Ships

1512 Battle of Saint Mathieu

1543 Rough Wooing

1563 Wreck of The Greyhound

1665 Battle of Lowestoft

1665 Great Plague of London

1666 Four Days' Battle

1666 St James' Day Battle

1666 Poll Bill

1667 Raid on the Medway

1672 Attack on the Smyrna Fleet

1672 Battle of Solebay

1694 Turkish Fleet Disaster

Aug 1702 West Indies Action

1748 Attack on Port Louis

1805 Battle of Trafalgar

1842 Treaty of Nanking

1914 Battle of Coronel

1916 Battle of Jutland

Ships is in Royal Navy.

Henry Grace à Dieu

Diary of Henry Machyn August 1553. 25 Aug 1553. The xxv day of August was bornyd [burned] the [Great] Hare, the grettest shype in the world, and yt was pete and yff yt had plesyd God, at Wolwych, [by] neckclygens and for lake of over-syth; the furst y [ere of queen Mary.]

The Henry Grace à Dieu was a English carrack of the King's Fleet in the 16th century, and in her day the largest warship in the world. Built by William Bond (master shipwright) under the direction of Robert Brygandine (clerk of the ships), she had a large forecastle four decks high, and a stern castle two decks high. She was 165 feet (50 m) long, measuring 1,000 tons burthen[a] and having a complement of 700 men.

Regent of England

Battle of Saint Mathieu

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VIII 1st Year. 1512. This yeare the Regent of England, a shippe, and a carike of France, were burnt in Bristowe haven, and Sir Thomas Knyvett (27) in her with all his men. Note. This engagement, one of the most striking recorded in the annals of the English nayy, was fought off Brest Harbour on the 10th August, 1512, in which the Regent, a first-class English ressel, commanded by Sir Thomas Knyvett, Master of the Horse, and the French vessel Cordeliere, commanded by Primanget, called by the English chroniclers Sir Piers Morgan, were blown up with the loss of all their men. Hall's Chronicle, pp. 634-6. A letter of Wolsey, describing the loss of the Regent, may be seen in MS. Cotton. Vitcl. B. ii. p. 180.

Gift

Samuel Pepys to John Evelyn. 27 Apr 1655.
Sir (34),.
From a letter this day come to my hand from a Shipp of ours (the little Guift) that in a Conflict with a Hollander on the Irish Coast (wherein shoe though much over matched hath acquitted her selfe very well) hath had severall Men wounded, who are putt on shoare for care at Galloway, give me leave to aske you whether any Provision for sick and wounded men is made in Ireland, not with respect to theis Men only, but to the future ocasions in Generall which wee may Probably have of useing it there. You will Pardon this enquiry from one that hath soe little Right to offer you trouble as.
Your humble servant.
S:P (22).
Source: NMM Letter-Book 8, 199.

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Around 1644. Robert Walker Painter 1599-1658. Portrait of John Evelyn Diarist 1620-1706.In 1689 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723. Portrait of John Evelyn Diarist 1620-1706.Around 1650 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of John Evelyn Diarist 1620-1706. In 1666. John Hayls Painter 1600-1679. Portrait of Samuel Pepys Diarist 1633-1703. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 February 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 March 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 March 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 28 March 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 30 March 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 April 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 April 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 11 April 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 April 1666, Diary of Samuel Pepys 16 May 1666.In 1689 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723. Portrait of Samuel Pepys Diarist 1633-1703.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 10 March 1662. 10 Mar 1662. At the office doing business all the morning, and my wife being gone to buy some things in the city I dined with Sir W. Batten (61), and in the afternoon met Sir W. Pen (40) at the Treasury Office, and there paid off the Guift, where late at night, and so called in and eat a bit at Sir W. Batten's (61) again, and so home and to bed, to-morrow being washing day.

Adventure

In 1628 John Mennes Comptroller 1599-1671 (28) was given command of Adventure.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of John Mennes Comptroller 1599-1671.

Royal Prince

Diary of Samuel Pepys 10 April 1661. 10 Apr 1661. In the morning to see the Dockhouses. First, Mr. Pett's (50), the builder, and there was very kindly received, and among other things he did offer my Lady Batten a parrot, the best I ever saw, that knew Mingo so soon as it saw him, having been bred formerly in the house with them; but for talking and singing I never heard the like. My Lady did accept of it:
Then to see Commissioner Pett's (50) house, he and his family being absent, and here I wondered how my Lady Batten walked up and down with envious looks to see how neat and rich everything is (and indeed both the house and garden is most handsome), saying that she would get it, for it belonged formerly to the Surveyor of the Navy. Then on board the Prince, now in the dock, and indeed it has one and no more rich cabins for carved work, but no gold in her.
After that back home, and there eat a little dinner. Then to Rochester, and there saw the Cathedrall, which is now fitting for use, and the organ then a-tuning. Then away thence, observing the great doors of the church, which, they say, was covered with the skins of the Danes1, and also had much mirth at a tomb, on which was "Come sweet Jesu", and I read "Come sweet Mall", &c., at which Captain Pett and I had good laughter.
So to the Salutacion tavern, where Mr. Alcock and many of the town came and entertained us with wine and oysters and other things, and hither come Sir John Minnes (62) to us, who is come to-day to see "the Henery", in which he intends to ride as Vice-Admiral in the narrow seas all this summer. Here much mirth, but I was a little troubled to stay too long, because of going to Hempson's, which afterwards we did, and found it in all things a most pretty house, and rarely furnished, only it had a most ill access on all sides to it, which is a greatest fault that I think can be in a house. Here we had, for my sake, two fiddles, the one a base viall, on which he that played, played well some lyra lessons, but both together made the worst musique that ever I heard. We had a fine collacion, but I took little pleasure in that, for the illness of the musique and for the intentness of my mind upon Mrs. Rebecca Allen.
After we had done eating, the ladies went to dance, and among the men we had, I was forced to dance too; and did make an ugly shift. Mrs. R. Allen danced very well, and seems the best humoured woman that ever I saw. About 9 o'clock Sir William and my Lady went home, and we continued dancing an hour or two, and so broke up very pleasant and merry, and so walked home, I leading Mrs. Rebecca, who seemed, I know not why, in that and other things, to be desirous of my favours and would in all things show me respects. Going home, she would needs have me sing, and I did pretty well and was highly esteemed by them.
So to Captain Allen's (where we were last night, and heard him play on the harpsicon, and I find him to be a perfect good musician), and there, having no mind to leave Mrs. Rebecca, what with talk and singing (her father and I), Mrs. Turner (38) and I staid there till 2 o'clock in the morning and was most exceeding merry, and I had the opportunity of kissing Mrs. Rebecca very often. Among other things Captain Pett was saying that he thought that he had got his wife with child since I came thither. Which I took hold of and was merrily asking him what he would take to have it said for my honour that it was of my getting? He merrily answered that he would if I would promise to be godfather to it if it did come within the time just, and I said that I would. So that I must remember to compute it when the time comes.
Note 1. Traditions similar to that at Rochester, here alluded to, are to be found in other places in England. Sir Harry Englefield, in a communication made to the Society of Antiquaries, July 2nd, 1789, called attention to the curious popular tale preserved in the village of Hadstock, Essex, that the door of the church had been covered with the skin of a Danish pirate, who had plundered the church. At Worcester, likewise, it was asserted that the north doors of the cathedral had been covered with the skin of a person who had sacrilegiously robbed the high altar. The date of these doors appears to be the latter part of the fourteenth century, the north porch having been built about 1385. Dart, in his "History of the Abbey Church of St. Peter's, Westminster", 1723 (vol. i., book ii., p. 64), relates a like tradition then preserved in reference to a door, one of three which closed off a chamber from the south transept—namely, a certain building once known as the Chapel of Henry VIII, and used as a "Revestry". This chamber, he states, "is inclosed with three doors, the inner cancellated, the middle, which is very thick, lined with skins like parchment, and driven full of nails. These skins, they by tradition tell us, were some skins of the Danes, tann'd and given here as a memorial of our delivery from them". Portions of this supposed human skin were examined under the microscope by the late Mr. John Quekett of the Hunterian Museum, who ascertained, beyond question, that in each of the cases the skin was human. From a communication by the late Mr. Albert Way, F.S.A., to the late Lord Braybrooke.

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Swiftsure 1621

Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 March 1660. 06 Mar 1660. Shrove Tuesday. I called Mr. Sheply and we both went up to my Lord's lodgings at Mr. Crew's (62), where he bade us to go home again, and get a fire against an hour after. Which we did at White Hall, whither he came, and after talking with him and me about his going to sea, he called me by myself to go along with him into the garden, where he asked me how things were with me, and what he had endeavoured to do with my uncle to get him to do something for me but he would say nothing too. He likewise bade me look out now at this turn some good place, and he would use all his own, and all the interest of his friends that he had in England, to do me good. And asked me whether I could, without too much inconvenience, go to sea as his secretary, and bid me think of it. He also began to talk of things of State, and told me that he should want one in that capacity at sea, that he might trust in, and therefore he would have me to go. He told me also, that he did believe the King (29) would come in, and did discourse with me about it, and about the affection of the people and City, at which I was full glad. After he was gone, I waiting upon him through the garden till he came to the Hall, where I left him and went up to my office, where Mr. Hawly brought one to me, a seaman, that had promised Rio to him if he get him a purser's place, which I think to endeavour to do. Here comes my uncle Tom, whom I took to Will's and drank with, poor man, he comes to inquire about the knights of Windsor, of which he desires to get to be one.
[Note. The body of Poor Knights of Windsor was founded by Edward III. The intention of the King (29) with regard to the poor knights was to provide relief and comfortable subsistence for such valiant soldiers as happened in their old age to fall into poverty and decay. On September 20th, 1659, a Report having been read respecting the Poor Knights of Windsor, the House "ordered that it be referred to a Committee, to look into the revenue for maintenance of the Poor Knights of Windsor", &c. (See Tighe and Davis's "Annals of Windsor".)]
While we were drinking, in comes Mr. Day, a carpenter in Westminster, to tell me that it was Shrove Tuesday, and that I must go with him to their yearly Club upon this day, which I confess I had quite forgot. So I went to the Bell, where were Mr. Eglin, Veezy, Vincent a butcher, one more, and Mr. Tanner, with whom I played upon a viall, and he a viallin, after dinner, and were very merry, with a special good dinner, a leg of veal and bacon, two capons and sausages and fritters, with abundance of wine. After that I went home, where I found Kate_Sterpin who hath not been here a great while before. She gone I went to see Mrs. Jem, at whose chamber door I found a couple of ladies, but she not being there, we hunted her out, and found that she and another had hid themselves behind a door. Well, they all went down into the dining-room, where it was full of tag, rag, and bobtail, dancing, singing, and drinking, of which I was ashamed, and after I had staid a dance or two I went away. Going home, called at my Lord's for Mr. Sheply, but found him at the Lion with a pewterer, that he had bought pewter to-day of. With them I drank, and so home and wrote by the post, by my Lord's command, for J. Goods to come up presently. For my Lord intends to go forthwith into the Swiftsure till the Nazeby be ready.
This day I hear that the Lords do intend to sit, and great store of them are now in town, and I see in the Hall to-day. Overton at Hull do stand out, but can, it is thought, do nothing; and Lawson (45), it is said, is gone with some ships thither, but all that is nothing. My Lord told me, that there was great endeavours to bring in the Protector again; but he told me, too, that he did believe it would not last long if he were brought in; no, nor the King (29) neither (though he seems to think that he will come in), unless he carry himself very soberly and well. Every body now drinks the King's (29) health without any fear, whereas before it was very private that a man dare do it. Monk (51) this day is feasted at Mercers' Hall, and is invited one after another to all the twelve Halls in London! Many think that he is honest yet, and some or more think him to be a fool that would raise himself, but think that he will undo himself by endeavouring it. My mind, I must needs remember, has been very much eased and joyed at my Lord's great expressions of kindness this day, and in discourse thereupon my wife and I lay awake an hour or two in our bed.
07 Mar 1660. Ash Wednesday. In the morning I went to my Lord at Mr. Crew's (62), in my way Washington overtook me and told me upon my question whether he knew of any place now void that I might have, by power over friends, that this day Mr. G. Montagu (37) was to be made 'Custos Rotulorum' for Westminster, and that by friends I might get to be named by him Clerk of the Peace, with which I was, as I am at all new things, very much joyed, so when I came to Mr. Crew's (62), I spoke to my Lord about it, who told me he believed Mr. Montagu had already promised it, and that it was given him only that he might gratify one person with the place I look for. Here, among many that were here, I met with Mr. Lynes, the surgeon, who promised me some seeds of the sensitive plant. [Note. Evelyn, about the same date (9th August 1661), "tried several experiments on the sensitive plant and humilis, which contracted with the least touch of the sun through a burning glass, though it rises and opens only when it shines on it"]
I spoke too with Mr. Pierce the surgeon, who gave me great encouragement to go to sea with my Lord. Thence going homewards, my Lord overtook me in his coach, and called me in, and so I went with him to St. James's, and G. Montagu (37) being gone to White Hall, we walked over the Park thither, all the way he discoursing of the times, and of the change of things since the last year, and wondering how he could bear with so great disappointment as he did. He did give me the best advice that he could what was best for me, whether to stay or go with him, and offered all the ways that could be, how he might do me good, with the greatest liberty and love that could be. I left him at Whitehall, and myself went to Westminster to my office, whither nothing to do, but I did discourse with Mr. Falconbridge about Le Squire's place, and had his consent to get it if I could. I afterwards in the Hall met with W. Simons, who put me in the best way how to get it done. Thence by appointment to the Angel in King Street, where Chetwind, Mr. Thomas and Doling were at oysters, and beginning Lent this day with a fish dinner. After dinner Mr. Thomas and I by water to London, where I went to Herring's and received the £50 of my Lord's upon Frank's bill from Worcester. I gave in the bill and set my hand to his bill. Thence I went to the Pope's Head Alley and called on Adam Chard, and bought a catcall there, it cost me two groats. Thence went and gave him a cup of ale. After that to the Sun behind the Exchange, where meeting my uncle Wight by the way, took him with me thither, and after drinking a health or two round at the Cock (Mr. Thomas being gone thither), we parted, he and I homewards, parted at Fleet Street, where I found my father newly come home from Brampton very well. He left my uncle with his leg very dangerous, and do believe he cannot continue in that condition long. He tells me that my uncle did acquaint him very largely what he did intend to do with his estate, to make me his heir and give my brother Tom (26) something, and that my father and mother should have likewise something, to raise portions for John and Pall. I pray God he may be as good as his word. Here I staid and supped and so home, there being Joyce Norton there and Ch. Glascock. Going home I called at Wotton's and took home a piece of cheese. At home Mr. Sheply sat with me a little while, and so we all to bed. This news and my Lord's great kindness makes me very cheerful within. I pray God make me thankful. This day, according to order, Sir Arthur (59) appeared at the House; what was done I know not, but there was all the Rumpers almost come to the House to-day. My Lord did seem to wonder much why Lambert (40) was so willing to be put into the Tower, and thinks he has some design in it; but I think that he is so poor that he cannot use his liberty for debts, if he were at liberty; and so it is as good and better for him to be there, than any where else.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 March 1660. 23 Mar 1660. Up early, carried my Lord's will in a black box to Mr. William Montagu (42) for him to keep for him. Then to the barber's and put on my cravat there. So to my Lord again, who was almost ready to be gone and had staid for me. Hither came Gilb. Holland, and brought me a stick rapier and Shelston a sugar-loaf, and had brought his wife who he said was a very pretty woman to the Ship tavern hard by for me to see but I could not go. Young Reeve also brought me a little perspective glass which I bought for my Lord, it cost me 8s. So after that my Lord in Sir H. Wright's (23) coach with Captain Isham (32), Mr. Thomas, John Crew, W. Howe, and I in a Hackney to the Tower, where the barges staid for us; my Lord and the Captain in one, and W. Howe and I, &c., in the other, to the Long Reach, where the Swiftsure lay at anchor; (in our way we saw the great breach which the late high water had made, to the loss of many £1000 to the people about Limehouse.) Soon as my Lord on board, the guns went off bravely from the ships. And a little while after comes the Vice-Admiral Lawson (45), and seemed very respectful to my Lord, and so did the rest of the Commanders of the frigates that were thereabouts. I to the cabin allotted for me, which was the best that any had that belonged to my Lord. I got out some things out of my chest for writing and to work presently, Mr. Burr and I both. I supped at the deck table with Mr. Sheply. We were late writing of orders for the getting of ships ready, &c.; and also making of others to all the seaports between Hastings and Yarmouth, to stop all dangerous persons that are going or coming between Flanders and there. After that to bed in my cabin, which was but short; however I made shift with it and slept very well, and the weather being good I was not sick at all yet, I know not what I shall be.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 03 April 1660. 03 Apr 1660. Late to bed. About three in the morning there was great knocking at my cabin, which with much difficulty (so they say) waked me, and I rose, but it was only for a packet, so went to my bed again, and in the morning gave it my Lord. This morning Capt. Isham (32) comes on board to see my Lord and drunk his wine before he went into the Downs, there likewise come many merchants to get convoy to the Baltique, which a course was taken for. They dined with my Lord, and one of them by name Alderman Wood talked much to my Lord of the hopes that we have now to be settled, (under the King he meant); but my Lord took no notice of it. After dinner which was late my Lord went on shore, and after him I and Capt. Sparling went in his boat, but the water being almost at low water we could not stay for fear of not getting into our boat again. So back again. This day come the Lieutenant of the Swiftsure, who was sent by my Lord to Hastings, one of the Cinque Ports, to have got Mr. Edward Montagu (12) to have been one of their burgesses, but could not, for they were all promised before. After he had done his message, I took him and Mr. Pierce, the surgeon (who this day came on board, and not before), to my cabin, where we drank a bottle of wine. At night, busy a-writing, and so to bed. My heart exceeding heavy for not hearing of my dear wife, and indeed I do not remember that ever my heart was so apprehensive of her absence as at this very time.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 May 1660. 23 May 1660. The Doctor and I waked very merry, only my eye was very red and ill in the morning from yesterday's hurt. In the morning came infinity of people on board from the King to go along with him. My Lord, Mr. Crew (62), and others, go on shore to meet the King as he comes off from shore, where Sir R. Stayner (35) bringing His Majesty into the boat, I hear that His Majesty did with a great deal of affection kiss my Lord upon his first meeting. The King, with the two Dukes and Queen of Bohemia, Princess Royal, and Prince of Orange, came on board, where I in their coming in kissed the King's (29), Queen's, and Princess's hands, having done the other before. Infinite shooting off of the guns, and that in a disorder on purpose, which was better than if it had been otherwise. All day nothing but Lords and persons of honour on board, that we were exceeding full. Dined in a great deal of state, the Royall company by themselves in the coach, which was a blessed sight to see. I dined with Dr. Clerke, Dr. Quarterman, and Mr. Darcy in my cabin. This morning Mr. Lucy came on board, to whom and his company of the King's (29) Guard in another ship my Lord did give three dozen of bottles of wine. He made friends between Mr. Pierce and me. After dinner the King and Duke altered the name of some of the ships, viz. the Nazeby into Charles; the Richard, James; the Speakers Mary; the Dunbar (which was not in company with us), the Henry; Winsly, Happy Return; Wakefield, Richmond; Lambert (40); the Henrietta; Cheriton, the Speedwell; Bradford, the Success. That done, the Queen, Princess Royal, and Prince of Orange, took leave of the King, and the Duke of York went on board the London, and the Duke of Gloucester, the Swiftsure. Which done, we weighed anchor, and with a fresh gale and most happy weather we set sail for England. All the afternoon the King walked here and there, up and down (quite contrary to what I thought him to have been), very active and stirring. Upon the quarterdeck he fell into discourse of his escape from Worcester1, where it made me ready to weep to hear the stories that he told of his difficulties that he had passed through, as his travelling four days and three nights on foot, every step up to his knees in dirt, with nothing but a green coat and a pair of country breeches on, and a pair of country shoes that made him so sore all over his feet, that he could scarce stir. Yet he was forced to run away from a miller and other company, that took them for rogues. His sitting at table at one place, where the master of the house, that had not seen him in eight years, did know him, but kept it private; when at the same table there was one that had been of his own regiment at Worcester, could not know him, but made him drink the King's (29) health, and said that the King was at least four fingers higher than he. At another place he was by some servants of the house made to drink, that they might know him not to be a Roundhead, which they swore he was. In another place at his inn, the master of the house2, as the King was standing with his hands upon the back of a chair by the fire-side, kneeled down and kissed his hand, privately, saying, that he would not ask him who he was, but bid God bless him whither he was going. Then the difficulty of getting a boat to get into France, where he was fain to plot with the master thereof to keep his design from the four men and a boy (which was all his ship's company), and so got to Fecamp in France3.
At Rouen he looked so poorly, that the people went into the rooms before he went away to see whether he had not stole something or other. In the evening I went up to my Lord to write letters for England, which we sent away with word of our coming, by Mr. Edw. Pickering (42). The King supped alone in the coach; after that I got a dish, and we four supped in my cabin, as at noon. About bed-time my Lord Bartlett4 (who I had offered my service to before) sent for me to get him a bed, who with much ado I did get to bed to my Lord Middlesex in the great cabin below, but I was cruelly troubled before I could dispose of him, and quit myself of him. So to my cabin again, where the company still was, and were talking more of the King's (29) difficulties; as how he was fain to eat a piece of bread and cheese out of a poor boy's pocket; how, at a Catholique house, he was fain to lie in the priest's hole a good while in the house for his privacy. After that our company broke up, and the Doctor and I to bed. We have all the Lords Commissioners on board us, and many others. Under sail all night, and most glorious weather.
Note 1. For the King's (29) own account of his escape dictated to Pepys, see "Boscobel" (Bohn's "Standard Library").
Note 2. This was at Brighton. The inn was the "George", and the innkeeper was named Smith. Charles related this circumstance again to Pepys in October, 1680. He then said, "And here also I ran into another very great danger, as being confident I was known by the master of the inn; for, as I was standing after supper by the fireside, leaning my hand upon a chair, and all the rest of the company being gone into another room, the master of the inn came in and fell a-talking with me, and just as he was looking about, and saw there was nobody in the room, he upon a sudden kissed my hand that was upon the back of the chair, and said to me, 'God bless you wheresoever you go! I do not doubt before I die, but to be a lord, and my wife a lady.' So I laughed, and went away into the next room".
Note 3. On Saturday, October 11th, 1651, Colonel Gunter made an agreement at Chichester with Nicholas Tettersell, through Francis Mansell (a French merchant), to have Tettersell's vessel ready at an hour's warning. Charles II, in his narrative dictated to Pepys in 1680, said, We went to a place, four miles off Shoreham, called Brighthelmstone, where we were to meet with the master of the ship, as thinking it more convenient to meet there than just at Shoreham, where the ship was. So when we came to the inn at Brighthelmstone we met with one, the merchant Francis Mansell who had hired the vessel, in company with her master [Tettersell], the merchant only knowing me, as having hired her only to carry over a person of quality that was escaped from the battle of Worcester without naming anybody. The boat was supposed to be bound for Poole, but Charles says in his narrative: "As we were sailing the master came to me, and desired me that I would persuade his men to use their best endeavours with him to get him to set us on shore in France, the better to cover him from any suspicion thereof, upon which I went to the men, which were four and a boy". After the Restoration Mansell was granted a pension of £200 a year, and Tettersell one of £100 a year. (See Captain Nicholas Tettersell and the Escape of Charles II, by F. E. Sawyer, F.S.A., Sussex Archaeological Collections, vol. xxxii. pp. 81-104).
Note 4. A mistake for Lord Berkeley of Berkeley, who had been deputed, with Lord Middlesex and four other Peers, by the House of Lords to present an address of congratulation to the King. B.

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Four Days' Battle

Diary of Samuel Pepys 07 June 1666. 07 Jun 1666. Up betimes, and to my office about business (Sir W. Coventry (38) having sent me word that he is gone down to the fleete to see how matters stand, and to be back again speedily); and with the same expectation of congratulating ourselves with the victory that I had yesterday. But my Lord Bruncker (46) and Sir T. H. (41) that come from Court, tell me quite contrary newes, which astonishes me: that is to say, that we are beaten, lost many ships and good commanders; have not taken one ship of the enemy's; and so can only report ourselves a victory; nor is it certain that we were left masters of the field. But, above all, that The Prince run on shore upon the Galloper, and there stuck; was endeavoured to be fetched off by the Dutch, but could not; and so they burned her; and Sir G. Ascue (50) is taken prisoner, and carried into Holland. This newes do much trouble me, and the thoughts of the ill consequences of it, and the pride and presumption that brought us to it.
At noon to the 'Change, and there find the discourse of towne, and their countenances much changed; but yet not very plain.
So home to dinner all alone, my father and people being gone all to Woolwich to see the launching of the new ship The Greenwich, built by Chr. Pett. I left alone with little Mrs. Tooker, whom I kept with me in my chamber all the afternoon, and did what I would with her.
By and by comes Mr. Wayth to me; and discoursing of our ill successe, he tells me plainly from Captain Page's own mouth (who hath lost his arm in the fight), that the Dutch did pursue us two hours before they left us, and then they suffered us to go on homewards, and they retreated towards their coast: which is very sad newes. Then to my office and anon to White Hall, late, to the Duke of York (32) to see what commands he hath and to pray a meeting to-morrow for Tangier in behalf of Mr. Yeabsly, which I did do and do find the Duke (32) much damped in his discourse, touching the late fight, and all the Court talk sadly of it. The Duke (32) did give me several letters he had received from the fleete, and Sir W. Coventry (38) and Sir W. Pen (45), who are gone down thither, for me to pick out some works to be done for the setting out the fleete again; and so I took them home with me, and was drawing out an abstract of them till midnight. And as to newes, I do find great reason to think that we are beaten in every respect, and that we are the losers. The Prince upon the Galloper, where both the Royall Charles and Royall Katharine had come twice aground, but got off. The Essex carried into Holland; the Swiftsure missing (Sir William Barkeley (27)) ever since the beginning of the fight. Captains Bacon, Tearne, Wood, Mootham, Whitty, and Coppin, slayne. The Duke of Albemarle (57) writes, that he never fought with worse officers in his life, not above twenty of them behaving themselves like men. Sir William Clerke (43) lost his leg; and in two days died. The Loyall George, Seven Oakes, and Swiftsure, are still missing, having never, as the Generall writes himself, engaged with them. It was as great an alteration to find myself required to write a sad letter instead of a triumphant one to my Lady Sandwich (41) this night, as ever on any occasion I had in my life. So late home and to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 June 1666. 08 Jun 1666. Up very betimes and to attend the Duke of York (32) by order, all of us to report to him what the works are that are required of us and to divide among us, wherein I have taken a very good share, and more than I can perform, I doubt.
Thence to the Exchequer about some Tangier businesses, and then home, where to my very great joy I find Balty (26) come home without any hurt, after the utmost imaginable danger he hath gone through in the Henery, being upon the quarterdeck with Harman (41) all the time; and for which service Harman (41) I heard this day commended most seriously and most eminently by the Duke of Yorke (32). As also the Duke did do most utmost right to Sir Thomas Teddiman, of whom a scandal was raised, but without cause, he having behaved himself most eminently brave all the whole fight, and to extraordinary great service and purpose, having given Trump himself such a broadside as was hardly ever given to any ship. Mings (40) is shot through the face, and into the shoulder, where the bullet is lodged. Young Holmes' is also ill wounded, and Ather in The Rupert. Balty (26) tells me the case of the Henery; and it was, indeed, most extraordinary sad and desperate.
After dinner Balty (26) and I to my office, and there talked a great deal of this fight; and I am mightily pleased in him and have great content in, and hopes of his doing well.
Thence out to White Hall to a Committee for Tangier, but it met not. But, Lord! to see how melancholy the Court is, under the thoughts of this last overthrow (for so it is), instead of a victory, so much and so unreasonably expected.
Thence, the Committee not meeting, Creed and I down the river as low as Sir W. Warren's, with whom I did motion a business that may be of profit to me, about buying some lighters to send down to the fleete, wherein he will assist me.
So back again, he and I talking of the late ill management of this fight, and of the ill management of fighting at all against so great a force bigger than ours, and so to the office, where we parted, but with this satisfaction that we hear the Swiftsure, Sir W. Barkeley (27), is come in safe to the Nore, after her being absent ever since the beginning of the fight, wherein she did not appear at all from beginning to end. But wherever she has been, they say she is arrived there well, which I pray God however may be true. At the office late, doing business, and so home to supper and to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 June 1666. 09 Jun 1666. Up, and to St. James's, there to wait on the Duke of Yorke (32), and had discourse with him about several businesses of the fleete. But, Lord! to see how the Court is divided about The Swiftsure and The Essex's being safe. And wagers and odds laid on both sides. I did tell the Duke how Sir W. Batten (65) did tell me this morning that he was sure the Swiftsure is safe. This put them all in a great joy and certainty of it, but this I doubt will prove nothing.
Thence to White Hall in expectation of a meeting of Tangier, and we did industriously labour to have it this morning; but we could not get a fifth person there, so after much pains and thoughts on my side on behalfe of Yeabsly, we were fain to breake up. But, Lord! to see with what patience Lord Ashly (44) did stay all the morning to get a Committee, little thinking that I know the reason of his willingnesse.
So I home to dinner and back again to White Hall, and, being come thither a little too soon, went to Westminster Hall, and bought a payre of gloves, and to see how people do take this late fight at sea, and I find all give over the thoughts of it as a victory and to reckon it a great overthrow.
So to White Hall, and there when we were come all together in certain expectation of doing our business to Yeabsly's full content, and us that were his friends, my Lord Peterborough (44) (whether through some difference between him and my Lord Ashly (44), or him and me or Povy (52), or through the falsenesse of Creed, I know not) do bring word that the Duke of Yorke (32) (who did expressly bid me wait at the Committee for the dispatch of the business) would not have us go forward in this business of allowing the losse of the ships till Sir G. Carteret (56) and Sir W. Coventry (38) were come to towne, which was the very thing indeed which we would have avoided. This being told us, we broke up doing nothing, to my great discontent, though I said nothing, and afterwards I find by my Lord Ashly's (44) discourse to me that he is troubled mightily at it, and indeed it is a great abuse of him and of the whole Commissioners that nothing of that nature can be done without Sir G. Carteret (56) or Sir W. Coventry (38). No sooner was the Committee up, and I going [through] the Court homeward, but I am told Sir W. Coventry (38) is come to town; so I to his chamber, and there did give him an account how matters go in our office, and with some content I parted from him, after we had discoursed several things of the haste requisite to be made in getting the fleete out again and the manner of doing it. But I do not hear that he is at all pleased or satisfied with the late fight; but he tells me more newes of our suffering, by the death of one or two captains more than I knew before. But he do give over the thoughts of the safety of The Swiftsure or Essex.
Thence homewards, landed at the Old Swan, and there find my pretty Betty Michell and her husband at their doore in Thames Streete, which I was glad to find, and went into their shop, and they made me drink some of their strong water, the first time I was ever with them there. I do exceedingly love her. After sitting a little and talking with them about several things at great distance I parted and home to my business late. But I am to observe how the drinking of some strong water did immediately put my eyes into a fit of sorenesse again as they were the other day. I mean my right eye only.
Late at night I had an account brought me by Sir W. Warren that he has gone through four lighters for me, which pleases me very well.
So home to bed, much troubled with our disappointment at the Tangier Committee.

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Cheriton

Diary of Samuel Pepys 01 May 1660. 01 May 1660. This morning I was told how the people of Deal have set up two or three Maypoles, and have hung up their flags upon the top of them, and do resolve to be very merry to-day. It being a very pleasant day, I wished myself in Hide Park. This day I do count myself to have had full two years of perfect cure for the stone, for which God of heaven be blessed. This day Captain Parker came on board, and without his expectation I had a commission for him for the Nonsuch frigate ["The Nonsuch" was a fourth-rate of thirty-two guns, built at Deptford in 1646 by Peter Pett, jun. The captain was John Parker.] (he being now in the Cheriton), for which he gave me a French pistole. Captain H. Cuttance has commission for the Cheriton. After dinner to nine-pins, and won something. The rest of the afternoon in my cabin writing and piping. While we were at supper we heard a great noise upon the Quarter Deck, so we all rose instantly, and found it was to save the coxon of the Cheriton, who, dropping overboard, could not be saved, but was drowned. To-day I put on my suit that was altered from the great skirts to little ones. To-day I hear they were very merry at Deal, setting up the King's (29) flag upon one of their maypoles, and drinking his health upon their knees in the streets, and firing the guns, which the soldiers of the Castle threatened; but durst not oppose.

