Dec 1686. I went to hear the music of the Italians in the new chapel, now first opened publicly at Whitehall for the Popish Service. Nothing can be finer than the magnificent marble work and architecture at the end, where are four statues, representing St. John, St. Peter, St. Paul, and the Church, in white marble, the work of Mr. Gibbons (38), with all the carving and Pillars of exquisite art and great cost. The altar piece is the Salutation; the volto in fresco, the Assumption of the blessed Virgin, according to their tradition, with our blessed Savior, and a world of figures painted by Verrio. The throne where the King (53) and Queen (28) sit is very glorious, in a closet above, just opposite to the altar. Here we saw the Bishop in his mitre and rich copes, with six or seven Jesuits and others in rich copes, sumptuously habited, often taking off and Putting on the Bishop's mitre, who sat in a chair with arms pontifically, was adored and censed by three Jesuits in their copes; then he went to the altar and made divers cringes, then censing the images and glorious tabernacle placed on the altar, and now and then changing place: the crosier, which was of silver, was put into his hand with a world of mysterious ceremony, the music playing, with singing. I could not have believed I should ever have seen such things in the King of England's palace, after it had pleased God to enlighten this nation; but our great sin has, for the present, eclipsed the blessing, which I hope he will in mercy and his good time restore to its purity.
Little appearance of any winter as yet.

John Evelyn's Diary 24 January 1687. 24 Jan 1687. I saw the Queen's (28) new apartment at Whitehall, with her new bed, the embroidery of which cost £3,000. The carving about the chimney piece, by Gibbons (38), is incomparable.

Destruction of Whitehall Palace by Fire

John Evelyn's Diary 10 April 1691. 10 Apr 1691. This night, a sudden and terrible fire burned down all the buildings over the stone gallery at Whitehall to the water side, beginning at the apartment of the late Duchess of Portsmouth (41) [Note. Not clear why 'late' since Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734 (41) died in 1734; possibly relates to her fall from grace following the death of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685] (which had been pulled down and rebuilt no less than three times to please her), and consuming other lodgings of such lewd creatures, who debauched both King Charles II and others, and were his destruction.
The King (40) returned out of Holland just as this accident happened—Proclamation against the Papists, etc.

John Evelyn's Diary 04 June 1696. 04 Jun 1696. A committee met at Whitehall about Greenwich Hospital, at Sir Christopher Wren's (72), his Majesty's Surveyor-General. We made the first agreement with divers workmen and for materials; and gave the first order for proceeding on the foundation, and for weekly payments to the workmen, and a general account to be monthly.

John Evelyn's Diary 02 December 1697. 02 Dec 1697. Thanksgiving Day for the Peace, the King (47) and a great Court at Whitehall. The Bishop of Salisbury (54) preached, or rather made a florid panegyric, on 2 Chron. ix. 7, 8. The evening concluded with fireworks and illuminations of great expense.

Whitehall Palace Fire

On 04 Jan 1698 Whitehall Palace was burned to the ground. The only remaining building was the Banqueting House.

1698 Burning of Whitehall Palace

John Evelyn's Diary 05 January 1698. 05 Jan 1698. Whitehall burned, nothing but walls and ruins left. See 1698 Burning of Whitehall Palace.

On 05 Jun 1702 William Anne Keppel 2nd Earl Albermarle 1702-1754 was born to Arnold Keppel 1st Earl Albermarle 1670-1718 (32) and Geertruid Johanna Quirina Van Der Duyn Countess Albermarle at Whitehall Palace.

On 06 Dec 1726 Thomas Thynne 2nd Viscount Weymouth 1710-1751 (16) and Elizabeth Sackville Viscountess Weymouth 1711-1729 (15) were married at Whitehall Palace. Elizabeth Sackville Viscountess Weymouth 1711-1729 (15) by marriage Viscount Weymouth.

Around 1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Whitehall and the Privy Garden from Richmond House.

On 17 Dec 1758 Charles Butler 3rd Duke Ormond 1671-1758 (87) died without issue at his lodgings at Whitehall Palace. He was buried at St Margaret's Church. Duke Ormonde, Marquess Ormonde 1C 1642, Earl Arran 2C 1693 extinct. His second cousin once removed John Butler 15th Earl Ormonde -1766 de jure 16th Earl Ormonde, 8th Earl Ossory although he never used these titles.

On 14 Jul 1776 George Greville 2nd Earl Warwick 2nd Earl Brooke Warwick Castle 1746-1816 (29) and Henrietta Vernon Countess Warwick Countess Brooke Warwick Castle 1760-1838 (15) were married at Whitehall Palace. Henrietta Vernon Countess Warwick Countess Brooke Warwick Castle 1760-1838 (15) by marriage Earl Warwick 4C 1759, Earl Brooke Warwick Castle.

On 16 May 1843 Charles Robert Carrington 3rd Baron Carrington 1843-1928 was born to Robert John Carrington 2nd Baron Carrington 1796-1868 (47) and Charlotte Augusta Annabella Drummond Willoughby Baroness Carrington 1815-1879 (28) at Whitehall Palace.

On 16 May 1843 Charles Robert Wynn Carington 1st Marquess 1843-1928 was born at Whitehall Palace.

New Years Appointments

Edinburgh Gazette 14 Jan 1876. 14 Jan 1876. Whitehall Palace.
The Queen has been pleased to direct Letters Patent to be passed under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, granting the dignities of an Earl and Duke of the said United Kingdom to Charles Henry, Duke of Richmond, K.G. (30), and the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten, by the names, styles, and titles of Earl of Kinrara, in the County of Inverness, and Duke of Gordon, of Gordon Castle, in that part of the said United Kingdom called Scotland.
The Queen has also been pleased to direct Letters Patent to be passed under the said Great Seal, granting the dignities of an Earl and Marquess of the said United Kingdom to William, Earl of Abergavenny (49), and the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten, by the names, styles, and titles of Earl of Lewes, in the County of Sussex, and Marquess of Abergavenny, in the County of Monmonth.
The Queen has also been pleased to direct Letters Patent to be passed under the said Great Seal, granting the dignities of a Viscount and Earl of the said United Kingdom to Edward Montagu Stuart Granville, Lord Wharncliffe (48), and the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten, by the names, styles, and titles of Viscount Carlton, of Carlton, and Earl of Wharncliffe, bdth in the West Riding of the County of York; with remainder, in default of such issue male, to the Honourable Francis Dudley Stuart-Wortley (46) (brother of the said Edward Montagu Stuart Granville, Lord Wharncliffe), and the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten.
The Queen has also been pleased to direct Letters Patent to be passed under the said Great Seal, granting the dignity of a Baron of the said United Kingdom to John, Earl of Erne (73), in that part of the said United Kingdom called Ireland, K.P., and the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten, by the name, style, and title of Baron Fermanagh, of Lisnaskea, in the County of Fermanagh.
The Queen has also been pleased to direct Letters Patent to be passed under the said Great Seal, granting the dignity of a Baron of the said United Kingdom to John Ralph Ormsby-Gore (59), Esq, and the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten, by the name, style, and title of Baron Harlech, of Harlech, in the County of Merioneth; with remainder, in default of snch issue male, to William Richard Ormsby-Gore, Esq (56). (brother of the said John Ralph Ormsby-Gore), and the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten.
The Queen has also been pleased to direct Letters Patent to be passed under the said Great Seal, granting the dignity of a Baron of the said United Kingdom to Henry Gerard Sturt (50), Esq, and the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten, by the name, style, and title of Baron Alington, of Crichel, in the County of Dorset.
The Queen has also been pleased to direct Letters Patent to be passed under the said Great Seal, granting the dignity of a Baron of the said United Kingdom to John Tollemache, Esq, and the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten, by the name, style, and title of Baron Tollemache, of Helmingham Hall, in the County of Suffolk.
The Queen has also been pleased to direct Letters Patent to be passed under the said Great Seal, granting the dignity of a Baron of the said United Kingdom to Sir Robert Tolver Gerard, Bart., and the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten, by the name, style, and title of Baron Gerard, of Bryn, in the County Palatine of Lancaster.
New Years Appointments.

John Evelyn's Diary Introduction. There is little else in the Diary equally striking, though Evelyn's description of Whitehall on the eve of the death of Charles the Second ranks among the memorable passages of the language. It is nevertheless full of interesting anecdotes and curious notices, especially of the scientific research which, in default of any adequate public organization, was in that age more efficaciously promoted by students than by Professors. De Quincey censures Evelyn for omitting to record the conversation of the men with whom he associated, but he does not consider that the Diary in its present shape is a digest of memoranda made long previously, and that time failed at one period and memory at the other. De Quincey, whose extreme acuteness was commonly evinced on the negative side of a question, saw the weak points of the Diary upon its first publication much more clearly than his contemporaries did, and was betrayed into illiberality by resentment at what he thought its undeserved vogue. Evelyn has in truth been fortunate; his record, which his contemporaries would have neglected, appeared (1818) just in time to be a precursor of the Anglican movement, a tendency evinced in a similar fashion by the vindication, no doubt mistaken, of the Caroline authorship of the "Icon Basilike". Evelyn was a welcome encounter to men of this cast of thought, and was hailed as a model of piety, culture, and urbanity, without sufficient consideration of his deficiencies as a loyalist and a patriot. It also conduced to his reputation that all his other writings should have virtually perished except his "Sylva", like his Diary a landmark in the history of improvement, though in a widely different department. But for his lack of diplomatic talent, he might be compared with an eminent and much applauded, but in our times somewhat decrescent, contemporary, Sir William Temple. Both these eminent persons would have aroused a warmer feeling in posterity, and have effected more for its instruction and entertainment, if they could occasionally have dashed their dignity with an infusion of the grotesqueness, we will not say of Pepys, but of Roger North. To them, however, their dignity was their character, and although we could have wished them a larger measure of geniality, we must feel indebted to them for their preservation of a refined social type.
.
Richard Garnett.

Admiralty House Whitehall Palace

John Evelyn's Diary 27 January 1689. 27 Jan 1689. I dined at the Admiralty, where was brought in a child not twelve years old, the son of one Dr. Clench, of the most prodigious maturity of knowledge, for I cannot call it altogether memory, but something more extraordinary. Mr. Pepys (55) and myself examined him, not in any method, but with promiscuous questions, which required judgment and discernment to answer so readily and pertinently. There was not anything in chronology, history, geography, the several systems of astronomy, courses of the stars, longitude, latitude, doctrine of the spheres, courses and sources of rivers, creeks, harbors, eminent cities, boundaries and bearings of countries, not only in Europe, but in any other part of the earth, which he did not readily resolve and demonstrate his knowledge of, readily drawing out with a pen anything he would describe. He was able not only to repeat the most famous things which are left us in any of the Greek or Roman histories, monarchies, republics, wars, colonies, exploits by sea and land, but all the sacred stories of the Old and New Testament; the succession of all the monarchies, Babylonian, Persian, Greek, Roman, with all the lower Emperors, Popes, Heresiarchs, and Councils, what they were called about, what they determined, or in the controversy about Easter, the tenets of the Gnostics, Sabellians, Arians, Nestorians; the difference between St. Cyprian and Stephen about re-baptism, the schisms. We leaped from that to other things totally different, to Olympic years, and synchronisms; we asked him questions which could not be resolved without considerable meditation and judgment, nay of some particulars of the Civil Laws, of the Digest and Code. He gave a stupendous account of both natural and moral philosophy, and even in metaphysics.
Having thus exhausted ourselves rather than this wonderful child, or angel rather, for he was as beautiful and lovely in countenance as in knowledge, we concluded with asking him if, in all he had read or heard of, he had ever met with anything which was like this expedition of the Prince of Orange (38), with so small a force to obtain three great kingdoms without any contest. After a little thought, he told us that he knew of nothing which did more resemble it than the coming of Constantine the Great out of Britain, through France and Italy, so tedious a march, to meet Maxentius, whom he overthrew at Pons Milvius with very little conflict, and at the very gates of Rome, which he entered and was received with triumph, and obtained the empire, not of three kingdoms only, but of all the then known world. He was perfect in the Latin authors, spoke French naturally, and gave us a description of France, Italy, Savoy, Spain, ancient and modernly divided; as also of ancient Greece, Scythia, and northern countries and tracts: we left questioning further. He did this without any set or formal repetitions, as one who had learned things without book, but as if he minded other things, going about the room, and toying with a parrot there, and as he was at dinner (tanquam aliua agens, as it were) seeming to be full of play, of a lively, sprightly temper, always smiling, and exceedingly pleasant, without the least levity, rudeness, or childishness.
His father assured us he never imposed anything to charge his memory by causing him to get things by heart, not even the rules of grammar; but his tutor (who was a Frenchman) read to him, first in French, then in Latin; that he usually played among other boys four or five hours every day, and that he was as earnest at his play as at his study. He was perfect in arithmetic, and now newly entered into Greek. In sum (horresco referens), I had read of divers forward and precocious youths, and some I have known, but I never did either hear or read of anything like to this sweet child, if it be right to call him child who has more knowledge than most men in the world. I counseled his father not to set his heart too much on this jewel, "Immodicis brevis est ætas, et rara senectus", as I myself learned by sad experience in my most dear child Richard, many years since, who, dying before he was six years old, was both in shape and countenance and pregnancy of learning, next to a prodigy.

