East India Company is in Crown.
On 31 Dec 1600 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (67) granted a Royal Charter to the Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies aka the East India Company led by George Clifford 3rd Earl Cumberland 1558-1605 (42) by which they received a monopoloy on trade with the East Indies. Thomas Smythe 1558-1625 (42) was appointed first Governor of the East India Company.
From 1614 to 1619 Robert Bateman 1561-1644 (57) was a member of the East India Company.
In 1619 Robert Bateman 1561-1644 (57) was appointed Treasurer of the East India Company which position he held for life.
John Evelyn's Diary 05 October 1641. 05 Oct 1641. I visited the Jesuits' School, which, for the fame of their method, I greatly desired to see. They were divided into four classes, with several inscriptions over each: as, first. Ad majorem Dei gloriam; over the second, Princeps diligenticB; the third, Imperator Byzantiorum; over the fourth and uppermost, Imperator Romanorum. Under these, the scholars and pupils had their places, or forms, with titles and priority according to their proficiency. Their dormitory and lodgings above were exceedingly neat. They have a prison for the offenders and less diligent; and, in an ample court, to recreate themselves in, is an aviary, and a yard where eagles, vultures, foxes, monkeys, and other animals are kept, to divert the boys withal at their hours of remission. To this school join the music and mathematical schools, and lastly a pretty, neat chapel. The great street is built after the Italian mode, in the middle whereof is erected a glorious crucifix of white and black marble, greater than the life. This is a very fair and noble street, clean, well paved, and sweet to admiration.
The Oesters house, belonging to the East India Company, is a stately palace, adorned with more than 300 windows. From hence walking into the Gungarden, I was allowed to see as much of the citadel as is permitted to strangers. It is a matchless piece of modern fortification, accommodated with lodgments for the soldiers and magazines. The graff's, ramparts, and platforms are stupendous. Returning by the shop of Plantine, I bought some books, for the namesake only of that famous printer.
But there was nothing about this city which more ravished me than those delicious shades and walks of stately trees, which render the fortified works of the town one of the sweetest places in Europe; nor did I ever observe a more quiet, clean, elegantly built, and civil place, than this magnificent and famous city of Antwerp. In the evening, I was invited to Signor Duerte's, a Portuguese by nation, an exceeding rich merchant, whose palace I found to be furnished hke a prince's. His three daughters entertained us with rare music, vocal and instrumental, which was finished with a handsome collation. I took leave of the ladies and of sweet Antwerp, as late as it was, embarking for Brussels on the Scheldt in a vessel, which delivered us to a second boat (in another river) drawn or towed by horses. In this passage, we frequently changed our barge, by reason of the bridges thwarting our course. Here I observed numerous families inhabiting their vessels and floating dwellings, so built and divided by cabins, as few houses on land enjoyed better accommodation, stored with all sorts of utensils, neat chambers, a pretty parlour, and kept so sweet, that nothing could be more refreshing. The rivers on which they are drawn are very clear and still waters, and pass through a most pleasant country on both the banks. We had in our boat a very good ordinary, and excellent company. The cut is straight as a line for twenty English miles. What I much admired was, near the midway, another artificial river, which intersects this at right angles, but on an eminence of ground, and is carried in an aqueduct of stone so far above the other, as that the waters neither mingle, nor hinder one another's passage.
We came to a town called Villefrow, where all the passengers went on shore to wash at a fountain issuing out of a pillar, and then came aboard again. On the margin of this long tract, are abundance of shrines and images, defended from the injuries of the weather by niches of stone wherein they are placed.
John Evelyn's Diary 26 November 1657. 26 Nov 1657. I went to London, to a court of the East India Company on its new union, in Merchant-Taylors' Hall, where was much disorder by reason of the Anabaptists, who would have the adventurers obliged only by an engagement, without swearing, that they still might pursue their private trade; but it was carried against them. Wednesday was fixed on for a general court for election of officers, after a sermon and prayers for good success. The Stock resolved on was £800,000.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 September 1663. 05 Sep 1663. Up betimes and to my viall awhile, and so to the office, and there sat, and busy all the morning.
So at noon to the Exchange, and so home to dinner, where I met Creed, who dined with me, and after dinner mightily importuned by Captain Hicks, who came to tell my wife the names and story of all the shells, which was a pretty present he made her the other day. He being gone, Creed, my wife, and I to Cornhill, and after many tryalls bought my wife a chintz, that is, a painted Indian callico, for to line her new study, which is very pretty.
So home with her, and then I away (Creed being gone) to Captain Minors upon Tower Hill, and there, abating only some impertinence of his, I did inform myself well in things relating to the East Indys; both of the country and the disappointment the King (33) met with the last voyage, by the knavery of the Portugall Viceroy, and the inconsiderablenesse of the place of Bombaim1, if we had had it. But, above all things, it seems strange to me that matters should not be understood before they went out; and also that such a thing as this, which was expected to be one of the best parts of the Queen's (24) portion, should not be better understood; it being, if we had it, but a poor place, and not really so as was described to our King in the draught of it, but a poor little island; whereas they made the King (33) and Chancellor (54), and other learned men about the King (33), believe that that, and other islands which are near it, were all one piece; and so the draught was drawn and presented to the King (33), and believed by the King (33) and expected to prove so when our men came thither; but it is quite otherwise.
Thence to my office, and after several letters writ, home to supper and to bed, and took a pill.
I hear this day that Sir W. Batten (62) was fain to put ashore at Queenborough with my Lady, who has been so sick she swears never to go to sea again. But it happens well that Holmes is come home into the Downes, where he will meet my Lady, and it may be do her more good than she looked for. He brings news of the peace between Tangier and the Moors, but the particulars I know not. He is come but yesterday.
Note 1. Bombay, which was transferred to the East India Company in 1669. The seat of the Western Presidency of India was removed from Surat to Bombay in 1685-87.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 November 1663. 27 Nov 1663. Up and to my office, where busy with great delight all the morning, and at noon to the 'Change, and so home to dinner with my poor wife, and with great content to my office again, and there hard at work upon stating the account of the freights due to the King (33) from the East India Company till late at night, and so home to supper and to bed.
My wife mightily pleased with my late discourse of getting a trip over to Calais, or some other port of France, the next summer, in one of the yachts, and I believe I shall do it, and it makes good sport that my mayde Jane dares not go, and Besse is wild to go, and is mad for joy, but yet will be willing to stay if Jane hath a mind, which is the best temper in this and all other things that ever I knew in my life.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 25 January 1664. 25 Jan 1664. Up and by coach to Whitehall to my Lord's lodgings, and seeing that knowing that I was in the house, my Lord did not nevertheless send for me up, I did go to the Duke's lodgings, and there staid while he was making ready, in which time my Lord Sandwich (38) came, and so all into his closet and did our common business, and so broke up, and I homeward by coach with Sir W. Batten (63), and staid at Warwick Lane and there called upon Mr. Commander and did give him my last will and testament to write over in form, and so to the 'Change, where I did several businesses.
So home to dinner, and after I had dined Luellin came and we set him something to eat, and I left him there with my wife, and to the office upon a particular meeting of the East India Company, where I think I did the King (33) good service against the Company in the business of their sending our ships home empty from the Indies contrary to their contract, and yet, God forgive me! I found that I could be willing to receive a bribe if it were offered me to conceal my arguments that I found against them, in consideration that none of my fellow officers, whose duty it is more than mine, had ever studied the case, or at this hour do understand it, and myself alone must do it.
That being done Mr. Povy (50) and Bland came to speak with me about their business of the reference, wherein I shall have some more trouble, but cannot help it, besides I hope to make some good use of Mr. Povy (50) to my advantage.
So home after business done at my office, to supper, and then to the globes with my wife, and so to bed. Troubled a little in mind that my Lord Sandwich (38) should continue this strangeness to me that methinks he shows me now a days more than while the thing was fresh.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 19 February 1664. 19 Feb 1664. Up in good order in my head again and shaved myself, and then to the office, whither Mr. Cutler came, and walked and talked with me a great while; and then to the 'Change together; and it being early, did tell me several excellent examples of men raised upon the 'Change by their great diligence and saving; as also his owne fortune, and how credit grew upon him; that when he was not really worth £1100, he had credit for £100,000 of Sir W. Rider how he rose; and others.