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Sovereign

On 13 Oct 1637 Sovereign was launched. Brothers John Christmas Sculptor 1599-1654 (38) and Mathias Christmas 1605-1654 (32) had worked together on her decoration.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 January 1661. 17 Jan 1661. Up, and breakfast with my Lady. Then come Captains Cuttance and Blake to carry her in the barge on board; and so we went through Ham Creeke to the Soverayne (a goodly sight all the way to see the brave ships that lie here) first, which is a most noble ship. I never saw her before. My Lady Sandwich (36), my Lady Jemimah, Mrs. Browne, Mrs. Grace, and Mary and the page, my lady's servants and myself, all went into the lanthorn together. From thence to the Charles, where my lady took great pleasure to see all the rooms, and to hear me tell her how things are when my Lord is there. After we had seen all, then the officers of the ship had prepared a handsome breakfast for her, and while she was pledging my Lord's health they give her five guns. That done, we went off, and then they give us thirteen guns more. I confess it was a great pleasure to myself to see the ship that I begun my good fortune in.
From thence on board the Newcastle, to show my Lady the difference between a great and a small ship. Among these ships I did give away £7.
So back again and went on shore at Chatham, where I had ordered the coach to wait for us. Here I heard that Sir William Batten (60) and his lady (who I knew were here, and did endeavour to avoyd) were now gone this morning to London. So we took coach, and I went into the coach, and went through the town, without making stop at our inn, but left J. Goods to pay the reckoning. So I rode with my lady in the coach, and the page on the horse that I should have rid on—he desiring it. It begun to be dark before we could come to Dartford, and to rain hard, and the horses to fayle, which was our great care to prevent, for fear of my Lord's displeasure, so here we sat up for to-night, as also Captains Cuttance and Blake, who came along with us. We sat and talked till supper, and at supper my Lady and I entered into a great dispute concerning what were best for a man to do with his estate—whether to make his elder son heir, which my Lady is for, and I against, but rather to make all equall. This discourse took us much time, till it was time to go to bed; but we being merry, we bade my Lady goodnight, and intended to have gone to the Post-house to drink, and hear a pretty girl play of the cittern (and indeed we should have lain there, but by a mistake we did not), but it was late, and we could not hear her, and the guard came to examine what we were; so we returned to our Inn and to bed, the page and I in one bed, and the two captains in another, all in one chamber, where we had very good mirth with our most abominable lodging.

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In 1666 Captain John Cox -1672 was appointed Captain of Sovereign.

In 1697 Sovereign was burnt to the waterline at Chatham.

Nonsuch

Diary of Samuel Pepys 01 May 1660. 01 May 1660. This morning I was told how the people of Deal have set up two or three Maypoles, and have hung up their flags upon the top of them, and do resolve to be very merry to-day. It being a very pleasant day, I wished myself in Hide Park. This day I do count myself to have had full two years of perfect cure for the stone, for which God of heaven be blessed. This day Captain Parker came on board, and without his expectation I had a commission for him for the Nonsuch frigate ["The Nonsuch" was a fourth-rate of thirty-two guns, built at Deptford in 1646 by Peter Pett, jun. The captain was John Parker.] (he being now in the Cheriton), for which he gave me a French pistole. Captain H. Cuttance has commission for the Cheriton. After dinner to nine-pins, and won something. The rest of the afternoon in my cabin writing and piping. While we were at supper we heard a great noise upon the Quarter Deck, so we all rose instantly, and found it was to save the coxon of the Cheriton, who, dropping overboard, could not be saved, but was drowned. To-day I put on my suit that was altered from the great skirts to little ones. To-day I hear they were very merry at Deal, setting up the King's (29) flag upon one of their maypoles, and drinking his health upon their knees in the streets, and firing the guns, which the soldiers of the Castle threatened; but durst not oppose.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 May 1660. 13 May 1660. Lord's Day. Trimmed in the morning, after that to the cook's room with Mr. Sheply, the first time that I was there this voyage. Then to the quarter-deck, upon which the tailors and painters were at work, cutting out some pieces of yellow cloth into the fashion of a crown and C. R. and put it upon a fine sheet, and that into the flag instead of the State's arms, which after dinner was finished and set up after it had been shewn to my Lord, who took physic to-day and was in his chamber, and liked it so well as to bid me give the tailors 20s. among them for doing of it. This morn Sir J. Boys and Capt. Isham (32) met us in the Nonsuch, the first of whom, after a word or two with my Lord, went forward, the other staid. I heard by them how Mr Downing (35) had never made any address to the King, and for that was hated exceedingly by the Court, and that he was in a Dutch ship which sailed by us, then going to England with disgrace. Also how Mr. Morland was knighted by the King this week, and that the King did give the reason of it openly, that it was for his giving him intelligence all the time he was clerk to Secretary Thurloe. In the afternoon a council of war, only to acquaint them that the Harp must be taken out of all their flags1, it being very offensive to the King. Mr. Cook, who came after us in the Yarmouth, bringing me a letter from my wife and a Latin letter from my brother John (19), with both of which I was exceedingly pleased. No sermon all day, we being under sail, only at night prayers, wherein Mr. Ibbott prayed for all that were related to us in a spiritual and fleshly way. We came within sight of Middle's shore. Late at night we writ letters to the King of the news of our coming, and Mr. Edward Pickering (42) carried them. Capt. Isham (32) went on shore, nobody showing of him any respect; so the old man very fairly took leave of my Lord, and my Lord very coldly bid him "God be with you", which was very strange, but that I hear that he keeps a great deal of prating and talking on shore, on board, at the King's (29) Courts, what command he had with my Lord, &c. After letters were gone then to bed.
Note 1. In May, 1658, the old Union Jack (being the crosses of St. George and St. Andrew combined) was revived, with the Irish harp over the centre of the flag. This harp was taken off at the Restoration. (See "The National Flags of the Commonwealth", by H. W. Henfrey, Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc"., vol. xxxi, p. 54.) The sign of the "Commonwealth Arms" was an uncommon one, but a token of one exists Francis Wood at ye Commonwealth arms in Mary Maudlens".

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 29 March 1661. 29 Mar 1661. Up among my workmen with great pleasure. Then to the office, where I found Sir W. Pen (39) sent down yesterday to Chatham to get two great ships in readiness presently to go to the East Indies upon some design against the Dutch, we think, at Goa but it is a great secret yet. Dined at home, came Mr. Shepley and Moore, and did business with both of them. After that to Sir W. Batten's (60), where great store of company at dinner. Among others my schoolfellow, Mr. Christmas, where very merry, and hither came letters from above for the fitting of two other ships for the East Indies in all haste, and so we got orders presently for the Hampshire and Nonsuch. Then home and there put some papers in order, and not knowing what to do, the house being so dirty, I went to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 January 1665. 14 Jan 1665. Up and to White Hall, where long waited in the Duke's chamber for a Committee intended for Tangier, but none met, and so I home and to the office, where we met a little, and then to the 'Change, where our late ill newes confirmed in loss of two ships in the Straights, but are now the Phoenix and Nonsuch!
Home to dinner, thence with my wife to the King's house, there to see "Vulpone", a most excellent play; the best I think I ever saw, and well, acted. So with Sir W. Pen (43) home in his coach, and then to the office.
So home, to supper, and bed, resolving by the grace of God from this day to fall hard to my business again, after some weeke or fortnight's neglect.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 January 1665. 23 Jan 1665. Up, and with Sir W. Batten (64) and Sir W. Pen (43) to White Hall; but there finding the Duke (31) gone to his lodgings at St. James's for all together, his Duchesse (27) being ready to lie in, we to him, and there did our usual business. And here I met the great newes confirmed by the Duke's own relation, by a letter from Captain Allen (53). First, of our own loss of two ships, the Phoenix and Nonesuch, in the Bay of Gibraltar: then of his, and his seven ships with him, in the Bay of Cales, or thereabouts, fighting with the 34 Dutch Smyrna fleete; sinking the King Salamon, a ship worth a £150,000 or more, some say £200,000, and another; and taking of three merchant-ships. Two of our ships were disabled, by the Dutch unfortunately falling against their will against them; the Advice, Captain W. Poole, and Antelope, Captain Clerke: The Dutch men-of-war did little service. Captain Allen (53) did receive many shots at distance before he would fire one gun, which he did not do till he come within pistol-shot of his enemy. The Spaniards on shore at Cales did stand laughing at the Dutch, to see them run away and flee to the shore, 34 or thereabouts, against eight Englishmen at most. I do purpose to get the whole relation, if I live, of Captain Allen (53) himself. In our loss of the two ships in the Bay of Gibraltar, it is observable how the world do comment upon the misfortune of Captain Moone of the Nonesuch (who did lose, in the same manner, the Satisfaction), as a person that hath ill-luck attending him; without considering that the whole fleete was ashore. Captain Allen (53) led the way, and Captain Allen (53) himself writes that all the masters of the fleete, old and young, were mistaken, and did carry their ships aground. But I think I heard the Duke (31) say that Moone, being put into the Oxford, had in this conflict regained his credit, by sinking one and taking another. Captain Seale of the Milford hath done his part very well, in boarding the King Salamon, which held out half an hour after she was boarded; and his men kept her an hour after they did master her, and then she sunk, and drowned about 17 of her men.
Thence to Jervas's, my mind, God forgive me, running too much after some folly, but 'elle' not being within I away by coach to the 'Change, and thence home to dinner. And finding Mrs. Bagwell waiting at the office after dinner, away she and I to a cabaret where she and I have eat before, and there I had her company 'tout' and had 'mon plaisir' of 'elle'. But strange to see how a woman, notwithstanding her greatest pretences of love 'a son mari' and religion, may be 'vaincue'.
Thence to the Court of the Turkey Company at Sir Andrew Rickard's (61) to treat about carrying some men of ours to Tangier, and had there a very civil reception, though a denial of the thing as not practicable with them, and I think so too.
So to my office a little and to Jervas's again, thinking 'avoir rencontrais' Jane, 'mais elle n'etait pas dedans'.
So I back again and to my office, where I did with great content 'ferais' a vow to mind my business, and 'laisser aller les femmes' for a month, and am with all my heart glad to find myself able to come to so good a resolution, that thereby I may follow my business, which and my honour thereby lies a bleeding.
So home to supper and to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 19 March 1669. 19 Mar 1669. Up, and by water to White Hall, there to the Lords of the Treasury, and did some business, and here Sir Thomas Clifford (38) did speak to me, as desirous that I would some time come and confer with him about the Navy, which I am glad of, but will take the direction of the Duke of York (35) before I do it, though I would be glad to do something to secure myself, if I could, in my employment.
Thence to the plaisterer's, and took my face, and my Duke of Albemarle's (60) home with me by coach, they being done to my mind; and mighty glad I am of understanding this way of having the pictures of any friends. At home to dinner, where Mr. Sheres dined with us, but after dinner I left him and my wife, and with Commissioner Middleton and Kempthorne (49) to a Court-martiall, to which, by virtue of my late Captainship, I am called, the first I was ever at; where many Commanders, and Kempthorne (49) president. Here was tried a difference between Sir L. Van Hemskirke, the Dutch Captain who commands "The Nonsuch", built by his direction, and his Lieutenant; a drunken kind of silly business. We ordered the Lieutenant to ask him pardon, and have resolved to lay before the Duke of York (35) what concerns the Captain, which was striking of his Lieutenant and challenging him to fight, which comes not within any article of the laws martiall. But upon discourse the other day with Sir W. Coventry (41), I did advise Middleton, and he and I did forbear to give judgment, but after the debate did withdraw into another cabin, the Court being held in one of the yachts, which was on purpose brought up over against St. Katharine's, it being to be feared that this precedent of our being made Captains, in order to the trying of the loss of "The Defyance", wherein we are the proper persons to enquire into the want of instructions while ships do lie in harbour, evil use might be hereafter made of the precedent by putting the Duke of Buckingham (41), or any of these rude fellows that now are uppermost, to make packed Courts, by Captains made on purpose to serve their turns. The other cause was of the loss of "The Providence" at Tangier, where the Captain's being by chance on shore may prove very inconvenient to him, for example's sake, though the man be a good man, and one whom, for Norwood's sake, I would be kind to; but I will not offer any thing to the excusing such a miscarriage. He is at present confined, till he can bring better proofs on his behalf of the reasons of his being on shore. So Middleton and I away to the Office; and there I late busy, making my people, as I have done lately, to read Mr. Holland's' Discourse of the Navy, and what other things I can get to inform me fully in all; and here late, about eight at night, comes Mr. Wren (40) to me, who had been at the Tower to Coventry. He come only to see how matters go, and tells me, as a secret, that last night the Duke of York's (35) closet was broken open, and his cabinets, and shut again, one of them that the rogue that did it hath left plate and a watch behind him, and therefore they fear that it was only for papers, which looks like a very malicious business in design, to hurt the Duke of York (35); but they cannot know that till the Duke of York (35) comes to town about the papers, and therefore make no words of it. He gone, I to work again, and then to supper at home, and to bed.

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President 1646

From 1649 to 1653 Captain Thomas Sparling was Captain of President 1646.

Assistance

From 1654 to 1660 Captain Thomas Sparling was Captain of Assistance.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 30 April 1660. 30 Apr 1660. All the morning getting instructions ready for the Squadron of ships that are going to-day to the Streights, among others Captain Teddiman, Curtis, and Captain Robert Blake to be commander of the whole Squadron. After dinner to ninepins, W. Howe and I against Mr. Creed and the Captain. We lost 5s. apiece to them. After that W. Howe, Mr. Sheply and I got my Lord's leave to go to see Captain Sparling. So we took boat and first went on shore, it being very pleasant in the fields; but a very pitiful town Deal is. We went to Fuller's (the famous place for ale), but they have none but what was in the vat. After that to Poole's, a tavern in the town, where we drank, and so to boat again, and went to the Assistance, where we were treated very civilly by the Captain, and he did give us such music upon the harp by a fellow that he keeps on board that I never expect to hear the like again, yet he is a drunken simple fellow to look on as any I ever saw. After that on board the Nazeby, where we found my Lord at supper, so I sat down and very pleasant my Lord was with Mr. Creed and Sheply, who he puzzled about finding out the meaning of the three notes which my Lord had cut over the chrystal of his watch. After supper some musique. Then Mr. Sheply, W. Howe and I up to the Lieutenant's cabin, where we drank, and I and W. Howe were very merry, and among other frolics he pulls out the spigot of the little vessel of ale that was there in the cabin and drew some into his mounteere, and after he had drank, I endeavouring to dash it in his face, he got my velvet studying cap and drew some into mine too, that we made ourselves a great deal of mirth, but spoiled my clothes with the ale that we dashed up and down. After that to bed very late with drink enough in my head.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 03 May 1660. 03 May 1660. This morning my Lord showed me the King's (29) declaration1 and his letter to the two Generals to be communicated to the fleet. The contents of the letter are his offer of grace to all that will come in within forty days, only excepting them that the Parliament shall hereafter except. That the sales of lands during these troubles, and all other things, shall be left to the Parliament, by which he will stand. The letter dated at Breda, April, 4 1660, in the 12th year of his reign. Upon the receipt of it this morning by an express, Mr. Phillips, one of the messengers of the Council from General Monk (51), my Lord summoned a council of war, and in the mean time did dictate to me how he would have the vote ordered which he would have pass this council. Which done, the Commanders all came on board, and the council sat in the coach (the first council of war that had been in my time), where I read the letter and declaration; and while they were discoursing upon it, I seemed to draw up a vote, which being offered, they passed. Not one man seemed to say no to it, though I am confident many in their hearts were against it. After this was done, I went up to the quarter-deck with my Lord and the Commanders, and there read both the papers and the vote; which done, and demanding their opinion, the seamen did all of them cry out, "God bless King Charles!" with the greatest joy imaginable. That being done, Sir R. Stayner (35), who had invited us yesterday, took all the Commanders and myself on board him to dinner, which not being ready, I went with Captain Hayward to the Plimouth and Essex, and did what I had to do there and returned, where very merry at dinner. After dinner, to the rest of the ships (staid at the Assistance to hear the harper a good while) quite through the fleet. Which was a very brave sight to visit all the ships, and to be received with the respect and honour that I was on board them all; and much more to see the great joy that I brought to all men; not one through the whole fleet showing the least dislike of the business. In the evening as I was going on board the Vice-Admiral, the General began to fire his guns, which he did all that he had in the ship, and so did all the rest of the Commanders, which was very gallant, and to hear the bullets go hissing over our heads as we were in the boat. This done and finished my Proclamation, I returned to the Nazeby, where my Lord was much pleased to hear how all the fleet took it in a transport of joy, showed me a private letter of the King's (29) to him, and another from the Duke of York in such familiar style as to their common friend, with all kindness imaginable. And I found by the letters, and so my Lord told me too, that there had been many letters passed between them for a great while, and I perceive unknown to Monk (51). And among the rest that had carried these letters Sir John Boys is one, and that Mr. Norwood, which had a ship to carry him over the other day, when my Lord would not have me put down his name in the book. The King (29) speaks of his being courted to come to the Hague, but do desire my Lord's advice whither to come to take ship. And the Duke offers to learn the seaman's trade of him, in such familiar words as if Jack Cole and I had writ them. This was very strange to me, that my Lord should carry all things so wisely and prudently as he do, and I was over joyful to see him in so good condition, and he did not a little please himself to tell me how he had provided for himself so great a hold on the King.
After this to supper, and then to writing of letters till twelve at night, and so up again at three in the morning. My Lord seemed to put great confidence in me, and would take my advice in many things. I perceive his being willing to do all the honour in the world to Monk (51), and to let him have all the honour of doing the business, though he will many times express his thoughts of him to be but a thick-sculled fool. So that I do believe there is some agreement more than ordinary between the King and my Lord to let Monk (51) carry on the business, for it is he that must do the business, or at least that can hinder it, if he be not flattered and observed. This, my Lord will hint himself sometimes. My Lord, I perceive by the King's (29) letter, had writ to him about his father, Crew,—[When only seventeen years old, Montagu had married Jemima, daughter of John Crew, created afterwards Baron Crew of Stene.]—and the King did speak well of him; but my Lord tells me, that he is afeard that he hath too much concerned himself with the Presbyterians against the House of Lords, which will do him a great discourtesy.
Note 1. King Charles II (29). His Declaration to all his loving Subjects of the Kingdome of England, dated from his Court at Breda in Holland 4/14 of April, 1660, and read in Parliament with his Majesties Letter of the same date to his Excellence the Ld. Gen. Monck (51) to be communicated to the Ld. President of the Council of State and to the Officers of the Army under his Command. London, Printed by W. Godbid for John Playford in the Temple, 1660. 40, pp. 8.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 May 1660. 06 May 1660. Lord's Day. This morning while we were at sermon comes in Dr. Clarges (42) and a dozen gentlemen to see my Lord, who, after sermon, dined with him; I remember that last night upon discourse concerning Clarges (42) my Lord told me that he was a man of small entendimiento. [Entendimiento, Spanish: the understanding.] This afternoon there was a gentleman with me, an officer of Dunkirk going over, who came to me for an order and told me he was lately with my uncle and Aunt Fenner and that Kate's fits of the convulsions did hold her still. It fell very well to-day, a stranger preached here for Mr. Ibbot, one Mr. Stanley, who prayed for King Charles, by the Grace of God, &c., which gave great contentment to the gentlemen that were on board here, and they said they would talk of it, when they come to Breda, as not having it done yet in London so publickly. After they were gone from on board, my Lord writ a letter to the King and give it to me to carry privately to Sir William Compton (35) on board the Assistance, which I did, and after a health to his Majesty on board there, I left them under sail for Breda. Back again and found them at sermon. I went up to my cabin and looked over my accounts, and find that, all my debts paid and my preparations to sea paid for, I have £640 clear in my purse. After supper to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 31 May 1660. 31 May 1660. This day my Lord took physic, and came not out of his chamber.
All the morning making orders. After dinner a great while below in the great cabin trying with W. Howe some of Mr. Laws' songs,' particularly that of "What is a kiss", with which we had a great deal of pleasure. After that to making of orders again. Captain Sparling of the Assistance brought me a pair of silk stockings of a light blue, which I was much pleased with. The Captain and I to supper, and after that a most pleasant walk till to at night with him upon the deck, it being a fine evening. My pain was gone again that I had yesterday, blessed be God. This day the month ends, I in very good health, and all the world in a merry mood because of the King's (30) coming. This day I began to teach Mr. Edward; who I find to have a very good foundation laid for his Latin by Mr. Fuller (52). I expect every minute to hear how my poor wife do. I find myself in all things well as to body and mind, but troubled for the absence of my wife.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 June 1660. 04 Jun 1660. Waked in the morning at four o'clock to give some money to Mr. Hetly, who was to go to London with the letters that I wrote yesterday night. After he was gone I went and lay down in my gown upon my bed again an hour or two. At last waked by a messenger come for a Post Warrant for Mr. Hetly and Mr. Creed, who stood to give so little for their horses that the men would not let them have any without a warrant, which I sent them. All the morning getting Captain Holland's commission done, which I did, and he at noon went away. I took my leave of him upon the quarter-deck with a bottle of sack, my Lord being just set down to dinner. Then he being gone I went to dinner and after dinner to my cabin to write. This afternoon I showed my Lord my accounts, which he passed, and so I think myself to be worth near £100 now. In the evening I made an order for Captain Sparling of the Assistance to go to Middleburgh, to fetch over some of the King's (30) goods. I took the opportunity to send all my Dutch money, 70 ducatoons and 29 gold ducats to be changed, if he can, for English money, which is the first venture that ever I made, and so I have been since a little afeard of it. After supper some music and so to bed. This morning the King's (30) Proclamation against drinking, swearing, and debauchery, was read to our ships' companies in the fleet, and indeed it gives great satisfaction to all.
Note. The King's (30) "Proclamation against vicious, debauched, and prophane Persons" is dated 30 May 1660. It is printed in "Somers's Tracts", ed. 1812, vol. vii. p. 423.

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Mary

In 1650 Mary was launched. She had been constructed at the Woolwich Dockyard by Christopher Pett Shipbuilder 1620-1688 (29).

In 1664 Admiral Jeremy Smith -1675 was given command of Mary.

In 1665 Captain John Cox -1672 was appointed Captain of Mary.

Battle of Lowestoft

On 03 Jun 1665 at the Battle of Lowestoft an English fleet commanded by James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31), Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (45) and Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (39) defeated a Dutch Fleet.
Richard Boyle -1665 was killed.
Charles Maccarthy Viscount Muskerry -1665 was killed.
Charles Berkeley 1st Earl Falmouth 1630-1665 (35) was killed by a cannonball aboard the Royal Charles. His father Charles Berkeley 2nd Viscount Fitzhardinge 1599-1668 (65) succeeded 2nd Viscount Fitzhardinge of Berehaven in Kerry. Penelope Godolphin Viscountess Fitzhardinge by marriage Viscountess Fitzhardinge of Berehaven in Kerry. Possibly the only occasion when a father has succeeded his son.
Charles Weston 3rd Earl of Portland 1639-1665 (26) was killed by a cannon shot. On 13 Jun 1665 His uncle Thomas Weston 4th Earl of Portland 1609-1688 (55) succeeded 4th Earl of Portland 1C 1633.
Thomas Allin 1st Baronet 1612-1685 (53) was present.
Admiral Jeremy Smith -1675 commanded the Mary.
Captain George Batts fought. He was assigned to Sir George Ayscue's (49) division in the Blue Squadron.

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Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 when Duke of York.Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666.Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of James II King England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701.Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682, Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 and Colonel William Murray.Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682.Around 1672 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682.Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682. Around 1650 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672.Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Thomas Allin 1st Baronet 1612-1685. One of the Flagmen of Lowestoft.Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Admiral George Ayscue 1616-1672. One of the Flagmen of Lowestoft.

In 1677 Mary had been modified by increasing her guns to sixty-two.

Bristol

Aug 1702 West Indies Action

Aug 1702. The Aug 1702 West Indies Action was a naval engagement between the English West-Indies Fleet commanded by Vice Admiral John Benbow 1653-1702 (49) and the French Fleet commanded by Admiral Jean du Casse 1646-1715 (55). The action lasted five days during with the English eventually being beaten off and Vice Admiral John Benbow 1653-1702 (49) being mortally wounded. The action was notable for a number of English ships refusing to engage with the French. Following the action the English Fleet returned to Port Royal where a number of captains were court-martialed for cowardice and disobedience. Found guilty Captains Richard Kirkby and Copper Wade were returned to Plymouth where they were shot aboard Bristol in the presence of other officers. Captain Constable was cleared of the charge of cowardice, but was convicted on other charges and cashiered. Captain Hudson died before he could be tried. Captains Fogg and Vincent were charged with having signed a paper with the other captains of the squadron, stating they would not fight, but they represented this as a device to keep Captain Kirkby from deserting; Benbow testifying in their favour, they were merely suspended.
Benbow's (49) leg was amputated; but a fever developed. On 04 Nov 1702 he died.

Around 1682 Thomas Murray Painter 1663-1735. Portrait of Edward Russell 1st Earl Orford 1653-1727 and Captain John Benbow, and Admiral Ralph Delavall .

The Plymouth

Calendar of State Papers Charles II 25 Dec 1664. 25 Dec 1644 38. Capt. Thos. Allin (32) to [Sir Rich. Fanshaw (36)]. On the 19th, ' The Plymouth, attacked with his 7 ships left, a Dutch fleet of 14, three of which were men-of-war; sunk two vessels, and took two others, one a rich prize from Smyrna; the others retired much battered. Haus also taken a Dutch prize laden with iron and plank, coming from Lisbon. Is waiting the repair of the Bonaventure, damaged off Gibraltar. The Dover, sailing for Tangiers, has taken three prizes. [Copy, one and a half pages.]

Around 1644. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of Richard Fanshawe 1st Baronet Fanshawe 1608-1666.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 11 May 1660. 11 May 1660. Up very early in the morning, and so about a great deal of business in order to our going hence to-day. Burr going on shore last night made me very angry. So that I sent for Mr. Pitts to come to me from the Vice-Admiral's (45), intending not to have employed Burr any more. But Burr by and by coming and desiring humbly that I would forgive him and Pitts not coming I did set him to work. This morning we began to pull down all the State's arms in the fleet, having first sent to Dover for painters and others to come to set up the King's (29). The rest of the morning writing of letters to London which I afterwards sent by Dunne. I had this morning my first opportunity of discoursing with Dr. Clarke1, whom I found to be a very pretty man and very knowing. He is now going in this ship to the King. There dined here my Lord Crafford (64) and my Lord Cavendish (20), and other Scotchmen whom I afterwards ordered to be received on board the Plymouth, and to go along with us. After dinner we set sail from the Downs, I leaving my boy to go to Deal for my linen. In the afternoon overtook us three or four gentlemen; two of the Berties, and one Mr. Dormerhoy, a Scotch gentleman, whom I afterwards found to be a very fine man, who, telling my Lord that they heard the Commissioners were come out of London to-day, my Lord dropt anchor over against Dover Castle (which give us about thirty guns in passing), and upon a high debate with the Vice and Rear Admiral whether it were safe to go and not stay for the Commissioners, he did resolve to send Sir R. Stayner (35) to Dover, to enquire of my Lord Winchelsea, whether or no they are come out of London, and then to resolve to-morrow morning of going or not; which was done. It blew very hard all this night that I was afeard of my boy. About 11 at night came the boats from Deal, with great store of provisions, by the same token John Goods told me that above 20 of the fowls are smothered, but my boy was put on board the Northwich. To bed.
Note 1. Timothy Clarke, M. D., one of the original Fellows of the Royal Society. He was appointed one of the physicians in ordinary to Charles II on the death of Dr. Quartermaine in 1667.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 August 1660. 09 Aug 1660.Left my wife at Mrs. Hunt's and I to my Lord's, and from thence with judge Advocate Fowler, Mr. Creed, and Mr. Sheply to the Rhenish wine-house, and Captain Hayward of the Plymouth, who is now ordered to carry my Lord Winchelsea, Embassador to Constantinople. We were very merry, and judge Advocate did give Captain Hayward his Oath of Allegiance and Supremacy. Thence to my office of Privy Seal, and, having signed some things there, with Mr. Moore and Dean Fuller (52) to the Leg in King Street, and, sending for my wife, we dined there very merry, and after dinner, parted. After dinner with my wife to Mrs. Blackburne to visit her. She being within I left my wife there, and I to the Privy Seal, where I despatch some business, and from thence to Mrs. Blackburne again, who did treat my wife and me with a great deal of civility, and did give us a fine collation of collar of beef, &c. Thence I, having my head full of drink from having drunk so much Rhenish wine in the morning, and more in the afternoon at Mrs. Blackburne's, came home and so to bed, not well, and very ill all night.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 18 August 1660. 18 Aug 1660.This morning I took my wife towards Westminster by water, and landed her at Whitefriars, with £5 to buy her a petticoat, and I to the Privy Seal. By and by comes my wife to tell me that my father has persuaded her to buy a most fine cloth of 26s. a yard, and a rich lace, that the petticoat will come to £5, at which I was somewhat troubled, but she doing it very innocently, I could not be angry. I did give her more money, and sent her away, and I and Creed and Captain Hayward (who is now unkindly put out of the Plymouth to make way for Captain Allen to go to Constantinople, and put into his ship the Dover, which I know will trouble my Lord) went and dined at the Leg in King Street, where Captain Ferrers, my Lord's Cornet, comes to us, who after dinner took me and Creed to the Cockpitt play1, the first that I have had time to see since my coming from sea, "The Loyall Subject", where one Kinaston (20), a boy, acted the Duke's sister, but made the loveliest lady that ever I saw in my life, only her voice not very good. After the play done, we three went to drink, and by Captain Ferrers' means, Kinaston (20) and another that acted Archas, the General, came and drank with us. Hence home by coach, and after being trimmed, leaving my wife to look after her little bitch, which was just now a-whelping, I to bed.
Note 1. The Cockpit Theatre, situated in Drury Lane, was occupied as a playhouse in the reign of James I. It was occupied by Davenant (54) and his company in 1658, and they remained in it until November 15th, 1660, when they removed to Salisbury Court.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 16 January 1665. 16 Jan 1665. Up and with Sir W. Batten (64) and Sir W. Pen (43) to White Hall, where we did our business with the Duke (31).
Thence I to Westminster Hall and walked up and down. Among others Ned Pickering (47) met me and tells me how active my Lord is at sea, and that my Lord Hinchingbrooke (17) is now at Rome, and, by all report, a very noble and hopefull gentleman.
Thence to Mr. Povy's (51), and there met Creed, and dined well after his old manner of plenty and curiosity. But I sat in pain to think whether he would begin with me again after dinner with his enquiry after my bill, but he did not, but fell into other discourse, at which I was glad, but was vexed this morning meeting of Creed at some bye questions that he demanded of me about some such thing, which made me fear he meant that very matter, but I perceive he did not.
Thence to visit my Lady Sandwich (40) and so to a Tangier Committee, where a great company of the new Commissioners, Lords, that in behalfe of my Lord Bellasses (50) are very loud and busy and call for Povy's (51) accounts, but it was a most sorrowful thing to see how he answered to questions so little to the purpose, but to his owne wrong. All the while I sensible how I am concerned in my bill of £100 and somewhat more. So great a trouble is fear, though in a case that at the worst will bear enquiry. My Lord Barkeley (63) was very violent against Povy (51). But my Lord Ashly (43), I observe, is a most clear man in matters of accounts, and most ingeniously did discourse and explain all matters. We broke up, leaving the thing to a Committee of which I am one. Povy (51), Creed, and I staid discoursing, I much troubled in mind seemingly for the business, but indeed only on my own behalf, though I have no great reason for it, but so painfull a thing is fear. So after considering how to order business, Povy (51) and I walked together as far as the New Exchange and so parted, and I by coach home.
To the office a while, then to supper and to bed. This afternoon Secretary Bennet (47) read to the Duke of Yorke (31) his letters, which say that Allen (53)1 has met with the Dutch Smyrna fleet at Cales2, and sunk one and taken three. How true or what these ships are time will show, but it is good newes and the newes of our ships being lost is doubted at dales and Malaga. God send it false!
Note 1. Among the State Papers is a letter from Captain Thomas Allin (53) to Sir Richard Fanshaw (36), dated from "The Plymouth, Cadiz Bay", December 25th, 1664, in which he writes: "On the 19th attacked with his seven ships left, a Dutch fleet of fourteen, three of which were men-of- war; sunk two vessels and took two others, one a rich prize from Smyrna; the others retired much battered. Has also taken a Dutch prize laden with iron and planks, coming from Lisbon (Calendar, Domestic, 1664-65, p. 122).
Note 2. The old form of the name Cadiz.