On 20 Oct 1789 Anne Lennox Countess Albermarle 1703-1789 (86) died in Admiralty House Whitehall Palace.

Channel Row

White's Stairs

Samuel Pepys' Diary 23 July 1664. 23 Jul 1664. Up, and all the morning at the office.
At noon to the 'Change, where I took occasion to break the business of my Chancellor's (55) timber to Mr. Coventry (36) in the best manner I could. He professed to me, that, till, Sir G. Carteret (54) did speake of it at the table, after our officers were gone to survey it, he did not know that my Chancellor (55) had any thing to do with it; but now he says that he had been told by the Duke (30) that Sir G. Carteret (54) had spoke to him about it, and that he had told the Duke that, were he in my Chancellor's (55) case, if he were his father, he would rather fling away the gains of two or £3,000, than have it said that the timber, which should have been the King's, if it had continued the Duke of Albemarle's (55), was concealed by us in favour of my Chancellor (55); for, says he, he is a great man, and all such as he, and he himself particularly, have a great many enemies that would be glad of such an advantage against him. When I told him it was strange that Sir J. Minnes (65) and Sir G. Carteret (54), that knew my Chancellor's (55) concernment therein, should not at first inform us, he answered me that for Sir J. Minnes (65), he is looked upon to be an old good companion, but by nobody at the other end of the towne as any man of business, and that my Chancellor (55), he dares say, never did tell him of it, only Sir G. Carteret (54), he do believe, must needs know it, for he and Sir J. Shaw are the greatest confidants he hath in the world. So for himself, he said, he would not mince the matter, but was resolved to do what was fit, and stand upon his owne legs therein, and that he would speak to the Duke, that he and Sir G. Carteret (54) might be appointed to attend my Chancellor (55) in it. All this disturbs me mightily. I know not what to say to it, nor how to carry myself therein; for a compliance will discommend me to Mr. Coventry (36), and a discompliance to my Chancellor (55). But I think to let it alone, or at least meddle in it as little more as I can.
From thence walked toward Westminster, and being in an idle and wanton humour, walked through Fleet Alley, and there stood a most pretty wench at one of the doors, so I took a turn or two, but what by sense of honour and conscience I would not go in, but much against my will took coach and away, and away to Westminster Hall, and there 'light of Mrs. Lane, and plotted with her to go over the water. So met at White's stairs in Chanel Row, and over to the old house at Lambeth Marsh, and there eat and drank, and had my pleasure of her twice, she being the strangest woman in talk of love to her husband sometimes, and sometimes again she do not care for him, and yet willing enough to allow me a liberty of doing what I would with her. So spending 5s. or 6s. upon her, I could do what I would, and after an hour's stay and more back again and set her ashore there again, and I forward to Fleet Street, and called at Fleet Alley, not knowing how to command myself, and went in and there saw what formerly I have been acquainted with, the wickedness of these houses, and the forcing a man to present expense. The woman indeed is a most lovely woman, but I had no courage to meddle with her for fear of her not being wholesome, and so counterfeiting that I had not money enough, it was pretty to see how cunning she was, would not suffer me to have to do in any manner with her after she saw I had no money, but told me then I would not come again, but she now was sure I would come again, but I hope in God I shall not, for though she be one of the prettiest women I ever saw, yet I fear her abusing me. So desiring God to forgive me for this vanity, I went home, taking some books from my bookseller, and taking his lad home with me, to whom I paid £10 for books I have laid up money for, and laid out within these three weeks, and shall do no more a great while I hope.
So to my office writing letters, and then home and to bed, weary of the pleasure I have had to-day, and ashamed to think of it.

Chapel Royal Whitehall Palace

Marriage of Elizabeth Stewart and Frederick V Elector Palatine

On 14 Feb 1613 Frederick Palatinate Simmern V Elector Palatine Rhine 1596-1632 (16) and Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 (16) were married at Chapel Royal Whitehall Palace.
A grand occasion that saw more royalty than ever visit the court of England. The marriage was an enormously popular match and was the occasion for an outpouring of public affection with the ceremony described as "a wonder of ceremonial and magnificence even for that extravagant age".
It was celebrated with lavish and sophisticated festivities both in London and Heidelberg, including mass feasts and lavish furnishings that cost nearly £50,000, and nearly bankrupted King James. Among many celebratory writings of the events was John Donne's (41) "Epithalamion, Or Marriage Song on the Lady Elizabeth, and Count Palatine being married on St Valentine's Day". She a daughter of James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625.

On 26 Dec 1639 Lewis Boyle 1st Viscount Boyle 1619-1642 (20) and Elizabeth Feilding Countess Guildford -1667 were married at the Chapel Royal Whitehall Palace.

Coronation of Charles II

John Evelyn's Diary 19 April 1661. 19 Apr 1661. To London, and saw the bathing and rest of the ceremonies of the Knights of the Bath, preparatory to the coronation; it was in the Painted Chamber, Westminster. I might have received this honor; but declined it. The rest of the ceremony was in the chapel at Whitehall, when their swords being laid on the altar, the Bishop delivered them.

John Evelyn's Diary 17 April 1685. 17 Apr 1685. Good Friday. Dr. Tenison (48) preached at the new church at St. James's, on 1 Cor. 16, 22, upon the infinite love of God to us, which he illustrated in many instances. The holy Sacrament followed, at which I participated. The Lord make me thankfull. In tbe after noone Dr. Sprat, Bp. of Rochester (50), preached in Whitehall Chapell, the auditory very full of Lords, the two Archbishops, and many others, now drawne to towne upon the occasion of the Coronation and ensuing Parliament. I supp'd with the Countesse of Sunderland (39) and Lord Godolphin (39), and return'd home.

John Evelyn's Diary 20 May 1688. 20 May 1688. I went to Whitehall Chapel, where, after the morning lessons, the Declaration was read by one of the choir who used to read the chapters. I hear it was in the Abbey Church, Westminster, but almost universally forborne throughout all London: the consequences of which a little time will show.

Cock Pit

Samuel Pepys' Diary 23 January 1660. 23 Jan 1660. Monday. In the morning called out to carry £20 to Mr Downing (35), which I did and came back, and finding Mr. Pierce, the surgeon, I took him to the Axe and gave him his morning draft. Thence to my office and there did nothing but make up my balance. Came home and found my wife dressing of the girl's head, by which she was made to look very pretty. I went out and paid Wilkinson [Note. Landlord of the Crown Tavern] what I did owe him, and brought a piece of beef home for dinner. Thence I went out and paid Waters [Note. Landlord of The Sun, King Street], the vintner, and went to see Mrs. Jem, where I found my Lady Wright, but Scott was so drunk that he could not be seen. Here I staid and made up Mrs. Ann's bills, and played a game or two at cards, and thence to Westminster Hall, it being very dark. I paid Mrs. Michell, my bookseller, and back to Whitehall, and in the garden, going through to the Stone Gallery [Note. The Stone Gallery was a long passage between the Privy Garden and the river. It led from the Bowling Green to the Court of the Palace] I fell into a ditch, it being very dark. At the Clerk's chamber I met with Simons and Luellin, and went with them to Mr. Mount's chamber at the Cock Pit, where we had some rare pot venison, and ale to abundance till almost twelve at night, and after a song round we went home. This day the Parliament sat late, and resolved of the declaration to be printed for the people's satisfaction, promising them a great many good things.

Samuel Pepys' Diary 20 February 1660. 20 Feb 1660. Monday. In the morning at my lute. Then to my office, where my partner and I made even our balance. Took him home to dinner with me, where my brother John came to dine with me. After dinner I took him to my study at home and at my Lord's, and gave him some books and other things against his going to Cambridge. After he was gone I went forth to Westminster Hall, where I met with Chetwind, Simons, and Gregory. And with them to Marsh's at Whitehall to drink, and staid there a pretty while reading a pamphlet1 well writ and directed to General Monk (51), in praise of the form of monarchy which was settled here before the wars. They told me how the Speaker Lenthall (68) do refuse to sign the writs for choice of new members in the place of the excluded; and by that means the writs could not go out to-day. In the evening Simons and I to the Coffee Club, where nothing to do only I heard Mr. Harrington (49), and my Lord of Dorset (37) and another Lord, talking of getting another place as the Cockpit, and they did believe it would come to something. After a small debate upon the question whether learned or unlearned subjects are the best the Club broke up very poorly, and I do not think they will meet any more. Hence with Vines, &c. to Will's, and after a pot or two home, and so to bed.
Note 1. This pamphlet is among the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts (British Museum), and dated in MS. this same day, February 20th— "A Plea for Limited Monarchy as it was established in this Nation before the late War. In an Humble Address to his Excellency General Monck. By a Zealot for the good old Laws of his Country, before any Faction or Caprice, with additions". "An Eccho to the Plea for Limited Monarchy, &c"., was published soon afterwards.

Samuel Pepys' Diary 17 November 1662. 17 Nov 1662. To the Duke's to-day, but he is gone a-hunting, and therefore I to my Lord Sandwich's (37), and having spoke a little with him about his businesses, I to Westminster Hall and there staid long doing many businesses, and so home by the Temple and other places doing the like, and at home I found my wife dressing by appointment by her woman [Mrs. Gosnell.] that I think is to be, and her other sister being here to-day with her and my wife's brother, I took Mr. Creed, that came to dine, to an ordinary behind the Change, and there dined together, and after dinner home and there spent an hour or two till almost dark, talking with my wife, and making Mrs. Gosnell sing; and then, there being no coach to be got, by water to White Hall; but Gosnell not being willing to go through bridge, we were forced to land and take water, again, and put her and her sister ashore at the Temple. I am mightily pleased with her humour and singing. At White Hall by appointment, Mr. Creed carried my wife and I to the Cockpitt, and we had excellent places, and saw the King (32), Queen (23), Duke of Monmouth (13), his son, and my Baroness Castlemaine's (21), and all the fine ladies; and "The Scornful Lady", well performed. They had done by eleven o'clock, and it being fine moonshine, we took coach and home, but could wake nobody at my house, and so were fain to have my boy get through one of the windows, and so opened the door and called up the maids, and went to supper and to bed, my mind being troubled at what my wife tells me, that her woman will not come till she hears from her mother, for I am so fond of her that I am loth now not to have her, though I know it will be a great charge to me which I ought to avoid, and so will make it up in other things.
So to bed.