By and by joyned with us Sir John Bankes (37); who told us several passages of the East India Company; and how in his very case, when there was due to him and Alderman Mico £64,000 from the Dutch for injury done to them in the East Indys, Oliver presently after the peace, they delaying to pay them the money, sent them word, that if they did not pay them by such a day, he would grant letters of mark to those merchants against them; by which they were so fearful of him, they did presently pay the money every farthing.
By and by, the 'Change filling, I did many businesses, and about 2 o'clock went off with my uncle Wight (62) to his house, thence by appointment we took our wives (they by coach with Mr. Mawes) and we on foot to Mr. Jaggard, a salter, in Thames Street, for whom I did a courtesy among the poor victuallers, his wife, whom long ago I had seen, being daughter to old Day, my uncle Wight's (62) master, is a very plain woman, but pretty children they have. They live methought at first in but a plain way, but afterward I saw their dinner, all fish, brought in very neatly, but the company being but bad I had no great pleasure in it.
After dinner I to the office, where we should have met upon business extraordinary, but business not coming we broke up, and I thither again and took my wife; and taking a coach, went to visit my Ladys Jemimah and Paulina Montagu, and Mrs. Elizabeth Pickering (22), whom we find at their father's new house1 in Lincolne's Inn Fields; but the house all in dirt. They received us well enough; but I did not endeavour to carry myself over familiarly with them; and so after a little stay, there coming in presently after us my Lady Aberguenny and other ladies, we back again by coach, and visited, my wife did, my she cozen Scott, who is very ill still, and thence to Jaggard's again, where a very good supper and great store of plate; and above all after supper Mrs. Jaggard did at my entreaty play on the Vyall, but so well as I did not think any woman in England could and but few Maisters, I must confess it did mightily surprise me, though I knew heretofore that she could play, but little thought so well.
After her I set Maes to singing, but he did it so like a coxcomb that I was sick of him.
About 11 at night I carried my aunt home by coach, and then home myself, having set my wife down at home by the way. My aunt tells me they are counted very rich people, worth at least 10 or £12,000, and their country house all the yeare long and all things liveable, which mightily surprises me to think for how poore a man I took him when I did him the courtesy at our office. So after prayers to bed, pleased at nothing all the day but Mrs. Jaggard playing on the Vyall, and that was enough to make me bear with all the rest that did not content me.
Note 1. The Earl of Sandwich had just moved to a house in Lincoln's Inn Fields. Elizabeth Dickering (22), who afterwards married John Creed, was niece to Lord Sandwich (38).
Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 February 1664. 27 Feb 1664. At noon with Mr. Coventry (36) to the African House, and to my Lord Peterborough's (42) business again, and then to dinner, where, before dinner, we had the best oysters I have seen this year, and I think as good in all respects as ever I eat in my life. I eat a great many. Great, good company at dinner, among others Sir Martin Noell (64), who told us the dispute between him, as farmer of the Additional Duty, and the East India Company, whether callicos be linnen or no; which he says it is, having been ever esteemed so: they say it is made of cotton woole, and grows upon trees, not like flax or hempe. But it was carried against the Company, though they stand out against the verdict.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 March 1664. 05 Mar 1664. Up and to the office, where, though I had a great cold, I was forced to speak much upon a publique meeting of the East India Company, at our office; where our own company was full, and there was also my Lord George Barkeley (36), in behalfe of the company of merchants (I suppose he is on that company), who, hearing my name, took notice of me, and condoled my cozen Edward Pepys's death, not knowing whose son I was, nor did demand it of me. We broke up without coming to any conclusion, for want of my Lord Marlborough (46).
We broke up and I to the 'Change, where with several people and my uncle Wight (62) to drink a dish of coffee, and so home to dinner, and then to the office all the afternoon, my eye and my throat being very bad, and my cold increasing so as I could not speak almost at all at night. So at night home to supper, that is a posset, and to bed.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 11 June 1664. 11 Jun 1664. Up and to the office, where we sat all the morning, where some discourse arose from Sir G. Carteret (54) and Mr. Coventry (36), which gives me occasion to think that something like a war is expected now indeed, though upon the 'Change afterwards I hear too that an Embassador is landed from Holland, and one from their East India Company, to treat with ours about the wrongs we pretend to. Mr. Creed dined with me, and thence after dinner by coach with my wife only to take the ayre, it being very warm and pleasant, to Bowe and Old Ford; and thence to Hackney. There 'light, and played at shuffle-board, eat cream and good churies; and so with good refreshment home.
Then to my office vexed with Captain Taylor about the delay of carrying down the ship hired by me for Tangier, and late about that and other things at the office.
So home to supper and to bed.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 June 1664. 20 Jun 1664. It having been a very cold night last night I had got some cold, and so in pain by wind, and a sure precursor of pain is sudden letting off farts, and when that stops, then my passages stop and my pain begins.
Up and did several businesses, and so with my wife by water to White Hall, she to her father's, I to the Duke (30), where we did our usual business. And among other discourse of the Dutch, he was merrily saying how they print that Prince Rupert (44), Duke of Albemarle (55), and my Lord Sandwich (38), are to be Generalls; and soon after is to follow them "Vieux Pen"; and so the Duke called him in mirth Old Pen. They have, it seems, lately wrote to the King (34), to assure him that their setting-out ships were only to defend their fishing-trade, and to stay near home, not to annoy the King's subjects; and to desire that he would do the like with his ships: which the King (34) laughs at, but yet is troubled they should think him such a child, to suffer them to bring home their fish and East India Company's ships, and then they will not care a fart for us.
Thence to Westminster Hall, it being term time, meeting Mr. Dickering (46), he tells me how my Lady last week went to see Mrs. Becke, the mother; and by and by the daughter came in, but that my Lady do say herself, as he says, that she knew not for what reason, for she never knew they had a daughter, which I do not believe. She was troubled, and her heart did rise as soon as she appeared, and seems the most ugly woman that ever she saw. This if true were strange, but I believe it is not.
Thence to my Lord's lodgings; and were merry with the young ladies, who make a great story of their appearing before their mother the morning after we carried them, the last week, home so late; and that their mother took it very well, at least without any anger. Here I heard how the rich widow, my Lady Gold, is married to one Neale, after he had received a box on the eare by her brother [either John Garrard 3rd Baronet 1638-1701 (26) or Samuel Garrard 4th Baronet 1650-1724 (14)] (who was there a sentinel, in behalf of some courtier) at the door; but made him draw, and wounded him. She called Neale up to her, and sent for a priest, married presently, and went to bed. The brother sent to the Court, and had a serjeant sent for Neale; but Neale sent for him up to be seen in bed, and she owned him for her husband: and so all is past. It seems Sir H. Bennet (46) did look after her. My Lady very pleasant.
After dinner came in Sir Thomas Crew (40) and Mr. Sidney (13), lately come from France, who is growne a little, and a pretty youth he is; but not so improved as they did give him out to be, but like a child still. But yet I can perceive he hath good parts and good inclinations.
Thence with Creed, who dined here, to Westminster to find out Mr. Hawly, and did, but he did not accept of my offer of his being steward to my Lord at sea.
Thence alone to several places about my law businesses, and with good success; at last I to Mr. Townsend at the Wardrobe, and received kind words from him to be true to me against Captain Ferrers his endeavours to get the place from my father as my Lord hath promised him. Here met Will Howe, and he went forth with me; and by water back to White Hall to wait on my Lord, who is come back from Hinchinbroke; where he has been about 4 or 5 days. But I was never more vexed to see how an over-officious visitt is received, for he received me with as little concernment as in the middle of his discontent, and a fool I am to be of so servile a humour, and vexed with that consideration I took coach home, and could not get it off my mind all night.