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Great Plague of London

Diary of Samuel Pepys 28 June 1665. 28 Jun 1665. Sir J. Minnes (66) carried me and my wife to White Hall, and thence his coach along with my wife where she would.
There after attending the Duke (31) to discourse of the navy. We did not kiss his hand, nor do I think, for all their pretence, of going away to-morrow. Yet I believe they will not go for good and all, but I did take my leave of Sir William Coventry (37), who, it seems, was knighted and sworn a Privy-Counsellor two days since; who with his old kindness treated me, and I believe I shall ever find (him) a noble friend.
Thence by water to Blackfriars, and so to Paul's churchyard and bespoke severall books, and so home and there dined, my man William giving me a lobster sent him by my old maid Sarah. This morning I met with Sir G. Carteret (55), who tells me how all things proceed between my Lord Sandwich (39) and himself to full content, and both sides depend upon having the match finished presently, and professed great kindnesse to me, and said that now we were something akin. I am mightily, both with respect to myself and much more of my Lord's family, glad of this alliance.
After dinner to White Hall, thinking to speak with my Lord Ashly (43), but failed, and I whiled away some time in Westminster Hall against he did come, in my way observing several plague houses in King's Street and [near] the Palace. Here I hear Mrs. Martin is gone out of town, and that her husband, an idle fellow, is since come out of France, as he pretends, but I believe not that he hath been. I was fearful of going to any house, but I did to the Swan, and thence to White Hall, giving the waterman a shilling, because a young fellow and belonging to the Plymouth.
Thence by coach to several places, and so home, and all the evening with Sir J. Minnes (66) and all the women of the house (excepting my Lady Batten) late in the garden chatting. At 12 o'clock home to supper and to bed. My Lord Sandwich (39) is gone towards the sea to-day, it being a sudden resolution, I having taken no leave of him.

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The Revenge

The Revenge. A 52 gun third rate Speaker Class frigate originally launched in 1654 as The Newbury. Condemned in 1677.

Four Days' Battle

Diary of Samuel Pepys 28 October 1666. 28 Oct 1666. Lord's Day. Up, and to church with my wife, and then home, and there is come little Michell and his wife, I sent for them, and also comes Captain Guy to dine with me, and he and I much talk together. He cries out of the discipline of the fleete, and confesses really that the true English valour we talk of is almost spent and worn out; few of the commanders doing what they should do, and he much fears we shall therefore be beaten the next year. He assures me we were beaten home the last June fight, and that the whole fleete was ashamed to hear of our bonefires. He commends Smith, and cries out of Holmes (44) for an idle, proud, conceited, though stout fellow. He tells me we are to owe the losse of so many ships on the sands, not to any fault of the pilots, but to the weather; but in this I have good authority to fear there was something more. He says the Dutch do fight in very good order, and we in none at all. He says that in the July fight, both the Prince (46) and Holmes (44) had their belly-fulls, and were fain to go aside; though, if the wind had continued, we had utterly beaten them. He do confess the whole to be governed by a company of fools, and fears our ruine.
After dinner he gone, I with my brother to White Hall and he to Westminster Abbey. I presently to Mrs. Martin's, and there met widow Burroughes and Doll, and did tumble them all the afternoon as I pleased, and having given them a bottle of wine I parted and home by boat (my brother going by land), and thence with my wife to sit and sup with my uncle and aunt Wight (47), and see Woolly's wife, who is a pretty woman, and after supper, being very merry, in abusing my aunt with Dr. Venner, we home, and I to do something in my accounts, and so to bed.
The Revenge having her forecastle blown up with powder to the killing of some men in the River, and the Dyamond's being overset in the careening at Sheernesse, are further marks of the method all the King's work is now done in. The Foresight also and another come to disasters in the same place this week in the cleaning; which is strange.

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Lark

Diary of Samuel Pepys 12 May 1660. 12 May 1660. This morning I inquired for my boy, whether he was come well or no, and it was told me that he was well in bed. My Lord called me to his chamber, he being in bed, and gave me many orders to make for direction for the ships that are left in the Downs, giving them the greatest charge in the world to bring no passengers with them, when they come after us to Scheveling Bay, excepting Mr. Edward Montagu (12), Mr. Thomas Crew (36), and Sir H. Wright (23). Sir R. Stayner (35) hath been here early in the morning and told my Lord, that my Lord Winchelsea (81) understands by letters, that the Commissioners are only to come to Dover to attend the coming over of the King. So my Lord did give order for weighing anchor, which we did, and sailed all day. In our way in the morning, coming in the midway between Dover and Calais, we could see both places very easily, and very pleasant it was to me that the further we went the more we lost sight of both lands. In the afternoon at cards with Mr. North (24) and the Doctor. There by us, in the Lark frigate, Sir R. Freeman and some others, going from the King to England, come to see my Lord and so onward on their voyage. In the afternoon upon the quarterdeck the Doctor told Mr. North (24) and me an admirable story called "The Fruitless Precaution", an exceeding pretty story and worthy my getting without book when I can get the book.[??] This evening came Mr. Sheply on board, whom we had left at Deal and Dover getting of provision and borrowing of money. In the evening late, after discoursing with the Doctor, &c., to bed.

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Diamond

John Evelyn's Diary 15 March 1652. 15 Mar 1652. I saw the "Diamond" and "Ruby" launched in the Dock at Deptford, carrying forty-eight brass cannon each; Cromwell (52) and his grandees present, with great acclamations.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 April 1665. 17 Apr 1665. Up and to the Duke of Albemarle's (56), where he shewed me Mr. Coventry's (37) letters, how three Dutch privateers are taken, in one whereof Everson's' son is captaine. But they have killed poor Captaine Golding in The Diamond. Two of them, one of 32 and the other of 20 odd guns, did stand stoutly up against her, which hath 46, and the Yarmouth that hath 52 guns, and as many more men as they. So that they did more than we could expect, not yielding till many of their men were killed. And Everson, when he was brought before the Duke of Yorke (31), and was observed to be shot through the hat, answered, that he wished it had gone through his head, rather than been taken. One thing more is written: that two of our ships the other day appearing upon the coast of Holland, they presently fired their beacons round the country to give notice. And newes is brought the King (34), that the Dutch Smyrna fleete is seen upon the back of Scotland; and thereupon the King (34) hath wrote to the Duke (31), that he do appoint a fleete to go to the Northward to try to meet them coming home round: which God send!
Thence to White Hall; where the King (34) seeing me, did come to me, and calling me by name, did discourse with me about the ships in the River: and this is the first time that ever I knew the King (34) did know me personally; so that hereafter I must not go thither, but with expectation to be questioned, and to be ready to give good answers.
So home, and thence with Creed, who come to dine with me, to the Old James, where we dined with Sir W. Rider and Cutler, and, by and by, being called by my wife, we all to a play, "The Ghosts", at the Duke's house, but a very simple play.
Thence up and down, with my wife with me, to look [for] Sir Ph. Warwicke (55) (Mr. Creed going from me), but missed of him and so home, and late and busy at my office.
So home to supper and to bed. This day was left at my house a very neat silver watch, by one Briggs, a scrivener and sollicitor, at which I was angry with my wife for receiving, or, at least, for opening the box wherein it was, and so far witnessing our receipt of it, as to give the messenger 5s. for bringing it; but it can't be helped, and I will endeavour to do the man a kindnesse, he being a friend of my uncle Wight's (63).

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Great Galley

Rough Wooing

In 1543 Nicholas Poyntz 1510-1556 (33) was captain of the warship Great Galley. See Rough Wooing.

Around 1550 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Nicholas Poyntz 1510-1556.

Ruby

John Evelyn's Diary 15 March 1652. 15 Mar 1652. I saw the "Diamond" and "Ruby" launched in the Dock at Deptford, carrying forty-eight brass cannon each; Cromwell (52) and his grandees present, with great acclamations.

Greyhound

Greyhound. A 45-gun ship built in 1545 rebuilt in 1558 and wrecked in 1563.

Wreck of The Greyhound

On 19 Mar 1563 the Greyhound was wrecked on its journey to Le Havre with the loss of around two-hundred lives.
Captain Thomas Finch 1512-1563 (51) drowned.
Brothers John Wentworth 1538-1563 (25) and James Wentworth 1540-1563 (23) drowned.

Diary of Henry Machyn March 1563. 21 Mar 1563. The xxj day of Marche tydynges cam to the cowrt that on off the quen's shypes callyd the Grahond was lost gohyng to Nuwhavyn; the captayn was ser Thomas Fynche (51) knyghtt of Kent, and ys brodur and on of my lord Cobbam('s) brodur and ij of my lord Whentforth ('s) bredurne [John Wentworth 1538-1563 (25) and James Wentworth 1540-1563 (23)] and mony gentyll men and mynstorels; [one] of my lord of Warwyke('s) newys [nephews], and a good mastur; and mony [good] marenars and sawgears [soldiers] to the nombur of (blank)

Elias

Elias was a captured Dutch ship of 36 guns.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 21 January 1663. 21 Jan 1663. Up early leaving my wife very ill in bed... and to my office till eight o'clock, there coming Ch. Pepys1 to demand his legacy of me, which I denied him upon good reason of his father and brother's suing us, and so he went away.
Then came Commissioner Pett (52), and he and I by agreement went to Deptford, and after a turn or two in the yard, to Greenwich, and thence walked to Woolwich. Here we did business, and I on board the Tangier-merchant, a ship freighted by us, that has long lain on hand in her despatch to Tangier, but is now ready for sailing.
Back, and dined at Mr. Ackworth's, where a pretty dinner, and she a pretty, modest woman; but above all things we saw her Rocke, which is one of the finest things done by a woman that ever I saw. I must have my wife to see it.
After dinner on board the Elias, and found the timber brought by her from the forest of Deane to be exceeding good. The Captain gave each of us two barrels of pickled oysters put up for the Queen Mother (24) .
So to the Dock again, and took in Mrs. Ackworth and another gentlewoman, and carried them to London, and at the Globe tavern, in Eastcheap, did give them a glass of wine, and so parted. I home, where I found my wife ill in bed all day, and her face swelled with pain. My Will has received my last two quarters salary, of which I am glad.
So to my office till late and then home, and after the barber had done, to bed.
Note 1. Charles Pepys was second son of Thomas Pepys (68), elder brother of Samuel's father. Samuel paid part of the legacy to Charles and his elder brother Thomas on May 25th, 1664.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 19 April 1664. 19 Apr 1664. Up and to St. James's, where long with Mr. Coventry (36), Povy (50), &c., in their Tangier accounts, but such the folly of that coxcomb Povy (50) that we could do little in it, and so parted for the time, and I to walk with Creed and Vernaty in the Physique Garden in St. James's Parke; where I first saw orange-trees, and other fine trees.
So to Westminster Hall, and thence by water to the Temple, and so walked to the 'Change, and there find the 'Change full of news from Guinny, some say the Dutch have sunk our ships and taken our fort, and others say we have done the same to them. But I find by our merchants that something is done, but is yet a secret among them.
So home to dinner, and then to the office, and at night with Captain Tayler consulting how to get a little money by letting him the Elias to fetch masts from New England.
So home to supper and to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 November 1664. 14 Nov 1664. Up, and with Sir W. Batten (63) to White Hall, to the Lords of the Admiralty, and there did our business betimes.
Thence to Sir Philip Warwicke (54) about Navy business: and my Lord Ashly (43); and afterwards to my Chancellor (55), who is very well pleased with me, and my carrying of his business.
And so to the 'Change, where mighty busy; and so home to dinner, where Mr. Creed and Moore: and after dinner I to my Lord Treasurer's (57), to Sir Philip Warwicke (54) there, and then to White Hall, to the Duke of Albemarle (55), about Tangier; and then homeward to the Coffee-house to hear newes. And it seems the Dutch, as I afterwards found by Mr. Coventry's (36) letters, have stopped a ship of masts of Sir W. Warren's, coming for us in a Swede's ship, which they will not release upon Sir G. Downing's (39) claiming her: which appears as the first act of hostility; and is looked upon as so by Mr. Coventry (36).
The Elias,' coming from New England (Captain Hill, commander), is sunk; only the captain and a few men saved. She foundered in the sea.
So home, where infinite busy till 12 at night, and so home to supper and to bed.

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The Henery

Diary of Samuel Pepys 10 April 1661. 10 Apr 1661. In the morning to see the Dockhouses. First, Mr. Pett's (50), the builder, and there was very kindly received, and among other things he did offer my Lady Batten a parrot, the best I ever saw, that knew Mingo so soon as it saw him, having been bred formerly in the house with them; but for talking and singing I never heard the like. My Lady did accept of it:
Then to see Commissioner Pett's (50) house, he and his family being absent, and here I wondered how my Lady Batten walked up and down with envious looks to see how neat and rich everything is (and indeed both the house and garden is most handsome), saying that she would get it, for it belonged formerly to the Surveyor of the Navy. Then on board the Prince, now in the dock, and indeed it has one and no more rich cabins for carved work, but no gold in her.
After that back home, and there eat a little dinner. Then to Rochester, and there saw the Cathedrall, which is now fitting for use, and the organ then a-tuning. Then away thence, observing the great doors of the church, which, they say, was covered with the skins of the Danes1, and also had much mirth at a tomb, on which was "Come sweet Jesu", and I read "Come sweet Mall", &c., at which Captain Pett and I had good laughter.
So to the Salutacion tavern, where Mr. Alcock and many of the town came and entertained us with wine and oysters and other things, and hither come Sir John Minnes (62) to us, who is come to-day to see "the Henery", in which he intends to ride as Vice-Admiral in the narrow seas all this summer. Here much mirth, but I was a little troubled to stay too long, because of going to Hempson's, which afterwards we did, and found it in all things a most pretty house, and rarely furnished, only it had a most ill access on all sides to it, which is a greatest fault that I think can be in a house. Here we had, for my sake, two fiddles, the one a base viall, on which he that played, played well some lyra lessons, but both together made the worst musique that ever I heard. We had a fine collacion, but I took little pleasure in that, for the illness of the musique and for the intentness of my mind upon Mrs. Rebecca Allen.
After we had done eating, the ladies went to dance, and among the men we had, I was forced to dance too; and did make an ugly shift. Mrs. R. Allen danced very well, and seems the best humoured woman that ever I saw. About 9 o'clock Sir William and my Lady went home, and we continued dancing an hour or two, and so broke up very pleasant and merry, and so walked home, I leading Mrs. Rebecca, who seemed, I know not why, in that and other things, to be desirous of my favours and would in all things show me respects. Going home, she would needs have me sing, and I did pretty well and was highly esteemed by them.
So to Captain Allen's (where we were last night, and heard him play on the harpsicon, and I find him to be a perfect good musician), and there, having no mind to leave Mrs. Rebecca, what with talk and singing (her father and I), Mrs. Turner (38) and I staid there till 2 o'clock in the morning and was most exceeding merry, and I had the opportunity of kissing Mrs. Rebecca very often. Among other things Captain Pett was saying that he thought that he had got his wife with child since I came thither. Which I took hold of and was merrily asking him what he would take to have it said for my honour that it was of my getting? He merrily answered that he would if I would promise to be godfather to it if it did come within the time just, and I said that I would. So that I must remember to compute it when the time comes.
Note 1. Traditions similar to that at Rochester, here alluded to, are to be found in other places in England. Sir Harry Englefield, in a communication made to the Society of Antiquaries, July 2nd, 1789, called attention to the curious popular tale preserved in the village of Hadstock, Essex, that the door of the church had been covered with the skin of a Danish pirate, who had plundered the church. At Worcester, likewise, it was asserted that the north doors of the cathedral had been covered with the skin of a person who had sacrilegiously robbed the high altar. The date of these doors appears to be the latter part of the fourteenth century, the north porch having been built about 1385. Dart, in his "History of the Abbey Church of St. Peter's, Westminster", 1723 (vol. i., book ii., p. 64), relates a like tradition then preserved in reference to a door, one of three which closed off a chamber from the south transept—namely, a certain building once known as the Chapel of Henry VIII, and used as a "Revestry". This chamber, he states, "is inclosed with three doors, the inner cancellated, the middle, which is very thick, lined with skins like parchment, and driven full of nails. These skins, they by tradition tell us, were some skins of the Danes, tann'd and given here as a memorial of our delivery from them". Portions of this supposed human skin were examined under the microscope by the late Mr. John Quekett of the Hunterian Museum, who ascertained, beyond question, that in each of the cases the skin was human. From a communication by the late Mr. Albert Way, F.S.A., to the late Lord Braybrooke.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 November 1664. 09 Nov 1664. Thence the Commissioner (54) and I on board Sir G. Ascue (48), in the Henery, who lacks men mightily, which makes me think that there is more believed to be in a man that hath heretofore been employed than truly there is; for one would never have thought, a month ago, that he would have wanted 1000 men at his heels. Nor do I think he hath much of a seaman in him: for he told me, says he, "Heretofore, we used to find our ships clear and ready, everything to our hands in the Downes. Now I come, and must look to see things done like a slave, things that I never minded, nor cannot look after". And by his discourse I find that he hath not minded anything in her at all.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 April 1666. 27 Apr 1666. Up (taking Balty (26) with me, who lay at my house last [night] in order to his going away to-day to sea with the pursers of the Henery, whom I appointed to call him), abroad to many several places about several businesses, to my Lord Treasurer's (59), Westminster, and I know not where.
At noon to the 'Change a little, and there bespoke some maps to hang in my new roome (my boy's roome) which will be very-pretty.
Home to dinner, and after dinner to the hanging up of maps, and other things for the fitting of the roome, and now it will certainly be one of the handsomest and most usefull roomes in my house. So that what with this room and the room on my leads my house is half as good again as it was. All this afternoon about this till I was so weary and it was late I could do no more but finished the room. So I did not get out to the office all the day long. At night spent a good deale of time with my wife and Mercer teaching them a song, and so after supper to bed.

Four Days' Battle

Diary of Samuel Pepys 03 June 1666. 03 Jun 1666. Lord's-day; Whit-sunday. Up, and by water to White Hall, and there met with Mr. Coventry (38), who tells me the only news from the fleete is brought by Captain Elliott, of The Portland, which, by being run on board by The Guernsey, was disabled from staying abroad; so is come in to Aldbrough. That he saw one of the Dutch great ships blown up, and three on fire. That they begun to fight on Friday; and at his coming into port, he could make another ship of the King's coming in, which he judged to be the Rupert: that he knows of no other hurt to our ships. With this good newes I home by water again, and to church in the sermon-time, and with great joy told it my fellows in the pew.
So home after church time to dinner, and after dinner my father, wife, sister, and Mercer by water to Woolwich, while I walked by land, and saw the Exchange as full of people, and hath been all this noon as of any other day, only for newes. I to St. Margaret's, Westminster, and there saw at church my pretty Betty Michell, and thence to the Abbey, and so to Mrs. Martin, and there did what 'je voudrais avec her [I wanted with her].... So by and by he come in, and after some discourse with him I away to White Hall, and there met with this bad newes farther, that the Prince (46) come to Dover but at ten o'clock last night, and there heard nothing of a fight; so that we are defeated of all our hopes of his helpe to the fleete. It is also reported by some Victuallers that the Duke of Albemarle (57) and Holmes their flags were shot down, and both fain to come to anchor to renew their rigging and sails.
A letter is also come this afternoon, from Harman (41) in the Henery; which is she [that] was taken by Elliott for the Rupert; that being fallen into the body of the Dutch fleete, he made his way through them, was set on by three fire-ships one after another, got two of them off, and disabled the third; was set on fire himself; upon which many of his men leapt into the sea and perished; among others, the parson first. Have lost above 100 men, and a good many women (God knows what is become of Balty (26)), and at last quenched his own fire and got to Aldbrough; being, as all say, the greatest hazard that ever any ship escaped, and as bravely managed by him. The mast of the third fire-ship fell into their ship on fire, and hurt Harman's (41) leg, which makes him lame now, but not dangerous.
I to Sir G. Carteret (56), who told me there hath been great bad management in all this; that the King's orders that went on Friday for calling back the Prince (46), were sent but by the ordinary post on Wednesday; and come to the Prince (46) his hands but on Friday; and then, instead of sailing presently, he stays till four in the evening. And that which is worst of all, the Hampshire, laden with merchants' money, come from the Straights, set out with or but just before the fleete, and was in the Downes by five in the clock yesterday morning; and the Prince with his fleete come to Dover but at ten of the clock at night. This is hard to answer, if it be true. This puts great astonishment into the King (36), and Duke (32), and Court, every body being out of countenance.
So meeting Creed, he and I by coach to Hide Parke alone to talke of these things, and do blesse God that my Lord Sandwich (40) was not here at this time to be concerned in a business like to be so misfortunate. It was a pleasant thing to consider how fearfull I was of being seen with Creed all this afternoon, for fear of people's thinking that by our relation to my Lord Sandwich (40) we should be making ill construction of the Prince's (46) failure. But, God knows, I am heartily sorry for the sake of the whole nation, though, if it were not for that, it would not be amisse to have these high blades find some checke to their presumption and their disparaging of as good men.
Thence set him down in Covent Guarden and so home by the 'Change, which is full of people still, and all talk highly of the failure of the Prince (46) in not making more haste after his instructions did come, and of our managements here in not giving it sooner and with more care and oftener.
Thence. After supper to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 June 1666. 08 Jun 1666. Up very betimes and to attend the Duke of York (32) by order, all of us to report to him what the works are that are required of us and to divide among us, wherein I have taken a very good share, and more than I can perform, I doubt.
Thence to the Exchequer about some Tangier businesses, and then home, where to my very great joy I find Balty (26) come home without any hurt, after the utmost imaginable danger he hath gone through in the Henery, being upon the quarterdeck with Harman (41) all the time; and for which service Harman (41) I heard this day commended most seriously and most eminently by the Duke of Yorke (32). As also the Duke did do most utmost right to Sir Thomas Teddiman, of whom a scandal was raised, but without cause, he having behaved himself most eminently brave all the whole fight, and to extraordinary great service and purpose, having given Trump himself such a broadside as was hardly ever given to any ship. Mings (40) is shot through the face, and into the shoulder, where the bullet is lodged. Young Holmes' is also ill wounded, and Ather in The Rupert. Balty (26) tells me the case of the Henery; and it was, indeed, most extraordinary sad and desperate.
After dinner Balty (26) and I to my office, and there talked a great deal of this fight; and I am mightily pleased in him and have great content in, and hopes of his doing well.
Thence out to White Hall to a Committee for Tangier, but it met not. But, Lord! to see how melancholy the Court is, under the thoughts of this last overthrow (for so it is), instead of a victory, so much and so unreasonably expected.
Thence, the Committee not meeting, Creed and I down the river as low as Sir W. Warren's, with whom I did motion a business that may be of profit to me, about buying some lighters to send down to the fleete, wherein he will assist me.
So back again, he and I talking of the late ill management of this fight, and of the ill management of fighting at all against so great a force bigger than ours, and so to the office, where we parted, but with this satisfaction that we hear the Swiftsure, Sir W. Barkeley (27), is come in safe to the Nore, after her being absent ever since the beginning of the fight, wherein she did not appear at all from beginning to end. But wherever she has been, they say she is arrived there well, which I pray God however may be true. At the office late, doing business, and so home to supper and to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 30 June 1667. 30 Jun 1667. Lord's Day. Up about three o'clock, and Creed and I got ourselves ready, and took coach at our gate, it being very fine weather, and the cool of the morning, and with much pleasure, without any stop, got to Rochester about ten of the clock, all the way having mighty pleasant talk of the fate that is over all we do, that it seems as if we were designed in every thing, by land by sea, to undo ourselves.
At the foot of Rochester bridge, at the landing-place, I met my Lord Bruncker (47) and my Lord Douglas (21), and all the officers of the soldiers in the town, waiting there for the Duke of York (33), whom they heard was coming thither this day; by and by comes my Lord_Middleton (59), the first time I remember to have seen him, well mounted, who had been to meet him, but come back without him; he seems a fine soldier, and so every body says he is; and a man, like my Lord Teviott, and indeed most of the Scotch gentry, as I observe, of few words. After staying here by the water-side and seeing the boats come up from Chatham, with them that rowed with bandeleeres about their shoulders, and muskets in their boats, they being the workmen of the Yard, who have promised to redeem their credit, lost by their deserting the service when the Dutch were there, my Lord Bruncker (47) went with Lord Middleton to his inne, the Crowne, to dinner, which I took unkindly, but he was slightly invited.
So I and Creed down by boat to Chatham-yard (our watermen having their bandeleeres about them all the way), and to Commissioner Pett's (56) house, where my Lord Bruncker (47) told me that I should meet with his dinner two dishes of meat, but did not, but however by the help of Mr. Wiles had some beer and ale brought me, and a good piece of roast beef from somebody's table, and eat well at two, and after dinner into the garden to shew Creed, and I must confess it must needs be thought a sorrowful thing for a man that hath taken so much pains to make a place neat to lose it as Commissioner Pett (56) must now this.
Thence to see the batteries made; which, indeed, are very fine, and guns placed so as one would think the River should be very secure. I was glad, as also it was new to me, to see so many fortifications as I have of late seen, and so up to the top of the Hill, there to look, and could see towards Sheerenesse, to spy the Dutch fleete, but could make [out] none but one vessel, they being all gone. But here I was told, that, in all the late attempt, there was but one man that they knew killed on shore: and that was a man that had laid himself upon his belly upon one of the hills, on the other side of the River, to see the action; and a bullet come, took the ground away just under his belly, and ripped up his belly, and so was killed.
Thence back to the docke, and in my way saw how they are fain to take the deals of the rope-house to supply other occasions, and how sillily the country troopers look, that stand upon the passes there; and, methinks, as if they were more willing to run away than to fight, and it is said that the country soldiers did first run at Sheerenesse, but that then my Lord Douglas's (21) men did run also; but it is excused that there was no defence for them towards the sea, that so the very beach did fly in their faces as the bullets come, and annoyed them, they having, after all this preparation of the officers of the ordnance, only done something towards the land, and nothing at all towards the sea. The people here everywhere do speak very badly of Sir Edward Spragge (47), as not behaving himself as he should have done in that business, going away with the first, and that old Captain Pyne, who, I am here told, and no sooner, is Master-Gunner of England, was the last that staid there.
Thence by barge, it raining hard, down to the chaine; and in our way did see the sad wrackes of the poor "Royall Oake", "James", and "London"1 and several other of our ships by us sunk, and several of the enemy's, whereof three men-of-war that they could not get off, and so burned. We did also see several dead bodies lie by the side of the water. I do not see that Upnor Castle hath received any hurt by them, though they played long against it; and they themselves shot till they had hardly a gun left upon the carriages, so badly provided they were: they have now made two batteries on that side, which will be very good, and do good service.
So to the chaine, and there saw it fast at the end on Upnor side of the River; very fast, and borne up upon the several stages across the River; and where it is broke nobody can tell me. I went on shore on Upnor side to look upon the end of the chaine; and caused the link to be measured, and it was six inches and one-fourth in circumference. They have burned the Crane House that was to hawl it taught. It seems very remarkable to me, and of great honour to the Dutch, that those of them that did go on shore to Gillingham, though they went in fear of their lives, and were some of them killed; and, notwithstanding their provocation at Schelling, yet killed none of our people nor plundered their houses, but did take some things of easy carriage, and left the rest, and not a house burned; and, which is to our eternal disgrace, that what my Lord Douglas's (21) men, who come after them, found there, they plundered and took all away; and the watermen that carried us did further tell us, that our own soldiers are far more terrible to those people of the country-towns than the Dutch themselves. We were told at the batteries, upon my seeing of the field-guns that were there, that, had they come a day sooner, they had been able to have saved all; but they had no orders, and lay lingering upon the way, and did not come forward for want of direction. Commissioner Pett's (56) house was all unfurnished, he having carried away all his goods. I met with no satisfaction whereabouts the chaine was broke, but do confess I met with nobody that I could well expect to have satisfaction [from], it being Sunday; and the officers of the Yard most of them abroad, or at the Hill house, at the pay of the Chest, which they did make use of to day to do part in.
Several complaints, I hear, of the Monmouth's coming away too soon from the chaine, where she was placed with the two guard-ships to secure it; and Captain Robert Clerke, my friend, is blamed for so doing there, but I hear nothing of him at London about it; but Captain Brookes's running aground with the "Sancta Maria", which was one of the three ships that were ordered to be sunk to have dammed up the River at the chaine, is mightily cried against, and with reason, he being the chief man to approve of the abilities of other men, and the other two slips did get safe thither and he run aground; but yet I do hear that though he be blameable, yet if she had been there, she nor two more to them three would have been able to have commanded the river all over. I find that here, as it hath been in our river, fire-ships, when fitted, have been sunk afterwards, and particularly those here at the Mussle, where they did no good at all. Our great ships that were run aground and sunk are all well raised but the "Vanguard", which they go about to raise to-morrow. "the Henery", being let loose to drive up the river of herself, did run up as high as the bridge, and broke down some of the rails of the bridge, and so back again with the tide, and up again, and then berthed himself so well as no pilot could ever have done better; and Punnet says he would not, for his life, have undertaken to have done it, with all his skill. I find it is true that the Dutch did heele "The Charles" to get her down, and yet run aground twice or thrice, and yet got her safe away, and have her, with a great many good guns in her, which none of our pilots would ever have undertaken. It is very considerable the quantity of goods, which the making of these platforms and batterys do take out of the King's stores: so that we shall have little left there, and, God knows! no credit to buy any; besides, the taking away and spending of (it is possible) several goods that would have been either rejected or abatement made for them before used. It is a strange thing to see that, while my Lords Douglas and Middleton do ride up and down upon single horses, my Lord Bruncker (47) do go up and down with his Hackney-coach and six horses at the King's charge, which will do, for all this time, and the time that he is likely to stay, must amount to a great deal. But I do not see that he hath any command over the seamen, he being affronted by three or four seamen before my very face, which he took sillily, methought; and is not able to do so much good as a good boatswain in this business. My Lord Bruncker (47), I perceive, do endeavour to speak well of Commissioner Pett (56), saying that he did exercise great care and pains while he was there, but do not undertake to answer for his not carrying up of the great ships. Back again to Rochester, and there walked to the Cathedral as they were beginning of the service, but would not be seen to stay to church there, besides had no mind, but rather to go to our inne, the White Hart, where we drank and were fain (the towne being so full of soldiers) to have a bed corded for us to lie in, I being unwilling to lie at the Hill house for one night, being desirous to be near our coach to be gone betimes to-morrow morning. Here in the streets, I did hear the Scotch march beat by the drums before the soldiers, which is very odde.
Thence to the Castle, and viewed it with Creed, and had good satisfaction from him that showed it us touching the history of it. Then into the fields, a fine walk, and there saw Sir Francis Clerke's house, which is a pretty seat, and then back to our inne and bespoke supper, and so back to the fields and into the Cherry garden, where we had them fresh gathered, and here met with a young, plain, silly shopkeeper, and his wife, a pretty young woman, the man's name Hawkins, and I did kiss her, and we talked (and the woman of the house is a very talking bawdy jade), and eat cherries together, and then to walk in the fields till it was late, and did kiss her, and I believe had I had a fit time and place I might have done what I would with her. Walked back and left them at their house near our inne, and then to our inne, where, I hear, my Lord Bruncker (47) hath sent for me to speak with me before I go: so I took his coach, which stands there with two horses, and to him and to his bedside, where he was in bed, and hath a watchman with a halbert at his door; and to him, and did talk a little, and find him a very weak man for this business that he is upon; and do pity the King's service, that is no better handled, and his folly to call away Pett before we could have found a better man to have staid in his stead; so took leave of him, and with Creed back again, it being now about 10 at night, and to our inne to supper, and then to bed, being both sleepy, but could get no sheets to our bed, only linen to our mouths, and so to sleep, merrily talking of Hawkins and his wife, and troubled that Creed did see so much of my dalliance, though very little.
Note 1. "The bottom of 'The Royal James' is got afloat, and those of the 'Loyal London' and 'Royal Oak' soon will be so. Many men are at work to put Sheerness in a posture of defence, and a boom is being fitted over the river by Upnor Castle, which with the good fortifications will leave nothing to fear".—Calendar of State Papers, 1667, p. 285.

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Prince Royal

In 1611 Robert "The Elder" Peake Painter 1551-1619 (60) and Paul Isackson 1565-1655 painted the cabins, carvings, and armorials on the ship the Prince Royal.

Battle of Lowestoft

John Evelyn's Diary 30 June 1665. 30 Jun 1665. To Chatham; and, 1st July, to the fleet with Lord Sandwich (39), now Admiral, with whom I went in a pinnace to the Buoy of the Nore, where the whole fleet rode at anchor; went on board the Prince, of ninety brass ordnance, haply the best ship in the world, both for building and sailing; she had 700 men. They made a great huzza, or shout, at our approach, three times. Here we dined with many noblemen, gentlemen, and volunteers, served in plate and excellent meat of all sorts. After dinner, came his Majesty, the Duke (31), and Prince Rupert (45). Here I saw the King (35) knight Captain Custance for behaving so bravely in the late fight. It was surprising to behold the good order, decency, and plenty of all things in a vessel so full of men. The ship received a hundred cannon shot in her body. Then I went on board the Charles, to which after a gun was shot off, came all the flag officers to his Majesty (35), who there held a General Council, which determined that his Royal Highness (35) should adventure himself no more this summer. I came away late, having seen the most glorious fleet that ever spread sails. We returned in his Majesty's (35) yacht with my Lord Sandwich (39) and Mr. Vice-Chamberlain, landing at Chatham on Sunday morning.