Samuel Pepys' Diary 01 December 1662. 01 Dec 1662. Up and by coach with Sir John Minnes (63) and Sir W. Batten (61) to White Hall to the Duke's chamber, where, as is usual, my Lord Sandwich (37) and all of us, after his being ready, to his closett, and there discoursed of matters of the Navy, and here Mr. Coventry (34) did do me the great kindness to take notice to the Duke (29) of my pains in making a collection of all contracts about masts, which have been of great use to us.
Thence I to my Lord Sandwich's (37), to Mr. Moore, to talk a little about business; and then over the Parke (where I first in my life, it being a great frost, did see people sliding with their skeates1, which is a very pretty art), to Mr. Coventry's (34) chamber to St. James's, where we all met to a venison pasty, and were very merry, Major Norwood being with us, whom they did play upon for his surrendering of Dunkirk. Here we staid till three or four o'clock; and so to the Council Chamber, where there met the Duke of York (29), Prince Rupert (42), Duke of Albemarle (53), my Lord Sandwich (37), Sir Win. Compton (37), Mr. Coventry (34), Sir J. Minnes (63), Sir R. Ford (48), Sir W. Rider, myself, and Captain Cuttance, as Commissioners for Tangier. And after our Commission was read by Mr. Creed, who I perceive is to be our Secretary, we did fall to discourse of matters: as, first, the supplying them forthwith with victualls; then the reducing it to make way for the money, which upon their reduction is to go to the building of the Mole; and so to other matters, ordered as against next meeting.
This done we broke up, and I to the Cockpitt, with much crowding and waiting, where I saw "The Valiant Cidd2" acted, a play I have read with great delight, but is a most dull thing acted, which I never understood before, there being no pleasure in it, though done by Betterton (27) and by Ianthe (25), And another fine wench that is come in the room of Roxalana (20) nor did the King (32) or Queen (24) once smile all the whole play, nor any of the company seem to take any pleasure but what was in the greatness and gallantry of the company.
Thence to my Lord's, and Mr. Moore being in bed I staid not, but with a link walked home and got thither by 12 o'clock, knocked up my boy, and put myself to bed.
Note 1. Iron skates appear to have been introduced by the Dutch, as the name certainly was; but we learn from Fitzstephen that bone skates (although not so called) were used in London in the twelfth century.
Note 2. Translated from the "Cid" of Corneille.

Samuel Pepys' Diary 05 January 1663. 05 Jan 1663. Up and to the Duke (29), who himself told me that Sir J. Lawson (48) was come home to Portsmouth from the Streights, who is now come with great renown among all men, and, I perceive, mightily esteemed at Court by all. The Duke (29) did not stay long in his chamber; but to the King's chamber, whither by and by the Russia Embassadors (18) come; who, it seems, have a custom that they will not come to have any treaty with our or any King's Commissioners, but they will themselves see at the time the face of the King (32) himself, be it forty days one after another; and so they did to-day only go in and see the King (32); and so out again to the Council-chamber. The Duke (29) returned to his chamber, and so to his closett, where Sir G. Carteret (53), Sir J. Minnes (63), Sir W. Batten (62), Mr. Coventry (35), and myself attended him about the business of the Navy; and after much discourse and pleasant talk he went away.
And I took Sir W. Batten (62) and Captain Allen into the wine cellar to my tenant (as I call him, Serjeant Dalton), and there drank a great deal of variety of wines, more than I have drunk at one time, or shall again a great while, when I come to return to my oaths, which I intend in a day or two.
Thence to my Lord's lodging, where Mr. Hunt and Mr. Creed dined with us, and were very merry. And after dinner he and I to White Hall, where the Duke (29) and the Commissioners for Tangier met, but did not do much: my Lord Sandwich (37) not being in town, nobody making it their business. So up, and Creed and I to my wife again, and after a game or two at cards, to the Cockpitt, where we saw "Claracilla", a poor play, done by the King's house (but neither the King (32) nor Queen (24) were there, but only the Duke (29) and Duchess (25), who did show some impertinent and, methought, unnatural dalliances there, before the whole world, such as kissing, and leaning upon one another); but to my very little content, they not acting in any degree like the Duke's people.
So home (there being here this night Mrs. Turner (40) and Mrs. Martha Batten of our office) to my Lord's lodgings again, and to a game at cards, we three and Sarah, and so to supper and some apples and ale, and to bed with great pleasure, blessed be God!

Treaty of Newport

Samuel Pepys' Diary 09 November 1663. 09 Nov 1663. Up and found myself very well, and so by coach to White Hall and there met all my fellow officers, and so to the Duke (30), where, when we came into his closett, he told us that Mr. Pepys was so altered with his new perriwigg that he did not know him.
So to our discourse, and among and above other things we were taken up in talking upon Sir J. Lawson's (48) coming home, he being come to Portsmouth; and Captain Berkely is come to towne with a letter from the Duana of Algier to the King (33), wherein they do demand again the searching of our ships and taking out of strangers, and their goods; and that what English ships are taken without the Duke's pass they will detain (though it be flat contrary to the words of the peace) as prizes, till they do hear from our King, which they advise him may be speedy. And this they did the very next day after they had received with great joy the Grand Seignor's confirmation of the Peace from Constantinople by Captain Berkely; so that there is no command nor certainty to be had of these people. The King (33) is resolved to send his will by a fleete of ships; and it is thought best and speediest to send these very ships that are now come home, five sail of good ships, back again after cleaning, victualling, and paying them. But it is a pleasant thing to think how their Basha, Shavan Aga, did tear his hair to see the soldiers order things thus; for (just like his late predecessor) when they see the evil of war with England, then for certain they complain to the Grand Seignor of him, and cut his head off: this he is sure of, and knows as certain.
Thence to Westminster Hall, where I met with Mr. Pierce, chyrurgeon; and among other things he asked me seriously whether I knew anything of my Lord's being out of favour with the King (33); and told me, that for certain the King (33) do take mighty notice of my Lord's living obscurely in a corner not like himself, and becoming the honour that he is come to. I was sorry to hear, and the truth is, from my Lord's discourse among his people (which I am told) of the uncertainty of princes' favours, and his melancholy keeping from Court, I am doubtful of some such thing; but I seemed wholly strange to him in it, but will make my use of it. He told me also how loose the Court is, nobody looking after business, but every man his lust and gain; and how the King (33) is now become besotted upon Mrs. Stewart (16), that he gets into corners, and will be with her half an houre together kissing her to the observation of all the world; and she now stays by herself and expects it, as my Baroness Castlemaine's (22) did use to do; to whom the King (33), he says, is still kind, so as now and then he goes to have a chat with her as he believes; but with no such fondness as he used to do. But yet it is thought that this new wench is so subtle, that she lets him not do any thing than is safe to her, but yet his doting is so great that, Pierce tells me, it is verily thought if the Queene (53) had died, he would have married her.
The Duke of Monmouth (14) is to have part of the Cockpitt new built for lodgings for him, and they say to be made Captain of the Guards in the room of my Lord Gerard (45). Having thus talked with him, there comes into the Hall Creed and Ned Pickering, and after a turne or two with them, it being noon, I walked with them two to the King's Head ordinary, and there we dined; little discourse but what was common, only that the Duke of Yorke (30) is a very, desperate huntsman, but I was ashamed of Pickering, who could not forbear having up my Lord Sandwich (38) now and then in the most paltry matters abominable.
Thence I took leave of them, and so having taken up something at my wife's tailor's, I home by coach and there to my office, whither Shales came and I had much discourse with him about the business of the victualling, and thence in the evening to the Coffee-house, and there sat till by and by, by appointment Will brought me word that his uncle Blackburne was ready to speak with me. So I went down to him, and he and I to a taverne hard by, and there I begun to speak to Will friendlily, advising him how to carry himself now he is going from under my roof, without any reflections upon the occasion from whence his removal arose. This his uncle seconded, and after laying down to him his duty to me, and what I expect of him, in a discourse of about a quarter of an houre or more, we agreed upon his going this week, towards the latter (end) of the week, and so dismissed him, and Mr. Blackburne and I fell to talk of many things, wherein I did speak so freely to him in many things agreeing with his sense that he was very open to me: first, in that of religion, he makes it great matter of prudence for the King (33) and Council to suffer liberty of conscience; and imputes the losse of Hungary to the Turke from the Emperor's denying them this liberty of their religion. He says that many pious ministers of the word of God, some thousands of them, do now beg their bread: and told me how highly the present clergy carry themselves every where, so as that they are hated and laughed at by everybody; among other things, for their excommunications, which they send upon the least occasions almost that can be. And I am convinced in my judgement, not only from his discourse, but my thoughts in general, that the present clergy will never heartily go down with the generality of the commons of England; they have been so used to liberty and freedom, and they are so acquainted with the pride and debauchery of the present clergy. He did give me many stories of the affronts which the clergy receive in all places of England from the gentry and ordinary persons of the parish. He do tell me what the City thinks of General Monk (54), as of a most perfidious man that hath betrayed every body, and the King (33) also; who, as he thinks, and his party, and so I have heard other good friends of the King (33) say, it might have been better for the King (33) to have had his hands a little bound for the present, than be forced to bring such a crew of poor people about him, and be liable to satisfy the demands of every one of them. He told me that to his knowledge (being present at every meeting at the Treaty at the Isle of Wight), that the old King did confess himself overruled and convinced in his judgement against the Bishopps, and would have suffered and did agree to exclude the service out of the churches, nay his own chappell; and that he did always say, that this he did not by force, for that he would never abate one inch by any vyolence; but what he did was out of his reason and judgement.
He tells me that the King (33) by name, with all his dignities, is prayed for by them that they call Fanatiques, as heartily and powerfully as in any of the other churches that are thought better: and that, let the King (33) think what he will, it is them that must helpe him in the day of warr. For as they are the most, so generally they are the most substantial sort of people, and the soberest; and did desire me to observe it to my Lord Sandwich (38), among other things, that of all the old army now you cannot see a man begging about the street; but what? You shall have this captain turned a shoemaker; the lieutenant, a baker; this a brewer; that a haberdasher; this common soldier, a porter; and every man in his apron and frock, &c., as if they never had done anything else: whereas the others go with their belts and swords, swearing and cursing, and stealing; running into people's houses, by force oftentimes, to carry away something; and this is the difference between the temper of one and the other; and concludes (and I think with some reason,) that the spirits of the old parliament soldiers are so quiett and contented with God's providences, that the King (33) is safer from any evil meant him by them one thousand times more than from his own discontented Cavalier. And then to the publique management of business: it is done, as he observes, so loosely and so carelessly, that the Kingdom can never be happy with it, every man looking after himself, and his owne lust and luxury; among other things he instanced in the business of money, he do believe that half of what money the Parliament gives the King (33) is not so much as gathered. And to the purpose he told me how the Bellamys (who had some of the Northern counties assigned them for their debt for the petty warrant victualling) have often complained to him that they cannot get it collected, for that nobody minds, or, if they do, they won't pay it in. Whereas (which is a very remarkable thing,) he hath been told by some of the Treasurers at Warr here of late, to whom the most of the £120,000 monthly was paid, that for most months the payments were gathered so duly, that they seldom had so much or more than 40s., or the like, short in the whole collection; whereas now the very Commissioners for Assessments and other publique payments are such persons, and those that they choose in the country so like themselves, that from top to bottom there is not a man carefull of any thing, or if he be, he is not solvent; that what between the beggar and the knave, the King (33) is abused the best part of all his revenue. From thence we began to talk of the Navy, and particularly of Sir W. Pen (42), of whose rise to be a general I had a mind to be informed. He told me he was always a conceited man, and one that would put the best side outward, but that it was his pretence of sanctity that brought him into play. Lawson, and Portman, and the Fifth-monarchy men, among whom he was a great brother, importuned that he might be general; and it was pleasant to see how Blackburne himself did act it, how when the Commissioners of the Admiralty would enquire of the captains and admirals of such and such men, how they would with a sigh and casting up the eyes say, "Such a man fears the Lord", or, "I hope such a man hath the Spirit of God", and such things as that. But he tells me that there was a cruel articling against Pen after one fight, for cowardice, in putting himself within a coyle of cables, of which he had much ado to acquit himself: and by great friends did it, not without remains of guilt, but that his brethren had a mind to pass it by, and Sir H. Vane did advise him to search his heart, and see whether this fault or a greater sin was not the occasion of this so great tryall. And he tells me, that what Pen gives out about Cromwell's sending and entreating him to go to Jamaica, is very false; he knows the contrary: besides, the Protector never was a man that needed to send for any man, specially such a one as he, twice. He tells me that the business of Jamaica did miscarry absolutely by his pride, and that when he was in the Tower he would cry like a child. This he says of his own personal knowledge, and lastly tells me that just upon the turne, when Monk (54) was come from the North to the City, and did begin to think of bringing in the King (33), Pen was then turned Quaker. This he is most certain of. He tells me that Lawson was never counted any thing but only a seaman, and a stout man, but a false man, and that now he appears the greatest hypocrite in the world. And Pen the same. He tells me that it is much talked of, that the King (33) intends to legitimate the Duke of Monmouth (14); and that he has not, nor his friends of his persuasion, have any hopes of getting their consciences at liberty but by God Almighty's turning of the King's heart, which they expect, and are resolved to live and die in quiett hopes of it; but never to repine, or act any thing more than by prayers towards it. And that not only himself but all of them have, and are willing at any time to take the oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy. Thus far, and upon many more things, we had discoursed when some persons in a room hard by began to sing in three parts very finely and to play upon a flagilette so pleasantly that my discourse afterwards was but troublesome, and I could not attend it, and so, anon, considering of a sudden the time of night, we found it 11 o'clock, which I thought it had not been by two hours, but we were close in talk, and so we rose, he having drunk some wine and I some beer and sugar, and so by a fair moonshine home and to bed, my wife troubled with tooth ache.
Mr. Blackburne observed further to me, some certain notice that he had of the present plot so much talked of; that he was told by Mr. Rushworth, how one Captain Oates, a great discoverer, did employ several to bring and seduce others into a plot, and that one of his agents met with one that would not listen to him, nor conceal what he had offered him, but so detected the trapan. This, he says, is most true. He also, among other instances how the King (33) is served, did much insist upon the cowardice and corruption of the King's guards and militia, which to be sure will fail the King (33), as they have done already, when there will be occasion for them.