To supper and to bed, my wife finding fault with Besse for her calling upon Jane that lived with us, and there heard Mrs. Harper and her talk ill of us and not told us of it. With which I was also vexed, and told her soundly of it till she cried, poor wench, and I hope without dissimulation, and yet I cannot tell; however, I was glad to see in what manner she received it, and so to sleep.
John Evelyn's Diary 22 June 1664. 22 Jun 1664. One Tomson, a Jesuit, showed me such a collection of rarities, sent from the Jesuits of Japan and China to their Order at Paris, as a present to be reserved in their repository, but brought to London by the East India ships for them, as in my life I had not seen. The chief things were, rhinoceros's horns; glorious vests, wrought and embroidered on cloth of gold, but with such lively colors, that for splendor and vividness we have nothing in Europe that approaches it; a girdle studded with agates and rubies of great value and size; knives, of so keen an edge as one could not touch them, nor was the metal of our color, but more pale and livid; fans, like those our ladies use, but much larger, and with long handles curiously carved and filled with Chinese characters; a sort of paper very broad, thin, and fine, like abortive parchment, and exquisitely polished, of an amber yellow, exceedingly glorious and pretty to look on, and seeming to be like that which my Lord Verulam describes in his "Nova Atlantis"; several other sorts of paper, some written, others printed; prints of landscapes, their idols, saints, pagods, of most ugly serpentine monstrous and hideous shapes, to which they paid devotion; pictures of men and countries, rarely painted on a sort of gummed calico, transparent as glass; flowers, trees, beasts, birds, etc., excellently wrought in a kind of sleeve silk, very natural; divers drugs that our druggists and physicians could make nothing of, especially one which the Jesuit called Lac Tigridis: it looked like a fungus, but was weighty like metal, yet was a concretion, or coagulation, of some other matter; several book MSS.; a grammar of the language written in Spanish; with innumerable other rarities.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 August 1664. 04 Aug 1664. Up betimes and to the office, fitting myself against a great dispute about the East India Company, which spent afterwards with us all the morning.
At noon dined with Sir W. Pen (43), a piece of beef only, and I counterfeited a friendship and mirth which I cannot have with him, yet out with him by his coach, and he did carry me to a play and pay for me at the King's house, which is "The Rivall Ladys", a very innocent and most pretty witty play. I was much pleased with it, and it being given me, I look upon it as no breach to my oathe. Here we hear that Clun, one of their best actors, was, the last night, going out of towne (after he had acted the Alchymist, wherein was one of his best parts that he acts) to his country-house, set upon and murdered; one of the rogues taken, an Irish fellow. It seems most cruelly butchered and bound. The house will have a great miss of him.
Calendar of State Papers Charles II 13 Nov 1664. 13 Nov 1664. 93. Wm. Coventry (36) to [Sec. Bennet (46)]. Hopes the wind will change, and bring the Charles and the other ships out of the river; will not then fear what Opdam can do, though the men are raw, and need a little time at sea. The Ruby and Happy Return have brought some supernumeraries, but 500 more are wanted; 200 are expected from Plymouth, but till some runaways are hanged, the ships cannot be kept well manned. Sends a list of some fit to be made examples of in the several counties where they were pressed, with the names of those who pressed them. The Dutch ship named before is brought in, and two others are stayed at Cowes by virtue of the embargo, the order in Council making no exception for foreigners, The King’s pleasure should be known therein, as the end, which is to gather seamen, does not seem to require the stopping of foreigners. Prize officers must- be sent speedily to [Portsmouth], Dover, and Deal. Those at Deal should have men in readiness to carry prizes up the river, that the men belonging to the fleet be not scattered. Persons should also be hastened to ‘take care of the sick and wounded. The Duke (31) intends to appoint Erwin captain of the ship hired to go to St. Helena; he is approved by the East India Company, which is important, trade being intermixed with convoy, and they find fault if a commander of the King’s ships bring home any little matter privately bought. The Duke has divided the fleet into squadrons, assigning to each a vice and rear adiniral; Sir John Lawson (49) and Sir Wm. Berkeley to his own, Mennes (65) and Sansum to Prince Rupert’s (44), Sir George Aiscue (48) [Ayscough] and Teddeman to the Earl of Sandwich. Hopes in a few days to be in much better order, if good men can be got. Will send a list of the squadrons. The Guernsey is damaged by running aground. Rear-Admiral Teddeman, with 4 or 5 ships, has gone to course in the Channel, and if he meet any refractory Dutchmen, will teach them their duty. The King’s declaration for encouraging seamen has much revived the men, and added to their courage. [Four pages.]
Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 October 1665. 23 Oct 1665. Up, and after doing some business I down by water, calling to see my wife, with whom very merry for ten minutes, and so to Erith, where my Lord Bruncker (45) and I kept the office, and dispatched some business by appointment on the Bezan. Among other things about the slopsellers, who have trusted us so long, they are not able, nor can be expected to trust us further, and I fear this winter the fleete will be undone by that particular.
Thence on board the East India ship, where my Lord Bruncker (45) had provided a great dinner, and thither comes by and by Sir John Minnes (66) and before him Sir W. Warren and anon a Perspective glasse maker, of whom we, every one, bought a pocket glasse. But I am troubled with the much talke and conceitedness of Mrs. Williams and her impudence, in case she be not married to my Lord (45).
They are getting themselves ready to deliver the goods all out to the East India Company, who are to have the goods in their possession and to advance two thirds of the moderate value thereof and sell them as well as they can and the King (35) to give them 6 per cent. for the use of the money they shall so advance. By this means the company will not suffer by the King's goods bringing down the price of their own.
Thence in the evening back again with Sir W. Warren and Captain Taylor in my boat, and the latter went with me to the office, and there he and I reckoned; and I perceive I shall get £100 profit by my services of late to him, which is a very good thing.
Thence to my lodging, where I find my Lord Rutherford, of which I was glad. We supped together and sat up late, he being a mighty wanton man with a daughter in law of my landlady's, a pretty conceited woman big with child, and he would be handling her breasts, which she coyly refused.
But they gone, my Lord and I to business, and he would have me forbear paying Alderman Backewell (47) the money ordered him, which I, in hopes to advantage myself, shall forbear, but do not think that my Lord will do any thing gratefully more to me than he hath done, not that I shall get any thing as I pretended by helping him to interest for his last £7700, which I could do, and do him a courtesy too. Discourse being done, he to bed in my chamber and I to another in the house.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 28 October 1665. 28 Oct 1665. Up, and sent for Thomas Willson, and broke the victualling business to him and he is mightily contented, and so am I that I have bestowed it on him, and so I to Mr. Boreman's, where Sir W. Batten (64) is, to tell him what I had proposed to Thomas Willson, and the newes also I have this morning from Sir W. Clerke (42), which is, that notwithstanding all the care the Duke of Albemarle (56) hath taken about the putting the East India prize goods into the East India Company's hands, and my Lord Bruncker (45) and Sir J. Minnes (66) having laden out a great part of the goods, an order is come from Court to stop all, and to have the goods delivered to the Sub-Commissioners of prizes. At which I am glad, because it do vex this simple weake man, and we shall have a little reparation for the disgrace my Lord Sandwich (40) has had in it.
He tells me also that the Parliament hath given the Duke of Yorke (32) £120,000, to be paid him after the £1,250,000 is gathered upon the tax which they have now given the King (35)1.
He tells me that the Dutch have lately launched sixteen new ships; all which is great news.
Thence by horsebacke with Deane (31) to Erith, and so aboard my Lord Bruncker (45) and dined, and very merry with him and good discourse between them about ship building, and, after dinner and a little pleasant discourse, we away and by horse back again to Greenwich, and there I to the office very late, offering my persons for all the victualling posts much to my satisfaction.
Also much other business I did to my mind, and so weary home to my lodging, and there after eating and drinking a little I to bed. The King (35) and Court, they say, have now finally resolved to spend nothing upon clothes, but what is of the growth of England; which, if observed, will be very pleasing to the people, and very good for them.