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John Evelyn's Diary 06 June 1666. 06 Jun 1666. Came Sir Daniel Harvey from the General and related the dreadful encounter, on which his Majesty (36) commanded me to dispatch an extraordinary physician and more chirurgeons. It was on the solemn Fast-day when the news came; his Majesty (36) being in the chapel made a sudden stop to hear the relation, which being with much advantage on our side, his Majesty (36) commanded that public thanks should immediately be given as for a victory. The Dean of the chapel going down to give notice of it to the other Dean officiating; and notice was likewise sent to St. Paul's and Westminster Abbey. But this was no sooner over, than news came that our loss was very great both in ships and men; that the Prince frigate was burnt, and as noble a vessel of ninety brass guns lost; and the taking of Sir George Ayscue (50), and exceeding shattering of both fleets; so as both being obstinate, both parted rather for want of ammunition and tackle than courage; our General retreating like a lion; which exceedingly abated of our former joy. There were, however, orders given for bonfires and bells; but, God knows, it was rather a deliverance than a triumph. So much it pleased God to humble our late overconfidence that nothing could withstand the Duke of Albemarle (57), who, in good truth, made too forward a reckoning of his success now, because he had once beaten the Dutch in another quarrel; and being ambitious to outdo the Earl of Sandwich (40), whom he had prejudicated as deficient in courage.

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John Evelyn's Diary 17 June 1666. 17 Jun 1666. Came his Majesty (36), the Duke (57), and many Noblemen. After Council, we went to prayers. My business being dispatched, I returned to Chatham, having lain but one night in the Royal Charles; we had a tempestuous sea. I went on shore at Sheerness, where they were building an arsenal for the fleet, and designing a royal fort with a receptacle for great ships to ride at anchor; but here I beheld the sad spectacle, more than half that gallant bulwark of the Kingdom miserably shattered, hardly a vessel entire, but appearing rather so many wrecks and hulls, so cruelly had the Dutch mangled us. The loss of the Prince, that gallant vessel, had been a loss to be universally deplored, none knowing for what reason we first engaged in this ungrateful war; we lost besides nine or ten more, and near 600 men slain and 1,100 wounded, 2,000 prisoners; to balance which, perhaps we might destroy eighteen or twenty of the enemy's ships, and 700 or 800 poor men.

Adventure

Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 May 1661. 27 May 1661. To the Wardrobe, and from thence with my Lords Sandwich and Hinchinbroke to the Lords' House by boat at Westminster, and there I left them. Then to the lobby, and after waiting for Sir G. Downing's (36) coming out, to speak with him about the giving me up of my bond for my honesty when I was his clerk, but to no purpose, I went to Clerke's at the Legg, and there I found both Mr. Pierces, Mr. Rolt, formerly too great a man to meet upon such even terms, and there we dined very merry, there coming to us Captain Ferrers, this being the first day of his going abroad since his leap a week ago, which I was greatly glad to see.
By water to the office, and there sat late, Sir George Carteret (51) coming in, who among other things did inquire into the naming of the maisters for this fleet, and was very angry that they were named as they are, and above all to see the maister of the Adventure (for whom there is some kind of difference between Sir W. Pen (40) and me) turned out, who has been in her list.
The office done, I went with the Comptroller (50) to the Coffee house, and there we discoursed of this, and I seem to be fond of him, and indeed I find I must carry fair with all as far as I see it safe, but I have got of him leave to have a little room from his lodgings to my house, of which I am very glad, besides I do open him a way to get lodgings himself in the office, of which I should be very glad. Home and to bed.

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In 1675 Titus Oates 1649-1705 (25) was appointed Chaplain of the ship Adventure. Oates visited English Tangier with his ship, but was accused of buggery, which was a capital offence, and spared only because of his clerical status. He was dismissed from the Navy in 1676.

Satisfaction

Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 October 1662. 04 Oct 1662. To my office all the morning, after I was up (my wife beginning to make me lie long a mornings), where we sat till noon, and then dined at home, and after a little with my workmen to my office till 9 at night, among other things examining the particulars of the miscarriage of the Satisfaction, sunk the other day on the Dutch coast through the negligence of the pilott.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 16 October 1662. 16 Oct 1662. And so I rose in good temper, finding a good chimneypiece made in my upper dining-room chamber, and the diningroom wainscoat in a good forwardness, at which I am glad, and then to the office, where by T. Hater I found all things to my mind, and so we sat at the office till noon, and then at home to dinner with my wife. !Then coming Mr. Creede in order to some business with Sir J. Minnes (63) about his accounts, this afternoon I took him to the Treasury office, where Sir John and I did stay late paying some money to the men that are saved out of the Satisfaction that was lost the other day. The King (32) gives them half-pay, which is more than is used in such cases, for they never used to have any thing, and yet the men were most outrageously discontented, and did rail and curse us till I was troubled to hear it, and wished myself unconcerned therein. Mr. Creede seeing us engaged took leave of us.
Here late, and so home, and at the office set down my journey-journall to this hour, and so shut up my book, giving God thanks for my good success therein, and so home, and to supper, and to bed.
I hear Mr. Moore is in a way of recovery. Sir H. Bennet (44) made Secretary of State in Sir Edward Nicholas's stead; not known whether by consent or not.
My brother Tom (28) and Cooke are come to town I hear this morning, and he sends me word that his mistress's mother is also come to treat with us about her daughter's portion and her jointure, which I am willing should be out of Sturtlow lands.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 January 1665. 23 Jan 1665. Up, and with Sir W. Batten (64) and Sir W. Pen (43) to White Hall; but there finding the Duke (31) gone to his lodgings at St. James's for all together, his Duchesse (27) being ready to lie in, we to him, and there did our usual business. And here I met the great newes confirmed by the Duke's own relation, by a letter from Captain Allen (53). First, of our own loss of two ships, the Phoenix and Nonesuch, in the Bay of Gibraltar: then of his, and his seven ships with him, in the Bay of Cales, or thereabouts, fighting with the 34 Dutch Smyrna fleete; sinking the King Salamon, a ship worth a £150,000 or more, some say £200,000, and another; and taking of three merchant-ships. Two of our ships were disabled, by the Dutch unfortunately falling against their will against them; the Advice, Captain W. Poole, and Antelope, Captain Clerke: The Dutch men-of-war did little service. Captain Allen (53) did receive many shots at distance before he would fire one gun, which he did not do till he come within pistol-shot of his enemy. The Spaniards on shore at Cales did stand laughing at the Dutch, to see them run away and flee to the shore, 34 or thereabouts, against eight Englishmen at most. I do purpose to get the whole relation, if I live, of Captain Allen (53) himself. In our loss of the two ships in the Bay of Gibraltar, it is observable how the world do comment upon the misfortune of Captain Moone of the Nonesuch (who did lose, in the same manner, the Satisfaction), as a person that hath ill-luck attending him; without considering that the whole fleete was ashore. Captain Allen (53) led the way, and Captain Allen (53) himself writes that all the masters of the fleete, old and young, were mistaken, and did carry their ships aground. But I think I heard the Duke (31) say that Moone, being put into the Oxford, had in this conflict regained his credit, by sinking one and taking another. Captain Seale of the Milford hath done his part very well, in boarding the King Salamon, which held out half an hour after she was boarded; and his men kept her an hour after they did master her, and then she sunk, and drowned about 17 of her men.
Thence to Jervas's, my mind, God forgive me, running too much after some folly, but 'elle' not being within I away by coach to the 'Change, and thence home to dinner. And finding Mrs. Bagwell waiting at the office after dinner, away she and I to a cabaret where she and I have eat before, and there I had her company 'tout' and had 'mon plaisir' of 'elle'. But strange to see how a woman, notwithstanding her greatest pretences of love 'a son mari' and religion, may be 'vaincue'.
Thence to the Court of the Turkey Company at Sir Andrew Rickard's (61) to treat about carrying some men of ours to Tangier, and had there a very civil reception, though a denial of the thing as not practicable with them, and I think so too.
So to my office a little and to Jervas's again, thinking 'avoir rencontrais' Jane, 'mais elle n'etait pas dedans'.
So I back again and to my office, where I did with great content 'ferais' a vow to mind my business, and 'laisser aller les femmes' for a month, and am with all my heart glad to find myself able to come to so good a resolution, that thereby I may follow my business, which and my honour thereby lies a bleeding.
So home to supper and to bed.

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Tyger

On 25 Mar 1733 Captain William Berkeley -1733 died at sea whilst Commander of Tyger on its journey from Guinea to the West Indies. He was buried at sea. Memorial in the Church of St Mary Bruton sculpted by Peter Scheemakers Sculptor 1691-1781 (58) in 1749. Berkeley beneath.

Eagle

Diary of Samuel Pepys 21 September 1664. 21 Sep 1664. Up, and by coach to Mr. Povy's (50), and there got him to signe the payment of Captain Tayler's bills for the remainder of freight for the Eagle, wherein I shall be gainer about £30, thence with him to Westminster by coach to Houseman's (31) [Huysman] the great picture drawer, and saw again very fine pictures, and have his promise, for Mr. Povy's (50) sake, to take pains in what picture I shall set him about, and I think to have my wife's. But it is a strange thing to observe and fit for me to remember that I am at no time so unwilling to part with money as when I am concerned in the getting of it most, as I thank God of late I have got more in this month, viz. near 250l, than ever I did in half a year before in my life, I think.
Thence to White Hall with him, and so walked to the Old Exchange and back to Povy's (50) to dinner, where great and good company; among others Sir John Skeffington, whom I knew at Magdalen College, a fellow-commoner, my fellow-pupil, but one with whom I had no great acquaintance, he being then, God knows, much above me. Here I was afresh delighted with Mr. Povy's (50) house and pictures of perspective, being strange things to think how they do delude one's eye, that methinks it would make a man doubtful of swearing that ever he saw any thing.
Thence with him to St. James's, and so to White Hall to a Tangier Committee, and hope I have light of another opportunity of getting a little money if Sir W. Warren will use me kindly for deales to Tangier, and with the hopes went joyfully home, and there received Captain Tayler's money, received by Will to-day, out of which (as I said above) I shall get above £30. So with great comfort to bed, after supper. By discourse this day I have great hopes from Mr. Coventry (36) that the Dutch and we shall not fall out.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 October 1664. 08 Oct 1664. All the morning at the office, and after dinner abroad, and among other things contracted with one Mr. Bridges, at the White Bear on Cornhill, for 100 pieces of Callico to make flaggs; and as I know I shall save the King (34) money, so I hope to get a little for my pains and venture of my own money myself.
Late in the evening doing business, and then comes Captain Tayler, and he and I till 12 o'clock at night arguing about the freight of his ship Eagle, hired formerly by me to Tangier, and at last we made an end, and I hope to get a little money, some small matter by it.
So home to bed, being weary and cold, but contented that I have made an end of that business.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 18 May 1665. 18 May 1665. Up, and with Sir J. Minnes (66) to the Duke of Albemarle (56), where we did much business, and I with good content to myself; among other things we did examine Nixon and Stanesby, about their late running from two Dutchmen1 for which they are committed to a vessel to carry them to the fleete to be tried. A most fowle unhandsome thing as ever was heard, for plain cowardice on Nixon's part.
Thence with the Duke of Albemarle (56) in his coach to my Lord Treasurer (58), and there was before the King (34) (who ever now calls me by my name) and Chancellor (56), and many other great Lords, discoursing about insuring of some of the King's goods, wherein the King (34) accepted of my motion that we should; and so away, well pleased.
To the office, and dined, and then to the office again, and abroad to speak with Sir G. Carteret (55); but, Lord! to see how fraile a man I am, subject to my vanities, that can hardly forbear, though pressed with never so much business, my pursuing of pleasure, but home I got, and there very busy very late. Among other things consulting with Mr. Andrews about our Tangier business, wherein we are like to meet with some trouble, and my Lord Bellasses's (50) endeavour to supplant us, which vexes my mind; but, however, our undertaking is so honourable that we shall stand a tug for it I think.
So home to supper and to bed.
Note 1. Captain Edward Nixon, of the "Elizabeth", and Captain John Stanesby, of the "Eagle". John Lanyon wrote to the Navy Commissioners from Plymouth, May 16th: "Understands from the seamen that the conduct of Captains Nixon and Stanesby in their late engagement with two Dutch capers was very foul; the night they left the Dutch, no lights were put out as formerly, and though in sight of them in the morning, they still kept on their way; the Eagle lay by some time, and both the enemy's ships plied on her, but finding the Elizabeth nearly out of sight she also made sail; it is true the wind and sea were high, but there were no sufficient reasons for such endeavours to get from them". (Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1664-65, p. 367). Both captains were tried; Nixon was condemned to be shot but Stanesby was cleared, and Charnock asserts that he was commander the "Happy Return" in 1672.

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Merlin

In 1663 Captain Edward Grove -1665 was appointed Captain of the Merlin.

Gloucester

In 1664 Admiral John Harman 1625-1673 (39) was appointed Captain of the Gloucester.

1672 Attack on the Smyrna Fleet

On 12 Mar 1672 Admiral John Holmes 1640-1683 (32), commanding Gloucester, and Thomas Butler 6th Earl Ossory 1634-1680 (37) attacked the Dutch Smyrna Fleet on its return from the Mediterranean beginning the Third Anglo-Dutch War.

In 1682 Captain Christopher Gunman 1634-1685 (47) was court-martialled for the loss of the Gloucester.

Diamond

John Evelyn's Diary 20 April 1665. 20 Apr 1665. To Whitehall, to the King (34), who called me into his bedchamber as he was dressing, to whom, I showed the letter written to me from the Duke of York (31) from the fleet, giving me notice of young Evertzen, and some considerable commanders newly taken in fight with the Dartmouth and Diamond frigates, whom he had sent me as prisoners at war; I went to know of his Majesty (34) how he would have me treat them, when he commanded me to bring the young captain to him, and to take the word of the Dutch Ambassador (who yet remained here) for the other, that he should render himself to me whenever I called on him, and not stir without leave. Upon which I desired more guards, the prison being Chelsea House. I went also to Lord Arlington (47) (the Secretary Bennet lately made a Lord) about other business. Dined at my Lord Chancellor's (56); none with him but Sir Sackville Crowe (69), formerly Ambassador at Constantinople; we were very cheerful and merry.

The Resolution

In 1653 The Resolution was launched at which time it was named the Tredagh. Sixty-six cannon.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 11 April 1663. 11 Apr 1663. Up betimes and to my office, where we sat also all the morning till noon, and then home to dinner, my father being there but not very well.
After dinner in comes Captain Lambert of the Norwich, this day come from Tangier, whom I am glad to see. There came also with him Captain Wager, and afterwards in came Captain Allen to see me, of The Resolution. All staid a pretty while, and so away, and I a while to my office, then abroad into the street with my father, and left him to go to see my aunt Wight and uncle, intending to lie at Tom's to-night, or my cozen Scott's, where it seems he has hitherto lain and is most kindly used there. So I home and to my office very late making up my Lord's navy accounts, wherein I find him to stand debtor £1200.
So home to supper and to bed.

St James' Day Battle

Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 July 1666. 27 Jul 1666. Up and to the office, where all the morning busy.
At noon dined at home and then to the office again, and there walking in the garden with Captain Cocke (49) till 5 o'clock. No newes yet of the fleete. His great bargaine of Hempe with us by his unknown proposition is disliked by the King (36), and so is quite off; of which he is glad, by this means being rid of his obligation to my Lord Bruncker (46), which he was tired with, and especially his mistresse, Mrs. Williams, and so will fall into another way about it, wherein he will advise only with myself, which do not displease me, and will be better for him and the King (36) too. Much common talke of publique business, the want of money, the uneasinesse that Parliament will find in raising any, and the ill condition we shall be in if they do not, and his confidence that the Swede is true to us, but poor, but would be glad to do us all manner of service in the world.
He gone, I away by water from the Old Swan to White Hall. The waterman tells me that newes is come that our ship Resolution is burnt, and that we had sunke four or five of the enemy's ships. When I come to White Hall I met with Creed, and he tells me the same news, and walking with him to the Park I to Sir W. Coventry's (38) lodging, and there he showed me Captain Talbot's letter, wherein he says that the fight begun on the 25th; that our White squadron begun with one of the Dutch squadrons, and then the Red with another so hot that we put them both to giving way, and so they continued in pursuit all the day, and as long as he stayed with them: that the Blue fell to the Zealand squadron; and after a long dispute, he against two or three great ships, he received eight or nine dangerous shots, and so come away; and says, he saw The Resolution burned by one of their fire-ships, and four or five of the enemy's. But says that two or three of our great ships were in danger of being fired by our owne fire-ships, which Sir W. Coventry (38), nor I, cannot understand. But upon the whole, he and I walked two or three turns in the Parke under the great trees, and do doubt that this gallant is come away a little too soon, having lost never a mast nor sayle. And then we did begin to discourse of the young gentlemen captains, which he was very free with me in speaking his mind of the unruliness of them; and what a losse the King (36) hath of his old men, and now of this Hannam, of The Resolution, if he be dead, and that there is but few old sober men in the fleete, and if these few of the Flags that are so should die, he fears some other gentlemen captains will get in, and then what a council we shall have, God knows. He told me how he is disturbed to hear the commanders at sea called cowards here on shore, and that he was yesterday concerned publiquely at a dinner to defend them, against somebody that said that not above twenty of them fought as they should do, and indeed it is derived from the Duke of Albemarle (57) himself, who wrote so to the King (36) and Duke (32), and that he told them how they fought four days, two of them with great disadvantage. The Count de Guiche, who was on board De Ruyter (59), writing his narrative home in French of the fight, do lay all the honour that may be upon the English courage above the Dutch, and that he himself [Sir W. Coventry (38)] was sent down from the King (36) and Duke of Yorke (32) after the fight, to pray them to spare none that they thought had not done their parts, and that they had removed but four, whereof Du Tell is one, of whom he would say nothing; but, it seems, the Duke of Yorke (32) hath been much displeased at his removal, and hath now taken him into his service, which is a plain affront to the Duke of Albemarle (57); and two of the others, Sir W. Coventry (38) did speake very slenderly of their faults. Only the last, which was old Teddiman, he says, is in fault, and hath little to excuse himself with; and that, therefore, we should not be forward in condemning men of want of courage, when the Generalls, who are both men of metal, and hate cowards, and had the sense of our ill successe upon them (and by the way must either let the world thinke it was the miscarriage of the Captains or their owne conduct), have thought fit to remove no more of them, when desired by the King (36) and Duke of Yorke (32) to do it, without respect to any favour any of them can pretend to in either of them.
At last we concluded that we never can hope to beat the Dutch with such advantage as now in number and force and a fleete in want of nothing, and he hath often repeated now and at other times industriously that many of the Captains have: declared that they want nothing, and again, that they did lie ten days together at the Nore without demanding of any thing in the world but men, and of them they afterward, when they went away, the generalls themselves acknowledge that they have permitted several ships to carry supernumeraries, but that if we do not speede well, we must then play small games and spoile their trade in small parties. And so we parted, and I, meeting Creed in the Parke again, did take him by coach and to Islington, thinking to have met my Lady Pen (42) and wife, but they were gone, so we eat and drank and away back, setting him down in Cheapside and I home, and there after a little while making of my tune to "It is decreed", to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 29 July 1666. 29 Jul 1666. Lord's Day. Up and all the morning in my chamber making up my accounts in my book with my father and brother and stating them. Towards noon before sermon was done at church comes newes by a letter to Sir W. Batten (65), to my hand, of the late fight, which I sent to his house, he at church. But, Lord! with what impatience I staid till sermon was done, to know the issue of the fight, with a thousand hopes and fears and thoughts about the consequences of either. At last sermon is done and he come home, and the bells immediately rung soon as the church was done. But coming; to Sir W. Batten (65) to know the newes, his letter said nothing of it; but all the towne is full of a victory.
By and by a letter from Sir W. Coventry (38) tells me that we have the victory. Beat them into the Weelings1 had taken two of their great ships; but by the orders of the Generalls they are burned. This being, methought, but a poor result after the fighting of two so great fleetes, and four days having no tidings of them, I was still impatient; but could know no more.
So away home to dinner, where Mr. Spong and Reeves dined with me by invitation. And after dinner to our business of my microscope to be shown some of the observables of that, and then down to my office to looke in a darke room with my glasses and tube, and most excellently things appeared indeed beyond imagination. This was our worke all the afternoon trying the several glasses and several objects, among others, one of my plates, where the lines appeared so very plain that it is not possible to thinke how plain it was done.
Thence satisfied exceedingly with all this we home and to discourse many pretty things, and so staid out the afternoon till it began to be dark, and then they away and I to Sir W. Batten (65), where the Lieutenant of the Tower (51) was, and Sir John Minnes (67), and the newes I find is no more or less than what I had heard before; only that our Blue squadron, it seems, was pursued the most of the time, having more ships, a great many, than its number allotted to her share. Young Seamour is killed, the only captain slain. The Resolution burned; but, as they say, most of her [crew] and commander saved. This is all, only we keep the sea, which denotes a victory, or at least that we are not beaten; but no great matters to brag of, God knows.
So home to supper and to bed.
Note 1. In a letter from Richard Browne to Williamson, dated Yarmouth, July 30th, we read, "The Zealanders were engaged with the Blue squadron Wednesday and most of Thursday, but at length the Zealanders ran; the Dutch fleet escaped to the Weelings and Goree" (Calendar of State Papers, 1665-66, p 591).

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 30 July 1666. 30 Jul 1666. Up, and did some business in my chamber, then by and by comes my boy's lute-Master, and I did direct him hereafter to begin to teach him to play his part on the Theorbo, which he will do, and that in a little time I believe.
So to the office, and there with Sir W. Warren, with whom I have spent no time a good while. We set right our business of the Lighters, wherein I thinke I shall get £100.
At noon home to dinner and there did practise with Mercer one of my new tunes that I have got Dr. Childe (60) to set me a base to and it goes prettily.
Thence abroad to pay several debts at the end of the month, and so to Sir W. Coventry (38), at St. James's, where I find him in his new closett, which is very fine, and well supplied with handsome books. I find him speak very slightly of the late victory: dislikes their staying with the fleete up their coast, believing that the Dutch will come out in fourteen days, and then we with our unready fleete, by reason of some of the ships being maymed, shall be in bad condition to fight them upon their owne coast: is much dissatisfied with the great number of men, and their fresh demands of twenty-four victualling ships, they going out but the other day as full as they could stow. I asked him whether he did never desire an account of the number of supernumeraries, as I have done several ways, without which we shall be in great errour about the victuals; he says he has done it again and again, and if any mistake should happen they must thanke themselves. He spoke slightly of the Duke of Albemarle (57), saying, when De Ruyter (59) come to give him a broadside—"Now", says he, chewing of tobacco the while, "will this fellow come and give, me two broadsides, and then he will run"; but it seems he held him to it two hours, till the Duke himself was forced to retreat to refit, and was towed off, and De Ruyter (59) staid for him till he come back again to fight. One in the ship saying to the Duke, "Sir, methinks De Ruyter (59) hath given us more: than two broadsides";—"Well", says the Duke, "but you shall find him run by and by", and so he did, says Sir W. Coventry (38); but after the Duke himself had been first made to fall off. The Resolution had all brass guns, being the same that Sir J. Lawson (51) had in her in the Straights. It is observed that the two fleetes were even in number to one ship.
Thence home; and to sing with my wife and Mercer in the garden; and coming in I find my wife plainly dissatisfied with me, that I can spend so much time with Mercer, teaching her to sing and could never take the pains with her. Which I acknowledge; but it is because that the girl do take musique mighty readily, and she do not, and musique is the thing of the world that I love most, and all the pleasure almost that I can now take.
So to bed in some little discontent, but no words from me.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 29 April 1668. 29 Apr 1668. Up, and to my office, where all the morning busy.
At noon dined at home, and my clerks with me, and thence I to White Hall, and there do hear how Sir W. Pen (47) hath delivered in his answer; and the Lords have sent it down to the Commons, but they have not yet read it, nor taken notice of it, so as, I believe, they will by design defer it till they rise, that so he, by lying under an impeachment, may be prevented in his going to sea, which will vex him, and trouble the Duke of York (34). Did little business with the Duke of York (34), and then Lord Brouncker (48) and I to the Duke of York's playhouse, and there saw "Love in a Tubb"; and, after the play done, I stepped up to Harris's (34) dressing-room, where I never was, and there I observe much company come to him, and the Witts, to talk, after the play is done, and to assign meetings. Mine was to talk about going down to see "The Resolution", and so away, and thence to Westminster Hall, and there met with Mr. G. Montagu (45), and walked and talked; who tells me that the best fence against the Parliament's present fury is delay, and recommended it to me, in my friends' business and my own, if I have any; and is that, that Sir W. Coventry (40) do take, and will secure himself; that the King (37) will deliver up all to the Parliament; and being petitioned the other day by Mr. Brouncker (48) to protect him, with teares in his eyes, the King (37) did say he could not, and bid him shift for himself, at least till the House is up.
Thence I away to White Hall, and there took coach home with a stranger I let into the coach, to club with me for it, he going into London, I set him down at the lower end of Cheapside, and I home, and to Sir W. Pen's (47), and there sat, and by and by, it being now about nine o'clock at night, I heard Mercer's voice, and my boy Tom's singing in the garden, which pleased me mightily, I longing to see the girl, having not seen her since my wife went; and so into the garden to her and sang, and then home to supper, and mightily pleased with her company, in talking and singing, and so parted, and to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 15 July 1668. 15 Jul 1668. Up, and all the morning busy at the office to my great content, attending to the settling of papers there that I may have the more rest in winter for my eyes by how much I do the more in the settling of all things in the summer by daylight.
At noon home to dinner, where is brought home the espinette I bought the other day of Haward; costs me £5.
So to St. James's, where did our ordinary business with the Duke of York (34).
So to Unthanke's to my wife, and with her and Deb. to visit Mrs. Pierce, whom I do not now so much affect, since she paints. But stayed here a while, and understood from her how my Lady Duchesse of Monmouth (17) is still lame, and likely always to be so, which is a sad chance for a young [lady] to get, only by trying of tricks in dancing.
So home, and there Captain Deane (34) come and spent the evening with me, to draw some finishing lines on his fine draught of "The Resolution", the best ship, by all report, in the world, and so to bed. Wonderful hot all day and night, and this the first night that I remember in my life that ever I could lie with only a sheet and one rug. So much I am now stronger than ever I remember myself, at least since before I had the stone.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 21 September 1668. 21 Sep 1668. Up, and betimes Sir D. Gauden with me talking about the Victualling business, which is now under dispute for a new contract, or whether it shall be put into a Commission. He gone, comes Mr. Hill (38) to talk with me about Lanyon's business, and so being in haste I took him to the water with me, and so to White Hall, and there left him, and I to Sir W. Coventry (40), and shewed him my answer to the Duke of York's (34) great letter, which he likes well. We also discoursed about the Victualling business, which he thinks there is a design to put into a way of Commission, but do look upon all things to be managed with faction, and is grieved under it.
So to St. James's, and there the Duke of York (34) did of his own accord come to me, and tell me that he had read, and do like of, my answers to the objections which he did give me the other day, about the Navy; and so did W. Coventry (40) too, who told me that the Duke of York (34) had shown him them: So to White Hall a little and the Chequer, and then by water home to dinner with my people, where Tong was also this day with me, whom I shall employ for a time, and so out again and by water to Somerset House, but when come thither I turned back and to Southwarke-Fair, very dirty, and there saw the puppet-show of Whittington, which was pretty to see; and how that idle thing do work upon people that see it, and even myself too! And thence to Jacob Hall's dancing on the ropes, where I saw such action as I never saw before, and mightily worth seeing; and here took acquaintance with a fellow that carried me to a tavern, whither come the musick of this booth, and by and by Jacob Hall himself, with whom I had a mind to speak, to hear whether he had ever any mischief by falls in his time. He told me, "Yes, many; but never to the breaking of a limb:" he seems a mighty strong man. So giving them a bottle or two of wine, I away with Payne, the waterman. He, seeing me at the play, did get a link to light me, and so light me to the Beare, where Bland, my waterman, waited for me with gold and other things he kept for me, to the value of £40 and more, which I had about me, for fear of my pockets being cut. So by link-light through the bridge, it being mighty dark, but still weather, and so home, where I find my draught of "The Resolution" come, finished, from Chatham; but will cost me, one way or other, about £12 or £13, in the board, frame, and garnishing, which is a little too much, but I will not be beholden to the King's officers that do it.
So to supper, and the boy to read to me, and so to bed. This day I met Mr. Moore in the New Exchange, and had much talk of my Lord's concernments. This day also come out first the new five-pieces in gold, coined by the Guiny Company; and I did get two pieces of Mr. Holder1. 22nd. Up, and to the Office, where sitting all the morning at noon, home to dinner, with my people, and so to the Office again, where busy all the afternoon, and in the evening spent my time walking in the dark, in the garden, to favour my eyes, which I find nothing but ease to help. In the garden there comes to me my Lady Pen (44) and Mrs. Turner (45) and Markham, and we sat and talked together, and I carried them home, and there eat a bit of something, and by and by comes Sir W. Pen (47), and eat with us, and mighty merry-in appearance, at least, he being on all occasions glad to be at friendship with me, though we hate one another, and know it on both sides. They gone, Mrs. Turner (45) and I to walk in the garden.... So led her home, and I back to bed. This day Mr. Wren (39) did give me, at the Board, Commissioner Middleton's answer to the Duke of York's (34) great letter; so that now I have all of them.
Note 1. Guineas took their name from the gold brought from Guinea by the African Company in 1663, who, as an encouragement to bring over gold to be coined, were permitted by their charter from Charles II to have their stamp of an elephant upon the coin. When first coined they were valued at 20s., but were worth 30s. in 1695. There were likewise fivepound pieces, like the guinea, with the inscription upon the rim.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 October 1668. 17 Oct 1668. Up, and to the office, where all the morning sitting, and at noon home to dinner, and to the office all the afternoon, and then late home, and there with much pleasure getting Mr. Gibbs, that writes well, to write the name upon my new draught of "The Resolution"; and so set it up, and altered the situation of some of my pictures in my closet, to my extraordinary content, and at it with much pleasure till almost 12 at night. Mr. Moore and Seymour were with me this afternoon, who tell me that my Lord Sandwich (43) was received mighty kindly by the King (38), and is in exceeding great esteem with him, and the rest about him; but I doubt it will be hard for him to please both the King (38) and the Duke of York (35), which I shall be sorry for. Mr. Moore tells me the sad condition my Lord is in, in his estate and debts; and the way he now lives in, so high, and so many vain servants about him, that he must be ruined, if he do not take up, which, by the grace of God, I will put him upon, when I come to see him.

Richmond

John Evelyn's Diary 08 May 1666. 08 May 1666. To Queensborough, where finding the Richmond frigate, I sailed to the buoy of the Nore to my Lord-General (57) and Prince Rupert (46), where was the Rendezvous of the most glorious fleet in the world, now preparing to meet the Hollander.

Dartmouth

John Evelyn's Diary 20 April 1665. 20 Apr 1665. To Whitehall, to the King (34), who called me into his bedchamber as he was dressing, to whom, I showed the letter written to me from the Duke of York (31) from the fleet, giving me notice of young Evertzen, and some considerable commanders newly taken in fight with the Dartmouth and Diamond frigates, whom he had sent me as prisoners at war; I went to know of his Majesty (34) how he would have me treat them, when he commanded me to bring the young captain to him, and to take the word of the Dutch Ambassador (who yet remained here) for the other, that he should render himself to me whenever I called on him, and not stir without leave. Upon which I desired more guards, the prison being Chelsea House. I went also to Lord Arlington (47) (the Secretary Bennet lately made a Lord) about other business. Dined at my Lord Chancellor's (56); none with him but Sir Sackville Crowe (69), formerly Ambassador at Constantinople; we were very cheerful and merry.