Samuel Pepys' Diary 24 April 1665. 24 Apr 1665. Up and with Creed in Sir W. Batten's (64) coach to White Hall. Sir W. Batten (64) and I to the Duke of Albemarle (56), where very busy.
Then I to Creed's chamber, where I received with much ado my two orders about receiving Povy's (51) monies and answering his credits, and it is strange how he will preserve his constant humour of delaying all business that comes before him.
Thence he and I to London to my office, and back again to my Lady Sandwich's (40) to dinner, where my wife by agreement.
After dinner alone, my Lady told me, with the prettiest kind of doubtfullnesse, whether it would be fit for her with respect to Creed to do it, that is, in the world, that Creed had broke his desire to her of being a servant to Mrs. Betty Pickering, and placed it upon encouragement which he had from some discourse of her ladyship, commending of her virtues to him, which, poor lady, she meant most innocently. She did give him a cold answer, but not so severe as it ought to have been; and, it seems, as the lady since to my Lady confesses, he had wrote a letter to her, which she answered slightly, and was resolved to contemn any motion of his therein. My Lady takes the thing very ill, as it is fit she should; but I advise her to stop all future occasions of the world's taking notice of his coming thither so often as of late he hath done. But to think that he should have this devilish presumption to aime at a lady so near to my Lord is strange, both for his modesty and discretion.
Thence to the Cockepitt, and there walked an houre with my Lord Duke of Albemarle (56) alone in his garden, where he expressed in great words his opinion of me; that I was the right hand of the Navy here, nobody but I taking any care of any thing therein; so that he should not know what could be done without me. At which I was (from him) not a little proud.
Thence to a Committee of Tangier, where because not a quorum little was done, and so away to my wife (Creed with me) at Mrs. Pierce's, who continues very pretty and is now great with child. I had not seen her a great while.
Thence by coach to my Lord Treasurer's (58), but could not speak with Sir Ph. Warwicke (55). So by coach with my wife and Mercer to the Parke; but the King (34) being there, and I now-a-days being doubtfull of being seen in any pleasure, did part from the tour, and away out of the Parke to Knightsbridge, and there eat and drank in the coach, and so home, and after a while at my office, home to supper and to bed, having got a great cold I think by my pulling off my periwigg so often.

Great Plague of London

Samuel Pepys' Diary 08 June 1665. 08 Jun 1665. About five o'clock my wife come home, it having lightened all night hard, and one great shower of rain. She come and lay upon the bed; I up and to the office, where all the morning.
Alone at home to dinner, my wife, mother, and Mercer dining at W. Joyce's; I giving her a caution to go round by the Half Moone to his house, because of the plague.
I to my Lord Treasurer's (58) by appointment of Sir Thomas Ingram's (50), to meet the Goldsmiths; where I met with the great news at last newly come, brought by Bab May' from the Duke of Yorke (31), that we have totally routed the Dutch; that the Duke (31) himself, the Prince (45), my Lord Sandwich (39), and Mr. Coventry (37) are all well: which did put me into such joy, that I forgot almost all other thoughts. The particulars I shall set down by and by.
By and by comes Alderman Maynell and Mr. Viner (34), and there my Lord Treasurer (58) did intreat them to furnish me with money upon my tallys, Sir Philip Warwicke (55) before my Lord declaring the King's changing of the hand from Mr. Povy (51) to me, whom he called a very sober person, and one whom the Lord Treasurer (58) would owne in all things that I should concern myself with them in the business of money. They did at present declare they could not part with money at present. My Lord did press them very hard, and I hope upon their considering we shall get some of them.
Thence with great joy to the Cocke-pitt; where the Duke of Albemarle (56), like a man out of himself with content, new-told me all; and by and by comes a letter from Mr. Coventry's (37) own hand to him, which he never opened (which was a strange thing), but did give it me to open and read, and consider what was fit for our office to do in it, and leave the letter with Sir W. Clerke; which upon such a time and occasion was a strange piece of indifference, hardly pardonable. I copied out the letter, and did also take minutes out of Sir W. Clerke's other letters; and the sum of the newes is:
VICTORY OVER THE DUTCH, JUNE 3RD, 1665.
This day they engaged; the Dutch neglecting greatly the opportunity of the wind they had of us, by which they lost the benefit of their fire-ships. The Earl of Falmouth, Muskerry, and Mr. Richard Boyle killed on board the Duke's ship, the Royall Charles, with one shot: their blood and brains flying in the Duke's (31) face; and the head of Mr. Boyle striking down the Duke (31), as some say. !Earle of Marlborough, Portland, Rear-Admirall Sansum (to Prince Rupert (45)) killed, and Capt. Kirby and Ableson. Sir John Lawson (50) wounded on the knee; hath had some bones taken out, and is likely to be well again. Upon receiving the hurt, he sent to the Duke (31) for another to command the Royall Oake. The Duke (31) sent Jordan1 out of the St. George, who did brave things in her. Capt. Jer. Smith of the Mary was second to the Duke (31), and stepped between him and Captain Seaton of the Urania (76 guns and 400 men), who had sworn to board the Duke (31); killed him, 200 men, and took the ship; himself losing 99 men, and never an officer saved but himself and lieutenant. His master indeed is saved, with his leg cut off: Admirall Opdam blown up, Trump killed, and said by Holmes; all the rest of their admiralls, as they say, but Everson (whom they dare not trust for his affection to the Prince of Orange), are killed: we having taken and sunk, as is believed, about 24 of their best ships; killed and taken near 8 or 10,000 men, and lost, we think, not above 700. A great[er] victory never known in the world. They are all fled, some 43 got into the Texell, and others elsewhere, and we in pursuit of the rest.
Thence, with my heart full of joy; home, and to my office a little; then to my Lady Pen's, where they are all joyed and not a little puffed up at the good successe of their father (44)2 and good service indeed is said to have been done by him. Had a great bonefire at the gate; and I with my Lady Pen's people and others to Mrs. Turner's (42) great room, and then down into the streete. I did give the boys 4s. among them, and mighty merry.
So home to bed, with my heart at great rest and quiett, saving that the consideration of the victory is too great for me presently to comprehend3.
Note 1. Afterwards Sir Joseph Jordan, commander of the "Royal Sovereign", and Vice-Admiral of the Red, 1672. He was knighted on July 1st, 1665. B.
Note 2. In the royal charter granted by Charles II in 1680 to William Penn for the government of his American province, to be styled Pennsylvania, special reference is made to "the memory and merits of Sir William Pen (44) in divers services, and particularly his conduct, courage, and discretion under our dearest brother, James, Duke of York (31), in that signal battle and victory fought and obtained against the Dutch fleet commanded by Heer van Opdam in 1665" ("Penn's Memorials of Sir W. Penn (44)", vol. ii., p. 359).
Note 3. Mrs. Ady (Julia Cartwright), in her fascinating life of Henrietta, Duchess of Orleans, gives an account of the receipt of the news of the great sea-fight in Paris, and quotes a letter of Charles II to his sister, dated, "Whitehall, June 8th, 1665" The first report that reached Paris was that "the Duke of York's (31) ship had been blown up, and he himself had been drowned". "The shock was too much for Madame... she was seized with convulsions, and became so dangerously ill that Lord Hollis (65) wrote to the King (35), 'If things had gone ill at sea I really believe Madame would have died.'" Charles wrote: "I thanke God we have now the certayne newes of a very considerable victory over the Duch; you will see most of the particulars by the relation my Lord Hopis will shew you, though I have had as great a losse as 'tis possible in a good frinde, poore C. Barckely. It troubles me so much, as I hope you will excuse the shortnesse of this letter, haveing receaved the newes of it but two houres agoe" ("Madame", 1894, pp. 215, 216).

Samuel Pepys' Diary 05 November 1665. 05 Nov 1665. Lord's Day. Up, and after being trimmed, by boat to the Cockpitt, where I heard the Duke of Albemarle's (56) chaplin make a simple sermon: among other things, reproaching the imperfection of humane learning, he cried: "All our physicians cannot tell what an ague is, and all our arithmetique is not able to number the days of a man"; which, God knows, is not the fault of arithmetique, but that our understandings reach not the thing.
To dinner, where a great deale of silly discourse, but the worst is I hear that the plague increases much at Lambeth, St. Martin's and Westminster, and fear it will all over the city.
Thence I to the Swan, thinking to have seen Sarah but she was at church, and so I by water to Deptford, and there made a visit to Mr. Evelyn (45), who, among other things, showed me most excellent painting in little; in distemper, Indian incke, water colours: graveing; and, above all, the whole secret of mezzo-tinto, and the manner of it, which is very pretty, and good things done with it. He read to me very much also of his discourse, he hath been many years and now is about, about Guardenage; which will be a most noble and pleasant piece. He read me part of a play or two of his making, very good, but not as he conceits them, I think, to be. He showed me his Hortus Hyemalis leaves laid up in a book of several plants kept dry, which preserve colour, however, and look very finely, better than any Herball. In fine, a most excellent person he is, and must be allowed a little for a little conceitedness; but he may well be so, being a man so much above others. He read me, though with too much gusto, some little poems of his own, that were not transcendant, yet one or two very pretty epigrams; among others, of a lady looking in at a grate, and being pecked at by an eagle that was there.
Here comes in, in the middle of our discourse Captain Cocke (48), as drunk as a dogg, but could stand, and talk and laugh. He did so joy himself in a brave woman that he had been with all the afternoon, and who should it be but my Lady Robinson, but very troublesome he is with his noise and talke, and laughing, though very pleasant. With him in his coach to Mr. Glanville's (47), where he sat with Mrs. Penington and myself a good while talking of this fine woman again and then went away.
Then the lady and I to very serious discourse and, among other things, of what a bonny lasse my Lady Robinson is, who is reported to be kind to the prisoners, and has said to Sir G. Smith (50), who is her great crony, "Look! there is a pretty man, I would be content to break a commandment with him", and such loose expressions she will have often.
After an houre's talke we to bed, the lady mightily troubled about a pretty little bitch she hath, which is very sicke, and will eat nothing, and the worst was, I could hear her in her chamber bemoaning the bitch, and by and by taking her into bed with her. The bitch pissed and shit a bed, and she was fain to rise and had coals out of my chamber to dry the bed again. This night I had a letter that Sir G. Carteret (55) would be in towne to-morrow, which did much surprize me.