Note 1. This sum was granted by the Commons to Charles, with a request that he would bestow it on his brother. B.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 November 1665. 06 Nov 1665. Up, and to my office, where busy all the morning and then to dinner to Captain Cocke's (48) with Mr. Evelyn (45), where very merry, only vexed after dinner to stay too long for our coach.
At last, however, to Lambeth and thence the Cockpitt, where we found Sir G. Carteret (55) come, and in with the Duke (32) and the East India Company about settling the business of the prizes, and they have gone through with it.
Then they broke up, and Sir G. Carteret (55) come out, and thence through the garden to the water side and by water I with him in his boat down with Captain Cocke (48) to his house at Greenwich, and while supper was getting ready Sir G. Carteret (55) and I did walk an houre in the garden before the house, talking of my Lord Sandwich's (40) business; what enemies he hath, and how they have endeavoured to bespatter him: and particularly about his leaving of 30 ships of the enemy, when Pen (44) would have gone, and my Lord called him back again: which is most false.
However, he says, it was purposed by some hot-heads in the House of Commons, at the same time when they voted a present to the Duke of Yorke (32), to have voted £10,000 to the Prince (45), and half-a-crowne to my Lord of Sandwich (40); but nothing come of it1.
But, for all this, the King (35) is most firme to my Lord, and so is my Chancellor (56), and my Lord Arlington (47).
The Prince (45), in appearance, kind; the Duke of Yorke (32) silent, says no hurt; but admits others to say it in his hearing. Sir W. Pen (44), the falsest rascal that ever was in the world; and that this afternoon the Duke of Albemarle (56) did tell him that Pen (44) was a very cowardly rogue, and one that hath brought all these rogueish fanatick Captains into the fleete, and swears he should never go out with the fleete again. That Sir W. Coventry (37) is most kind to Pen (44) still; and says nothing nor do any thing openly to the prejudice of my Lord. He agrees with me, that it is impossible for the King (35) [to] set out a fleete again the next year; and that he fears all will come to ruine, there being no money in prospect but these prizes, which will bring, it may be, £20,000, but that will signify nothing in the world for it.
That this late Act of Parliament for bringing the money into the Exchequer, and making of it payable out there, intended as a prejudice to him and will be his convenience hereafter and ruine the King's business, and so I fear it will and do wonder Sir W. Coventry (37) would be led by Sir G. Downing (40) to persuade the King (35) and Duke (32) to have it so, before they had thoroughly weighed all circumstances; that for my Lord, the King (35) has said to him lately that I was an excellent officer, and that my Chancellor (56) do, he thinks, love and esteem of me as well as he do of any man in England that he hath no more acquaintance with.
So having done and received from me the sad newes that we are like to have no money here a great while, not even of the very prizes, I set up my rest2 in giving up the King's service to be ruined and so in to supper, where pretty merry, and after supper late to Mr. Glanville's (47), and Sir G. Carteret (55) to bed. I also to bed, it being very late.
Note 1. The tide of popular indignation ran high against Lord Sandwich (40), and he was sent to Spain as ambassador to get him honourably out of the way (see post, December 6th).
Note 2. The phrase "set up my rest" is a metaphor from the once fashionable game of Primero, meaning, to stand upon the cards you have in your hand, in hopes they may prove better than those of your adversary. Hence, to make up your mind, to be determined (see Nares's "Glossary").
Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 November 1665. 14 Nov 1665. Called up by break of day by Captain Cocke (48), by agreement, and he and I in his coach through Kent-streete (a sad place through the plague, people sitting sicke and with plaisters about them in the street begging) to Viner's (34) and Colvill's about money business, and so to my house, and there I took £300 in order to the carrying it down to my Lord Sandwich (40) in part of the money I am to pay for Captain Cocke (48) by our agreement. So I took it down, and down I went to Greenwich to my office, and there sat busy till noon, and so home to dinner, and thence to the office again, and by and by to the Duke of Albemarle's (56) by water late, where I find he had remembered that I had appointed to come to him this day about money, which I excused not doing sooner; but I see, a dull fellow, as he is, do sometimes remember what another thinks he mindeth not. My business was about getting money of the East India Company; but, Lord! to see how the Duke himself magnifies himself in what he had done with the Company; and my Lord Craven (57) what the King (35) could have done without my Lord Duke, and a deale of stir, but most mightily what a brave fellow I am.
Back by water, it raining hard, and so to the office, and stopped my going, as I intended, to the buoy of the Nore, and great reason I had to rejoice at it, for it proved the night of as great a storme as was almost ever remembered.
Late at the office, and so home to bed. This day, calling at Mr. Rawlinson's to know how all did there, I hear that my pretty grocer's wife, Mrs. Beversham, over the way there, her husband is lately dead of the plague at Bow, which I am sorry for, for fear of losing her neighbourhood.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 11 December 1665. 11 Dec 1665. Lay long with great pleasure talking. So I left him and to London to the 'Change, and after discoursed with several people about business; met Mr. Gawden at the Pope's Head, where he brought Mr. Lewes and T. Willson to discourse about the Victualling business, and the alterations of the pursers' trade, for something must be done to secure the King (35) a little better, and yet that they may have wherewith to live.
After dinner I took him aside, and perfected to my great joy my business with him, wherein he deals most nobly in giving me his hand for the £4,000, and would take my note but for £3500. This is a great blessing, and God make me thankfull truly for it. With him till it was darke putting in writing our discourse about victualling, and so parted, and I to Viner's (34), and there evened all accounts, and took up my notes setting all straight between us to this day. The like to Colvill, and paying several bills due from me on the Tangier account.
Then late met Cocke (48) and Temple at the Pope's Head, and there had good discourse with Temple, who tells me that of the £80,000 advanced already by the East India Company, they have had £5000 out of their hands. He discoursed largely of the quantity of money coyned, and what may be thought the real sum of money in the Kingdom. He told me, too, as an instance of the thrift used in the King's business, that the tools and the interest of the money-using to the King (35) for the money he borrowed while the new invention of the mill money was perfected, cost him £35,000, and in mirthe tells me that the new fashion money is good for nothing but to help the Prince (45) if he can secretly get copper plates shut up in silver it shall never be discovered, at least not in his age.
Thence Cocke (48) and I by water, he home and I home, and there sat with Mr. Hill (35) and my wife supping, talking and singing till midnight, and then to bed1. (The passage between brackets is from a piece of paper inserted in this place.)
Note 1. That I may remember it the more particularly, I thought fit to insert this additional memorandum of Temple's discourse this night with me, which I took in writing from his mouth. Before the Harp and Crosse money was cried down, he and his fellow goldsmiths did make some particular trials what proportion that money bore to the old King's money, and they found that generally it come to, one with another, about £25 in every £100. Of this money there was, upon the calling of it in, £650,000 at least brought into the Tower; and from thence he computes that the whole money of England must be full £6,250,000. But for all this believes that there is above £30,000,000; he supposing that about the King's coming in (when he begun to observe the quantity of the new money) people begun to be fearfull of this money's being cried down, and so picked it out and set it a-going as fast as they could, to be rid of it; and he thinks £30,000,000 the rather, because if there were but £16,250,000 the King (35) having £2,000,000 every year, would have the whole money of the Kingdom in his hands in eight years. He tells me about £350,000 sterling was coined out of the French money, the proceeds of Dunkirke; so that, with what was coined of the Crosse money, there is new coined about £1,000,000 besides the gold, which is guessed at £500,000. He tells me, that, though the King (35) did deposit the French money in pawn all the while for the £350,000 he was forced to borrow thereupon till the tools could be made for the new Minting in the present form, yet the interest he paid for that time came to £35,000, Viner (34) having to his knowledge £10,000 for the use of £100,000 of it.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 21 March 1667. 21 Mar 1667. Up, and to the office, where sat all the morning. At noon home to dinner, and had some melancholy discourse with my wife about my mother's being so ill and my father, and after dinner to cheer myself, I having the opportunity of Sir W. Coventry (39) and the Duke of York's (33) being out of town, I alone out and to the Duke of York's play-house, where unexpectedly I come to see only the young men and women of the house act; they having liberty to act for their own profit on Wednesdays and Fridays this Lent: and the play they did yesterday, being Wednesday, was so well-taken, that they thought fit to venture it publickly to-day; a play of my Lord Falkland's' called "The Wedding Night", a kind of a tragedy, and some things very good in it, but the whole together, I thought, not so. I confess I was well enough pleased with my seeing it: and the people did do better, without the great actors, than I did expect, but yet far short of what they do when they are there, which I was glad to find the difference of.