The London

Bezan

Norwich

Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 June 1661. 06 Jun 1661. My head hath aked all night, and all this morning, with my last night's debauch. Called up this morning by Lieutenant Lambert, who is now made Captain of the Norwich, and he and I went down by water to Greenwich, in our way observing and discoursing upon the things of a ship, he telling me all I asked him, which was of good use to me. There we went and eat and drank and heard musique at the Globe, and saw the simple motion that is there of a woman with a rod in her hand keeping time to the musique while it plays, which is simple, methinks.
Back again by water, calling at Captain Lambert's house, which is very handsome and neat, and a fine prospect at top. So to the office, where we sat a little, and then the Captain and I again to Bridewell to Mr. Holland's, where his wife also, a plain dowdy, and his mother was. Here I paid Mrs. Holland the money due from me to her husband. Here came two young gentlewomen to see Mr. Holland, and one of them could play pretty well upon the viallin, but, good God! how these ignorant people did cry her up for it! We were very merry. I staid and supped there, and so home and to bed. The weather very hot, this night I left off my wastecoat.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 30 October 1661. 30 Oct 1661. All the morning at the office. At noon played on my Theorbo, and much pleased therewith; it is now altered with a new neck. In the afternoon Captain Lambert called me out by appointment, and we walked together to Deptford, and there in his ship, the Norwich, I got him to shew me every hole and corner of the ship, much to my information, and the purpose of my going. !So home again, and at Sir W. Batten's (60) heard how he had been already at Sir R. Slingsby's (50), as we were all invited, and I intended this night to go, and there he finds all things out of order, and no such thing done to-night, but pretending that the corps stinks, they will bury it to-night privately, and so will unbespeak all their guests, and there shall be no funerall, which I am sorry for, that there should be nothing done for the honour of Sir Robert, but I fear he hath left his family in great distraction.
Here I staid till late at cards with my Lady and Mrs. Martha, and so home. I sent for a bottle or two of wine thither.
At my coming home I am sorry to find my wife displeased with her maid Doll, whose fault is that she cannot keep her peace, but will always be talking in an angry manner, though it be without any reason and to no purpose, which I am sorry for and do see the inconvenience that do attend the increase of a man's fortune by being forced to keep more servants, which brings trouble. Sir Henry Vane (48), Lambert (42), and others, are lately sent suddenly away from the Tower, prisoners to Scilly; but I do not think there is any plot as is said, but only a pretence; as there was once pretended often against the Cavaliers.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 11 April 1663. 11 Apr 1663. Up betimes and to my office, where we sat also all the morning till noon, and then home to dinner, my father being there but not very well.
After dinner in comes Captain Lambert of the Norwich, this day come from Tangier, whom I am glad to see. There came also with him Captain Wager, and afterwards in came Captain Allen to see me, of The Resolution. All staid a pretty while, and so away, and I a while to my office, then abroad into the street with my father, and left him to go to see my aunt Wight and uncle, intending to lie at Tom's to-night, or my cozen Scott's, where it seems he has hitherto lain and is most kindly used there. So I home and to my office very late making up my Lord's navy accounts, wherein I find him to stand debtor £1200.
So home to supper and to bed.

Henry

Four Days' Battle

John Evelyn's Diary 03 June 1666. 03 Jun 1666. Whitsunday. After sermon came news that the Duke of Albemarle (57) was still in fight, and had been all Saturday, and that Captain Harman's (41) ship (the Henry) was like to be burnt. Then a letter from Mr. Bertie that Prince Rupert (46) was come up with his squadron (according to my former advice of his being loose and in the way), and put new courage into our fleet, now in a manner yielding ground; so that now we were chasing the chasers; that the Duke of Albemarle (57) was slightly wounded, and the rest still in great danger. So, having been much wearied with my journey, I slipped home, the guns still roaring very fiercely.

Leopard

In Feb 1659 Leopard launched at Deptford. A 44-gun fourth-rate frigate of the English Royal Navy, originally built for the navy of the Commonwealth of England at Deptford.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 December 1663. 24 Dec 1663. Up betimes; and though it was a most foggy morning, and cold, yet with a gally down to Eriffe, several times being at a loss whither we went. There I mustered two ships of the King's, lent by him to the Guiny Company, which are manned better than ours at far less wages.
Thence on board two of the King's, one of them the "Leopard", Captain Beech, who I find an able and serious man. He received me civilly, and his wife was there, a very well bred and knowing woman, born at Antwerp, but speaks as good English as myself, and an ingenious woman. Here was also Sir G. Carteret's (53) son, who I find a pretty, but very talking man, but good humour.
Thence back again, entertaining myself upon my sliding rule with great content, and called at Woolwich, where Mr. Chr. Pett (43) having an opportunity of being alone did tell me his mind about several things he thought I was offended with him in, and told me of my kindness to his assistant. I did give him such an answer as I thought was fit and left him well satisfied, he offering to do me all the service, either by draughts or modells that I should desire.
Thence straight home, being very cold, but yet well, I thank God, and at home found my wife making mince pies, and by and by comes in Captain Ferrers to see us, and, among other talke, tells us of the goodness of the new play of "Henry VIII", which makes me think [it] long till my time is out; but I hope before I go I shall set myself such a stint as I may not forget myself as I have hitherto done till I was forced for these months last past wholly to forbid myself the seeing of one. He gone I to my office and there late writing and reading, and so home to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 11 January 1665. 11 Jan 1665. Up, and very angry with my boy for lying long a bed and forgetting his lute. To my office all the morning.
At noon to the 'Change, and so home to dinner.
After dinner to Gresham College to my Lord Bruncker (45) and Commissioner Pett (54), taking, Mr. Castle (36) with me there to discourse over his draught of a ship he is to build for us. Where I first found reason to apprehend Commissioner Pett (54) to be a man of an ability extraordinary in any thing, for I found he did turn and wind Castle (36) like a chicken in his business, and that most pertinently and mister-like, and great pleasure it was to me to hear them discourse, I, of late having studied something thereof, and my Lord Bruncker (45) is a very able person also himself in this sort of business, as owning himself to be a master in the business of all lines and Conicall Sections.
Thence home, where very late at my office doing business to my content, though [God] knows with what ado it was that when I was out I could get myself to come home to my business, or when I was there though late would stay there from going abroad again.
To supper and to bed. This evening, by a letter from Plymouth, I hear that two of our ships, the Leopard and another, in the Straights, are lost by running aground; and that three more had like to have been so, but got off, whereof Captain Allen (53) one: and that a Dutch fleete are gone thither; which if they should meet with our lame ships, God knows what would become of them. This I reckon most sad newes; God make us sensible of it! This night, when I come home, I was much troubled to hear my poor canary bird, that I have kept these three or four years, is dead.

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By 1666 Leopard had increased her guns to fifty-six.

In 1699 Leopard was sunk for a breakwater.

William and Mary

Diary of Samuel Pepys 07 November 1663. 07 Nov 1663. Up and to the office, where we sat all the morning, and Sir W. Pen (42) and I had a word or two, where by opposing him in not being willing to excuse a mulct put upon the purser of the James, absent from duty, he says, by his business and order, he was mighty angry, and went out of the office like an asse discontented: At which I am never a whit sorry; I would not have (him) think that I dare not oppose him, where I see reason and cause for it.
Home to dinner, and then by coach abroad about several businesses to several places, among others to Westminster Hall, where, seeing Howlett's daughter going out of the other end of the Hall, I followed her if I would to have offered talk to her and dallied with her a little, but I could not overtake her.
Then calling at Unthank's for something of my wife's not done, a pretty little gentlewoman, a lodger there, came out to tell me that it was not yet done, which though it vexed me yet I took opportunity of taking her by the hand with the boot, and so found matter to talk a little the longer to her, but I was ready to laugh at myself to see how my anger would not operate, my disappointment coming to me by such a messenger.
Thence to Doctors' Commons and there consulted Dr. Turner about some differences we have with the officers of the East India ships about goods brought by them without paying freight, which we demand of them.
So home to my office, and there late writing letters, and so home to supper and to bed, having got a scurvy cold by lying cold in my head the last night. This day Captain Taylor brought me a piece of plate, a little small state dish, he expecting that I should get him some allowance for demorage1 of his ship "William", kept long at Tangier, which I shall and may justly do.
Note 1. "'Demurrage' is the compensation due to a shipowner from a freighter for unduly decaying his vessel in port beyond the time specified in the charter-party or bill of lading. It is in fact an extended freight. A ship, unjustly detained as a prize is entitled to 'demurrage.'"—Smyth's Sailor's Word-Book, 1867.

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The Royal James

Rupert

Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 May 1666. 09 May 1666. Up by five o'clock, which I have not a long time done, and down the river by water to Deptford, among other things to examine the state of Ironworke, in order to the doing something with reference to Downing that may induce him to returne me the 50 pieces. Walked back again reading of my Civill Law Book, and so home and by coach to White Hall, where we did our usual business before the Duke (32), and heard the Duke commend Deane's (32) ship "The Rupert" before "The Defyance", built lately by Castle (37), in hearing of Sir W. Batten (65), which pleased me mightily.
Thence by water to Westminster, and there looked after my Tangier order, and so by coach to Mrs. Pierce's, thinking to have gone to Hales's (66), but she was not ready, so away home and to dinner, and after dinner out by coach to Lovett's to have forwarded what I have doing there, but find him and his pretty wife gone to my house to show me something.
So away to my Lord Treasurer's (59), and thence to Pierces, where I find Knipp, and I took them to Hales's (66) to see our pictures finished, which are very pretty, but I like not hers half so well as I thought at first, it being not so like, nor so well painted as I expected, or as mine and my wife's are.
Thence with them to Cornhill to call and choose a chimney-piece for Pierces closett, and so home, where my wife in mighty pain and mightily vexed at my being abroad with these women; and when they were gone called them whores and I know not what, which vexed me, having been so innocent with them.
So I with them to Mrs. Turner's (43) and there sat with them a while, anon my wife sends for me, I come, and what was it but to scold at me and she would go abroad to take the ayre presently, that she would. So I left my company and went with her to Bow, but was vexed and spoke not one word to her all the way going nor coming, or being come home, but went up straight to bed. Half an hour after (she in the coach leaning on me as being desirous to be friends) she comes up mighty sicke with a fit of the cholique and in mighty pain and calls for me out of the bed; I rose and held her, she prays me to forgive her, and in mighty pain we put her to bed, where the pain ceased by and by, and so had some asparagus to our bed side for supper and very kindly afterward to sleepe and good friends in the morning.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 19 May 1666. 19 May 1666. Up, and to the office all the morning. At noon took Deane (32) (lately come to towne) home with me to dinner, and there after giving him some reprimands and good advice about his deportment in the place where by my interest he is at Harwich, and then declaring my resolution of being his friend still, we did then fall to discourse about his ship "Rupert", built by him there, which succeeds so well as he hath got great honour by it, and I some by recommending him; the King (35), Duke (32), and every body saying it is the best ship that was ever built. And then he fell to explain to me his manner of casting the draught of water which a ship will draw before-hand: which is a secret the King (35) and all admire in him; and he is the first that hath come to any certainty before-hand, of foretelling the draught of water of a ship before she be launched. I must confess I am much pleased in his successe in this business, and do admire at the confidence of Castle (37) who did undervalue the draught Deane (32) sent up to me, that I was ashamed to owne it or him, Castle (37) asking of me upon the first sight of it whether he that laid it down had ever built a ship or no, which made me the more doubtfull of him.
He being gone, I to the office, where much business and many persons to speake with me. Late home and to bed, glad to be at a little quiett.

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Four Days' Battle

Diary of Samuel Pepys 03 June 1666. 03 Jun 1666. Lord's-day; Whit-sunday. Up, and by water to White Hall, and there met with Mr. Coventry (38), who tells me the only news from the fleete is brought by Captain Elliott, of The Portland, which, by being run on board by The Guernsey, was disabled from staying abroad; so is come in to Aldbrough. That he saw one of the Dutch great ships blown up, and three on fire. That they begun to fight on Friday; and at his coming into port, he could make another ship of the King's coming in, which he judged to be the Rupert: that he knows of no other hurt to our ships. With this good newes I home by water again, and to church in the sermon-time, and with great joy told it my fellows in the pew.
So home after church time to dinner, and after dinner my father, wife, sister, and Mercer by water to Woolwich, while I walked by land, and saw the Exchange as full of people, and hath been all this noon as of any other day, only for newes. I to St. Margaret's, Westminster, and there saw at church my pretty Betty Michell, and thence to the Abbey, and so to Mrs. Martin, and there did what 'je voudrais avec her [I wanted with her].... So by and by he come in, and after some discourse with him I away to White Hall, and there met with this bad newes farther, that the Prince (46) come to Dover but at ten o'clock last night, and there heard nothing of a fight; so that we are defeated of all our hopes of his helpe to the fleete. It is also reported by some Victuallers that the Duke of Albemarle (57) and Holmes their flags were shot down, and both fain to come to anchor to renew their rigging and sails.
A letter is also come this afternoon, from Harman (41) in the Henery; which is she [that] was taken by Elliott for the Rupert; that being fallen into the body of the Dutch fleete, he made his way through them, was set on by three fire-ships one after another, got two of them off, and disabled the third; was set on fire himself; upon which many of his men leapt into the sea and perished; among others, the parson first. Have lost above 100 men, and a good many women (God knows what is become of Balty (26)), and at last quenched his own fire and got to Aldbrough; being, as all say, the greatest hazard that ever any ship escaped, and as bravely managed by him. The mast of the third fire-ship fell into their ship on fire, and hurt Harman's (41) leg, which makes him lame now, but not dangerous.
I to Sir G. Carteret (56), who told me there hath been great bad management in all this; that the King's orders that went on Friday for calling back the Prince (46), were sent but by the ordinary post on Wednesday; and come to the Prince (46) his hands but on Friday; and then, instead of sailing presently, he stays till four in the evening. And that which is worst of all, the Hampshire, laden with merchants' money, come from the Straights, set out with or but just before the fleete, and was in the Downes by five in the clock yesterday morning; and the Prince with his fleete come to Dover but at ten of the clock at night. This is hard to answer, if it be true. This puts great astonishment into the King (36), and Duke (32), and Court, every body being out of countenance.
So meeting Creed, he and I by coach to Hide Parke alone to talke of these things, and do blesse God that my Lord Sandwich (40) was not here at this time to be concerned in a business like to be so misfortunate. It was a pleasant thing to consider how fearfull I was of being seen with Creed all this afternoon, for fear of people's thinking that by our relation to my Lord Sandwich (40) we should be making ill construction of the Prince's (46) failure. But, God knows, I am heartily sorry for the sake of the whole nation, though, if it were not for that, it would not be amisse to have these high blades find some checke to their presumption and their disparaging of as good men.
Thence set him down in Covent Guarden and so home by the 'Change, which is full of people still, and all talk highly of the failure of the Prince (46) in not making more haste after his instructions did come, and of our managements here in not giving it sooner and with more care and oftener.
Thence. After supper to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 June 1666. 08 Jun 1666. Up very betimes and to attend the Duke of York (32) by order, all of us to report to him what the works are that are required of us and to divide among us, wherein I have taken a very good share, and more than I can perform, I doubt.
Thence to the Exchequer about some Tangier businesses, and then home, where to my very great joy I find Balty (26) come home without any hurt, after the utmost imaginable danger he hath gone through in the Henery, being upon the quarterdeck with Harman (41) all the time; and for which service Harman (41) I heard this day commended most seriously and most eminently by the Duke of Yorke (32). As also the Duke did do most utmost right to Sir Thomas Teddiman, of whom a scandal was raised, but without cause, he having behaved himself most eminently brave all the whole fight, and to extraordinary great service and purpose, having given Trump himself such a broadside as was hardly ever given to any ship. Mings (40) is shot through the face, and into the shoulder, where the bullet is lodged. Young Holmes' is also ill wounded, and Ather in The Rupert. Balty (26) tells me the case of the Henery; and it was, indeed, most extraordinary sad and desperate.
After dinner Balty (26) and I to my office, and there talked a great deal of this fight; and I am mightily pleased in him and have great content in, and hopes of his doing well.
Thence out to White Hall to a Committee for Tangier, but it met not. But, Lord! to see how melancholy the Court is, under the thoughts of this last overthrow (for so it is), instead of a victory, so much and so unreasonably expected.
Thence, the Committee not meeting, Creed and I down the river as low as Sir W. Warren's, with whom I did motion a business that may be of profit to me, about buying some lighters to send down to the fleete, wherein he will assist me.
So back again, he and I talking of the late ill management of this fight, and of the ill management of fighting at all against so great a force bigger than ours, and so to the office, where we parted, but with this satisfaction that we hear the Swiftsure, Sir W. Barkeley (27), is come in safe to the Nore, after her being absent ever since the beginning of the fight, wherein she did not appear at all from beginning to end. But wherever she has been, they say she is arrived there well, which I pray God however may be true. At the office late, doing business, and so home to supper and to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 02 April 1667. 02 Apr 1667. Up, and to the office, where all the morning sitting, and much troubled, but little business done for want of money, which makes me mighty melancholy.
At noon home to dinner, and Deane (33) with me, who hath promised me a very fine draught of the Rupert, which he will make purposely for me with great perfection, which I will make one of the beautifullest things that ever was seen of the kind in the world, she being a ship that will deserve it.
Then to the office, where all the afternoon very busy, and in the evening weary home and there to sing, but vexed with the unreadiness of the girle's voice to learn the latter part of my song, though I confess it is very hard, half notes.
So to supper and to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 18 October 1667. 18 Oct 1667. Up, and by coach with Sir W. Pen (46) to White Hall, and there attended the Duke of York (34); but first we find him to spend above an hour in private in his closet with Sir W. Coventry (39); which I was glad to see, that there is so much confidence between them.
By and by we were called in and did our usual business, and complained of the business yesterday discovered of our officers abusing the King (37) in the appraisement of the prizes. Here it was worth observing that the Duke of York (34), considering what third rate ships to keep abroad, the Rupert was thought on, but then it was said that Captain Hubbert was Commander of her and that the King (37) had a mind for Spragg (47) to command the ship, which would not be well to be by turning out Hubbert, who is a good man, but one the Duke of York (34) said he did not know whether he did so well conforme, as at this lime to please the people and Parliament. Sir W. Coventry (39) answered, and the Duke of York (34) merrily agreed to it, that it was very hard to know what it was that the Parliament would call conformity at this time, and so it stopped, which I only observe to see how the Parliament's present temper do amuse them all.
Thence to several places to buy a hat, and books, and neckcloths, and several errands I did before I got home, and, among others, bought me two new pair of spectacles of Turlington, who, it seems, is famous for them; and his daughter, he being out of the way, do advise me two very young sights, as that that will help me most, and promises me great ease from them, and I will try them. At the Exchange I met Creed, and took him home with me, and dined, and among other things he tells me that Sir Robert Brookes is the man that did mention the business in Parliament yesterday about my Lord Sandwich (42), but that it was seconded by nobody, but the matter will fall before the Committee for miscarriages.
Thence, after dinner, my wife and he, and I, and Willet to the King's house, and saw "Brenoralt", which is a good tragedy, that I like well, and parted after the play, and so home, and there a little at my office, and so to my chamber, and spent this night late in telling over all my gold, and putting it into proper bags and my iron chest, being glad with my heart to see so much of it here again, but cannot yet tell certainly how much I have lost by Gibson in his journey, and my father's burying of it in the dirt. At this late, but did it to my mind, and so to supper and to bed.

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1672 Battle of Solebay

On 28 May 1672 Philip Carteret 1641-1672 (31) and Winston Churchill -1672 were killed at Solebay.
Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (46) was killed. His son Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Sandwich 1648-1688 (24) succeeded 2nd Earl Sandwich.
George Legge 1st Baron Dartmouth 1647-1691 (25) fought.
Charles Harbord 1640-1672 (32) was killed. The inscription on his. Monument in Westminster Abbey reads ... Sr. Charles Harbord Knt. his Majesties Surveyor General, and First Lieutenant of the Royall James, under the most noble and illustrious captain Edward, Earle of Sandwich (46), Vice Admirall of England, which after a terrible fight maintained to admiration against a squadron of the Holland fleet for above six houres, neere the Suffolk coast, having put off two fireships, at last being utterly disSabled and few of her men remaining unhurt, was by a third unfortunately set on fire: but he (though he swam well) neglected to save himselfe as some did, and out of the perfect love to that worthy lord (whom for many yeares he had constantly accompanyed in all his honourable imployments, and in all the engagements of the former warr) dyed with him at the age of XXXIII, much bewailed of his father whom he never offended, and much beloved of all for his knowne piety, vertue, loyalty, fortitude and fidelity.
Captain John Cox -1672 was killed in action.
Admiral John Holmes 1640-1683 (32) fought as commander of Rupert.

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Charles II

Battle of Lowestoft

John Evelyn's Diary 30 June 1665. 30 Jun 1665. To Chatham; and, 1st July, to the fleet with Lord Sandwich (39), now Admiral, with whom I went in a pinnace to the Buoy of the Nore, where the whole fleet rode at anchor; went on board the Prince, of ninety brass ordnance, haply the best ship in the world, both for building and sailing; she had 700 men. They made a great huzza, or shout, at our approach, three times. Here we dined with many noblemen, gentlemen, and volunteers, served in plate and excellent meat of all sorts. After dinner, came his Majesty, the Duke (31), and Prince Rupert (45). Here I saw the King (35) knight Captain Custance for behaving so bravely in the late fight. It was surprising to behold the good order, decency, and plenty of all things in a vessel so full of men. The ship received a hundred cannon shot in her body. Then I went on board the Charles, to which after a gun was shot off, came all the flag officers to his Majesty (35), who there held a General Council, which determined that his Royal Highness (35) should adventure himself no more this summer. I came away late, having seen the most glorious fleet that ever spread sails. We returned in his Majesty's (35) yacht with my Lord Sandwich (39) and Mr. Vice-Chamberlain, landing at Chatham on Sunday morning.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 03 March 1668. 03 Mar 1668. Up betimes to work again, and then met at the Office, where to our great business of this answer to the Parliament; where to my great vexation I find my Lord Brouncker (48) prepared only to excuse himself, while I, that have least reason to trouble myself, am preparing with great pains to defend them all: and more, I perceive, he would lodge the beginning of discharging ships by ticket upon me; but I care not, for I believe I shall get more honour by it when the Parliament, against my will, shall see how the whole business of the Office was done by me.
At noon rose and to dinner. My wife abroad with Mercer and Deb. buying of things, but I with my clerks home to dinner, and thence presently down with Lord Brouncker (48), W. Pen, T. Harvy (42), T. Middleton, and Mr. Tippets, who first took his place this day at the table, as a Commissioner, in the room of Commissioner Pett (57). Down by water to Deptford, where the King (37), Queene (58), and Court are to see launched the new ship built by Mr. Shish (63), called "The Charles 2". God send her better luck than the former! Here some of our brethren, who went in a boat a little before my boat, did by appointment take opportunity of asking the King's leave that we might make full use of the want of money, in our excuse to the Parliament for the business of tickets, and other things they will lay to our charge, all which arose from nothing else: and this the King (37) did readily agree to, and did give us leave to make our full use of it. The ship being well launched, I back again by boat, setting Sir T. Middleton and Mr. Tippets on shore at Ratcliffe, I home and there to my chamber with Mr. Gibson, and late up till midnight preparing more things against our defence on Thursday next to my content, though vexed that all this trouble should be on me.
So to supper and to bed.

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John Evelyn's Diary 03 March 1668. 03 Mar 1668. Was launched at Deptford, that goodly vessel, "The Charles" I was near his Majesty (37). She is longer than the "Sovereign", and carries 110 brass cannon; she was built by old Shish (63), a plain, honest carpenter, master-builder of this dock, but one who can give very little account of his art by discourse, and is hardly capable of reading, yet of great ability in his calling. The family have been ship carpenters in this yard above 300 years.

John Evelyn's Diary 13 May 1668. 13 May 1668. Invited by that expert commander, Captain Cox, master of the lately built "Charles II" now the best vessel of the fleet, designed for the Duke of York (34), I went to Erith, where we had a great dinner.

1672 Battle of Solebay

John Evelyn's Diary 02 June 1672. 02 Jun 1672. Trinity Sunday, I passed at Rochester; and, on the 5th, there was buried in the Cathedral Monsieur Rabiniére, Rear Admiral of the French squadron, a gallant person, who died of the wounds he received in the fight. This ceremony lay on me, which I performed with all the decency I could, inviting the Mayor and Aldermen to come in their formalities. Sir Jonas Atkins was there with his guards; and the Dean and Prebendaries: one of his countrymen pronouncing a funeral oration at the brink of his grave, which I caused to be dug in the choir. This is more at large described in the "Gazette" of that day; Colonel Reymes (58), my colleague in commission, assisting, who was so kind as to accompany me from London, though it was not his district; for indeed the stress of both these wars lay more on me by far than on any of my brethren, who had little to do in theirs. I went to see Upnor Castle, which I found pretty well defended, but of no great moment.
Next day I sailed to the fleet, now riding at the buoy of the "Nore", where I met his Majesty (42), the Duke (38), Lord Arlington (54), and all the great men, in the "Charles", lying miserably shattered; but the miss of Lord Sandwich (46) redoubled the loss to me, and showed the folly of hazarding so brave a fleet, and losing so many good men, for no provocation but that the Hollanders exceeded us in industry, and in all things but envy.
At Sheerness, I gave his Majesty (42) and his Royal Highness (38) an account of my charge, and returned to Queenborough; next day dined at Major Dorel's, Governor of Sheerness; thence, to Rochester; and the following day, home.

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Cambridge

1672 Battle of Solebay

On 28 May 1672 Freschville Holles 1642-1672 (29) died at the 1672 Battle of Solebay at which he was in command of the Cambridge. He was buried at the Chapel of St Edmund in an unmarked grave.

Around 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Freschville Holles 1642-1672 and Admiral Robert Holmes 1622-1692.

Royal Charles

Triumph

Calendar of State Papers Charles II 14 Nov 1664. 14 Nov 1664. 103. Commissioner Peter Pett (54) to Sam. Pepys (31). The Triumph has sailed with 70 men from the Kent, and 50 soldiers that came from Hull. Progress of ships. [Adm. Paper.]

Phoenix

Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 January 1665. 14 Jan 1665. Up and to White Hall, where long waited in the Duke's chamber for a Committee intended for Tangier, but none met, and so I home and to the office, where we met a little, and then to the 'Change, where our late ill newes confirmed in loss of two ships in the Straights, but are now the Phoenix and Nonsuch!
Home to dinner, thence with my wife to the King's house, there to see "Vulpone", a most excellent play; the best I think I ever saw, and well, acted. So with Sir W. Pen (43) home in his coach, and then to the office.
So home, to supper, and bed, resolving by the grace of God from this day to fall hard to my business again, after some weeke or fortnight's neglect.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 January 1665. 23 Jan 1665. Up, and with Sir W. Batten (64) and Sir W. Pen (43) to White Hall; but there finding the Duke (31) gone to his lodgings at St. James's for all together, his Duchesse (27) being ready to lie in, we to him, and there did our usual business. And here I met the great newes confirmed by the Duke's own relation, by a letter from Captain Allen (53). First, of our own loss of two ships, the Phoenix and Nonesuch, in the Bay of Gibraltar: then of his, and his seven ships with him, in the Bay of Cales, or thereabouts, fighting with the 34 Dutch Smyrna fleete; sinking the King Salamon, a ship worth a £150,000 or more, some say £200,000, and another; and taking of three merchant-ships. Two of our ships were disabled, by the Dutch unfortunately falling against their will against them; the Advice, Captain W. Poole, and Antelope, Captain Clerke: The Dutch men-of-war did little service. Captain Allen (53) did receive many shots at distance before he would fire one gun, which he did not do till he come within pistol-shot of his enemy. The Spaniards on shore at Cales did stand laughing at the Dutch, to see them run away and flee to the shore, 34 or thereabouts, against eight Englishmen at most. I do purpose to get the whole relation, if I live, of Captain Allen (53) himself. In our loss of the two ships in the Bay of Gibraltar, it is observable how the world do comment upon the misfortune of Captain Moone of the Nonesuch (who did lose, in the same manner, the Satisfaction), as a person that hath ill-luck attending him; without considering that the whole fleete was ashore. Captain Allen (53) led the way, and Captain Allen (53) himself writes that all the masters of the fleete, old and young, were mistaken, and did carry their ships aground. But I think I heard the Duke (31) say that Moone, being put into the Oxford, had in this conflict regained his credit, by sinking one and taking another. Captain Seale of the Milford hath done his part very well, in boarding the King Salamon, which held out half an hour after she was boarded; and his men kept her an hour after they did master her, and then she sunk, and drowned about 17 of her men.
Thence to Jervas's, my mind, God forgive me, running too much after some folly, but 'elle' not being within I away by coach to the 'Change, and thence home to dinner. And finding Mrs. Bagwell waiting at the office after dinner, away she and I to a cabaret where she and I have eat before, and there I had her company 'tout' and had 'mon plaisir' of 'elle'. But strange to see how a woman, notwithstanding her greatest pretences of love 'a son mari' and religion, may be 'vaincue'.
Thence to the Court of the Turkey Company at Sir Andrew Rickard's (61) to treat about carrying some men of ours to Tangier, and had there a very civil reception, though a denial of the thing as not practicable with them, and I think so too.
So to my office a little and to Jervas's again, thinking 'avoir rencontrais' Jane, 'mais elle n'etait pas dedans'.
So I back again and to my office, where I did with great content 'ferais' a vow to mind my business, and 'laisser aller les femmes' for a month, and am with all my heart glad to find myself able to come to so good a resolution, that thereby I may follow my business, which and my honour thereby lies a bleeding.
So home to supper and to bed.

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Ruby

Calendar of State Papers Charles II 13 Nov 1664. 13 Nov 1664. 93. Wm. Coventry (36) to [Sec. Bennet (46)]. Hopes the wind will change, and bring the Charles and the other ships out of the river; will not then fear what Opdam can do, though the men are raw, and need a little time at sea. The Ruby and Happy Return have brought some supernumeraries, but 500 more are wanted; 200 are expected from Plymouth, but till some runaways are hanged, the ships cannot be kept well manned. Sends a list of some fit to be made examples of in the several counties where they were pressed, with the names of those who pressed them. The Dutch ship named before is brought in, and two others are stayed at Cowes by virtue of the embargo, the order in Council making no exception for foreigners, The King’s pleasure should be known therein, as the end, which is to gather seamen, does not seem to require the stopping of foreigners. Prize officers must- be sent speedily to [Portsmouth], Dover, and Deal. Those at Deal should have men in readiness to carry prizes up the river, that the men belonging to the fleet be not scattered. Persons should also be hastened to ‘take care of the sick and wounded. The Duke (31) intends to appoint Erwin captain of the ship hired to go to St. Helena; he is approved by the East India Company, which is important, trade being intermixed with convoy, and they find fault if a commander of the King’s ships bring home any little matter privately bought. The Duke has divided the fleet into squadrons, assigning to each a vice and rear adiniral; Sir John Lawson (49) and Sir Wm. Berkeley to his own, Mennes (65) and Sansum to Prince Rupert’s (44), Sir George Aiscue (48) [Ayscough] and Teddeman to the Earl of Sandwich. Hopes in a few days to be in much better order, if good men can be got. Will send a list of the squadrons. The Guernsey is damaged by running aground. Rear-Admiral Teddeman, with 4 or 5 ships, has gone to course in the Channel, and if he meet any refractory Dutchmen, will teach them their duty. The King’s declaration for encouraging seamen has much revived the men, and added to their courage. [Four pages.]

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Before 23 Jun 1686 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699. Portrait of William Coventry 1628-1686.Around 1676 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington 1618-1685 wearing his Garter Robes.Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington 1618-1685.Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Admiral John Lawson 1615-1665. One of the Flagmen of Lowestoft.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 02 November 1666. 02 Nov 1666. Up betimes, and with Sir W. Batten (65) to Woolwich, where first we went on board the Ruby, French prize, the only ship of war we have taken from any of our enemies this year. It seems a very good ship, but with galleries quite round the sterne to walk in as a balcone, which will be taken down. She had also about forty good brass guns, but will make little amends to our loss in The Prince.
Thence to the Ropeyarde and the other yards to do several businesses, he and I also did buy some apples and pork; by the same token the butcher commended it as the best in England for cloath and colour. And for his beef, says he, "Look how fat it is; the lean appears only here and there a speck, like beauty-spots". Having done at Woolwich, we to Deptford (it being very cold upon the water), and there did also a little more business, and so home, I reading all the why to make end of the "Bondman" (which the oftener I read the more I like), and begun "The Duchesse of Malfy"; which seems a good play.
At home to dinner, and there come Mr. Pierce, surgeon, to see me, and after I had eat something, he and I and my wife by coach to Westminster, she set us down at White Hall, and she to her brother's (26). I up into the House, and among other things walked a good while with the Serjeant Trumpet, who tells me, as I wished, that the King's Italian here is about setting three parts for trumpets, and shall teach some to sound them, and believes they will be admirable musique. I also walked with Sir Stephen Fox (39) an houre, and good discourse of publique business with him, who seems very much satisfied with my discourse, and desired more of my acquaintance. Then comes out the King (36) and Duke of York (33) from the Council, and so I spoke awhile to Sir W. Coventry (38) about some office business, and so called my wife (her brother (26) being now a little better than he was), and so home, and I to my chamber to do some business, and then to supper and to bed.