Samuel Pepys' Diary 06 November 1665. 06 Nov 1665. Up, and to my office, where busy all the morning and then to dinner to Captain Cocke's (48) with Mr. Evelyn (45), where very merry, only vexed after dinner to stay too long for our coach.
At last, however, to Lambeth and thence the Cockpitt, where we found Sir G. Carteret (55) come, and in with the Duke (32) and the East India Company about settling the business of the prizes, and they have gone through with it.
Then they broke up, and Sir G. Carteret (55) come out, and thence through the garden to the water side and by water I with him in his boat down with Captain Cocke (48) to his house at Greenwich, and while supper was getting ready Sir G. Carteret (55) and I did walk an houre in the garden before the house, talking of my Lord Sandwich's (40) business; what enemies he hath, and how they have endeavoured to bespatter him: and particularly about his leaving of 30 ships of the enemy, when Pen (44) would have gone, and my Lord called him back again: which is most false.
However, he says, it was purposed by some hot-heads in the House of Commons, at the same time when they voted a present to the Duke of Yorke (32), to have voted £10,000 to the Prince (45), and half-a-crowne to my Lord of Sandwich (40); but nothing come of it1.
But, for all this, the King (35) is most firme to my Lord, and so is my Chancellor (56), and my Lord Arlington (47).
The Prince (45), in appearance, kind; the Duke of Yorke (32) silent, says no hurt; but admits others to say it in his hearing. Sir W. Pen (44), the falsest rascal that ever was in the world; and that this afternoon the Duke of Albemarle (56) did tell him that Pen (44) was a very cowardly rogue, and one that hath brought all these rogueish fanatick Captains into the fleete, and swears he should never go out with the fleete again. That Sir W. Coventry (37) is most kind to Pen (44) still; and says nothing nor do any thing openly to the prejudice of my Lord. He agrees with me, that it is impossible for the King (35) [to] set out a fleete again the next year; and that he fears all will come to ruine, there being no money in prospect but these prizes, which will bring, it may be, £20,000, but that will signify nothing in the world for it.
That this late Act of Parliament for bringing the money into the Exchequer, and making of it payable out there, intended as a prejudice to him and will be his convenience hereafter and ruine the King's business, and so I fear it will and do wonder Sir W. Coventry (37) would be led by Sir G. Downing (40) to persuade the King (35) and Duke (32) to have it so, before they had thoroughly weighed all circumstances; that for my Lord, the King (35) has said to him lately that I was an excellent officer, and that my Chancellor (56) do, he thinks, love and esteem of me as well as he do of any man in England that he hath no more acquaintance with.
So having done and received from me the sad newes that we are like to have no money here a great while, not even of the very prizes, I set up my rest2 in giving up the King's service to be ruined and so in to supper, where pretty merry, and after supper late to Mr. Glanville's (47), and Sir G. Carteret (55) to bed. I also to bed, it being very late.
Note 1. The tide of popular indignation ran high against Lord Sandwich (40), and he was sent to Spain as ambassador to get him honourably out of the way (see post, December 6th).
Note 2. The phrase "set up my rest" is a metaphor from the once fashionable game of Primero, meaning, to stand upon the cards you have in your hand, in hopes they may prove better than those of your adversary. Hence, to make up your mind, to be determined (see Nares's "Glossary").

Samuel Pepys' Diary 09 March 1666. 09 Mar 1666. Up, and being ready, to the Cockpitt to make a visit to the Duke of Albemarle (57), and to my great joy find him the same man to me that [he has been] heretofore, which I was in great doubt of, through my negligence in not visiting of him a great while; and having now set all to rights there, I am in mighty ease in my mind and I think shall never suffer matters to run so far backward again as I have done of late, with reference to my neglecting him and Sir W. Coventry (38).
Thence by water down to Deptford, where I met my Lord Bruncker (46) and Sir W. Batten (65) by agreement, and to measuring Mr. Castle's (37) new third-rate ship, which is to be called the Defyance1. And here I had my end in saving the King (35) some money and getting myself some experience in knowing how they do measure ships.
Thence I left them and walked to Redriffe, and there taking water was overtaken by them in their boat, and so they would have me in with them to Castle's house, where my Lady Batten and Madam Williams were, and there dined and a deale of doings. I had a good dinner and counterfeit mirthe and pleasure with them, but had but little, thinking how I neglected my business. Anon, all home to Sir W. Batten's (65) and there Mrs. Knipp coming we did spend the evening together very merry. She and I singing, and, God forgive me! I do still see that my nature is not to be quite conquered, but will esteem pleasure above all things, though yet in the middle of it, it has reluctances after my business, which is neglected by my following my pleasure. However musique and women I cannot but give way to, whatever my business is. They being gone I to the office a while and so home to supper and to bed.
Note 1. William Castell wrote to the Navy Commissioners on February 17th, 1665-66, to inform them that the "Defiance" had gone to Longreach, and again, on February 22nd, to say that Mr. Grey had no masts large enough for the new ship. Sir William Batten (65) on March 29th asked for the consent of the Board to bring the "Defiance" into dock (" Calendar of State Papers", Domestic, 1665-66, pp. 252, 262, 324).

Samuel Pepys' Diary 28 March 1666. 28 Mar 1666. Up, and with Creed, who come hither betimes to speake with me about his accounts, to White Hall by water, mighty merry in discourse, though I had been very little troubled with him, or did countenance it, having now, blessed be God! a great deale of good business to mind to better purpose than chatting with him. Waited on the Duke (32), after that walked with Sir W. Clerke into St. James's Parke, and by and by met with Mr. Hayes (29), Prince Rupert's (46) Secretary, who are mighty, both, briske blades, but I fear they promise themselves more than they expect.
Thence to the Cockpitt, and dined with a great deal of company at the Duke of Albemarle's (57), and a bad and dirty, nasty dinner.
So by coach to Hales's (66), and there sat again, and it is become mighty like. Hither come my wife and Mercer brought by Mrs. Pierce and Knipp, we were mighty merry and the picture goes on the better for it.
Thence set them down at Pierces, and we home, where busy and at my chamber till 12 at night, and so to bed. This night, I am told, the Queene of Portugall, the mother to our Queene (27), is lately dead, and newes brought of it hither this day1. 29th. All the morning hard at the office.
At noon dined and then out to Lombard Street, to look after the getting of some money that is lodged there of mine in Viner's (35) hands, I having no mind to have it lie there longer.
So back again and to the office, where and at home about publique and private business and accounts till past 12 at night, and so to bed. This day, poor Jane, my old, little Jane, came to us again, to my wife's and my great content, and we hope to take mighty pleasure in her, she having all the marks and qualities of a good and loving and honest servant, she coming by force away from the other place, where she hath lived ever since she went from us, and at our desire, her late mistresse having used all the stratagems she could to keepe her.
Note 1. Donna Luiza, the Queen Regent of Portugal. She was daughter of the Duke de Medina Sidonia and widow of Juan IV. The Court wore the deepest mourning on this occasion. The ladies were directed to wear their hair plain, and to appear without spots on their faces, the disfiguring fashion of patching having just been introduced.— Strickland's Queens of England, vol. viii., p. 362.

Samuel Pepys' Diary 22 April 1666. 22 Apr 1666. Lord's Day. Up, and put on my new black coate, long down to my knees, and with Sir W. Batten (65) to White Hall, where all in deep mourning for the Queene's (27) mother. There had great discourse, before the Duke (32) and Sir W. Coventry (38) begun the discourse of the day about the purser's business, which I seconded, and with great liking to the Duke (32), whom however afterward my Lord Bruncker (46) and Sir W. Pen (44) did stop by some thing they said, though not much to the purpose, yet because our proposition had some appearance of certain charge to the King (35) it was ruled that for this year we should try another the same in every respect with ours, leaving out one circumstance of allowing the pursers the victuals of all men short of the complement. I was very well satisfied with it and am contented to try it, wishing it may prove effectual.
Thence away with Sir W. Batten (65) in his coach home, in our way he telling me the certaine newes, which was afterward confirmed to me this day by several, that the Bishopp of Munster has made a league [with] the Hollanders, and that our King (35) and Court are displeased much at it: moreover we are not sure of Sweden.
I home to my house, and there dined mighty well, my poor wife and Mercer and I So back again walked to White Hall, and there to and again in the Parke, till being in the shoemaker's stockes1. I was heartily weary, yet walked however to the Queene's Chappell at St. James's, and there saw a little mayde baptized; many parts and words whereof are the same with that of our Liturgy, and little that is more ceremonious than ours.
Thence walked to Westminster and eat a bit of bread and drank, and so to Worster House, and there staid, and saw the Council up, and then back, walked to the Cockepitt, and there took my leave of the Duke of Albemarle (57), who is going to-morrow to sea. He seems mightily pleased with me, which I am glad of; but I do find infinitely my concernment in being careful to appear to the King (35) and Duke (32) to continue my care of his business, and to be found diligent as I used to be.
Thence walked wearily as far as Fleet Streete and so there met a coach and home to supper and to bed, having sat a great while with Will Joyce, who come to see me, and it is the first time I have seen him at my house since the plague, and find him the same impertinent, prating coxcombe that ever he was.
Note 1. A cant expression for tight shoes.

Downing Street

10 Downing Street Downing Street

On 24 Oct 1827 George Frederick Samuel Robinson 1st Marquess Ripon 1827-1909 was born to Frederick John Robinson 1st Earl Ripon 1782-1859 (44) at 10 Downing Street Downing Street.

Thomas Knyvet's Townhouse 10 Downing Street Downing Street

Thomas Knyvet 1st Baron Knyvet 1545-1622 resided at Thomas Knyvet's Townhouse 10 Downing Street Downing Street.

Fife House Whitehall Palace

In 1809 James Duff 2nd Earl Fife 1729-1809 (79) died without issue at Fife House Whitehall Palace. His brother Alexander Duff 3rd Earl Fife 1731-1811 (77) succeeded 3rd Earl Fife.

Horseguards Whitehall Palace

Around 1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. View of Whitehall, New Horse Guards.

Around 1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. View of Whitehall, Old Horse Guards and Banqueting House.

Marsh's Tavern Whitehall

Samuel Pepys' Diary 19 January 1660. 19 Jan 1660. Thursday. This morning I was sent for to Mr Downing (35), and at his bed side he told me, that he had a kindness for me, and that he thought that he had done me one; and that was, that he had got me to be one of the Clerks of the Council; at which I was a little stumbled, and could not tell what to do, whether to thank him or no; but by and by I did; but not very heartily, for I feared that his doing of it was but only to ease himself of the salary which he gives me. After that Mr. Sheply staying below all this time for me we went thence and met Mr. Pierce, so at the Harp and Ball drank our morning draft and so to Whitehall where I met with Sir Ant. Cooper (38) and did give him some answer from my Lord and he did give us leave to keep the lodgings still. And so we did determine thereupon that Mr. Sheply might now go into the country and would do so to-morrow. Back I went by Mr Downing's (35) order and staid there till twelve o'clock in expectation of one to come to read some writings, but he came not, so I staid all alone reading the answer of the Dutch Ambassador to our State, in answer to the reasons of my Lord's (34) coming home, which he gave for his coming, and did labour herein to contradict my Lord's (34) arguments for his coming home. Thence to my office and so with Mr. Sheply and Moore, to dine upon a turkey with Mrs. Jem, and after that Mr. Moore and I went to the French Ordinary, where Mr Downing (35) this day feasted Sir Arth. Haselrigge (59), and a great many more of the Parliament, and did stay to put him in mind of me. Here he gave me a note to go and invite some other members to dinner tomorrow. So I went to White Hall, and did stay at Marsh's, with Simons, Luellin, and all the rest of the Clerks of the Council, who I hear are all turned out, only the two Leighs, and they do all tell me that my name was mentioned the last night, but that nothing was done in it. Hence I went and did leave some of my notes at the lodgings of the members and so home. To bed.
Note. Pepys had two friends named Pierce, one the surgeon and the other the purser; he usually (but not always) distinguishes them. The one here alluded to was probably the surgeon, and husband of pretty Mrs. Pierce. After the Restoration James Pearse or Pierce became Surgeon to the Duke of York, and he was also Surgeon-General of the Fleet.