Thence to rights home, and there to the office to my business hard, being sorry to have made this scape without my wife, but I have a good salvo to my oath in doing it.
By and by, in the evening, comes Sir W. Batten's (66) Mingo to me to pray me to come to his master and Sir Richard Ford (53), who have very ill news to tell me. I knew what it was, it was about our trial for a good prize to-day, "The Phoenix",1 a worth two or £3000. I went to them, where they told me with much trouble how they had sped, being cast and sentenced to make great reparation for what we had embezzled, and they did it so well that I was much troubled at it, when by and by Sir W. Batten (66) asked me whether I was mortified enough, and told me we had got the day, which was mighty welcome news to me and us all. But it is pretty to see what money will do. Yesterday, Walker was mighty cold on our behalf, till Sir W. Batten (66) promised him, if we sped in this business of the goods, a coach; and if at the next trial we sped for the ship, we would give him a pair of horses. And he hath strove for us today like a Prince, though the Swedes' Agent was there with all the vehemence he could to save the goods, but yet we carried it against him. This put me in mighty good heart, and then we go to Sir W. Pen (45), who is come back to-night from Chatham, and did put him into the same condition, and then comforted him. So back to my office, and wrote an affectionate and sad letter to my father about his and my mother's illness, and so home to supper and to bed late.
Note 1. There are references to the "Phoenix", a Dutch ship taken as a prize, among the State Papers (see "Calendar", 1666-67, p. 404). Pepys appears to have got into trouble at a later date in respect to this same ship, for among the Rawlinson MSS. (A. 170) are "Papers relating to the charge brought against him in the House of Commons in 1689 with reference to the ship Phoenix and the East India Company in 1681-86"..
Diary of Samuel Pepys 30 September 1667. 30 Sep 1667. By water to White Hall, there to a Committee of Tangier, but they not met yet, I went to St. James's, there thinking to have opportunity to speak to the Duke of York (33) about the petition I have to make to him for something in reward for my service this war, but I did waive it.
Thence to White Hall, and there a Committee met, where little was done, and thence to the Duke of York (33) to Council, where we the officers of the Navy did attend about the business of discharging the seamen by tickets, where several of the Lords spoke and of our number none but myself, which I did in such manner as pleased the King (37) and Council. Speaking concerning the difficulty of pleasing of seamen and giving them assurance to their satisfaction that they should be paid their arrears of wages, my Lord Ashly (46) did move that an assignment for money on the Act might be put into the hands of the East India Company, or City of London, which he thought the seamen would believe. But this my Lord Anglesey (53) did very handsomely oppose, and I think did carry it that it will not be: and it is indeed a mean thing that the King (37) should so far own his own want of credit as to borrow theirs in this manner. My Lord Anglesey (53) told him that this was the way indeed to teach the Parliament to trust the King (37) no more for the time to come, but to have a kingdom's Treasurer distinct from the King's.
Home at noon to dinner, where I expected to have had our new girle, my wife's woman, but she is not yet come. I abroad after dinner to White Hall, and there among other things do hear that there will be musique to-morrow night before the King (37).
So to Westminster, where to the Swan.... [Missing text: "and there did fling down the fille there upon the chair and did tocar her thigh with my hand; at which she began to cry out, so I left off "] and drank and away to the Hall, and thence to Mrs. Martin's, to bespeak some linen, and there je did avoir all with her, and drank, and away, having first promised my goddaughter a new coat-her first coat.
So by coach home, and there find our pretty girl Willet come, brought by Mr. Batelier, and she is very pretty, and so grave as I never saw a little thing in my life. Indeed I think her a little too good for my family, and so well carriaged as I hardly ever saw. I wish my wife may use her well. Now I begin to be full of thought for my journey the next week, if I can get leave, to Brampton. Tonight come and sat with me Mr. Turner and his wife and tell me of a design of sending their son Franke to the East Indy Company's service if they can get him entertainment, which they are promised by Sir Andr. Rickard (63), which I do very well like of. So the company broke up and to bed.
Calendar of State Papers Charles II Oct 1667. Oct 1667 101. Sir Wm. Coventry (39) to Pepys (34). Besides the 30,000l. received by Lord Anglesey from the East India Company on the seamen's wages, the Treasury Comrs. are sure of 20,000l. more from them on another assignment before January, which is intended for wages, so are desirous that he should pay in the river as well as at Chatham, as fast as he can, to cut off the growing charge, beginning first with those ships where the least money will cut off the most charge. No day, except Sunday, should be neglected in this work, and the certificates be returned to the Treasury chamber of what money is weekly paid. [Adm. Paper.].
Diary of Samuel Pepys 25 January 1668. 25 Jan 1668. Up, and to the office, where busy all the morning, and then at noon to the 'Change with Mr. Hater, and there he and I to a tavern to meet Captain Minors, which we did, and dined; and there happened to be Mr. Prichard, a ropemaker of his acquaintance, and whom I know also, and did once mistake for a fiddler, which sung well, and I asked him for such a song that I had heard him sing, and after dinner did fall to discourse about the business of the old contract between the King (37) and the East India Company for the ships of the King (37) that went thither, and about this did beat my brains all the afternoon, and then home and made an end of the accounts to my great content, and so late home tired and my eyes sore, to supper and to bed.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 February 1668. 13 Feb 1668. Up, and to the office, where all the morning.
At noon home to dinner, and thence with my wife and Deb. to White Hall, setting, them at her tailor's, and I to the Commissioners of the Treasury, where myself alone did argue the business of the East India Company against their whole Company on behalf of the King (37) before the Lords Commissioners, and to very good effect, I think, and with reputation. That business being over, the Lords and I had other things to talk about, and among the rest, about our making more assignments on the Exchequer since they bid us hold, whereat they were extraordinary angry with us, which troubled me a little, though I am not concerned in it at all. Waiting here some time without, I did meet with several people, among others Mr. Brisband, who tells me in discourse that Tom Killigrew (56) hath a fee out of the Wardrobe for cap and bells1, under the title of the King's Foole or jester; and may with privilege revile or jeere any body, the greatest person, without offence, by the privilege of his place.
Thence took up my wife, and home, and there busy late at the office writing letters, and so home to supper and to bed. The House was called over to-day. This morning Sir G. Carteret (58) come to the Office to see and talk with me: and he assures me that to this day the King (37) is the most kind man to my Lord Sandwich (42) in the whole world; that he himself do not now mind any publick business, but suffers things to go on at Court as they will, he seeing all likely to come to ruin: that this morning the Duke of York (34) sent to him to come to make up one of a Committee of the Council for Navy Affairs; where, when he come, he told the Duke of York (34) that he was none of them: which shews how things are now-a-days ordered, that there should be a Committee for the Navy; and the Lord Admiral not know the persons of it! And that Sir G. Carteret (58) and my Lord Anglesey (53) should be left out of it, and men wholly improper put into it. I do hear of all hands that there is a great difference at this day between my Lord Arlington (50) and Sir W. Coventry (40), which I am sorry for.
Note 1. The Lord Chamberlain's Records contain a copy of a warrant dated July 12th, 1661, "to deliver to Mr. Killegrew thirty yards of velvett, three dozen of fringe, and sixteene yards of Damaske for the year 1661". The heading of this entry is "Livery for ye jester" (Lowe's "Betterton (32)", p. 70).
Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 February 1668. 22 Feb 1668. Up, and by coach through Ducke Lane, and there did buy Kircher's Musurgia, cost me 35s., a book I am mighty glad of, expecting to find great satisfaction in it.
Thence to Westminster Hall and the lobby, and up and down there all the morning, and to the Lords' House, and heard the Solicitor-General plead very finely, as he always do; and this was in defence of the East India Company against a man that complains of wrong from them, and thus up and down till noon in expectation of our business coming on in the House of Commons about tickets, but they being busy about my Lord Gerard's (50) business I did give over the thoughts of ours coming on, and so with my wife, and Mercer, and Deb., who come to the Hall to me, I away to the Beare, in Drury Lane, and there bespoke a dish of meat; and, in the mean time, sat and sung with Mercer; and, by and by, dined with mighty pleasure, and excellent meat, one little dish enough for us all, and good wine, and all for 8s., and thence to the Duke's playhouse, and there saw "Albumazar", an old play, this the second time of acting. It is said to have been the ground of B. Jonson's "Alchymist"; but, saving the ridicuiousnesse of Angell's part, which is called Trinkilo, I do not see any thing extraordinary in it, but was indeed weary of it before it was done. The King (37) here, and, indeed, all of us, pretty merry at the mimique tricks of Trinkilo.
So home, calling in Ducke Lane for the book I bought this morning, and so home, and wrote my letters at the office, and then home to supper and to bed.
John Evelyn's Diary 09 April 1668. 09 Apr 1668. To London, about finishing my grand account of the sick and wounded, and prisoners at war, amounting to above £34,000.
I heard Sir R. Howard (42) impeach Sir William Penn (46), in the House of Lords, for breaking bulk, and taking away rich goods out of the East India prizes, formerly taken by Lord Sandwich (42).
Diary of Samuel Pepys 01 May 1668. 01 May 1668. Up, and to the office, where all the morning busy. Then to Westminster Hall, and there met Sir W. Pen (47), who labours to have his answer to his impeachment, and sent down from the Lords' House, read by the House of Commons; but they are so busy on other matters, that he cannot, and thereby will, as he believes, by design, be prevented from going to sea this year. Here met my cozen Thomas Pepys of Deptford, and took some turns with him; who is mightily troubled for this Act now passed against Conventicles, and in few words, and sober, do lament the condition we are in, by a negligent Prince and a mad Parliament.
Thence I by coach to the Temple, and there set him down, and then to Sir G. Carteret's (58) to dine, but he not being at home, I back again to the New Exchange a little, and thence back again to Hercules Pillars, and there dined all alone, and then to the King's playhouse, and there saw "The Surprizall"; and a disorder in the pit by its raining in, from the cupola at top, it being a very foul day, and cold, so as there are few I believe go to the Park to-day, if any.
Thence to Westminster Hall, and there I understand how the Houses of Commons and Lords are like to disagree very much, about the business of the East India Company and one Skinner; to the latter of which the Lords have awarded £5000 from the former, for some wrong done him heretofore; and the former appealing to the Commons, the Lords vote their petition a libell; and so there is like to follow very hot work.
Thence by water, not being able to get a coach, nor boat but a sculler, and that with company, is being so foul a day, to the Old Swan, and so home, and there spent the evening, making Balty (28) read to me, and so to supper and to bed.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 03 May 1668. 03 May 1668. Lord's Day. Up, and to church, where I saw Sir A. Rickard (64), though he be under the Black Rod, by order of the Lords' House, upon the quarrel between the East India Company and Skinner, which is like to come to a very great heat between the two Houses.
At noon comes Mr. Mills and his wife, and Mr. Turner and his wife, by invitation to dinner, and we were mighty merry, and a very pretty dinner, of my Bridget and Nell's dressing, very handsome.
After dinner to church again....
So home and with Sir W. Pen (47) took a Hackney, and he and I to Old Street, to a brew-house there, to see Sir Thomas Teddiman, who is very ill in bed of a fever, got, I believe, by the fright the Parliament have put him into, of late. But he is a good man, a good seaman, and stout.
Thence Pen and I to Islington, and there, at the old house, eat, and drank, and merry, and there by chance giving two pretty fat boys each of them a cake, they proved to be Captain Holland's children, whom therefore I pity. So round by Hackney home, having good discourse, he [Pen] being very open to me in his talk, how the King (37) ought to dissolve this Parliament, when the Bill of Money is passed, they being never likely to give him more; how he [the King (37)] hath great opportunity of making himself popular by stopping this Act against Conventicles; and how my Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (57), if the Parliament continue, will undoubtedly fall, he having managed that place with so much self-seeking, and disorder, and pleasure, and some great men are designing to overthrow (him), as, among the rest, my Lord Orrery (47); and that this will try the King (37) mightily, he being a firm friend to my Lord Lieutenant.
So home; and to supper a little, and then to bed, having stepped, after I come home, to Alderman Backewell's (50) about business, and there talked a while with him and his wife, a fine woman of the country, and how they had bought an estate at Buckeworth, within four mile of Brampton.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 May 1668. 04 May 1668. Up betimes, and by water to Charing Cross, and so to W. Coventry (40), and there talked a little with him, and thence over the Park to White Hall, and there did a little business at the Treasury, and so to the Duke (34), and there present Balty (28) to the Duke of York (34) and a letter from the Board to him about him, and the Duke of York (34) is mightily pleased with him, and I doubt not his continuance in employment, which I am glad of.
Thence with Sir H. Cholmly (35) to Westminster Hall talking, and he crying mightily out of the power the House of Lords usurps in this business of the East India Company.
Thence away home and there did business, and so to dinner, my sister Michell and I, and thence to the Duke of York's (34) house, and there saw "The Impertinents" again, and with less pleasure than before, it being but a very contemptible play, though there are many little witty expressions in it; and the pit did generally say that of it.
Thence, going out, Mrs. Pierce called me from the gallery, and there I took her and Mrs. Corbet by coach up and down, and took up Captain Rolt in the street; and at last, it being too late to go to the Park, I carried them to the Beare in Drury Lane, and there did treat them with a dish of mackrell, the first I have seen this year, and another dish, and mighty merry; and so carried her home, and thence home myself, well pleased with this evening's pleasure, and so to bed.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 May 1668. 05 May 1668. Up, and all the morning at the office.
At noon home to dinner and Creed with me, and after dinner he and I to the Duke of York's playhouse; and there coming late, he and I up to the balcony-box, where we find my Baroness Castlemayne (27) and several great ladies; and there we sat with them, and I saw "The Impertinents" once more, now three times, and the three only days it hath been acted. And to see the folly how the house do this day cry up the play more than yesterday! and I for that reason like it, I find, the better, too; by Sir Positive At-all, I understand, is meant Sir Robert Howard (42). My Lady (27) [Castlemaine] pretty well pleased with it; but here I sat close to her fine woman, Willson, who indeed is very handsome, but, they say, with child by the King (37). I asked, and she told me this was the first time her Lady had seen it, I having a mind to say something to her. One thing of familiarity I observed in my Baroness Castlemayne (27): she called to one of her women, another that sat by this, for a little patch off her face, and put it into her mouth and wetted it, and so clapped it upon her own by the side of her mouth, I suppose she feeling a pimple rising there.
Thence with Creed to Westminster Hall, and there met with cozen Roger (51), who tells me of the great conference this day between the Lords and Commons, about the business of the East India Company, as being one of the weightiest conferences that hath been, and managed as weightily. I am heartily sorry I was not there, it being upon a mighty point of the privileges of the subjects of England, in regard to the authority of the House of Lords, and their being condemned by them as the Supreme Court, which, we say, ought not to be, but by appeal from other Courts. And he tells me that the Commons had much the better of them, in reason and history there quoted, and believes the Lords will let it fall.