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Happy Return

Calendar of State Papers Charles II 13 Nov 1664. 13 Nov 1664. 93. Wm. Coventry (36) to [Sec. Bennet (46)]. Hopes the wind will change, and bring the Charles and the other ships out of the river; will not then fear what Opdam can do, though the men are raw, and need a little time at sea. The Ruby and Happy Return have brought some supernumeraries, but 500 more are wanted; 200 are expected from Plymouth, but till some runaways are hanged, the ships cannot be kept well manned. Sends a list of some fit to be made examples of in the several counties where they were pressed, with the names of those who pressed them. The Dutch ship named before is brought in, and two others are stayed at Cowes by virtue of the embargo, the order in Council making no exception for foreigners, The King’s pleasure should be known therein, as the end, which is to gather seamen, does not seem to require the stopping of foreigners. Prize officers must- be sent speedily to [Portsmouth], Dover, and Deal. Those at Deal should have men in readiness to carry prizes up the river, that the men belonging to the fleet be not scattered. Persons should also be hastened to ‘take care of the sick and wounded. The Duke (31) intends to appoint Erwin captain of the ship hired to go to St. Helena; he is approved by the East India Company, which is important, trade being intermixed with convoy, and they find fault if a commander of the King’s ships bring home any little matter privately bought. The Duke has divided the fleet into squadrons, assigning to each a vice and rear adiniral; Sir John Lawson (49) and Sir Wm. Berkeley to his own, Mennes (65) and Sansum to Prince Rupert’s (44), Sir George Aiscue (48) [Ayscough] and Teddeman to the Earl of Sandwich. Hopes in a few days to be in much better order, if good men can be got. Will send a list of the squadrons. The Guernsey is damaged by running aground. Rear-Admiral Teddeman, with 4 or 5 ships, has gone to course in the Channel, and if he meet any refractory Dutchmen, will teach them their duty. The King’s declaration for encouraging seamen has much revived the men, and added to their courage. [Four pages.]

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Poll Bill

Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 June 1667. 05 Jun 1667. Up, and with Mr. Kenaston by coach to White Hall to the Commissioners of the Treasury about getting money for Tangier, and did come to, after long waiting, speak with them, and there I find them all sat; and, among the rest, Duncomb (44) lolling, with his heels upon another chair, by that, that he sat upon, and had an answer good enough, and then away home, and (it being a most windy day, and hath been so all night, South West, and we have great hopes that it may have done the Dutch or French fleets some hurt) having got some papers in order, I back to St. James's, where we all met at Sir W. Coventry's (39) chamber, and dined and talked of our business, he being a most excellent man, and indeed, with all his business, hath more of his employed upon the good of the service of the Navy, than all of us, that makes me ashamed of it.
This noon Captain Perriman brings us word how the Happy Returne's [crew] below in the Hope, ordered to carry the Portugal Embassador to Holland (and the Embassador, I think, on board), refuse to go till paid; and by their example two or three more ships are in a mutiny: which is a sad consideration, while so many of the enemy's ships are at this day triumphing in the sea.
Here a very good and neat dinner, after the French manner, and good discourse, and then up after dinner to the Duke of York (33) and did our usual business, and are put in hopes by Sir W. Coventry (39) that we shall have money, and so away, Sir G. Carteret (57) and I to my Lord Crew (69) to advise about Sir G. Carteret's (57) carrying his accounts to-morrow to the Commissioners appointed to examine them and all other accounts since the war, who at last by the King's calling them to him yesterday and chiding them will sit, but Littleton (46) and Garraway (50) much against their wills. The truth of it is, it is a ridiculous thing, for it will come to nothing, nor do the King (37) nor kingdom good in any manner, I think.
Here they talked of my Lord Hinchingbroke's (19) match with Lord Burlington's (54) daughter (22), which is now gone a pretty way forward, and to great content, which I am infinitely glad of.
So from hence to White Hall, and in the streete Sir G. Carteret (57) showed me a gentleman coming by in his coach, who hath been sent for up out of Lincolneshire, I think he says he is a justice of peace there, that the Council have laid by the heels here, and here lies in a messenger's hands, for saying that a man and his wife are but one person, and so ought to pay but 12d. for both to the Poll Bill; by which others were led to do the like: and so here he lies prisoner.
To White Hall, and there I attended to speak with Sir W. Coventry (39) about Lanyon's business, to get him some money out of the Prize Office from my Lord Ashly (45), and so home, and there to the office a little, and thence to my chamber to read, and supper, and to bed. My father, blessed be God! finds great ease by his new steel trusse, which he put on yesterday.
So to bed. The Duke of Cambridge (3) past hopes of living still.

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Great Charity

Calendar of State Papers Charles II 1665 04 Jun 1665. 04 Jun 1655. 37. Sir Wm. Coventry (27) and Sir Wm. Penn (34) to the Navy Comrs, A good quantity of masts, yards, and all other stores must be sent immediately to the Downs. Engaged yesterday with the Dutch; they began to stand away at 3 p.m.; chased them all the rest of the day and all night; 20 considerable ships are destroyed and taken; we have only lost the Great Charity. The Earl of Marlborough (37), Rear-Admiral Sansum, and Capt. Kirby‘are slain, and Sir John Lawson (40) wounded. [Adm. Paper.]

Battle of Lowestoft

Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 June 1665. 05 Jun 1665. Up very betimes to look some other papers, and then to White Hall to a Committee of Tangier, where I offered my accounts with great acceptation, and so had some good words and honour by it, and one or two things done to my content in my business of Treasurer, but I do clearly see that we shall lose our business of victualling, Sir Thomas Ingram (50) undertaking that it shall be done by persons there as cheap as we do it, and give the seamen their full allowance and themselves give good security here for performance of contract, upon which terms there is no opposing it. This would trouble me, but that I hope when that fails to spend my time to some good advantage other ways, and so shall permit it all to God Almighty's pleasure.
Thence home to dinner, after 'Change, where great talke of the Dutch being fled and we in pursuit of them, and that our ship Charity1 is lost upon our Captain's, Wilkinson, and Lieutenant's yielding, but of this there is no certainty, save the report of some of the sicke men of the Charity, turned adrift in a boat out of the Charity and taken up and brought on shore yesterday to Sole Bay, and the newes hereof brought by Sir Henry Felton.
Home to dinner, and Creed with me. Then he and I down to Deptford, did some business, and back again at night. He home, and I to my office, and so to supper and to bed. This morning I had great discourse with my Lord Barkeley (63) about Mr. Hater, towards whom from a great passion reproaching him with being a fanatique and dangerous for me to keepe, I did bring him to be mighty calme and to ask me pardons for what he had thought of him and to desire me to ask his pardon of Hater himself for the ill words he did give him the other day alone at White Hall (which was, that he had always thought him a man that was no good friend to the King (35), but did never think it would breake out in a thing of this nature), and did advise him to declare his innocence to the Council and pray for his examination and vindication. Of which I shall consider and say no more, but remember one compliment that in great kindness to me he did give me, extolling my care and diligence, that he did love me heartily for my owne sake, and more that he did will me whatsoever I thought for Mr. Coventry's (37) sake, for though the world did think them enemies, and to have an ill aspect, one to another, yet he did love him with all his heart, which was a strange manner of noble compliment, confessing his owning me as a confidant and favourite of Mr. Coventry's (37).
Note 1. Sir William Coventry (37) and Sir William Pen (44) to the Navy Commissioners, June 4th: "Engaged yesterday with the Dutch; they began to stand away at 3 p.m. Chased them all the rest of the day and night; 20 considerable ships are destroyed and taken; we have only lost the Great Charity. The Earl of Marlborough (47), Rear-Admiral Sansum, and Captain Kirby are slain, and Sir John Lawson (50) wounded" (Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1664-65, p. 406).

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The Berkeley Castle

John Evelyn's Diary 22 April 1694. 22 Apr 1694. A fiery exhalation rising out of the sea, spread itself in Montgomeryshire a furlong broad, and many miles in length, burning all straw, hay, thatch, and grass, but doing no harm to trees, timber, or any solid things, only firing barns, or thatched houses. It left such a taint on the grass as to kill all the cattle that eat of it. I saw the attestations in the hands of the sufferers. It lasted many months. "The Berkeley Castle" sunk by the French coming from the East Indies, worth £200,000. The French took our castle of Gamboo in Guinea, so that the Africa Actions fell to £30, and the India to £80. Some regiments of Highland Dragoons were on their march through England; they were of large stature, well appointed and disciplined. One of them having reproached a Dutchman for cowardice in our late fight, was attacked by two Dutchmen, when with his sword he struck off the head of one, and cleft the skull of the other down to his chin.
A very young gentleman named Wilson, the younger son of one who had not above £200 a year estate, lived in the garb and equipage of the richest nobleman, for house, furniture, coaches, saddle horses, and kept a table, and all things accordingly, redeemed his father's estate, and gave portions to his sisters, being challenged by one Laws, a Scotchman, was killed in a duel, not fairly. The quarrel arose from his taking away his own sister from lodging in a house where this Laws had a mistress, which the mistress of the house thinking a disparagement to it, and losing by it, instigated Laws to this duel. He was taken and condemned for murder. The mystery is how this so young a gentleman, very sober and of good fame, could live in such an expensive manner; it could not be discovered by all possible industry, or entreaty of his friends to make him reveal it. It did not appear that he was kept by women, play, coining, padding, or dealing in chemistry; but he would sometimes say that if he should live ever so long, he had wherewith to maintain himself in the same manner. He was very civil and well-natured, but of no great force of understanding. This was a subject of much discourse.

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On 25 Oct 1695 The Berkeley Castle was captured by the French Navy.

Clove Tree

Battle of Lowestoft

The Clove Tree, Carolus Quintus and Zealand were captured at the Battle of Lowestoft.

Carolus Quintus

John Evelyn's Diary 05 July 1665. 05 Jul 1665. I took order for 150 men, who had been recovered of their wounds, to be carried on board the Clove Tree, Carolus Quintus, and Zealand, ships that had been taken by us in the fight; and so returned home.

Battle of Lowestoft

The Clove Tree, Carolus Quintus and Zealand were captured at the Battle of Lowestoft.

Zealand

John Evelyn's Diary 05 July 1665. 05 Jul 1665. I took order for 150 men, who had been recovered of their wounds, to be carried on board the Clove Tree, Carolus Quintus, and Zealand, ships that had been taken by us in the fight; and so returned home.

Battle of Lowestoft

The Clove Tree, Carolus Quintus and Zealand were captured at the Battle of Lowestoft.

Foresight

Foresight. A class 4th Rate Frigate, built by Jonas Shish Shipwright 1605-1680, at Deptford in 1650. Wreckined in 1698.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 02 August 1662. 02 Aug 1662. Up early, and got me ready in my riding clothes, and so to the office, and there wrote letters to my father and wife against night, and then to the business of my office, which being done, I took boat with Will, and down to Greenwich, where Captain Cocke (45) not being at home I was vexed, and went to walk in the Park till he come thither to me: and Will's forgetting to bring my boots in the boat did also vex me, for I was forced to send the boat back again for them. I to Captain Cocke's (45) along with him to dinner, where I find his lady still pretty, but not so good a humour as I thought she was. We had a plain, good dinner, and I see they do live very frugally. I eat among other fruit much mulberrys, a thing I have not eat of these many years, since I used to be at Ashted, at my cozen Pepys's.
After dinner we to boat, and had a pleasant passage down to Gravesend, but it was nine o'clock before we got thither, so that we were in great doubt what to do, whether to stay there or no; and the rather because I was afeard to ride, because of my pain...; but at the Swan, finding Mr. Hemson and Lieutenant Carteret (21) of the Foresight come to meet me, I borrowed Mr. Hemson's horse, and he took another, and so we rode to Rochester in the dark, and there at the Crown Mr. Gregory, Barrow, and others staid to meet me. So after a glass of wine, we to our barge, that was ready for me, to the Hill-house, where we soon went to bed, before we slept I telling upon discourse Captain Cocke (45) the manner of my being cut of the stone, which pleased him much.
So to sleep.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 03 August 1662. 03 Aug 1662. Lord's Day. Up early, and with Captain Cocke (45) to the dock-yard, a fine walk, and fine weather. Where we walked till Commissioner Pett (51) come to us, and took us to his house, and showed us his garden and fine things, and did give us a fine breakfast of bread and butter, and sweetmeats and other things with great choice, and strong drinks, with which I could not avoyde making my head ake, though I drank but little. Thither came Captain Allen of the Foresight, and the officers of the yard to see me.
Thence by and by to church, by coach, with the Commissioner, and had a dull sermon. A full church, and some pretty women in it; among others, Beck Allen, who was a bride-maid to a new married couple that came to church to-day, and, which was pretty strange, sat in a pew hung with mourning for a mother of the bride's, which methinks should have been taken down.
After dinner going out of the church saluted Mrs. Pett, who came after us in the coach to church, and other officers' wives. The Commissioner staid at dinner with me, and we had a good dinner, better than I would have had, but I saw there was no helping of it.
After dinner the Commissioner and I left the company and walked in the garden at the Hill-house, which is very pleasant, and there talked of our businesses and matters of the navy.
So to church again, where quite weary, and so after sermon walked with him to the yard up and down and the fields, and saw the place designed for the wet dock. And so to his house, and had a syllabub, and saw his closet, which come short of what I expected, but there was fine modells of ships in it indeed, whose worth I could not judge of.
At night walked home to the Hill-house, Mr. Barrow with me, talking of the faults of the yard, walking in the fields an hour or two, and so home to supper, and so Captain Cocke (45) and I to bed. This day among other stories he told me how despicable a thing it is to be a hangman in Poland, although it be a place of credit. And that, in his time, there was some repairs to be made of the gallows there, which was very fine of stone; but nobody could be got to mend it till the Burgomaster, or Mayor of the town, with all the companies of those trades which were necessary to be used about those repairs, did go in their habits with flags, in solemn procession to the place, and there the Burgomaster did give the first blow with the hammer upon the wooden work; and the rest of the Masters of the Companys upon the works belonging to their trades; that so workmen might not be ashamed to be employed upon doing of the gallows' works.

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Four Days' Battle

Diary of Samuel Pepys 28 October 1666. 28 Oct 1666. Lord's Day. Up, and to church with my wife, and then home, and there is come little Michell and his wife, I sent for them, and also comes Captain Guy to dine with me, and he and I much talk together. He cries out of the discipline of the fleete, and confesses really that the true English valour we talk of is almost spent and worn out; few of the commanders doing what they should do, and he much fears we shall therefore be beaten the next year. He assures me we were beaten home the last June fight, and that the whole fleete was ashamed to hear of our bonefires. He commends Smith, and cries out of Holmes (44) for an idle, proud, conceited, though stout fellow. He tells me we are to owe the losse of so many ships on the sands, not to any fault of the pilots, but to the weather; but in this I have good authority to fear there was something more. He says the Dutch do fight in very good order, and we in none at all. He says that in the July fight, both the Prince (46) and Holmes (44) had their belly-fulls, and were fain to go aside; though, if the wind had continued, we had utterly beaten them. He do confess the whole to be governed by a company of fools, and fears our ruine.
After dinner he gone, I with my brother to White Hall and he to Westminster Abbey. I presently to Mrs. Martin's, and there met widow Burroughes and Doll, and did tumble them all the afternoon as I pleased, and having given them a bottle of wine I parted and home by boat (my brother going by land), and thence with my wife to sit and sup with my uncle and aunt Wight (47), and see Woolly's wife, who is a pretty woman, and after supper, being very merry, in abusing my aunt with Dr. Venner, we home, and I to do something in my accounts, and so to bed.
The Revenge having her forecastle blown up with powder to the killing of some men in the River, and the Dyamond's being overset in the careening at Sheernesse, are further marks of the method all the King's work is now done in. The Foresight also and another come to disasters in the same place this week in the cleaning; which is strange.

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The Royal Prince

Royal Catherine

Diary of Samuel Pepys 25 October 1664. 25 Oct 1664. Up and to the office, where we sat all the morning, and finished Sir W. Warren's great contract for timber, with great content to me, because just in the terms I wrote last night to Sir W. Warren and against the terms proposed by Sir W. Batten (63).
At noon home to dinner, and there found Creed and Hawley.
After dinner comes in Mrs. Ingram, the first time to make a visit to my wife.
After a little stay I left them and to the Committee of the Fishery, and there did make my report of the late public collections for the Fishery, much to the satisfaction of the Committee, and I think much to my reputation, for good notice was taken of it and much it was commended.
So home, in my way taking care of a piece of plate for Mr. Christopher Pett (44), against the launching of his new great ship tomorrow at Woolwich, which I singly did move to His Royall Highness, and did obtain it for him, to the value of twenty pieces. And he, under his hand, do acknowledge to me that he did never receive so great a kindness from any man in the world as from me herein.
So to my office, and then to supper, and then to my office again, where busy late, being very full now a days of business to my great content, I thank God, and so home to bed, my house being full of a design, to go to-morrow, my wife and all her servants, to see the new ship launched.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 26 October 1664. 26 Oct 1664. Up, my people rising mighty betimes, to fit themselves to go by water; and my boy, he could not sleep, but wakes about four o'clock, and in bed lay playing on his lute till daylight, and, it seems, did the like last night till twelve o'clock.
About eight o'clock, my wife, she and her woman, and Besse and Jane, and W. Hewer (22) and the boy, to the water-side, and there took boat, and by and by I out of doors, to look after the flaggon, to get it ready to carry to Woolwich. That being not ready, I stepped aside and found out Nellson, he that Whistler buys his bewpers of, and did there buy 5 pieces at their price, and am in hopes thereby to bring them down or buy ourselves all we spend of Nellson at the first hand. This jobb was greatly to my content, and by and by the flaggon being finished at the burnisher's, I home, and there fitted myself, and took a hackney-coach I hired, it being a very cold and foule day, to Woolwich, all the way reading in a good book touching the fishery, and that being done, in the book upon the statute of charitable uses, mightily to my satisfaction.
At Woolwich; I there up to the King (34) and Duke (31), and they liked the plate well. Here I staid above with them while the ship was launched, which was done with great success, and the King (34) did very much like the ship, saying, she had the best bow that ever he saw. But, Lord! the sorry talke and discourse among the great courtiers round about him, without any reverence in the world, but with so much disorder.
By and by the Queene (54) comes and her Mayds of Honour; one whereof, Mrs. Boynton, and the Duchesse of Buckingham (26), had been very siclee coming by water in the barge (the water being very rough); but what silly sport they made with them in very common terms, methought, was very poor, and below what people think these great people say and do.
The launching being done, the King (34) and company went down to take barge; and I sent for Mr. Pett (54), and put the flaggon into the Duke's (31) hand, and he, in the presence of the King (34), did give it, Mr. Pett (54) taking it upon his knee. This Mr. Pett (54) is wholly beholding to me for, and he do know and I believe will acknowledge it.
Thence I to Mr. Ackworth, and there eat and drank with Commissioner Pett (54) and his wife, and thence to Shelden's, where Sir W. Batten (63) and his Lady were.
By and by I took coach after I had enquired for my wife or her boat, but found none. Going out of the gate, an ordinary woman prayed me to give her room to London, which I did, but spoke not to her all the way, but read, as long as I could see, my book again. Dark when we came to London, and a stop of coaches in Southwarke. I staid above half an houre and then 'light, and finding Sir W. Batten's (63) coach, heard they were gone into the Beare at the bridge foot, and thither I to them. Presently the stop is removed, and then going out to find my coach, I could not find it, for it was gone with the rest; so I fair to go through the darke and dirt over the bridge, and my leg fell in a hole broke on the bridge, but, the constable standing there to keep people from it, I was catched up, otherwise I had broke my leg; for which mercy the Lord be praised! So at Fanchurch I found my coach staying for me, and so home, where the little girle hath looked to the house well, but no wife come home, which made me begin to fear [for] her, the water being very rough, and cold and darke. But by and by she and her company come in all well, at which I was glad, though angry.
Thence I to Sir W. Batten's (63), and there sat late with him, Sir R. Ford (50), and Sir John Robinson (49); the last of whom continues still the same foole he was, crying up what power he has in the City, in knowing their temper, and being able to do what he will with them. It seems the City did last night very freely lend the King (34) £100,000 without any security but the King's word, which was very noble. But this loggerhead and Sir R. Ford (50) would make us believe that they did it. Now Sir R. Ford (50) is a cunning man, and makes a foole of the other, and the other believes whatever the other tells him. But, Lord! to think that such a man should be Lieutenant of the Tower, and so great a man as he is, is a strange thing to me. With them late and then home and with my wife to bed, after supper.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 April 1665. 14 Apr 1665. Up, and betimes to Mr. Povy (51), being desirous to have an end of my trouble of mind touching my Tangier business, whether he hath any desire of accepting what my Lord Ashly (43) offered, of his becoming Treasurer again; and there I did, with a seeming most generous spirit, offer him to take it back again upon his owne terms; but he did answer to me that he would not above all things in the world, at which I was for the present satisfied; but, going away thence and speaking with Creed, he puts me in doubt that the very nature of the thing will require that he be put in again; and did give me the reasons of the auditors, which, I confess, are so plain, that I know not how to withstand them. But he did give me most ingenious advice what to do in it, and anon, my Lord Barkeley (63) and some of the Commissioners coming together, though not in a meeting, I did procure that they should order Povy's (51) payment of his remain of accounts to me; which order if it do pass will put a good stop to the fastening of the thing upon me.
At noon Creed and I to a cook's shop at Charing Cross, and there dined and had much discourse, and his very good upon my business, and upon other things, among the rest upon Will Howe's dissembling with us, we discovering one to another his carriage to us, present and absent, being a very false fellow.
Thence to White Hall again, and there spent the afternoon, and then home to fetch a letter for the Council, and so back to White Hall, where walked an hour with Mr. Wren, of my Chancellor's (56), and Mr. Ager, and then to Unthanke's and called my wife, and with her through the city to Mile-End Greene, and eat some creame and cakes and so back home, and I a little at the office, and so home to supper and to bed.
This morning I was saluted with newes that the fleetes, ours and the Dutch, were engaged, and that the guns were heard at Walthamstow to play all yesterday, and that Teddiman's legs were shot off in the Royall Katherine. But before night I hear the contrary, both by letters of my owne and messengers thence, that they were all well of our side and no enemy appears yet, and that the Royall Katherine is come to the fleete, and likely to prove as good a ship as any the King (34) hath, of which I am heartily glad, both for Christopher Pett's (44) sake and Teddiman that is in her.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 November 1665. 23 Nov 1665. Up betimes, and so, being trimmed, I to get papers ready against Sir H. Cholmly (33) come to me by appointment, he being newly come over from Tangier. He did by and by come, and we settled all matters about his money, and he is a most satisfied man in me, and do declare his resolution to give me 200 per annum.
It continuing to be a great frost, which gives us hope for a perfect cure of the plague, he and I to walk in the parke, and there discoursed with grief of the calamity of the times; how the King's service is performed, and how Tangier is governed by a man (51), who, though honourable, yet do mind his ways of getting and little else compared, which will never make the place flourish. I brought him and had a good dinner for him, and there come by chance Captain Cuttance, who tells me how W. Howe is laid by the heels, and confined to the Royall Katharine, and his things all seized and how, also, for a quarrel, which indeed the other night my Lord told me, Captain Ferrers, having cut all over the back of another of my Lord's servants, is parted from my Lord.
I sent for little Mrs. Frances Tooker, and after they were gone I sat dallying with her an hour, doing what I would with my hands about her. And a very pretty creature it is.
So in the evening to the office, where late writing letters, and at my lodging later writing for the last twelve days my Journall and so to bed. Great expectation what mischief more the French will do us, for we must fall out. We in extraordinary lacke of money and everything else to go to sea next year. My Lord Sandwich (40) is gone from the fleete yesterday toward Oxford.

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Four Days' Battle

Diary of Samuel Pepys 07 June 1666. 07 Jun 1666. Up betimes, and to my office about business (Sir W. Coventry (38) having sent me word that he is gone down to the fleete to see how matters stand, and to be back again speedily); and with the same expectation of congratulating ourselves with the victory that I had yesterday. But my Lord Bruncker (46) and Sir T. H. (41) that come from Court, tell me quite contrary newes, which astonishes me: that is to say, that we are beaten, lost many ships and good commanders; have not taken one ship of the enemy's; and so can only report ourselves a victory; nor is it certain that we were left masters of the field. But, above all, that The Prince run on shore upon the Galloper, and there stuck; was endeavoured to be fetched off by the Dutch, but could not; and so they burned her; and Sir G. Ascue (50) is taken prisoner, and carried into Holland. This newes do much trouble me, and the thoughts of the ill consequences of it, and the pride and presumption that brought us to it.
At noon to the 'Change, and there find the discourse of towne, and their countenances much changed; but yet not very plain.
So home to dinner all alone, my father and people being gone all to Woolwich to see the launching of the new ship The Greenwich, built by Chr. Pett. I left alone with little Mrs. Tooker, whom I kept with me in my chamber all the afternoon, and did what I would with her.
By and by comes Mr. Wayth to me; and discoursing of our ill successe, he tells me plainly from Captain Page's own mouth (who hath lost his arm in the fight), that the Dutch did pursue us two hours before they left us, and then they suffered us to go on homewards, and they retreated towards their coast: which is very sad newes. Then to my office and anon to White Hall, late, to the Duke of York (32) to see what commands he hath and to pray a meeting to-morrow for Tangier in behalf of Mr. Yeabsly, which I did do and do find the Duke (32) much damped in his discourse, touching the late fight, and all the Court talk sadly of it. The Duke (32) did give me several letters he had received from the fleete, and Sir W. Coventry (38) and Sir W. Pen (45), who are gone down thither, for me to pick out some works to be done for the setting out the fleete again; and so I took them home with me, and was drawing out an abstract of them till midnight. And as to newes, I do find great reason to think that we are beaten in every respect, and that we are the losers. The Prince upon the Galloper, where both the Royall Charles and Royall Katharine had come twice aground, but got off. The Essex carried into Holland; the Swiftsure missing (Sir William Barkeley (27)) ever since the beginning of the fight. Captains Bacon, Tearne, Wood, Mootham, Whitty, and Coppin, slayne. The Duke of Albemarle (57) writes, that he never fought with worse officers in his life, not above twenty of them behaving themselves like men. Sir William Clerke (43) lost his leg; and in two days died. The Loyall George, Seven Oakes, and Swiftsure, are still missing, having never, as the Generall writes himself, engaged with them. It was as great an alteration to find myself required to write a sad letter instead of a triumphant one to my Lady Sandwich (41) this night, as ever on any occasion I had in my life. So late home and to bed.

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Royal Oak

Diary of Samuel Pepys 15 January 1661. 15 Jan 1661. Up and down the yard all the morning and seeing the seamen exercise, which they do already very handsomely. Then to dinner at Mr. Ackworth's, where there also dined with us one Captain Bethell, a friend of the Comptroller's (50). A good dinner and very handsome. After that and taking our leaves of the officers of the yard, we walked to the waterside and in our way walked into the rope-yard, where I do look into the tar-houses and other places, and took great notice of all the several works belonging to the making of a cable.
So after a cup of burnt wine1 at the tavern there, we took barge and went to Blackwall and viewed the dock and the new Wet dock, which is newly made there, and a brave new merchantman which is to be launched shortly, and they say to be called the Royal Oak. Hence we walked to Dick-Shore, and thence to the Towre and so home. Where I found my wife and Pall abroad, so I went to see Sir W. Pen (39), and there found Mr. Coventry (33) come to see him, and now had an opportunity to thank him, and he did express much kindness to me. I sat a great while with Sir Wm. after he was gone, and had much talk with him. I perceive none of our officers care much for one another, but I do keep in with them all as much as I can. Sir W. Pen (39) is still very ill as when I went.
Home, where my wife not yet come home, so I went up to put my papers in order, and then was much troubled my wife was not come, it being 10 o'clock just now striking as I write this last line. This day I hear the Princess (16) is recovered again. The King hath been this afternoon at Deptford, to see the yacht that Commissioner Pett (50) is building, which will be very pretty; as also that that his brother at Woolwich is in making. By and by comes in my boy and tells me that his mistress do lie this night at Mrs. Hunt's, who is very ill, with which being something satisfied, I went to bed.
Note 1. Burnt wine was somewhat similar to mulled wine, and a favourite drink.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 15 February 1665. 15 Feb 1665. Up and to my office, where busy all the morning. At noon with Creed to dinner to Trinity-house, where a very good dinner among the old sokers, where an extraordinary discourse of the manner of the loss of the "Royall Oake" coming home from Bantam, upon the rocks of Scilly, many passages therein very extraordinary, and if I can I will get it in writing.
Thence with Creed to Gresham College, where I had been by Mr. Povy (51) the last week proposed to be admitted a member1 and was this day admitted, by signing a book and being taken by the hand by the President, my Lord Brunkard (45), and some words of admittance said to me. But it is a most acceptable thing to hear their discourse, and see their experiments; which were this day upon the nature of fire, and how it goes out in a place where the ayre is not free, and sooner out where the ayre is exhausted, which they showed by an engine on purpose. After this being done, they to the Crowne Taverne, behind the 'Change, and there my Lord and most of the company to a club supper; Sir P. Neale (52), Sir R. Murrey, Dr. Clerke, Dr. Whistler, Dr. Goddard, and others of most eminent worth. Above all, Mr. Boyle (38) to-day was at the meeting, and above him Mr. Hooke (29), who is the most, and promises the least, of any man in the world that ever I saw. Here excellent discourse till ten at night, and then home, and to Sir W. Batten's (64), where I hear that Sir Thos. Harvy intends to put Mr. Turner out of his house and come in himself, which will be very hard to them, and though I love him not, yet for his family's sake I pity him.
So home and to bed.
Note 1. According to the minutes of the Royal Society for February 15th, 1664-65, "Mr. Pepys was unanimously elected and admitted". Notes of the experiments shown by Hooke and Boyle are given in Birch's "History of the Royal Society", vol. ii., p. 15.

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Great Plague of London

Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 June 1665. 08 Jun 1665. About five o'clock my wife come home, it having lightened all night hard, and one great shower of rain. She come and lay upon the bed; I up and to the office, where all the morning.
Alone at home to dinner, my wife, mother, and Mercer dining at W. Joyce's; I giving her a caution to go round by the Half Moone to his house, because of the plague.
I to my Lord Treasurer's (58) by appointment of Sir Thomas Ingram's (50), to meet the Goldsmiths; where I met with the great news at last newly come, brought by Bab May (37) from the Duke of Yorke (31), that we have totally routed the Dutch; that the Duke (31) himself, the Prince (45), my Lord Sandwich (39), and Mr. Coventry (37) are all well: which did put me into such joy, that I forgot almost all other thoughts. The particulars I shall set down by and by.
By and by comes Alderman Maynell and Mr. Viner (34), and there my Lord Treasurer (58) did intreat them to furnish me with money upon my tallys, Sir Philip Warwicke (55) before my Lord declaring the King's changing of the hand from Mr. Povy (51) to me, whom he called a very sober person, and one whom the Lord Treasurer (58) would owne in all things that I should concern myself with them in the business of money. They did at present declare they could not part with money at present. My Lord did press them very hard, and I hope upon their considering we shall get some of them.
Thence with great joy to the Cocke-pitt; where the Duke of Albemarle (56), like a man out of himself with content, new-told me all; and by and by comes a letter from Mr. Coventry's (37) own hand to him, which he never opened (which was a strange thing), but did give it me to open and read, and consider what was fit for our office to do in it, and leave the letter with Sir W. Clerke; which upon such a time and occasion was a strange piece of indifference, hardly pardonable. I copied out the letter, and did also take minutes out of Sir W. Clerke's other letters; and the sum of the newes is:
VICTORY OVER THE DUTCH, JUNE 3RD, 1665.
This day they engaged; the Dutch neglecting greatly the opportunity of the wind they had of us, by which they lost the benefit of their fire-ships. The Earl of Falmouth (35), Muskerry, and Mr. Richard Boyle killed on board the Duke's ship, the Royall Charles, with one shot: their blood and brains flying in the Duke's (31) face; and the head of Mr. Boyle striking down the Duke (31), as some say. !Earle of Marlborough (47), Portland (26), Rear-Admirall Sansum (to Prince Rupert (45)) killed, and Capt. Kirby and Ableson. Sir John Lawson (50) wounded on the knee; hath had some bones taken out, and is likely to be well again. Upon receiving the hurt, he sent to the Duke (31) for another to command the Royall Oake. The Duke (31) sent Jordan1 out of the St. George, who did brave things in her. Capt. Jer. Smith of the Mary was second to the Duke (31), and stepped between him and Captain Seaton of the Urania (76 guns and 400 men), who had sworn to board the Duke (31); killed him, 200 men, and took the ship; himself losing 99 men, and never an officer saved but himself and lieutenant. His master indeed is saved, with his leg cut off: Admirall Opdam blown up, Trump killed, and said by Holmes; all the rest of their admiralls, as they say, but Everson (whom they dare not trust for his affection to the Prince of Orange), are killed: we having taken and sunk, as is believed, about 24 of their best ships; killed and taken near 8 or 10,000 men, and lost, we think, not above 700. A great[er] victory never known in the world. They are all fled, some 43 got into the Texell, and others elsewhere, and we in pursuit of the rest.
Thence, with my heart full of joy; home, and to my office a little; then to my Lady Pen's (41), where they are all joyed and not a little puffed up at the good successe of their father (44)2 and good service indeed is said to have been done by him. Had a great bonefire at the gate; and I with my Lady Pen's (41) people and others to Mrs. Turner's (42) great room, and then down into the streete. I did give the boys 4s. among them, and mighty merry.
So home to bed, with my heart at great rest and quiett, saving that the consideration of the victory is too great for me presently to comprehend3.
Note 1. Afterwards Sir Joseph Jordan, commander of the "Royal Sovereign", and Vice-Admiral of the Red, 1672. He was knighted on July 1st, 1665. B.
Note 2. In the royal charter granted by Charles II in 1680 to William Penn for the government of his American province, to be styled Pennsylvania, special reference is made to "the memory and merits of Sir William Pen (44) in divers services, and particularly his conduct, courage, and discretion under our dearest brother, James, Duke of York (31), in that signal battle and victory fought and obtained against the Dutch fleet commanded by Heer van Opdam in 1665" ("Penn's Memorials of Sir W. Penn (44)", vol. ii., p. 359).
Note 3. Mrs. Ady (Julia Cartwright), in her fascinating life of Henrietta, Duchess of Orléans, gives an account of the receipt of the news of the great sea-fight in Paris, and quotes a letter of Charles II to his sister, dated, "Whitehall, June 8th, 1665" The first report that reached Paris was that "the Duke of York's (31) ship had been blown up, and he himself had been drowned". "The shock was too much for Madame... she was seized with convulsions, and became so dangerously ill that Lord Hollis (65) wrote to the King (35), 'If things had gone ill at sea I really believe Madame would have died.'" Charles wrote: "I thanke God we have now the certayne newes of a very considerable victory over the Duch; you will see most of the particulars by the relation my Lord Hopis will shew you, though I have had as great a losse as 'tis possible in a good frinde, poore C. Barckely (35). It troubles me so much, as I hope you will excuse the shortnesse of this letter, haveing receaved the newes of it but two houres agoe" ("Madame", 1894, pp. 215, 216).