Samuel Pepys' Diary 21 January 1660. 21 Jan 1660 Saturday. Up early in finishing my accounts and writing to my Lord and from thence to my Lord's (34) and took leave of Mr. Sheply and possession of all the keys and the house. Thence to my office for some money to pay Mr. Sheply and sent it him by the old man. I then went to Mr Downing (35) who chid me because I did not give him notice of some of his guests failed him but I told him that I sent our porter to tell him and he was not within, but he told me that he was within till past twelve o'clock. So the porter or he lied. Thence to my office where nothing to do. Then with Mr. Hawly, he and I went to Mr. Crew's (62) and dined there. Thence into London, to Mr. Vernon's and I received my £25 due by bill for my troopers' pay. Then back again to Steadman's. At the Mitre, in Fleet street, in our way calling on Mr. Fage, who told me how the City have some hopes of Monk (51). Thence to the Mitre, where I drank a pint of wine, the house being in fitting for Banister (30) to come hither from Paget's. Thence to Mrs. Jem and gave her £5. So home and left my money and to Whitehall where Luellin and I drank and talked together an hour at Marsh's and so up to the clerks' room, where poor Mr. Cook, a black man, that is like to be put out of his clerk's place, came and railed at me for endeavouring to put him out and get myself in, when I was already in a good condition. But I satisfied him and after I had wrote a letter there to my Lord, wherein I gave him an account how this day Lenthall (68) took his chair again, and [the House] resolved a declaration to be brought in on Monday next to satisfy the world what they intend to do. So home and to bed.

Samuel Pepys' Diary 24 January 1660. 24 Jan 1660. Tuesday. In the morning to my office, where, after I had drank my morning draft at Will's with Ethell and Mr. Steven's, I went and told part of the excise money till twelve o'clock, and then called on my wife and took her to Mr. Pierces, she in the way being exceedingly troubled with a pair of new pattens, and I vexed to go so slow, it being late. There when we came we found Mrs. Carrick very fine, and one Mr. Lucy, who called one another husband and wife, and after dinner a great deal of mad stir. There was pulling off Mrs. bride's and Mr. bridegroom's ribbons1; with a great deal of fooling among them that I and my wife did not like. Mr. Lucy and several other gentlemen coming in after dinner, swearing and singing as if they were mad, only he singing very handsomely. There came in afterwards Mr. Southerne, clerk to Mr. Blackburne, and with him Lambert, lieutenant of my Lord's (34) ship, and brought with them the declaration that came out to-day from the Parliament, wherein they declare for law and gospel, and for tythes; but I do not find people apt to believe them. After this taking leave I went to my father's (59), and my wife staying there, he and I went to speak with Mr. Crumlum (in the meantime, while it was five o'clock, he being in the school, we went to my cozen Tom Pepys' shop, the turner in Paul's Churchyard, and drank with him a pot of ale); he gave my father (59) directions what to do about getting my brother an exhibition, and spoke very well of my brother. Thence back with my father (59) home, where he and I spoke privately in the little room to my sister Pall about stealing of things as my wife's (19) scissars and my maid's book, at which my father (59) was much troubled. Hence home with my wife and so to Whitehall, where I met with Mr. Hunt's and Luellin, and drank with them at Marsh's, and afterwards went up and wrote to my Lord by the post. This day the Parliament gave order that the late Committee of Safety should come before them this day se'nnight, and all their papers, and their model of Government that they had made, to be brought in with them. So home and talked with my wife about our dinner on Thursday.
Note 1. The scramble for ribbons, here mentioned by Pepys in connection with weddings (see also January 26th, 1661, and February 8th, 1663), doubtless formed part of the ceremony of undressing the bridegroom, which, as the age became more refined, fell into disuse. All the old plays are silent on the custom; the earliest notice of which occurs in the old ballad of the wedding of Arthur O'Bradley, printed in the Appendix to "Robin Hood", 1795, where we read ... "Then got they his points and his garters, And cut them in pieces like martyrs; And then they all did play For the honour of Arthur O'Bradley"..
Sir Winston Churchill also observes ("Divi Britannici", p. 340) that James I was no more troubled at his querulous countrymen robbing him than a bridegroom at the losing of his points and garters. Lady Fanshawe, in her "Memoirs", says, that at the nuptials of Charles II and the Infanta, "the Bishop of London declared them married in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost; and then they caused the ribbons her Majesty wore to be cut in little pieces; and as far as they would go, every one had some". The practice still survives in the form of wedding favours.
A similar custom is still of every day's occurrence at Dieppe. Upon the morrow after their marriage, the bride and bridegroom perambulate the streets, followed by a numerous cortege, the guests at the wedding festival, two and two; each individual wearing two bits of narrow ribbon, about two inches in length, of different colours, which are pinned crossways upon the breast. These morsels of ribbons originally formed the garters of the bride and bridegroom, which had been divided amidst boisterous mirth among the assembled company, the moment the happy pair had been formally installed in the bridal bed. Ex. inf. Mr. William.Hughes, Belvedere, Jersey. B.

Samuel Pepys' Diary 20 February 1660. 20 Feb 1660. Monday. In the morning at my lute. Then to my office, where my partner and I made even our balance. Took him home to dinner with me, where my brother John came to dine with me. After dinner I took him to my study at home and at my Lord's, and gave him some books and other things against his going to Cambridge. After he was gone I went forth to Westminster Hall, where I met with Chetwind, Simons, and Gregory. And with them to Marsh's at Whitehall to drink, and staid there a pretty while reading a pamphlet1 well writ and directed to General Monk (51), in praise of the form of monarchy which was settled here before the wars. They told me how the Speaker Lenthall (68) do refuse to sign the writs for choice of new members in the place of the excluded; and by that means the writs could not go out to-day. In the evening Simons and I to the Coffee Club, where nothing to do only I heard Mr. Harrington (49), and my Lord of Dorset (37) and another Lord, talking of getting another place as the Cockpit, and they did believe it would come to something. After a small debate upon the question whether learned or unlearned subjects are the best the Club broke up very poorly, and I do not think they will meet any more. Hence with Vines, &c. to Will's, and after a pot or two home, and so to bed.
Note 1. This pamphlet is among the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts (British Museum), and dated in MS. this same day, February 20th— "A Plea for Limited Monarchy as it was established in this Nation before the late War. In an Humble Address to his Excellency General Monck. By a Zealot for the good old Laws of his Country, before any Faction or Caprice, with additions". "An Eccho to the Plea for Limited Monarchy, &c"., was published soon afterwards.

Samuel Pepys' Diary 22 February 1660. 22 Feb 1660. Wednesday. In the morning intended to have gone to Mr. Crew's (62) to borrow some money, but it raining I forbore, and went to my Lord's lodging and look that all things were well there. Then home and sang a song to my viall, so to my office and to Will's, where Mr. Pierce found me out, and told me that he would go with me to Cambridge, where Colonel Ayre's regiment, to which he was surgeon, lieth. Walking in the Hall, I saw Major-General Brown, who had along time been banished by the Rump, but now with his beard overgrown, he comes abroad and sat in the House. To my father's (59) to dinner, where nothing but a small dish of powdered beef [Note. Boiled salt beef. To powder was to sprinkle with salt, and the powdering tub a vessel in which meat was salted.] and dish of carrots; they being all busy to get things ready for my brother John to go to-morrow. After dinner, my wife staying there, I went to Mr. Crew's (62), and got £5 of Mr. Andrews, and so to Mrs. Jemimah, who now hath her instrument about her neck, and indeed is infinitely, altered, and holds her head upright. I paid her maid 40s. of the money that I have received of Mr. Andrews. Hence home to my study, where I only wrote thus much of this day's passages to this * and so out again. To White Hall, where I met with Will. Simons and Mr. Mabbot at Marsh's, who told me how the House had this day voted that the gates of the City should be set up at the cost of the State. And that Major-General Brown's being proclaimed a traitor be made void, and several other things of that nature. Home for my lanthorn and so to my father's (59), where I directed John what books to put for Cambridge. After that to supper, where my Uncle Fenner and my Aunt, The. Turner (8), and Joyce Norton, at a brave leg of veal roasted, and were very merry against John's going to Cambridge.
I observed this day how abominably Barebone's (62) windows are broke again last night. At past 9 o'clock my wife and I went home.

Samuel Pepys' Diary 14 March 1660. 14 Mar 1660. To my Lord, where infinity of applications to him and to me. To my great trouble, my Lord gives me all the papers that was given to him, to put in order and give him an account of them. Here I got half-a-piece of a person of Mr. Wright's recommending to my Lord to be Preacher of the Speaker frigate. I went hence to St. James's and Mr. Pierce the surgeon with me, to speak with Mr. Clerke (37), Monk's (51) secretary, about getting some soldiers removed out of Huntingdon to Oundle, which my Lord told me he did to do a courtesy to the town, that he might have the greater interest in them, in the choice of the next Parliament; not that he intends to be chosen himself, but that he might have Mr. G. Montagu (37) and my Lord Mandeville (25) chose there in spite of the Bernards. This done (where I saw General Monk (51) and methought he seemed a dull heavy man), he and I to Whitehall, where with Luellin we dined at Marsh's. Coming home telling my wife what we had to dinner, she had a mind to some cabbage, and I sent for some and she had it. Went to the Admiralty, where a strange thing how I am already courted by the people. This morning among others that came to me I hired a boy of Jenkins of Westminster and Burr to be my clerk. This night I went to Mr. Creed's chamber where he gave me the former book of the proceedings in the fleet and the Seal. Then to Harper's where old Beard was and I took him by coach to my Lord's, but he was not at home, but afterwards I found him out at Sir H. Wright's (23). Thence by coach, it raining hard, to Mrs. Jem, where I staid a while, and so home, and late in the night put up my things in a sea-chest that Mr. Sheply lent me, and so to bed.

Samuel Pepys' Diary 20 March 1660. 20 Mar 1660. This morning I rose early and went to my house to put things in a little order against my going, which I conceive will be to-morrow (the weather still very rainy). After that to my Lord, where I found very great deal of business, he giving me all letters and papers that come to him about business, for me to give him account of when we come on shipboard. Hence with Capt. Isham by coach to Whitehall to the Admiralty. He and I and Chetwind, Doling and Luellin dined together at Marsh's at Whitehall. So to the Bull Head whither W. Simons comes to us and I gave them my foy [Note. Foy. A feast given by one who is about to leave a place. In Kent, according to Grose, a treat to friends, either at going abroad or coming home. See Diary, November 25th, 1661.] against my going to sea; and so we took leave one of another, they promising me to write to me to sea. Hither comes Pim's boy, by my direction, with two monteeres—[Monteeres, montero (Spanish), a kind of huntsman's cap.] for me to take my choice of, and I chose the saddest colour and left the other for Mr. Sheply. Hence by coach to London, and took a short melancholy leave of my father and mother, without having them to drink, or say anything of business one to another. And indeed I had a fear upon me I should scarce ever see my mother again, she having a great cold then upon her. Then to Westminster, where by reason of rain and an easterly wind, the water was so high that there was boats rowed in King Street and all our yard was drowned, that one could not go to my house, so as no man has seen the like almost, most houses full of water. ["In this month the wind was very high, and caused great tides, so that great hurt was done to the inhabitants of Westminster, King Street being quite drowned. The Maidenhead boat was cast away, and twelve persons with her. Also, about Dover the waters brake in upon the mainland; and in Kent was very much damage done; so that report said, there was £20,000 worth of harm done".—Rugge's Diurnal. B.] Then back by coach to my Lord's; where I met Mr. Sheply, who staid with me waiting for my Lord's coming in till very late. Then he and I, and William Howe went with our swords to bring my Lord home from Sir H. Wright's (23). He resolved to go to-morrow if the wind ceased. Sheply and I home by coach. I to Mrs. Crisp's, who had sat over a good supper long looking for me. So we sat talking and laughing till it was very late, and so Laud and I to bed.