Thence to walk in the Hall, and there hear that Mrs. Martin's child, my god-daughter, is dead, and so by water to the Old Swan, and thence home, and there a little at Sir W. Pen's (47), and so to bed.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 May 1668. 08 May 1668. Up, and to the office, where busy all the morning. Towards noon I to Westminster and there understand that the Lords' House did sit till eleven o'clock last night, about the business in difference between them and the Commons, in the matter of the East India Company. Here took a turn or two, and up to my Lord Crew's (70), and there dined; where Mr. Case, the minister, a dull fellow in his talk, and all in the Presbyterian manner; a great deal of noise and a kind of religious tone, but very dull.
After dinner my Lord and I together. He tells me he hears that there are great disputes like to be at Court, between the factions of the two women, my Baroness Castlemayne (27) and Mrs. Stewart (20), who is now well again, and the King (37) hath made several public visits to her, and like to come to Court: the other is to go to Barkeshire-house, which is taken for her, and they say a Privy-Seal is passed for £5000 for it. He believes all will come to ruin.
Thence I to White Hall, where the Duke of York (34) gone to the Lords' House, where there is to be a conference on the Lords' side to the Commons this afternoon, giving in their Reasons, which I would have been at, but could not; for, going by direction to the D. Gawden's chamber, there Brouncker (48), W. Pen (47), and Mr. Wren (39), and I, met, and did our business with the Duke of York (34). But, Lord! to see how this play of Sir Positive At-all, ["The Impertinents".] in abuse of Sir Robert Howard (42), do take, all the Duke's and every body's talk being of that, and telling more stories of him, of the like nature, that it is now the town and country talk, and, they say, is most exactly true. The Duke of York (34) himself said that of his playing at trap-ball is true, and told several other stories of him. This being done, Brouncker (48), Pen, and I to Brouncker's house, and there sat and talked, I asking many questions in mathematics to my Lord, which he do me the pleasure to satisfy me in, and here we drank and so spent an hour, and so W. Pen (47) and I home, and after being with W. Pen (47) at his house an hour, I home and to bed.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 May 1668. 09 May 1668. Up, and to the office, where all the morning we sat. Here I first hear that the Queene (58) hath miscarryed of a perfect child, being gone about ten weeks, which do shew that she can conceive, though it be unfortunate that she cannot bring forth. Here we are told also that last night the Duchesse of Monmouth (17), dancing at her lodgings, hath sprained her thigh. Here we are told also that the House of Commons sat till five o'clock this morning, upon the business of the difference between the Lords and them, resolving to do something therein before they rise, to assert their privileges. So I at noon by water to Westminster, and there find the King (37) hath waited in the D. Gawden's chamber these two hours, and the Houses are not ready for him. The Commons having sent this morning, after their long debate therein the last night, to the Lords, that they do think the only expedient left to preserve unity between the two Houses is, that they do put a stop to any proceedings upon their late judgement against the East India Company, till their next meeting; to which the Lords returned answer that they would return answer to them by a messenger of their own, which they not presently doing, they were all inflamed, and thought it was only a trick, to keep them in suspense till the King (37) come to adjourne them; and, so, rather than lose the opportunity of doing themselves right, they presently with great fury come to this vote: "That whoever should assist in the execution of the judgement of the Lords against the Company, should be held betrayers of the liberties of the people of England, and of the privileges of that House". This the Lords had notice of, and were mad at it; and so continued debating without any design to yield to the Commons, till the King (37) come in, and sent for the Commons, where the Speaker made a short but silly speech, about their giving Him £300,000; and then the several Bills, their titles were read, and the King's assent signified in the proper terms, according to the nature of the Bills, of which about three or four were public Bills, and seven or eight private ones, the additional Bills for the building of the City and the Bill against Conventicles being none of them. The King (37) did make a short, silly speech, which he read, giving them thanks for the money, which now, he said, he did believe would be sufficient, because there was peace between his neighbours, which was a kind of a slur, methought, to the Commons; and that he was sorry for what he heard of difference between the two Houses, but that he hoped their recesse would put them into a way of accommodation; and so adjourned them to the 9th of August, and then recollected himself, and told them the 11th; so imperfect a speaker he is. So the Commons went to their House, and forthwith adjourned; and the Lords resumed their House, the King (37) being gone, and sat an hour or two after, but what they did, I cannot tell; but every body expected they would commit Sir Andrew Rickard (64), Sir Samuel Barnardiston, Mr. Boone, and Mr. Wynne, who were all there, and called in, upon their knees, to the bar of the House; and Sir John Robinson (53) I left there, endeavouring to prevent their being committed to the Tower, lest he should thereby be forced to deny their order, because of this vote of the Commons, whereof he is one, which is an odde case1.
Thence I to the Rose Taverne in Covent Garden and there sent for a pullet and dined all alone, being to meet Sir W. Pen (47), who by and by come, and he and I into the King's house, and there "The Mayd's Tragedy", a good play, but Knepp not there; and my head and eyes out of order, the first from my drinking wine at dinner, and the other from my much work in the morning.
Thence parted, and I towards the New Exchange and there bought a pair of black silk stockings at the hosier's that hath the very pretty woman to his wife, about ten doors on this side of the 'Change, and she is indeed very pretty, but I think a notable talking woman by what I heard to others there.
Thence to Westminster Hall, where I hear the Lords are up, but what they have done I know not, and so walked toward White Hall and thence by water to the Tower, and so home and there to my letters, and so to Sir W. Pen's (47); and there did talk with Mrs. Lowther, who is very kind to me, more than usual, and I will make use of it. She begins to draw very well, and I think do as well, if not better, than my wife, if it be true that she do it herself, what she shews me, and so to bed, and my head akeing all night with the wine I drank to-day, and my eyes ill. So lay long, my head pretty well in the morning.
Note 1. This "odd case" was that of Thomas Skinner and the East India Company. According to Ralph, the Commons had ordered Skinner, the plaintiff, into the custody of the Serjeant-at-Arms, and the Lords did the same by Sir Samuel Barnadiston, deputy-governor of the company, as likewise Sir Andrew Rickard (64), Mr. Rowland Gwynn, and Mr. Christopher Boone. B.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 January 1669. 08 Jan 1669. Up, and with Colonel Middleton, in his coach, and Mr. Tippets to White Hall; and there attended the Duke of York (35) with the rest, where the Duke was mighty plain with the Treasurers, according to the advice my Lord Brouncker (49) and I did give him the other night, and he did it fully; and so as, I believe, will make the Treasurers carefull of themselves, unless they do resolve upon defying the Duke of York (35).
Thence with W. Hewer (27) home, and to dinner, and so out again, my wife and I and Mr. Hater to White Hall, where she set us down, and she up and down to buy things, while we at the Treasury-Chamber, where I alone did manage the business of "The Leopard" against the whole Committee of the East India Company, with Mr. Blackburne with them; and to the silencing of them all, to my no great content.
Thence walked to my wife, and so set out for home in our coach, it being very cold weather, and so to the office to do a little business, and then home to my wife's chamber, my people having laid the cloth, and got the rooms all clean above-stairs to-night for our dinner to-morrow, and therefore I to bed.
Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 March 1669. 22 Mar 1669. Up, and by water, with W. Newer, to White Hall, there to attend the Lords of the Treasury; but, before they sat, I did make a step to see Sir W. Coventry (41) at his house, where, I bless God! he is come again; but in my way I met him, and so he took me into his coach and carried me to White Hall, and there set me down where he ought not-at least, he hath not yet leave to come, nor hath thought fit to ask it, hearing that Henry Saville (27) is not only denied to kiss the King's hand, but the King (38), being asked it by the Duke of York (35), did deny it, and directed that the Duke shall not receive him, to wait upon him in his chamber, till further orders. Sir W. Coventry (41) told me that he was going to visit Sir John Trevor, who hath been kind to him; and he shewed me a long list of all his friends that he must this week make visits to, that come to visit him in the Tower; and seems mighty well satisfied with his being out of business, but I hope he will not long be so; at least, I do believe that all must go to rat if the King (38) do not come to see the want of such a servant.