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1667 Raid on the Medway

Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 June 1667. 13 Jun 1667. No sooner up but hear the sad newes confirmed of the Royall Charles being taken by them, and now in fitting by them—which Pett (56) should have carried up higher by our several orders, and deserves, therefore, to be hanged for not doing it—and turning several others; and that another fleete is come up into the Hope.
Upon which newes the King (37) and Duke of York (33) have been below [Below London Bridge.] since four o'clock in the morning, to command the sinking of ships at Barking-Creeke, and other places, to stop their coming up higher: which put me into such a fear, that I presently resolved of my father's and wife's going into the country; and, at two hours' warning, they did go by the coach this day, with about £1300 in gold in their night-bag. Pray God give them good passage, and good care to hide it when they come home! but my heart is full of fear.
They gone, I continued in fright and fear what to do with the rest. W. Hewer (25) hath been at the banker's, and hath got £500 out of Backewell's hands of his own money; but they are so called upon that they will be all broke, hundreds coming to them for money: and their answer is, "It is payable at twenty days—when the days are out, we will pay you"; and those that are not so, they make tell over their money, and make their bags false, on purpose to give cause to retell it, and so spend time. I cannot have my 200 pieces of gold again for silver, all being bought up last night that were to be had, and sold for 24 and 25s. a-piece. So I must keep the silver by me, which sometimes I think to fling into the house of office, and then again know not how I shall come by it, if we be made to leave the office. Every minute some one or other calls for this or that order; and so I forced to be at the office, most of the day, about the fire-ships which are to be suddenly fitted out: and it's a most strange thing that we hear nothing from any of my brethren at Chatham; so that we are wholly in the dark, various being the reports of what is done there; insomuch that I sent Mr. Clapham express thither to see how matters go: I did, about noon, resolve to send Mr. Gibson away after my wife with another 1000 pieces, under colour of an express to Sir Jeremy Smith; who is, as I hear, with some ships at Newcastle; which I did really send to him, and may, possibly, prove of good use to the King (37); for it is possible, in the hurry of business, they may not think of it at Court, and the charge of an express is not considerable to the King (37).
So though I intend Gibson no further than to Huntingdon I direct him to send the packet forward. My business the most of the afternoon is listening to every body that comes to the office, what news? which is variously related, some better, some worse, but nothing certain. The King (37) and Duke of York (33) up and down all the day here and there: some time on Tower Hill, where the City militia was; where the King (37) did make a speech to them, that they should venture themselves no further than he would himself. I also sent, my mind being in pain, Saunders after my wife and father, to overtake them at their night's lodgings, to see how matters go with them.
In the evening, I sent for my cousin Sarah [Gyles] and her husband, who come; and I did deliver them my chest of writings about Brampton, and my brother Tom's (33) papers, and my journalls, which I value much; and did send my two silver flaggons to Kate Joyce's: that so, being scattered what I have, something might be saved. I have also made a girdle, by which, with some trouble, I do carry about me £300 in gold about my body, that I may not be without something in case I should be surprised: for I think, in any nation but our's, people that appear (for we are not indeed so) so faulty as we, would have their throats cut.
In the evening comes Mr. Pelling, and several others, to the office, and tell me that never were people so dejected as they are in the City all over at this day; and do talk most loudly, even treason; as, that we are bought and sold—that we are betrayed by the Papists, and others, about the King (37); cry out that the office of the Ordnance hath been so backward as no powder to have been at Chatham nor Upnor Castle till such a time, and the carriages all broken; that Legg is a Papist; that Upnor, the old good castle built by Queen Elizabeth, should be lately slighted; that the ships at Chatham should not be carried up higher. They look upon us as lost, and remove their families and rich goods in the City; and do think verily that the French, being come down with his army to Dunkirke, it is to invade us, and that we shall be invaded. Mr. Clerke (44), the solicitor, comes to me about business, and tells me that he hears that the King (37) hath chosen Mr. Pierpont (59) and Vaughan (63) of the West, Privy-councillors; that my Chancellor (58) was affronted in the Hall this day, by people telling him of his Dunkirke house; and that there are regiments ordered to be got together, whereof to be commanders my Lord Fairfax (55), Ingoldsby (49), Bethell, Norton, and Birch (51), and other Presbyterians; and that Dr. Bates will have liberty to preach. Now, whether this be true or not, I know not; but do think that nothing but this will unite us together.
Late at night comes Mr. Hudson, the cooper, my neighbour, and tells me that he come from Chatham this evening at five o'clock, and saw this afternoon "The Royal James", "Oake", and "London", burnt by the enemy with their fire-ships: that two or three men-of-war come up with them, and made no more of Upnor's shooting, than of a fly; that those ships lay below Upnor Castle, but therein, I conceive, he is in an error; that the Dutch are fitting out "The Royall Charles"; that we shot so far as from the Yard thither, so that the shot did no good, for the bullets grazed on the water; that Upnor played hard with their guns at first, but slowly afterwards, either from the men being beat off, or their powder spent. But we hear that the fleete in the Hope is not come up any higher the last flood; and Sir W. Batten (66) tells me that ships are provided to sink in the River, about Woolwich, that will prevent their coming up higher if they should attempt it. I made my will also this day, and did give all I had equally between my father and wife, and left copies of it in each of Mr. Hater and W. Hewer's (25) hands, who both witnessed the will, and so to supper and then to bed, and slept pretty well, but yet often waking.

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John Evelyn's Diary 28 June 1667. 28 Jun 1667. I went to Chatham, and thence to view not only what mischief the Dutch had done; but how triumphantly their whole fleet lay within the very mouth of the Thames, all from the North Foreland, Margate, even to the buoy of the Nore — a dreadful spectacle as ever Englishmen saw, and a dishonor never to be wiped off! Those who advised his Majesty (37) to prepare no fleet this spring deserved—I know what—but—.
Here in the river off Chatham, just before the town, lay the carcase of the "London" (now the third time burnt), the "Royal Oak", "James", etc., yet smoking; and now, when the mischief was done, we were making trifling forts on the brink of the river. Here were yet forces, both of horse and foot, with General Middleton (59) continually expecting the motions of the enemy's fleet. I had much discourse with him, who was an experienced commander, I told him I wondered the King (37) did not fortify Sheerness and the Ferry; both abandoned.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 30 June 1667. 30 Jun 1667. Lord's Day. Up about three o'clock, and Creed and I got ourselves ready, and took coach at our gate, it being very fine weather, and the cool of the morning, and with much pleasure, without any stop, got to Rochester about ten of the clock, all the way having mighty pleasant talk of the fate that is over all we do, that it seems as if we were designed in every thing, by land by sea, to undo ourselves.
At the foot of Rochester bridge, at the landing-place, I met my Lord Bruncker (47) and my Lord Douglas (21), and all the officers of the soldiers in the town, waiting there for the Duke of York (33), whom they heard was coming thither this day; by and by comes my Lord_Middleton (59), the first time I remember to have seen him, well mounted, who had been to meet him, but come back without him; he seems a fine soldier, and so every body says he is; and a man, like my Lord Teviott, and indeed most of the Scotch gentry, as I observe, of few words. After staying here by the water-side and seeing the boats come up from Chatham, with them that rowed with bandeleeres about their shoulders, and muskets in their boats, they being the workmen of the Yard, who have promised to redeem their credit, lost by their deserting the service when the Dutch were there, my Lord Bruncker (47) went with Lord Middleton to his inne, the Crowne, to dinner, which I took unkindly, but he was slightly invited.
So I and Creed down by boat to Chatham-yard (our watermen having their bandeleeres about them all the way), and to Commissioner Pett's (56) house, where my Lord Bruncker (47) told me that I should meet with his dinner two dishes of meat, but did not, but however by the help of Mr. Wiles had some beer and ale brought me, and a good piece of roast beef from somebody's table, and eat well at two, and after dinner into the garden to shew Creed, and I must confess it must needs be thought a sorrowful thing for a man that hath taken so much pains to make a place neat to lose it as Commissioner Pett (56) must now this.
Thence to see the batteries made; which, indeed, are very fine, and guns placed so as one would think the River should be very secure. I was glad, as also it was new to me, to see so many fortifications as I have of late seen, and so up to the top of the Hill, there to look, and could see towards Sheerenesse, to spy the Dutch fleete, but could make [out] none but one vessel, they being all gone. But here I was told, that, in all the late attempt, there was but one man that they knew killed on shore: and that was a man that had laid himself upon his belly upon one of the hills, on the other side of the River, to see the action; and a bullet come, took the ground away just under his belly, and ripped up his belly, and so was killed.
Thence back to the docke, and in my way saw how they are fain to take the deals of the rope-house to supply other occasions, and how sillily the country troopers look, that stand upon the passes there; and, methinks, as if they were more willing to run away than to fight, and it is said that the country soldiers did first run at Sheerenesse, but that then my Lord Douglas's (21) men did run also; but it is excused that there was no defence for them towards the sea, that so the very beach did fly in their faces as the bullets come, and annoyed them, they having, after all this preparation of the officers of the ordnance, only done something towards the land, and nothing at all towards the sea. The people here everywhere do speak very badly of Sir Edward Spragge (47), as not behaving himself as he should have done in that business, going away with the first, and that old Captain Pyne, who, I am here told, and no sooner, is Master-Gunner of England, was the last that staid there.
Thence by barge, it raining hard, down to the chaine; and in our way did see the sad wrackes of the poor "Royall Oake", "James", and "London"1 and several other of our ships by us sunk, and several of the enemy's, whereof three men-of-war that they could not get off, and so burned. We did also see several dead bodies lie by the side of the water. I do not see that Upnor Castle hath received any hurt by them, though they played long against it; and they themselves shot till they had hardly a gun left upon the carriages, so badly provided they were: they have now made two batteries on that side, which will be very good, and do good service.
So to the chaine, and there saw it fast at the end on Upnor side of the River; very fast, and borne up upon the several stages across the River; and where it is broke nobody can tell me. I went on shore on Upnor side to look upon the end of the chaine; and caused the link to be measured, and it was six inches and one-fourth in circumference. They have burned the Crane House that was to hawl it taught. It seems very remarkable to me, and of great honour to the Dutch, that those of them that did go on shore to Gillingham, though they went in fear of their lives, and were some of them killed; and, notwithstanding their provocation at Schelling, yet killed none of our people nor plundered their houses, but did take some things of easy carriage, and left the rest, and not a house burned; and, which is to our eternal disgrace, that what my Lord Douglas's (21) men, who come after them, found there, they plundered and took all away; and the watermen that carried us did further tell us, that our own soldiers are far more terrible to those people of the country-towns than the Dutch themselves. We were told at the batteries, upon my seeing of the field-guns that were there, that, had they come a day sooner, they had been able to have saved all; but they had no orders, and lay lingering upon the way, and did not come forward for want of direction. Commissioner Pett's (56) house was all unfurnished, he having carried away all his goods. I met with no satisfaction whereabouts the chaine was broke, but do confess I met with nobody that I could well expect to have satisfaction [from], it being Sunday; and the officers of the Yard most of them abroad, or at the Hill house, at the pay of the Chest, which they did make use of to day to do part in.
Several complaints, I hear, of the Monmouth's coming away too soon from the chaine, where she was placed with the two guard-ships to secure it; and Captain Robert Clerke, my friend, is blamed for so doing there, but I hear nothing of him at London about it; but Captain Brookes's running aground with the "Sancta Maria", which was one of the three ships that were ordered to be sunk to have dammed up the River at the chaine, is mightily cried against, and with reason, he being the chief man to approve of the abilities of other men, and the other two slips did get safe thither and he run aground; but yet I do hear that though he be blameable, yet if she had been there, she nor two more to them three would have been able to have commanded the river all over. I find that here, as it hath been in our river, fire-ships, when fitted, have been sunk afterwards, and particularly those here at the Mussle, where they did no good at all. Our great ships that were run aground and sunk are all well raised but the "Vanguard", which they go about to raise to-morrow. "the Henery", being let loose to drive up the river of herself, did run up as high as the bridge, and broke down some of the rails of the bridge, and so back again with the tide, and up again, and then berthed himself so well as no pilot could ever have done better; and Punnet says he would not, for his life, have undertaken to have done it, with all his skill. I find it is true that the Dutch did heele "The Charles" to get her down, and yet run aground twice or thrice, and yet got her safe away, and have her, with a great many good guns in her, which none of our pilots would ever have undertaken. It is very considerable the quantity of goods, which the making of these platforms and batterys do take out of the King's stores: so that we shall have little left there, and, God knows! no credit to buy any; besides, the taking away and spending of (it is possible) several goods that would have been either rejected or abatement made for them before used. It is a strange thing to see that, while my Lords Douglas and Middleton do ride up and down upon single horses, my Lord Bruncker (47) do go up and down with his Hackney-coach and six horses at the King's charge, which will do, for all this time, and the time that he is likely to stay, must amount to a great deal. But I do not see that he hath any command over the seamen, he being affronted by three or four seamen before my very face, which he took sillily, methought; and is not able to do so much good as a good boatswain in this business. My Lord Bruncker (47), I perceive, do endeavour to speak well of Commissioner Pett (56), saying that he did exercise great care and pains while he was there, but do not undertake to answer for his not carrying up of the great ships. Back again to Rochester, and there walked to the Cathedral as they were beginning of the service, but would not be seen to stay to church there, besides had no mind, but rather to go to our inne, the White Hart, where we drank and were fain (the towne being so full of soldiers) to have a bed corded for us to lie in, I being unwilling to lie at the Hill house for one night, being desirous to be near our coach to be gone betimes to-morrow morning. Here in the streets, I did hear the Scotch march beat by the drums before the soldiers, which is very odde.
Thence to the Castle, and viewed it with Creed, and had good satisfaction from him that showed it us touching the history of it. Then into the fields, a fine walk, and there saw Sir Francis Clerke's house, which is a pretty seat, and then back to our inne and bespoke supper, and so back to the fields and into the Cherry garden, where we had them fresh gathered, and here met with a young, plain, silly shopkeeper, and his wife, a pretty young woman, the man's name Hawkins, and I did kiss her, and we talked (and the woman of the house is a very talking bawdy jade), and eat cherries together, and then to walk in the fields till it was late, and did kiss her, and I believe had I had a fit time and place I might have done what I would with her. Walked back and left them at their house near our inne, and then to our inne, where, I hear, my Lord Bruncker (47) hath sent for me to speak with me before I go: so I took his coach, which stands there with two horses, and to him and to his bedside, where he was in bed, and hath a watchman with a halbert at his door; and to him, and did talk a little, and find him a very weak man for this business that he is upon; and do pity the King's service, that is no better handled, and his folly to call away Pett before we could have found a better man to have staid in his stead; so took leave of him, and with Creed back again, it being now about 10 at night, and to our inne to supper, and then to bed, being both sleepy, but could get no sheets to our bed, only linen to our mouths, and so to sleep, merrily talking of Hawkins and his wife, and troubled that Creed did see so much of my dalliance, though very little.
Note 1. "The bottom of 'The Royal James' is got afloat, and those of the 'Loyal London' and 'Royal Oak' soon will be so. Many men are at work to put Sheerness in a posture of defence, and a boom is being fitted over the river by Upnor Castle, which with the good fortifications will leave nothing to fear".—Calendar of State Papers, 1667, p. 285.

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Henrietta

Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 January 1664. 22 Jan 1664. Up, and it being a brave morning, with a gaily to Woolwich, and there both at the Ropeyarde and the other yarde did much business, and thence to Greenwich to see Mr. Pett (53) and others value the carved work of the "Henrietta" (God knows in an ill manner for the King (33)), and so to Deptford, and there viewed Sir W. Petty's (40) vessel; which hath an odd appearance, but not such as people do make of it, for I am of the opinion that he would never have discoursed so much of it, if it were not better than other vessels, and so I believe that he was abused the other day, as he is now, by tongues that I am sure speak before they know anything good or bad of her. I am sorry to find his ingenuity discouraged so.
So home, reading all the way a good book, and so home to dinner, and after dinner a lesson on the globes to my wife, and so to my office till 10 or 11 o'clock at night, and so home to supper and to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 September 1664. 05 Sep 1664. Up and to St. James's, and there did our business with the Duke (30); where all our discourse of warr in the highest measure. Prince Rupert (44) was with us; who is fitting himself to go to sea in the Heneretta.
And afterwards in White Hall I met him and Mr. Gray, and he spoke to me, and in other discourse, says he, "God damn me, I can answer but for one ship, and in that I will do my part; for it is not in that as in an army, where a man can command every thing". By and by to a Committee for the Fishery, the Duke of Yorke (30) there, where, after Duke was made Secretary, we fell to name a Committee, whereof I was willing to be one, because I would have my hand in the business, to understand it and be known in doing something in it; and so, after cutting out work for the Committee, we rose, and I to my wife to Unthanke's, and with her from shop to shop, laying out near £10 this morning in clothes for her.
And so I to the 'Change, where a while, and so home and to dinner, and thither came W. Bowyer and dined with us; but strange to see how he could not endure onyons in sauce to lamb, but was overcome with the sight of it, and so-was forced to make his dinner of an egg or two. He tells us how Mrs. Lane is undone, by her marrying so bad, and desires to speak with me, which I know is wholly to get me to do something for her to get her husband a place, which he is in no wise fit for.
After dinner down to Woolwich with a gaily, and then to Deptford, and so home, all the way reading Sir J. Suck[l]ing's "Aglaura", which, methinks, is but a mean play; nothing of design in it.
Coming home it is strange to see how I was troubled to find my wife, but in a necessary compliment, expecting Mr. Pen (19) to see her, who had been there and was by her people denied, which, he having been three times, she thought not fit he should be any more. But yet even this did raise my jealousy presently and much vex me. However, he did not come, which pleased me, and I to supper, and to the office till 9 o'clock or thereabouts, and so home to bed. My aunt James had been here to-day with Kate Joyce twice to see us. The second time my wife was at home, and they it seems are going down to Brampton, which I am sorry for, for the charge that my father will be put to. But it must be borne with, and my mother has a mind to see them, but I do condemn myself mightily for my pride and contempt of my aunt and kindred that are not so high as myself, that I have not seen her all this while, nor invited her all this while.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 July 1666. 20 Jul 1666. Up, and finding by a letter late last night that the fleete is gone, and that Sir W. Pen (45) is ordered to go down to Sheernesse, and finding him ready to go to St. James's this morning, I was willing to go with him to see how things go1, and so with him thither (but no discourse with the Duke), but to White Hall, and there the Duke of York (32) did bid Sir W. Pen (45) to stay to discourse with him and the King (36) about business of the fleete, which troubled me a little, but it was only out of envy, for which I blame myself, having no reason to expect to be called to advise in a matter I understand not. So I away to Lovett's, there to see how my picture goes on to be varnished (a fine Crucifix)2, which will be very fine; and here I saw some fine prints, brought from France by Sir Thomas Crew (42), who is lately returned.
So home, calling at the stationer's for some paper fit to varnish, and in my way home met with Lovett, to whom I gave it, and he did present me with a varnished staffe, very fine and light to walk with.
So home and to dinner, there coming young Mrs. Daniel and her sister Sarah, and dined with us; and old Mr. Hawly, whose condition pities me, he being forced to turne under parish-clerke at St. Gyles's, I think at the other end of the towne.
Thence I to the office, where busy all the afternoon, and in the evening with Sir W. Pen (45), walking with whom in the garden I am of late mighty great, and it is wisdom to continue myself so, for he is of all the men of the office at present most manifestly usefull and best thought of. He and I supped together upon the seat in the garden, and thence, he gone, my wife and Mercer come and walked and sang late, and then home to bed.
Note 1. Sir William Pen's (45) instructions from the Duke of York (32) directing him to embark on his Majesty's yacht "Henrietta", and to see to the manning of such ships has had been left behind by the fleet, dated on this day, 20th July, is printed in Penn's "Memorials of Sir W. Penn (45)", vol. ii., p. 406.
Note 2. This picture occasioned Pepys trouble long afterwards, having been brought as evidence that he was a Papist (see "Life", vol. i., p. xxxiii).

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Greyhound

Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 February 1664. 09 Feb 1664. Up and to the office, where sat all the morning.
At noon by coach with Mr. Coventry (36) to the 'Change, where busy with several people. Great talke of the Dutch proclaiming themselves in India, Lords of the Southern Seas, and deny traffick there to all ships but their owne, upon pain of confiscation; which makes our merchants mad. Great doubt of two ships of ours, the "Greyhound" and another, very rich, coming from the Streights, for fear of the Turkes. Matters are made up between the Pope and the King of France (25); so that now all the doubt is, what the French will do with their armies.
Thence home, and there found Captain Grove in mourning for his wife, and Hawly, and they dined with me.
After dinner, and Grove gone, Hawly and I talked of his mistress, Mrs. Lane, and I seriously advising him and inquiring his condition, and do believe that I shall bring them together.
By and by comes Mr. Moore, with whom much good discourse of my Lord, and among other things told me that my Lord is mightily altered, that is, grown very high and stately, and do not admit of any to come into his chamber to him, as heretofore, and that I must not think much of his strangeness to me, for it was the same he do to every body, and that he would not have me be solicitous in the matter, but keep off and give him now and then a visit and no more, for he says he himself do not go to him now a days but when he sends for him, nor then do not stay for him if he be not there at the hour appointed, for, says he, I do find that I can stand upon my own legs and I will not by any over submission make myself cheap to any body and contemptible, which was the doctrine of the world that I lacked most, and shall follow it. I discoursed with him about my money that my Lord hath, and the £1000 that I stand bound with him in, to my cozen Thomas Pepys, in both which I will get myself at liberty as soon as I can; for I do not like his being angry and in debt both together to me; and besides, I do not perceive he looks after paying his debts, but runs farther and farther in.
He being gone, my wife and I did walk an houre or two above in our chamber, seriously talking of businesses. I told her my Lord owed me £700, and shewed her the bond, and how I intended to carry myself to my Lord. She and I did cast about how to get Captain Grove for my sister, in which we are mighty earnest at present, and I think it would be a good match, and will endeavour it.
So to my office a while, then home to supper and to bed.

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William

Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 December 1664. 09 Dec 1664. Up betimes and walked to Mr. Povy's (50), and there, not without some few troublesome questions of his, I got a note, and went and received £117 5s. of Alderman Viner (75) upon my pretended freight of the "William" for Tangier, which overbears me on one side with joy and on the other to think of my condition if I shall be called into examination about it, and (though in strictness it is due) not be able to give a good account of it.
Home with it, and there comes Captain Taylor to me, and he and I did set even the business of the ship Union lately gone for Tangier, wherein I hope to get £50 more, for all which the Lord be praised.
At noon home to dinner, Mr. Hunt and his wife with us, and very pleasant. Then in the afternoon I carried them home by coach, and I to Westminster Hall, and thence to Gervas's, and there find I cannot prevail with Jane to go forth with me, but though I took a good occasion of going to the Trumpet she declined coming, which vexed me. 'Je avait grande envie envers elle, avec vrai amour et passion [I have a great desire, with true love and passion]'.
Thence home and to my office till one in the morning, setting to rights in writing this day's two accounts of Povy (50) and Taylor, and then quietly to bed. This day I had several letters from several places, of our bringing in great numbers of Dutch ships.

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Yarmouth

Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 April 1665. 17 Apr 1665. Up and to the Duke of Albemarle's (56), where he shewed me Mr. Coventry's (37) letters, how three Dutch privateers are taken, in one whereof Everson's' son is captaine. But they have killed poor Captaine Golding in The Diamond. Two of them, one of 32 and the other of 20 odd guns, did stand stoutly up against her, which hath 46, and the Yarmouth that hath 52 guns, and as many more men as they. So that they did more than we could expect, not yielding till many of their men were killed. And Everson, when he was brought before the Duke of Yorke (31), and was observed to be shot through the hat, answered, that he wished it had gone through his head, rather than been taken. One thing more is written: that two of our ships the other day appearing upon the coast of Holland, they presently fired their beacons round the country to give notice. And newes is brought the King (34), that the Dutch Smyrna fleete is seen upon the back of Scotland; and thereupon the King (34) hath wrote to the Duke (31), that he do appoint a fleete to go to the Northward to try to meet them coming home round: which God send!
Thence to White Hall; where the King (34) seeing me, did come to me, and calling me by name, did discourse with me about the ships in the River: and this is the first time that ever I knew the King (34) did know me personally; so that hereafter I must not go thither, but with expectation to be questioned, and to be ready to give good answers.
So home, and thence with Creed, who come to dine with me, to the Old James, where we dined with Sir W. Rider and Cutler, and, by and by, being called by my wife, we all to a play, "The Ghosts", at the Duke's house, but a very simple play.
Thence up and down, with my wife with me, to look [for] Sir Ph. Warwicke (55) (Mr. Creed going from me), but missed of him and so home, and late and busy at my office.
So home to supper and to bed. This day was left at my house a very neat silver watch, by one Briggs, a scrivener and sollicitor, at which I was angry with my wife for receiving, or, at least, for opening the box wherein it was, and so far witnessing our receipt of it, as to give the messenger 5s. for bringing it; but it can't be helped, and I will endeavour to do the man a kindnesse, he being a friend of my uncle Wight's (63).

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Loyal London

Defiance

The Mary

Diary of Samuel Pepys 15 August 1660. 15 Aug 1660.To the office, and after dinner by water to White Hall, where I found the King gone this morning by 5 of the clock to see a Dutch pleasure-boat below bridge1, where he dines, and my Lord with him. The King do tire all his people that are about him with early rising since he came. To the office, all the afternoon I staid there, and in the evening went to Westminster Hall, where I staid at Mrs. Michell's, and with her and her husband sent for some drink, and drank with them. By the same token she and Mrs. Murford and another old woman of the Hall were going a gossiping tonight. From thence to my Lord's, where I found him within, and he did give me direction about his business in his absence, he intending to go into the country to-morrow morning. Here I lay all night in the old chamber which I had now given up to W. Howe, with whom I did intend to lie, but he and I fell to play with one another, so that I made him to go lie with Mr. Sheply. So I lay alone all night.
Note 1;. A yacht which was greatly admired, and was imitated and improved by Commissioner Pett (50), who built a yacht for the King in 1661, which was called the "Jenny". Queen Elizabeth had a yacht, and one was built by Phineas Pett in 1604.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 November 1660. 08 Nov 1660. This morning Sir Wm. and the Treasurer and I went by barge with Sir Wm. Doyley and Mr. Prin (60) to Deptford, to pay off the Henrietta, and had a good dinner. I went to Mr. Davys's and saw his house (where I was once before a great while ago) and I found him a very pretty man. In the afternoon Commissioner Pett (50) and I went on board the yacht, which indeed is one of the finest things that ever I saw for neatness and room in so small a vessel. Mr. Pett (50) is to make one to outdo this for the honour of his country, which I fear he will scarce better. From thence with him as far as Ratcliffe, where I left him going by water to London, and I (unwilling to leave the rest of the officers) went back again to Deptford, and being very much troubled with a sudden looseness, I went into a little alehouse at the end of Ratcliffe, and did give a groat for a pot of ale, and there I did... So went forward in my walk with some men that were going that way a great pace, and in our way we met with many merry seamen that had got their money paid them to-day. We sat very late doing the work and waiting for the tide, it being moonshine we got to London before two in the morning. So home, where I found my wife up, she shewed me her head which was very well dressed to-day, she having been to see her father and mother. So to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 June 1661. 13 Jun 1661. I went up and down to Alderman Backwell's (43), but his servants not being up, I went home and put on my gray cloth suit and faced white coat, made of one of my wife's pettycoates, the first time I have had it on, and so in a riding garb back again and spoke with Mr. Shaw at the Alderman's, who offers me £300 if my Lord pleases to buy this cloth with, which pleased me well.
So to the Wardrobe and got my Lord to order Mr. Creed to imprest so much upon me to be paid by Alderman Backwell (43). So with my Lord to Whitehall by water, and he having taken leave of the King, comes to us at his lodgings and from thence goes to the garden stairs and there takes barge, and at the stairs was met by Sir R. Slingsby (50), who there took his leave of my Lord, and I heard my Lord thank him for his kindness to me, which Sir Robert answered much to my advantage.
I went down with my Lord in the barge to Deptford, and there went on board the Dutch yacht and staid there a good while, W. Howe not being come with my Lord's things, which made my Lord very angry. By and by he comes and so we set sayle, and anon went to dinner, my Lord and we very merry; and after dinner I went down below and there sang, and took leave of W. Howe, Captain Rolt, and the rest of my friends, then went up and took leave of my Lord, who give me his hand and parted with great respect.
So went and Captain Ferrers with me into our wherry, and my Lord did give five guns, all they had charged, which was the greatest respect my Lord could do me, and of which I was not a little proud. So with a sad and merry heart I left them sailing pleasantly from Erith, hoping to be in the Downs tomorrow early. We toward London in our boat. Pulled off our stockings and bathed our legs a great while in the river, which I had not done some years before.
By and by we come to Greenwich, and thinking to have gone on the King's yacht, the King was in her, so we passed by, and at Woolwich went on shore, in the company of Captain Poole of Jamaica and young Mr. Kennersley, and many others, and so to the tavern where we drank a great deal both wine and beer.
So we parted hence and went home with Mr. Falconer, who did give us cherrys and good wine. So to boat, and young Poole took us on board the Charity and gave us wine there, with which I had full enough, and so to our wherry again, and there fell asleep till I came almost to the Tower, and there the Captain and I parted, and I home and with wine enough in my head, went to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 September 1661. 14 Sep 1661. At the office all the morning, at noon to the Change, and then home again. To dinner, where my uncle Fenner by appointment came and dined with me, thinking to go together to my aunt Kite's that is dead; but before we had dined comes Sir R. Slingsby (50) and his lady, and a great deal of company, to take my wife and I out by barge to shew them the King's and Duke's yachts. So I was forced to leave my uncle and brother Tom (27) at dinner and go forth with them, and we had great pleasure, seeing all four yachts, viz., these two and the two Dutch ones. And so home again, and after writing letters by post, to bed.