Montagu House Whitehall Palace

On 02 May 1767 Henry Scott 3rd Duke Buccleuch 1746-1812 (20) and Elizabeth Montagu Duchess Buccleuch 1743-1827 (23) were married (he was her fourth cousin) at Montagu House Whitehall Palace. Elizabeth Montagu Duchess Buccleuch 1743-1827 (23) by marriage Duke Buccleuch. He a 3 x great grandson of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Privy Gardens Whitehall Palace

John Evelyn's Diary 24 July 1671. 24 Jul 1671. To Council. Mr. Surveyor brought us a plot for the building of our Council chamber, to be erected at the end of the Privy garden, in Whitehall.

Earl of Rochester's House Privy Gardens Whitehall Palace

On 05 Apr 1720 Francis Scott 2nd Duke Buccleuch 1695-1751 (25) and Jane Douglas -1729 were married (he was her second cousin) at Earl of Rochester's House Privy Gardens Whitehall Palace. He a great grandson of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 and 3 x great grandson of Henry IV King France 1553-1610.

Scotland Yard

In 1611 John Eyre 1580-1639 (31) and Dorothy Bulstrode Lady in Waiting 1592-1590 (19) attempted to murder Edward Herbert 1st Baron Herbert Chirbury 1582-1648 (28) who he suspected of having an affair with his wife (Dorothy Bulstrode Lady in Waiting 1592-1590 (19)). Eyre (31) and four accomplices caught up with Herbert (28) and his two footmen at Scotland Yard as he was leaving Whitehall Palace, and wounded his horse several times. Eyre (31) broke Herbert's sword. Twenty more men appeared, Herbert thought them Eyre's supporters and attendants of the Earl of Suffolk (49). Two other men helped Herbert, and after a prolonged struggle he wounded Eyre, who was carried to the Thames vomiting. A few days later Eyre sent a message that he would kill Herbert with "a musket out of a window". Meanwhile, because Eyre (31) claimed Dorothy had confessd to being unfaithful, she sent a letter to her aunt Lady Croke (Note. probably Prudence Croke 1567-1621 (44) possibly Elizabeth Croke denying this, and Herbert was able to give this letter to the Privy Council. The Duke of Lennox (36) said that John Eyre was "the most miserable man living" because of the shame of Dorothy's letter, and because his father had disinherited him on hearing of the assault.

Samuel Pepys' Diary 24 February 1660. 24 Feb 1660. Friday. I rose very early, and taking horse at Scotland Yard, at Mr. Garthwayt's stable, I rode to Mr. Pierces, who rose, and in a quarter of an hour, leaving his wife in bed (with whom Mr. Lucy (18) methought was very free as she lay in bed), we both mounted, and so set forth about seven of the clock, the day and the way very foul. About Ware we overtook Mr. Blayton, brother-in-law to Dick Vines, who went thenceforwards with us, and at Puckeridge we baited, where we had a loin of mutton fried, and were very merry, but the way exceeding bad from Ware thither. Then up again and as far as Foulmer, within six miles of Cambridge, my mare being almost tired: here we lay at the Chequer, playing at cards till supper, which was a breast of veal roasted. I lay with Mr. Pierce, who we left here the next morning upon his going to Hinchingbroke to speak with my Lord before his going to London, and we two come to Cambridge by eight o'clock in the morning.

John Evelyn's Diary 14 May 1662. 14 May 1662. To London, being chosen one of the Commissioners for reforming the buildings, ways, streets, and incumbrances, and regulating the hackney coaches in the city of London, taking my oath before my Lord Chancellor (53), and then went to his Majesty's (31) Surveyor's office, in Scotland Yard, about naming and establishing officers, adjourning till the 16th, when I went to view how St Martin's Lane might be made more passable into the Strand. There were divers gentlemen of quality in this commission.

John Evelyn's Diary 12 September 1676. 12 Sep 1676. To London, to take order about the building of a house, or rather an apartment, which had all the conveniences of a house, for my dear friend, Mr. Godolphin (31) and lady (24), which I undertook to contrive and survey, and employ workmen until it should be quite finished; it being just over against his Majesty's (46) wood-yard by the Thames side, leading to Scotland Yard.

Tennis Court

Samuel Pepys' Diary 28 December 1663. 28 Dec 1663. Up and by coach to my Lord's lodgings, but he was gone abroad, so I lost my pains, but, however, walking through White Hall I heard the King (33) was gone to play at Tennis, so I down to the new Tennis Court; and saw him and Sir Arthur Slingsby (40) play against my Lord of Suffolke (57) and my Lord Chesterfield (29). The King (33) beat three, and lost two sets, they all, and he particularly playing well, I thought.
Thence went and spoke with the Duke of Albemarle (55) about his wound at Newhall, but I find him a heavy dull man, methinks, by his answers to me.
Thence to the King's Head ordinary and there dined, and found Creed there, but we met and dined and parted without any thing more than "How do you?"
After dinner straight on foot to Mr. Hollyard's (54), and there paid him £3 in full for his physic and work to my wife.... but whether it is cured for ever or no I cannot tell, but he says it will never come to anything, though it may be it may ooze now and then a little.
So home and found my wife gone out with Will (whom she sent for as she do now a days upon occasion) to have a tooth drawn, she having it seems been in great pain all day, and at night came home with it drawn, and pretty well. This evening I had a stove brought me to the office to try, but it being an old one it smokes as much as if there was nothing but a hearth as I had before, but it may be great new ones do not, and therefore I must enquire further.
So at night home to supper and to bed.
The Duchesse of York (26) is fallen sicke of the meazles.

Vane Room

1663 Storm Tide

Samuel Pepys' Diary 07 December 1663. 07 Dec 1663. Up betimes, and, it being a frosty morning, walked on foot to White Hall, but not without some fear of my pain coming.
At White Hall I hear and find that there was the last night the greatest tide that ever was remembered in England to have been in this river: all White Hall having been drowned, of which there was great discourse.
Anon we all met, and up with the Duke (30) and did our business, and by and by my Lord of Sandwich came in, but whether it be my doubt or no I cannot tell, but I do not find that he made any sign of kindnesse or respect to me, which troubles me more than any thing in the world.
After done there Sir W. Batten (62) and Captain Allen (51) and I by coach to the Temple, where I 'light, they going home, and indeed it being my trouble of mind to try whether I could meet with my Lord Sandwich (38) and try him to see how he will receive me.
I took coach and back again to Whitehall, but there could not find him. But here I met Dr. Clerke, and did tell him my story of my health; how my pain comes to me now-a-days. He did write something for me which I shall take when there is occasion. I then fell to other discourse of Dr. Knapp, who tells me he is the King's physician, and is become a solicitor for places for people, and I am mightily troubled with him. He tells me he is the most impudent fellow in the world, that gives himself out to be the King's physician, but it is not so, but is cast out of the Court. From thence I may learn what impudence there is in the world, and how a man may be deceived in persons: Anon the King (33) and Duke (30) and Duchesse (26) came to dinner in the Vane-roome, where I never saw them before; but it seems since the tables are done, he dines there all together. The Queene (54) is pretty well, and goes out of her chamber to her little chappell in the house.
The King of France (25), they say, is hiring of sixty sail of ships of the Dutch, but it is not said for what design.
By and by, not hoping to see my Lord, I went to the King's Head ordinary, where a good dinner but no discourse almost, and after dinner by coach, home, and found my wife this cold day not yet out of bed, and after a little good talk with her to my office, and there spent my time till late.
Sir W. Warren two or three hours with me talking of trade, and other very good discourse, which did please me very, well, and so, after reading in Rushworth, home to supper and to bed.

Wallingford House

Samuel Pepys' Diary 22 July 1663. 22 Jul 1663. Up, and by and by comes my uncle Thomas (68), to whom I paid £10 for his last half year's annuity, and did get his and his son's hand and seal for the confirming to us Piggott's mortgage, which was forgot to be expressed in our late agreement with him, though intended, and therefore they might have cavilled at it, if they would.
Thence abroad calling at several places upon some errands, among others to my brother Tom's (29) barber and had my hair cut, while his boy played on the viallin, a plain boy, but has a very good genius, and understands the book very well, but to see what a shift he made for a string of red silk was very pleasant.
Thence to my Lord Crew's. My Lord not being come home, I met and staid below with Captain Ferrers, who was come to wait upon my Lady Jemimah to St. James's, she being one of the four ladies that hold up the mantle at the christening this afternoon of the Duke's (29) child (a boy). In discourse of the ladies at Court, Captain Ferrers tells me that my Baroness Castlemaine's (22) is now as great again as ever she was; and that her going away was only a fit of her own upon some slighting words of the King (33), so that she called for her coach at a quarter of an hour's warning, and went to Richmond; and the King (33) the next morning, under pretence of going a-hunting, went to see her and make friends, and never was a-hunting at all. After which she came back to Court, and commands the King (33) as much as ever, and hath and doth what she will. No longer ago than last night, there was a private entertainment made for the King (33) and Queen (24) at the Duke of Buckingham's (35), and she: was not invited: but being at my Lady Suffolk's (41), her aunt's (where my Lady Jemimah and Lord Sandwich (37) dined) yesterday, she was heard to say, "Well; much good may it do them, and for all that I will be as merry as they:" and so she went home and caused a great supper to be prepared. And after the King (33) had been with the Queen (24) at Wallingford House, he came to my Baroness Castlemaine's (22), and was there all night, and my Lord Sandwich (37) with him, which was the reason my Lord lay in town all night, which he has not done a great while before. He tells me he believes that, as soon as the King (33) can get a husband for Mrs. Stewart (16) however, my Baroness Castlemaine's (22) nose will be out of joynt; for that she comes to be in great esteem, and is more handsome than she. I found by his words that my Lord Sandwich (37) finds some pleasure in the country where he now is, whether he means one of the daughters of the house or no I know not, but hope the contrary, that he thinks he is very well pleased with staying there, but yet upon breaking up of the Parliament, which the King (33) by a message to-day says shall be on Monday next, he resolves to go.
Ned Pickering, the coxcomb, notwithstanding all his hopes of my Lord's assistance, wherein I am sorry to hear my Lord has much concerned himself, is defeated of the place he expected under the Queen (24). He came hither by and by and brought some jewells for my Lady Jem. to put on, with which and her other clothes she looks passing well. I staid and dined with my Lord Crew, who whether he was not so well pleased with me as he used to be, or that his head was full of business, as I believe it was, he hardly spoke one word to me all dinner time, we dining alone, only young Jack Crew, Sir Thomas's son, with us.
After dinner I bade him farewell. Sir Thomas I hear has gone this morning ill to bed, so I had no mind to see him.
Thence homewards, and in the way first called at Wotton's, the shoemaker's, who tells me the reason of Harris's' going from Sir Wm. Davenant's (57) house, that he grew very proud and demanded £20 for himself extraordinary, more than Betterton (27) or any body else, upon every new play, and £10 upon every revive; which with other things Sir W. Davenant (57) would not give him, and so he swore he would never act there more, in expectation of being received in the other House; but the King (33) will not suffer it, upon Sir W. Davenant's (57) desire that he would not, for then he might shut up house, and that is true. He tells me that his going is at present a great loss to the House, and that he fears he hath a stipend from the other House privately. He tells the that the fellow grew very proud of late, the King (33) and every body else crying him up so high, and that above Betterton (27), he being a more ayery man, as he is indeed. But yet Betterton (27), he says, they all say do act: some parts that none but himself can do.
Thence to my bookseller's, and found my Waggoners done. The very binding cost me 14s., but they are well done, and so with a porter home with them, and so by water to Ratcliffe, and there went to speak with Cumberford the platt-maker, and there saw his manner of working, which is very fine and laborious. So down to Deptford, reading Ben Jonson's "Devil is an asse", and so to see Sir W. Pen (42), who I find walking out of doors a little, but could not stand long; but in doors and I with him, and staid a great while talking, I taking a liberty to tell him my thoughts in things of the office; that when he comes abroad again, he may know what to think of me, and to value me as he ought. Walked home as I used to do, and being weary, and after some discourse with Mr. Barrow, who came to see and take his leave of me, he being to-morrow to set out toward the Isle of Man, I went to bed.
This day I hear that the Moores have made some attaques upon the outworks of Tangier; but my Lord Tiviott; with the loss of about 200 men, did beat them off, and killed many of them.
To-morrow the King (33) and Queen (24) for certain go down to Tunbridge. But the King (33) comes back again against Monday to raise the Parliament.