Thence to the Treasury-Chamber, and there all the morning to my great grief, put to do Sir G. Downing's (44) work of dividing the Customes for this year, between the Navy, the Ordnance and Tangier: but it did so trouble my eyes, that I had rather have given £20 than have had it to do; but I did thereby oblige Sir Thomas Clifford (38) and Sir J. Duncombe, and so am glad of the opportunity to recommend myself to the former for the latter I need not, he loving me well already. At it till noon, here being several of my brethren with me but doing nothing, but I all. But this day I did also represent to our Treasurers, which was read here, a state of the charge of the Navy, and what the expence of it this year would likely be; which is done so as it will appear well done and to my honour, for so the Lords did take it: and I oblige the Treasurers by doing it, at their request.
Thence with W. Hewer (27) at noon to Unthanke's, where my wife stays for me and so to the Cocke (52), where there was no room, and thence to King Street, to several cook's shops, where nothing to be had; and at last to the corner shop, going down Ivy Lane, by my Lord of Salisbury's (77), and there got a good dinner, my wife, and W. Newer, and I: and after dinner she, with her coach, home; and he and I to look over my papers for the East India Company, against the afternoon: which done, I with them to White Hall, and there to the Treasury-Chamber, where the East India Company and three Councillors pleaded against me alone, for three or four hours, till seven at night, before the Lords; and the Lords did give me the conquest on behalf of the King (38), but could not come to any conclusion, the Company being stiff: and so I think we shall go to law with them. This done, and my eyes mighty bad with this day's work, I to Mr. Wren's, and then up to the Duke of York (35), and there with Mr. Wren (40) did propound to him my going to Chatham to-morrow with Commissioner Middleton, and so this week to make the pay there, and examine the business of "The Defyance" being lost, and other businesses, which I did the rather, that I might be out of the way at the wedding, and be at a little liberty myself for a day, or two, to find a little pleasure, and give my eyes a little ease. The Duke of York (35) mightily satisfied with it; and so away home, where my wife troubled at my being so late abroad, poor woman! though never more busy, but I satisfied her; and so begun to put things in order for my journey to-morrow, and so, after supper, to bed.
Before 06 Sep 1672 Andrew Riccard Merchant 1604-1672 was appointed Chairman of the East India Company.
John Evelyn's Diary 18 December 1682. 18 Dec 1682. I sold my East India adventure of £250 principal for £750 to the Royal Society, after I had been in that company twenty-five years, being extraordinarily advantageous, by the blessing of God.
John Evelyn's Diary 16 March 1683. 16 Mar 1683. I went to see Sir Josiah Child's (52) prodigious cost in planting walnut trees about his seat, and making fish ponds, many miles in circuit, in Epping Forest, in a barren spot, as oftentimes these suddenly monied men for the most part seat themselves. He from a merchant's apprentice, and management of the East_India Company's stock, being arrived to an estate (it is said) of £200,000; and lately married his daughter (17) to the eldest son (22) of the Duke of Beaufort, late Marquis of Worcester, with £50,000 portional present, and various expectations.
I dined at Mr. Houblon's (53), a rich and gentle French merchant, who was building a house in the Forest, near Sir J. Child's (52), in a place where the late Earl of Norwich (68) dwelt some time, and which came from his lady, the widow of Mr. Baker. It will be a pretty villa, about five miles from Whitechapel.
John Evelyn's Diary 16 June 1689. 16 Jun 1689. King James's (55) declaration was now dispersed, offering pardon to all, if on his landing, or within twenty days after, they should return to their obedience.
Our fleet not yet at sea, through some prodigious sloth, and men minding only their present interest; the French riding masters at sea, taking many great prizes to our wonderful reproach. No certain news from Ireland; various reports of Scotland; discontents at home. The King of Denmark (43) at last joins with the Confederates, and the two Northern Powers are reconciled. The East India Company likely to be dissolved by Parliament for many arbitrary actions. Oates acquitted of perjury, to all honest men's admiration.
John Evelyn's Diary 28 February 1692. 28 Feb 1692. Lord Marlborough (41) having used words against the King (41), and been discharged from all his great places, his wife (31) was forbidden the Court, and the Princess of Denmark (27) was desired by the Queen (29) to dismiss her from her service; but she refusing to do so, goes away from Court to Sion house. Divers new Lords made: Sir Henry Capel (53), Sir William Fermor (43), etc. Change of Commissioners in the Treasury. The Parliament adjourned, not well satisfied with affairs. The business of the East India Company, which they would have reformed, let fall. The Duke of Norfolk (37) does not succeed in his endeavor to be divorced.
John Evelyn's Diary 21 April 1695. 21 Apr 1695. The spring begins to appear, yet the trees hardly leafed. Sir T. Cooke discovers what prodigious bribes have been given by some of the East India Company out of the stock, which makes a great clamor. Never were so many private bills passed for unsettling estates, showing the wonderful prodigality and decay of families.
John Evelyn's Diary 11 June 1696. 11 Jun 1696. Dined at Lord Pembroke's (40), Lord Privy Seal, a very worthy gentleman. He showed me divers rare pictures of very many of the old and best masters, especially one of M. Angelo of a man gathering fruit to give to a woman, and a large book of the best drawings of the old masters. Sir John Fenwick (51), one of the conspirators, was taken. Great subscriptions in Scotland to their East India Company. Want of current money to carry on the smallest concerns, even for daily provisions in the markets. Guineas lowered to twenty-two shillings, and great sums daily transported to Holland, where it yields more, with other treasure sent to pay the armies, and nothing considerable coined of the new and now only current stamp, cause such a scarcity that tumults are every day feared, nobody paying or receiving money; so imprudent was the late Parliament to condemn the old though clipped and corrupted, till they had provided supplies. To this add the fraud of the bankers and goldsmiths, who having gotten immense riches by extortion, keep up their treasure in expectation of enhancing its value. Duncombe, not long since a mean goldsmith, having made a purchase of the late Duke of Buckingham's (68) estate at nearly £90,000, and reputed to have nearly as much in cash. Banks and lotteries every day set up.
John Evelyn's Diary 05 March 1699. 05 Mar 1699. The old East India Company lost their business against the new Company, by ten votes in Parliament, so many of their friends being absent, going to see a tiger baited by dogs.
The persecuted Vaudois, who were banished out of Savoy, were received by the German Protestant Princes.
On 18 Apr 1765 Henry Spelman 1719-1765 (46) died in Calcutta whilst working for the East India Company. His remains were brought to England by Peter Downes. He was buried in Church of St Andrew Wickmere.
In 1771 John Prinsep 1746-1831 (24) arrived at Bombay as a cadet for the East India Company.
On 16 Dec 1773 the Boston Tea Party was the act by American Patriots defending their rights by destroying a shipment of tea owned by the East India Company by throwing it into Boston Harbour. It forms one of the foundation events of the American Revolution which commenced two years later.
Director of the East India Company
In 1710 John Eyles 2nd Baronet Eyles 1683-1745 (27) was appointed Director of the East India Company which position he held until 1714.
In 1714 Joseph Eyles 1690-1740 (24) was appointed Director of the East India Company which position he held until 1717.
In 1717 John Eyles 2nd Baronet Eyles 1683-1745 (34) was appointed Director of the East India Company.
In 1721 Joseph Eyles 1690-1740 (31) was appointed Director of the East India Company which position he held until 1722.
In 1750 Peter Du Cane 1713-1803 (36) was appointed Director of the East India Company.
In 1771 Joshua Smith of Erlestoke Merchant 1732-1819 (39) was appointed Director of the East India Company.
Governor of the East India Company
On 31 Dec 1600 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (67) granted a Royal Charter to the Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies aka the East India Company led by George Clifford 3rd Earl Cumberland 1558-1605 (42) by which they received a monopoloy on trade with the East Indies. Thomas Smythe 1558-1625 (42) was appointed first Governor of the East India Company.
In 1603 Thomas Smythe 1558-1625 (45) was elected Governor of the East India Company which office he held, bar a break in 1606-1607, until Jul 1621.
In 1673 John Banks 1st Baronet 1627-1699 (46) was appointed Governor of the East India Company.