1672 Attack on the Smyrna Fleet

John Evelyn's Diary 18 August 1673. 18 Aug 1673. My Lord Clifford (43), being about this time returned from Tunbridge, and preparing for Devonshire, I went to take my leave of him at Wallingford House; he was packing up pictures, most of which were of hunting wild beasts and vast pieces of bull-baiting, bear-baiting, etc. I found him in his study, and restored to him several papers of state, and others of importance, which he had furnished me with, on engaging me to write the "History of the Holland War", with other private letters of his acknowledgments to my Lord Arlington (55), who from a private gentleman of a very noble family, but inconsiderable fortune, had advanced him from almost nothing. The first thing was his being in Parliament, then knighted, then made one of the Commissioners of sick and wounded, on which occasion we sat long together; then, on the death of Hugh Pollard, he was made Comptroller of the Household and Privy Councillor, yet still my brother Commissioner; after the death of Lord Fitz-Harding, Treasurer of the Household, he, by letters to Lord Arlington (55), which that Lord showed me, begged of his Lordship to obtain it for him as the very height of his ambition. These were written with such submissions and professions of his patronage, as I had never seen any more acknowledging. The Earl of Southampton then dying, he was made one of the Commissioners of the Treasury. His Majesty (43) inclining to put it into one hand, my Lord Clifford (43), under pretense of making all his interest for his patron, my Lord Arlington (55), cut the grass under his feet, and procured it for himself, assuring the King (43) that Lord Arlington (55) did not desire it. Indeed, my Lord Arlington (55) protested to me that his confidence in Lord Clifford (43) made him so remiss and his affection to him was so particular, that he was absolutely minded to devolve it on Lord Clifford (43), all the world knowing how he himself affected ease and quiet, now growing into years, yet little thinking of this go-by. This was the great ingratitude Lord Clifford (43) showed, keeping my Lord Arlington (55) in ignorance, continually assuring him he was pursuing his interest, which was the Duke's (39) into whose great favor Lord Clifford (43) was now gotten; but which certainly cost him the loss of all, namely, his going so irrevocably far in his interest.
For the rest, my Lord Clifford (43) was a valiant, incorrupt gentleman, ambitious, not covetous; generous, passionate, a most constant, sincere friend, to me in particular, so as when he laid down his office, I was at the end of all my hopes and endeavors. These were not for high matters, but to obtain what his Majesty (43) was really indebted to my father-in-law, which was the utmost of my ambition, and which I had undoubtedly obtained, if this friend had stood. Sir Thomas Osborn (41), who succeeded him, though much more obliged to my father-in-law and his family, and my long and old acquaintance, being of a more haughty and far less obliging nature, I could hope for little; a man of excellent natural parts; but nothing of generous or grateful.
Taking leave of my Lord Clifford (43), he wrung me by the hand, and, looking earnestly on me, bid me God-b'ye, adding, "Mr. Evelyn, I shall never see thee more". "No!" said I, "my Lord, what's the meaning of this? I hope I shall see you often, and as great a person again". "No, Mr. Evelyn, do not expect it, I will never see this place, this city, or Court again", or words of this sound. In this manner, not without almost mutual tears, I parted from him; nor was it long after, but the news was that he was dead, and I have heard from some who I believe knew, he made himself away, after an extraordinary melancholy. This is not confidently affirmed, but a servant who lived in the house, and afterward with Sir Robert Clayton (44), Lord Mayor, did, as well as others, report it, and when I hinted some such thing to Mr. Prideaux, one of his trustees, he was not willing to enter into that discourse.
It was reported with these particulars, that, causing his servant to leave him unusually one morning, locking himself in, he strangled himself with his cravat upon the bed-tester; his servant, not liking the manner of dismissing him, and looking through the keyhole (as I remember), and seeing his master hanging, broke in before he was quite dead, and taking him down, vomiting a great deal of blood, he was heard to utter these words: "Well; let men say what they will, there is a God, a just God above"; after which he spoke no more. This, if true, is dismal. Really, he was the chief occasion of the Dutch war, and of all that blood which was lost at Bergen in attacking the Smyrna fleet, and that whole quarrel.
This leads me to call to mind what my Lord Chancellor Shaftesbury (52) affirmed, not to me only, but to all my brethren the Council of Foreign Plantations, when not long after, this accident being mentioned as we were one day sitting in Council, his Lordship told us this remarkable passage: that, being one day discoursing with him when he was only Sir Thomas Clifford, speaking of men's advancement to great charges in the nation, "Well", says he, "my Lord, I shall be one of the greatest men in England. Don't impute what I say either to fancy, or vanity; I am certain that I shall be a mighty man; but it will not last long; I shall not hold it, but die a bloody death". "What", says my Lord, "your horoscope tells you so?" "No matter for that, it will be as I tell you". "Well", says my Lord Chancellor Shaftesbury (52), "if I were of that opinion, I either would not be a great man, but decline preferment, or prevent my danger"..
This my Lord affirmed in my hearing before several gentlemen and noblemen sitting in council at Whitehall. And I the rather am confident of it, remembering what Sir Edward Walker (62) (Garter King at Arms) had likewise affirmed to me a long time before, even when he was first made a Lord; that carrying his pedigree to Lord Clifford on his being created a peer, and, finding him busy, he bade him go into his study and divert himself there till he was at leisure to discourse with him about some things relating to his family; there lay, said Sir Edward, on his table, his horoscope and nativity calculated, with some writing under it, where he read that he should be advanced to the highest degree in the state that could be conferred upon him, but that he should not long enjoy it, but should die, or expressions to that sense; and I think, (but cannot confidently say) a bloody death. This Sir Edward affirmed both to me and Sir Richard Browne; nor could I forbear to note this extraordinary passage in these memoirs.

John Evelyn's Diary 19 July 1675. 19 Jul 1675. The Lord Treasurer's (43) Chaplain preached at Wallingford House.

Whitehall Chapel

Samuel Pepys' Diary 06 April 1662. 06 Apr 1662. Lord's Day. By water to White Hall, to Sir G. Carteret (52), to give him an account of the backwardness of the ships we have hired to Portugall: at which he is much troubled.
Thence to the Chappell, and there, though crowded, heard a very honest sermon before the King (31) by a Canon of Christ Church, upon these words, "Having a form of godliness, but denying", &c. Among other things, did much insist upon the sin of adultery: which methought might touch the King (31), and the more because he forced it into his sermon, methinks, besides his text.
So up and saw the King (31) at dinner; and thence with Sir G. Carteret (52) to his lodgings to dinner, with him and his lady (60), where I saluted her, and was well received as a stranger by her; she seems a good lady, and all their discourse, which was very much, was upon their sufferings and services for the King (31). Yet not without some trouble, to see that some that had been much bound to them, do now neglect them; and others again most civil that have received least from them: and I do believe that he hath been a good servant to the King (31).
Thence to walk in the Park, where the King (31) and Duke (28) did walk round the Park.
After I was tired I went and took boat to Milford stairs, and so to Graye's Inn walks, the first time I have been there this year, and it is very pleasant and full of good company. When tired I walked to the Wardrobe, and there staid a little with my Lady, and so by water from Paul's Wharf (where my boat staid for me), home and supped with my wife with Sir W. Pen (40), and so home and to bed.

Samuel Pepys' Diary 07 September 1662. 07 Sep 1662. Lord's Day. Up betimes and round about by the streets to my office, and walked in the garden and in my office till my man Will rose, and then sent to tell Sir J. Minnes (63) that I would go with him to Whitehall, which anon we did, in his coach, and to the Chapell, where I heard a good sermon of the Dean of Ely's, upon returning to the old ways, and a most excellent anthem, with symphonys between, sung by Captain Cooke (46). Then home with Mr. Fox (35) and his lady; and there dined with them, where much company come to them. Most of our discourse was what ministers are flung out that will not conform: and the care of the Bishop of London (64) that we are here supplied with very good men.
Thence to my Lord's, where nobody at home but a woman that let me in, and Sarah above, whither I went up to her and played and talked with her...
After I had talked an hour or two with her I went and gave Mr. Hunt a short visit, he being at home alone, and thence walked homewards, and meeting Mr. Pierce, the chyrurgeon, he took me into Somersett House; and there carried me into the Queen-Mother's (52) presence-chamber, where she was with our own Queen (23) sitting on her left hand (whom I did never see before); and though she be not very charming, yet she hath a good, modest, and innocent look, which is pleasing. Here I also saw Madam Castlemaine (21), and, which pleased me most, Mr. Crofts (13), the King's (32) bastard, a most pretty spark of about 15 years old, who, I perceive, do hang much upon my Baroness Castlemaine's (21), and is always with her; and, I hear, the Queens (23) both of them are mighty kind to him1.
By and by in comes the King (32), and anon the Duke and his Duchess; so that, they being all together, was such a sight as I never could almost have happened to see with so much ease and leisure. They staid till it was dark, and then went away; the King (32) and his Queen (23), and my Baroness Castlemaine's (21) and young Crofts, in one coach and the rest in other, coaches. Here were great store of great ladies, but very few handsome. The King (32) and Queen (23) were very merry; and he would have made the Queen-Mother (52) believe that his Queen (23) was with child, and said that she said so. And the young Queen (23) answered, "You lye;" which was the first English word that I ever heard her say which made the King (32) good sport; and he would have taught her to say in English, "Confess and be hanged".
The company being gone I walked home with great content as I can be in for seeing the greatest rarity, and yet a little troubled that I should see them before my wife's coming home, I having made a promise that I would not, nor did I do it industriously and by design, but by chance only.
To my office, to fit myself for waiting on the Duke to-morrow morning with the rest of our company, and so to my lodgings and to bed.
Note 1. James (13), the son of Charles II (32) by Lucy Walter, daughter of William Walter, of Roch Castle, co. Pembroke. He was born April 9th, 1649, and landed in England with the Queen-Mother (52), July 28th, 1662, when he bore the name of Crofts, after Lord Crofts (51), his governor. He was created Duke of Monmouth, February 14th, 1663, and married Lady Anne Scott (11), daughter and heiress of Francis, second Earl of Buccleuch, on April 20th following. In 1673 he took the name of Scott, and was created Duke of Buccleuch.

John Evelyn's Diary 01 January 1673. 01 Jan 1673. After public prayers in the chapel at Whitehall, when I gave God solemn thanks for all his mercies to me the year past, and my humble supplications to him for his blessing the year now entering, I returned home, having my poor deceased servant (Adams) to bury, who died of pleurisy.

John Evelyn's Diary 05 March 1673. 05 Mar 1673. Our new vicar, Mr. Holden, preached in Whitehall Chapel, on Psalm iv. 6, 7. This gentleman is a very excellent and universal scholar, a good and wise man; but he had not the popular way of preaching, nor is in any measure fit for our plain and vulgar auditory, as his predecessor was. There was, however, no comparison between their parts for profound learning. But time and experience may form him to a more practical way than that he is in of University lectures and erudition; which is now universally left off for what is much more profitable.