Battle of Lowestoft

Diary of Samuel Pepys 16 June 1665. 16 Jun 1665. Up and to the office, where I set hard to business, but was informed that the Duke of Yorke (31) is come, and hath appointed us to attend him this afternoon. So after dinner, and doing some business at the office, I to White Hall, where the Court is full of the Duke (31) and his courtiers returned from sea. All fat and lusty, and ruddy by being in the sun. I kissed his hands, and we waited all the afternoon.
By and by saw Mr. Coventry (37), which rejoiced my very heart. Anon he and I, from all the rest of the company, walked into the Matted Gallery; where after many expressions of love, we fell to talk of business. Among other things, how my Lord Sandwich (39), both in his counsells and personal service, hath done most honourably and serviceably. Sir J. Lawson (50) is come to Greenwich; but his wound in his knee yet very bad. Jonas Poole, in the Vantguard, did basely, so as to be, or will be, turned out of his ship. Captain Holmes (43)1 expecting upon Sansum's death to be made Rear-admirall to the Prince (45) (but Harman (40)2 is put in) hath delivered up to the Duke (31) his commission, which the Duke (31) took and tore. He, it seems, had bid the Prince, who first told him of Holmes's intention, that he should dissuade him from it; for that he was resolved to take it if he offered it. Yet Holmes would do it, like a rash, proud coxcombe. But he is rich, and hath, it seems, sought an occasion of leaving the service. Several of our captains have done ill. The great ships are the ships do the business, they quite deadening the enemy. They run away upon sight of "The Prince3".
It is strange to see how people do already slight Sir William Barkeley (26)4, my Lord FitzHarding's (35) brother, who, three months since, was the delight of the Court. Captain Smith of "The Mary" the Duke (31) talks mightily of; and some great thing will be done for him.
Strange to hear how the Dutch do relate, as the Duke says, that they are the conquerors; and bonefires are made in Dunkirke in their behalf; though a clearer victory can never be expected. Mr. Coventry (37) thinks they cannot have lost less than 6000 men, and we not dead above 200, and wounded about 400; in all about 600.
Thence home and to my office till past twelve, and then home to supper and to bed, my wife and mother not being yet come home from W. Hewer's (23) chamber, who treats my mother tonight.
Captain Grove the Duke (31) told us this day, hath done the basest thing at Lowestoffe, in hearing of the guns, and could not (as others) be got out, but staid there; for which he will be tried; and is reckoned a prating coxcombe, and of no courage.
Note 1. Captain Robert Holmes (43) (afterwards knighted). Sir William Coventry (37), in a letter to Lord Arlington (47) (dated from "The Royal Charles", Southwold Bay, June 13th), writes: "Capt. Holmes asked to be rear admiral of the white squadron in place of Sansum who was killed, but the Duke gave the place to Captain Harman (40), on which he delivered up his commission, which the Duke received, and put Captain Langhorne in his stead" (Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1664-65, p. 423).
Note 2. John Harman (40), afterwards knighted. He had served with great reputation in several naval fights, and was desperately wounded in 1673, while.
Note 3. "The Prince" was Lord Sandwich's (39) ship; the captain was Roger Cuttance. It was put up at Chatham for repair at this date.
Note 4. Sir William Berkeley (26), see note, vol. iii., p. 334. His behaviour after the death of his brother, Lord Falmouth (35), is severely commented on in "Poems on State Affairs", vol. i., p. 29 "Berkeley had heard it soon, and thought not good To venture more of royal Harding's blood; To be immortal he was not of age, And did e'en now the Indian Prize presage; And judged it safe and decent, cost what cost, To lose the day, since his dear brother's lost. With his whole squadron straight away he bore, And, like good boy, promised to fight no more". B.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 June 1665. 23 Jun 1665. Up and to White Hall to a Committee for Tangier, where his Royal Highness (35) was. Our great design was to state to them the true condition of this Committee for want of money, the want whereof was so great as to need some sudden help, and it was with some content resolved to see it supplied and means proposed towards the doing of it. At this Committee, unknown to me, comes my Lord of Sandwich (39), who, it seems, come to towne last night.
After the Committee was up, my Lord Sandwich (39) did take me aside, and we walked an hour alone together in the robe-chamber, the door shut, telling me how much the Duke (31) and Mr. Coventry (37) did, both in the fleete and here, make of him, and that in some opposition to the Prince (45); and as a more private message, he told me that he hath been with them both when they have made sport of the Prince (45) and laughed at him: yet that all the discourse of the towne, and the printed relation, should not give him one word of honour my Lord thinks mighty strange; he assuring me, that though by accident the Prince (45) was in the van the beginning of the fight for the first pass, yet all the rest of the day my Lord was in the van, and continued so. That notwithstanding all this noise of the Prince (45), he had hardly a shot in his side nor a man killed, whereas he hath above 30 in her hull, and not one mast whole nor yard; but the most battered ship of the fleet, and lost most men, saving Captain Smith of "The Mary". That the most the Duke (31) did was almost out of gun-shot; but that, indeed, the Duke (31) did come up to my Lord's rescue after he had a great while fought with four of them.
How poorly Sir John Lawson (50) performed, notwithstanding all that was said of him; and how his ship turned out of the way, while Sir J. Lawson (50) himself was upon the deck, to the endangering of the whole fleete. It therefore troubles my Lord that Mr. Coventry (37) should not mention a word of him in his relation. I did, in answer, offer that I was sure the relation was not compiled by Mr. Coventry (37), but by L'Estrange, out of several letters, as I could witness; and that Mr. Coventry's (37) letter that he did give the Duke of Albemarle (56) did give him as much right as the Prince (45), for I myself read it first and then copied it out, which I promised to show my Lord, with which he was somewhat satisfied. From that discourse my Lord did begin to tell me how much he was concerned to dispose of his children, and would have my advice and help; and propounded to match my Lady Jemimah to Sir G. Carteret's (55) eldest son, which I approved of, and did undertake the speaking with him about it as from myself, which my Lord liked. So parted, with my head full of care about this business.
Thence home to the 'Change, and so to dinner, and thence by coach to Mr. Povy's (51).
Thence by appointment with him and Creed to one Mr. Finch; one of the Commissioners for the Excise, to be informed about some things of the Excise, in order to our settling matters therein better for us for our Tangier business. I find him a very discreet, grave person.
Thence well satisfied I and Creed to Mr. Fox (38) at White Hall to speak with him about the same matter, and having some pretty satisfaction from him also, he and I took boat and to Fox Hall, where we spent two or three hours talking of several matters very soberly and contentfully to me, which, with the ayre and pleasure of the garden, was a great refreshment to me, and, 'methinks, that which we ought to joy ourselves in.
Thence back to White Hall, where we parted, and I to find my Lord to receive his farther direction about his proposal this morning. Wherein I did that I should first by another hand break my intentions to Sir G. Carteret (55). I pitched upon Dr. Clerke, which my Lord liked, and so I endeavoured but in vain to find him out to-night.
So home by hackney-coach, which is become a very dangerous passage now-a-days, the sickness increasing mightily, and to bed.

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Royal James

1672 Battle of Solebay

On 28 May 1672 Philip Carteret 1641-1672 (31) and Winston Churchill -1672 were killed at Solebay.
Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (46) was killed. His son Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Sandwich 1648-1688 (24) succeeded 2nd Earl Sandwich.
George Legge 1st Baron Dartmouth 1647-1691 (25) fought.
Charles Harbord 1640-1672 (32) was killed. The inscription on his. Monument in Westminster Abbey reads ... Sr. Charles Harbord Knt. his Majesties Surveyor General, and First Lieutenant of the Royall James, under the most noble and illustrious captain Edward, Earle of Sandwich (46), Vice Admirall of England, which after a terrible fight maintained to admiration against a squadron of the Holland fleet for above six houres, neere the Suffolk coast, having put off two fireships, at last being utterly disSabled and few of her men remaining unhurt, was by a third unfortunately set on fire: but he (though he swam well) neglected to save himselfe as some did, and out of the perfect love to that worthy lord (whom for many yeares he had constantly accompanyed in all his honourable imployments, and in all the engagements of the former warr) dyed with him at the age of XXXIII, much bewailed of his father whom he never offended, and much beloved of all for his knowne piety, vertue, loyalty, fortitude and fidelity.
Captain John Cox -1672 was killed in action.
Admiral John Holmes 1640-1683 (32) fought as commander of Rupert.

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John Evelyn's Diary 31 May 1672. 31 May 1672. I received another command to repair to the seaside; so I went to Rochester, where I found many wounded, sick, and prisoners, newly put on shore after the engagement on the 28th, in which the Earl of Sandwich (46), that incomparable person and my particular friend, and divers more whom I loved, were lost. My Lord (who was Admiral of the Blue) was in the "Prince", which was burnt, one of the best men-of-war that ever spread canvas on the sea. There were lost with this brave man, a son of Sir Charles Cotterell (57) (Master of the Ceremonies), and a son (32) of Sir Charles Harbord (his Majesty's (42) Surveyor-General), two valiant and most accomplished youths, full of virtue and courage, who might have saved themselves; but chose to perish with my Lord, whom they honored and loved above their own lives.
Here, I cannot but make some reflections on things past. It was not above a day or two that going to Whitehall to take leave of his Lordship (46), who had his lodgings in the Privy-Garden, shaking me by the hand he bid me good-by, and said he thought he would see me no more, and I saw, to my thinking, something boding in his countenance: "No", says he, "they will not have me live. Had I lost a fleet (meaning on his return from Bergen when he took the East India prize) I should have fared better; but, be as it pleases God—I must do something, I know not what, to save my reputation". Something to this effect, he had hinted to me; thus I took my leave. I well remember that the Duke of Albemarle (63), and my now Lord Clifford (41), had, I know not why, no great opinion of his courage, because, in former conflicts, being an able and experienced seaman (which neither of them were), he always brought off his Majesty's (42) ships without loss, though not without as many marks of true courage as the stoutest of them; and I am a witness that, in the late war, his own ship was pierced like a colander. But the business was, he was utterly against this war from the beginning, and abhorred the attacking of the Smyrna fleet; he did not favor the heady expedition of Clifford at Bergen, nor was he so furious and confident as was the Duke of Albemarle, who believed he could vanquish the Hollanders with one squadron. My Lord Sandwich (46) was prudent as well as valiant, and always governed his affairs with success and little loss; he was for deliberation and reason, they for action and slaughter without either; and for this, whispered as if my Lord Sandwich (46) was not so gallant, because he was not so rash, and knew how fatal it was to lose a fleet, such as was that under his conduct, and for which these very persons would have censured him on the other side. This it was, I am confident, grieved him, and made him enter like a lion, and fight like one too, in the midst of the hottest service, where the stoutest of the rest seeing him engaged, and so many ships upon him, dared not, or would not, come to his succor, as some of them, whom I know, might have done. Thus, this gallant person perished, to gratify the pride and envy of some I named.
Deplorable was the loss of one of the best accomplished persons, not only of this nation, but of any other. He was learned in sea affairs, in politics, in mathematics, and in music: he had been on divers embassies, was of a sweet and obliging temper, sober, chaste, very ingenious, a true nobleman, an ornament to the Court and his Prince; nor has he left any behind him who approach his many virtues.
He had, I confess, served the tyrant Cromwell, when a young man, but it was without malice, as a soldier of fortune; and he readily submitted, and that with joy, bringing an entire fleet with him from the Sound, at the first tidings of his Majesty's (42) restoration. I verily believe him as faithful a subject as any that were not his friends. I am yet heartily grieved at this mighty loss, nor do I call it to my thoughts without emotion.

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The Experiment

Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1662. 24 Mar 1662. Early Sir G. Carteret (52), both Sir Williams and I on board The Experiment, to dispatch her away, she being to carry things to the Madeiras with the East Indy fleet. Here (Sir W. Pen (40) going to Deptford to send more hands) we staid till noon talking, and eating and drinking a good ham of English bacon, and having put things in very good order home, where I found Jane, my old maid, come out of the country, and I have a mind to have her again..
By and by comes la belle Pierce to see my wife, and to bring her a pair of peruques of hair, as the fashion now is for ladies to wear; which are pretty, and are of my wife's own hair, or else I should not endure them. After a good whiles stay, I went to see if any play was acted, and I found none upon the post, it being Passion week.
So home again, and took water with them towards Westminster; but as we put off with the boat Griffin came after me to tell me that Sir G. Carteret (52) and the rest were at the office, so I intended to see them through the bridge and come back again, but the tide being against us, when we were almost through we were carried back again with much danger, and Mrs. Pierce was much afeard and frightened. So I carried them to the other side and walked to the Beare, and sent them away, and so back again myself to the office, but finding nobody there I went again to the Old Swan, and thence by water to the New Exchange, and there found them, and thence by coach carried my wife to Bowes to buy something, and while they were there went to Westminster Hall, and there bought Mr. Grant's (41) book of observations upon the weekly bills of mortality, which appear to me upon first sight to be very pretty.
So back again and took my wife, calling at my brother Tom's (28), whom I found full of work, which I am glad of, and thence at the New Exchange and so home, and I to Sir W. Batten's (61), and supped there out of pure hunger and to save getting anything ready at home, which is a thing I do not nor shall not use to do.
So home and to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 December 1664. 22 Dec 1664. Up and betimes to my office, and then out to several places, among others to Holborne to have spoke with one Mr. Underwood about some English hemp, he lies against Gray's Inn. Thereabouts I to a barber's shop to have my hair cut, and there met with a copy of verses, mightily commended by some gentlemen there, of my Lord Mordaunt's (38), in excuse of his going to sea this late expedition, with the Duke of Yorke (31). But, Lord! they are but sorry things; only a Lord made them.
Thence to the 'Change; and there, among the merchants, I hear fully the news of our being beaten to dirt at Guinny, by De Ruyter (57) with his fleete. The particulars, as much as by Sir G. Carteret (54) afterwards I heard, I have said in a letter to my Lord Sandwich (39) this day at Portsmouth; it being most wholly to the utter ruine of our Royall Company, and reproach and shame to the whole nation, as well as justification to them in their doing wrong to no man as to his private [property], only takeing whatever is found to belong to the Company, and nothing else.
Dined at the Dolphin, Sir G. Carteret (54), Sir J. Minnes (65), Sir W. Batten (63), and I, with Sir W. Boreman and Sir Theophilus Biddulph and others, Commissioners of the Sewers, about our place below to lay masts in.
But coming a little too soon, I out again, and tooke boat down to Redriffe; and just in time within two minutes, and saw the new vessel of Sir William Petty's (41) launched, the King (34) and Duke (31) being there1. It swims and looks finely, and I believe will do well. The name I think is Twilight, but I do not know certainly.
Coming away back immediately to dinner, where a great deal of good discourse, and Sir G. Carteret's (54) discourse of this Guinny business, with great displeasure at the losse of our honour there, and do now confess that the trade brought all these troubles upon us between the Dutch and us.
Thence to the office and there sat late, then I to my office and there till 12 at night, and so home to bed weary.
Note 1. Pepys was wrong as to the name of Sir William Petty's (41) new doublekeeled boat. On February 13th, 1664-65, he gives the correct title, which was "The Experiment".

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 February 1665. 13 Feb 1665. Up and to St. James's, did our usual business before the Duke (31).
Thence I to Westminster and by water (taking Mr. Stapely the rope-maker by the way), to his rope-ground and to Limehouse, there to see the manner of stoves and did excellently inform myself therein, and coming home did go on board Sir W. Petty's (41) "The Experiment", which is a brave roomy vessel, and I hope may do well. So went on shore to a Dutch House to drink some mum, and there light upon some Dutchmen, with whom we had good discourse touching stoveing1 and making of cables. But to see how despicably they speak of us for our using so many hands more to do anything than they do, they closing a cable with 20, that we use 60 men upon.
Thence home and eat something, and then to my office, where very late, and then to supper and to bed. Captain Stokes, it seems, is at last dead at Portsmouth.
Note 1. Stoveing, in sail-making, is the heating of the bolt-ropes, so as to make them pliable. B.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 18 February 1665. 18 Feb 1665. Up, and to the office, where sat all the morning; at noon to the 'Change, and thence to the Royall Oake taverne in Lombard Street, where Sir William Petty (41) and the owners of the double-bottomed boat (The Experiment) did entertain my Lord Brunkard (45), Sir R. Murrey, myself, and others, with marrow bones and a chine_of_beefe of the victuals they have made for this ship; and excellent company and good discourse: but, above all, I do value Sir William Petty (41).
Thence home; and took my Lord Sandwich's (39) draught of the harbour of Portsmouth down to Ratcliffe, to one Burston, to make a plate for the King (34), and another for the Duke (31), and another for himself; which will be very neat.
So home, and till almost one o'clock in the morning at my office, and then home to supper and to bed. My Lord Sandwich (39), and his fleete of twenty-five ships in the Downes, returned from cruising, but could not meet with any Dutchmen.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 March 1665. 22 Mar 1665. Up, and to Mr. Povy's (51) about our business, and thence I to see Sir Ph. Warwicke (55), but could not meet with him.
So to Mr. Coventry (37), whose profession of love and esteem for me to myself was so large and free that I never could expect or wish for more, nor could have it from any man in England, that I should value it more.
Thence to Mr. Povy's (51), and with Creed to the 'Change and to my house, but, it being washing day, dined not at home, but took him (I being invited) to Mr. Hubland's, the merchant, where Sir William Petty (41), and abundance of most ingenious men, owners and freighters of "The Experiment", now going with her two bodies to sea. Most excellent discourse. Among others, Sir William Petty (41) did tell me that in good earnest he hath in his will left such parts of his estate to him that could invent such and such things. As among others, that could discover truly the way of milk coming into the breasts of a woman; and he that could invent proper characters to express to another the mixture of relishes and tastes. And says, that to him that invents gold, he gives nothing for the philosopher's stone; for (says he) they that find out that, will be able to pay themselves. But, says he, by this means it is better than to give to a lecture; for here my executors, that must part with this, will be sure to be well convinced of the invention before they do part with their money.
After dinner Mr. Hill (35) took me with Mrs. Hubland, who is a fine gentlewoman, into another room, and there made her sing, which she do very well, to my great content.
Then to Gresham College, and there did see a kitling killed almost quite, but that we could not quite kill her, with such a way; the ayre out of a receiver, wherein she was put, and then the ayre being let in upon her revives her immediately1 nay, and this ayre is to be made by putting together a liquor and some body that ferments, the steam of that do do the work.
Thence home, and thence to White Hall, where the house full of the Duke's (31) going to-morrow, and thence to St. James's, wherein these things fell out:
(1) I saw the Duke (31), kissed his hand, and had his most kind expressions of his value and opinion of me, which comforted me above all things in the world,
(2) the like from Mr. Coventry (37) most heartily and affectionately.
(3) Saw, among other fine ladies, Mrs. Middleton (20)2, a very great beauty I never knew or heard of before;
(4) I saw Waller (59) the poet, whom I never saw before.
So, very late, by coach home with W. Pen (43), who was there. To supper and to bed, with my heart at rest, and my head very busy thinking of my several matters now on foot, the new comfort of my old navy business, and the new one of my employment on Tangier.
Note 1. "Two experiments were made for the finding out a way to breathe under water, useful for divers". The first was on a bird and the second on "a kitling" (Birch's "History", vol. ii., p. 25).
Note 2. Jane (20), daughter to Sir Robert Needham, is frequently mentioned in the "Grammont Memoirs", and Evelyn calls her "that famous and indeed incomparable beauty" ("Diary", August 2nd, 1683). Her portrait is in the Royal Collection amongst the beauties of Charles II's Court. Sir Robert Needham was related to John Evelyn.

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The Mathias

Diary of Samuel Pepys 02 August 1663. 02 Aug 1663. Lord's Day. Up and after the barber had done he and I walked to the Docke, and so on board the Mathias, where Commissioner Pett (52) and he and I and a good many of the officers and others of the yard did hear an excellent sermon of Mr. Hudson's upon "All is yours and you are God's", a most ready, learned, and good sermon, such as I have not heard a good while, nor ever thought he could have preached.
We took him with us to the Hill-house, and there we dined, and an officer or two with us. So after dinner the company withdrew, and we three to private discourse and laid the matters of the yard home again to the Commissioner, and discoursed largely of several matters.
Then to the parish church, and there heard a poor sermon with a great deal of false Greek in it, upon these words, "Ye are my friends, if ye do these things which I command you".
Thence to the Docke and by water to view St Mary Creeke, but do not find it so proper for a wet docks as we would have it, it being uneven ground and hard in the bottom and no, great depth of water in many places. Returned and walked from the Docke home, Mr. Coventry (35) and I very much troubled to see how backward Commissioner Pett (52) is to tell any of the faults of the officers, and to see nothing in better condition here for his being here than they are in other yards where there is none. After some discourse to bed. But I sat up an hour after Mr. Coventry (35) was gone to read my vows, it raining a wonderful hard showre about 11 at night for an hour together.
So to bed.

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Lenox

Before 1693 Admiral George Delaval 1667-1723 had achieved the rank of 3rd lieutenant aboard Lenox.

Sussex

On 11 Apr 1693 Sussex was launched at Chatham Dockyard.

On 27 Dec 1693 Sussex set sail from Portsmouth with a fleet of forty-eight warships and one hundred and sisty-six merchant ships.

Turkish Fleet Disaster

On 01 Mar 1694 the Turkish Fleet was lost in a severe storm off Gibralter. Sussex sank with the loss of five hundred men.

Tilbury

In May 1700 Captain Delaval (33) took command of the newly commissioned 4th rate man of war Tilbury.

Spiteful

On 05 Mar 1866 Robert Walter Craven 1850-1866 (16) died aboard Spiteful. He was buried at The British Cemetery, Montevideo.

Captain

In 07 Sep 1870 William Reginald Herbert 1854-1870 (16) died at sea lost aboard the Captain.

On 07 Sep 1870 Lewis Gordon 1848-1870 (22) drowned being lost at sea on board the Captain.

Africa

Battle of Trafalgar

On 21 Oct 1805 Admiral Henry Digby 1770-1842 (35) commanded Africa at Cape Trafalgar during the Battle of Trafalgar.

Ardent

In 1794 Robert Manners-Sutton 1754-1794 (40) was killed in the explosion of Ardent.

Bacchante

In 1812 Charles Littleton Anson 1799-1812 (13) was killed by an exploding gun aboard Bacchante.

Assistance

On 30 Dec 1783 Hamilton Douglas 1763-1783 (20) died of exposure while commanding the barge of Assistance being caught in a snowstorm while looking for deserters and wrecked at Sandy Hook Middletown Township Monmouth County New Jersey.

Victory

St James' Day Battle

Calendar of State Papers Charles II 30 Jul 1666. 30 Jul 1666. Great Yarmouth. 80. Rich. Bower to Williamson. The Zealanders were engaged with the Blue squadron Wednesday and most of Thursday, but at length the Zealanders ran; the Dutch fleet escaped to the Weelings and Goree; only hears of six ships lost by them; 32 wounded men from the Victory and Vanguard have come to Southwold. The Victory being threatened by a fire-ship, the captain sent his lieutenant in a ketch to put the fire-ship by; the ketch followed the fire-ship too near the Dutch fleet, and being herself taken for a fire-ship, every one near let fly at ber, so the ketch was sadly shattered and the lieuten- ant killed. Capt. Talbot of the Elizabeth came into Aldborough, with his vessel in good condition, walking the deck in his silk morning gown and powdered hair. The East India London also came into Aldborough; the captain was killed, and the surgeon’s arm broken; the men declared they would not fight without a surgeon; other arrivals at Yarmouth. Sir Thos. Allin (54) has taken and fired Banckart’s flag ship, Banckart escaping in a boat. The Royal Charles is sent in; the generals remain on board the Royal James. The Hull fleet has sailed from Yarmouth for London without convoy. Begs the Gazettes regularly; 22 wounded men are brought ashore.

On 04 Oct 1744 William Hamilton 1721-1744 (23) drowned when Victory sank near Alderney.

In 1803 Admiral George Francis Seymour Conway 1787-1870 (15) was transferred to Victory flagship of the Mediterranean Squadron.

Royal Anne Galley

In 1721 William Hamilton 1703-1721 (18) died lost aboard Royal Anne Galley.

Monmouth

Battle of Coronel

On 01 Nov 1914 Peter Robert Heathcote-Willoughby-Drummond 1885-1914 (28) was killed in the sinking of Monmouth at Coronel during the Battle of Coronel.

Saldanha

On 19 Mar 1811 John James Stuart 1782-1811 (28) died aboard his command, the frigate Saldanha.

Agatha of Lübeck

On 04 Apr 1808 Philip Yorke 1784-1808 (23) drowned in a storm off Memel in a ship called the Agatha of Lübeck.

Griffin

On 04 Sep 1633 Edmund Quincy 1628-1698 (5) emigrated on the ship Griffin to Boston.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1662. 24 Mar 1662. Early Sir G. Carteret (52), both Sir Williams and I on board The Experiment, to dispatch her away, she being to carry things to the Madeiras with the East Indy fleet. Here (Sir W. Pen (40) going to Deptford to send more hands) we staid till noon talking, and eating and drinking a good ham of English bacon, and having put things in very good order home, where I found Jane, my old maid, come out of the country, and I have a mind to have her again..
By and by comes la belle Pierce to see my wife, and to bring her a pair of peruques of hair, as the fashion now is for ladies to wear; which are pretty, and are of my wife's own hair, or else I should not endure them. After a good whiles stay, I went to see if any play was acted, and I found none upon the post, it being Passion week.
So home again, and took water with them towards Westminster; but as we put off with the boat Griffin came after me to tell me that Sir G. Carteret (52) and the rest were at the office, so I intended to see them through the bridge and come back again, but the tide being against us, when we were almost through we were carried back again with much danger, and Mrs. Pierce was much afeard and frightened. So I carried them to the other side and walked to the Beare, and sent them away, and so back again myself to the office, but finding nobody there I went again to the Old Swan, and thence by water to the New Exchange, and there found them, and thence by coach carried my wife to Bowes to buy something, and while they were there went to Westminster Hall, and there bought Mr. Grant's (41) book of observations upon the weekly bills of mortality, which appear to me upon first sight to be very pretty.
So back again and took my wife, calling at my brother Tom's (28), whom I found full of work, which I am glad of, and thence at the New Exchange and so home, and I to Sir W. Batten's (61), and supped there out of pure hunger and to save getting anything ready at home, which is a thing I do not nor shall not use to do.
So home and to bed.

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Guernsey

Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 March 1662. 27 Mar 1662. Early Sir G. Carteret (52), both Sir Williams and I by coach to Deptford, it being very windy and rainy weather, taking a codd and some prawnes in Fish Street with us. We settled to pay the Guernsey, a small ship, but come to a great deal of money, it having been unpaid ever since before the King (31) came in, by which means not only the King (31) pays wages while the ship has lain still, but the poor men have most of them been forced to borrow all the money due for their wages before they receive it, and that at a dear rate, God knows, so that many of them had very little to receive at the table, which grieved me to see it.
To dinner, very merry. Then Sir George to London, and we again to the pay, and that done by coach home again and to the office, doing some business, and so home and to bed.

Calendar of State Papers Charles II 13 Nov 1664. 13 Nov 1664. 93. Wm. Coventry (36) to [Sec. Bennet (46)]. Hopes the wind will change, and bring the Charles and the other ships out of the river; will not then fear what Opdam can do, though the men are raw, and need a little time at sea. The Ruby and Happy Return have brought some supernumeraries, but 500 more are wanted; 200 are expected from Plymouth, but till some runaways are hanged, the ships cannot be kept well manned. Sends a list of some fit to be made examples of in the several counties where they were pressed, with the names of those who pressed them. The Dutch ship named before is brought in, and two others are stayed at Cowes by virtue of the embargo, the order in Council making no exception for foreigners, The King’s pleasure should be known therein, as the end, which is to gather seamen, does not seem to require the stopping of foreigners. Prize officers must- be sent speedily to [Portsmouth], Dover, and Deal. Those at Deal should have men in readiness to carry prizes up the river, that the men belonging to the fleet be not scattered. Persons should also be hastened to ‘take care of the sick and wounded. The Duke (31) intends to appoint Erwin captain of the ship hired to go to St. Helena; he is approved by the East India Company, which is important, trade being intermixed with convoy, and they find fault if a commander of the King’s ships bring home any little matter privately bought. The Duke has divided the fleet into squadrons, assigning to each a vice and rear adiniral; Sir John Lawson (49) and Sir Wm. Berkeley to his own, Mennes (65) and Sansum to Prince Rupert’s (44), Sir George Aiscue (48) [Ayscough] and Teddeman to the Earl of Sandwich. Hopes in a few days to be in much better order, if good men can be got. Will send a list of the squadrons. The Guernsey is damaged by running aground. Rear-Admiral Teddeman, with 4 or 5 ships, has gone to course in the Channel, and if he meet any refractory Dutchmen, will teach them their duty. The King’s declaration for encouraging seamen has much revived the men, and added to their courage. [Four pages.]

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Royal Sovereign

SS President

In Mar 1841 Fitzroy George Charles Gordon Lennox 1820-1841 (20) drowned when the SS President was lost at sea with all 136 on board drowned.

Mary

In 1677 Captain Christopher Gunman 1634-1685 (42) was the first captain of Mary.

Neptune

John Evelyn's Diary 17 April 1683. 17 Apr 1683. I was at the launching of the last of the thirty ships ordered to be newly built by Act of Parliament, named the "Neptune", a second rate, one of the goodliest vessels of the whole navy, built by my kind neighbor, young Mr. Shish, his Majesty's (52) master shipwright of this dock.

Cornwallis

Treaty of Nanking

On 29 Aug 1842 The Treaty of Nanking signed aboard Cornwallis. The peace treaty that concluded the First Opium War. The Chinese regarded it as an 'Unequal Treaty'; the British fleet were anchored in Nanking poised to attack. The treaty required the Chinese to pay the British six million silver dollars for the opium that had been confiscated by Lin Zexu in 1839 (Article IV), 3 million dollars in compensation for debts that the Hong merchants in Canton owed British merchants (Article V), and a further 12 million dollars in war reparations for the cost of the war (Article VI). The total sum of 21 million dollars was to be paid in instalments over three years and the Qing government would be charged an annual interest rate of 5 percent for the money that was not paid in a timely manner (Article VII) (See Wikipedia).

Sans Pareil

In Mar 1798 Admiral George Francis Seymour Conway 1787-1870 (10) was assigned to Sans Pareil in the Channel Squadron.

Prince of Wales

Around Sep 1798 Admiral George Francis Seymour Conway 1787-1870 (10) was assigned to Prince of Wales in the West Indies.

Acasta

In 1800 Admiral George Francis Seymour Conway 1787-1870 (12) was transferred to Acasta.

Endymion

In 1802 Admiral George Francis Seymour Conway 1787-1870 (14) was transferred to Endymion.

In 1804 Admiral George Francis Seymour Conway 1787-1870 (16) was transferred to Endymion.

The Constant Warwick

John Evelyn's Diary 07 March 1690. 07 Mar 1690. I dined with Mr. Pepys (57), late Secretary to the Admiralty, where was that excellent shipwright and seaman (for so he had been, and also a Commission of the Navy), Sir Anthony Deane (56). Among other discourse, and deploring the sad condition of our navy, as now governed by inexperienced men since this Revolution, he mentioned what exceeding advantage we of this nation had by being the first who built frigates, the first of which ever built was that vessel which was afterward called "The Constant Warwick", and was the work of Pett of Chatham, for a trial of making a vessel that would sail swiftly; it was built with low decks, the guns lying near the water, and was so light and swift of sailing, that in a short time he told us she had, ere the Dutch war was ended, taken as much money from privateers as would have laden her; and that more such being built, did in a year or two scour the Channel from those of Dunkirk and others which had exceedingly infested it. He added that it would be the best and only infallible expedient to be masters of the sea, and able to destroy the greatest navy of any enemy if, instead of building huge great ships and second and third rates, they would leave off building such high decks, which were for nothing but to gratify gentlemen-commanders, who must have all their effeminate accommodations, and for pomp; that it would be the ruin of our fleets, if such persons were continued in command, they neither having experience nor being capable of learning, because they would not submit to the fatigue and inconvenience which those who were bred seamen would undergo, in those so otherwise useful swift frigates. These being to encounter the greatest ships would be able to protect, set on, and bring off, those who should manage the fire ships, and the Prince who should first store himself with numbers of such fire ships, would, through the help and countenance of such frigates, be able to ruin the greatest force of such vast ships as could be sent to sea, by the dexterity of working those light, swift ships to guard the fire ships. He concluded there would shortly be no other method of seafight; and that great ships and men-of-war, however stored with guns and men, must submit to those who should encounter them with far less number. He represented to us the dreadful effect of these fire ships; that he continually observed in our late maritime war with the Dutch that, when an enemy's fire ship approached, the most valiant commander and common sailors were in such consternation, that though then, of all times, there was most need of the guns, bombs, etc., to keep the mischief off, they grew pale and astonished, as if of a quite other mean soul, that they slunk about, forsook their guns and work as if in despair, every one looking about to see which way they might get out of their ship, though sure to be drowned if they did so. This he said was likely to prove hereafter the method of seafight, likely to be the misfortune of England if they continued to put gentlemen-commanders over experienced seamen, on account of their ignorance, effeminacy, and insolence.

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Breda

Diary of Samuel Pepys 03 September 1662. 03 Sep 1662. Up betimes, but now the days begin to shorten, and so whereas I used to rise by four o'clock, it is not broad daylight now till after five o'clock, so that it is after five before I do rise.
To my office, and about 8 o'clock I went over to Redriffe, and walked to Deptford, where I found Mr. Coventry (34) and Sir W. Pen (41) beginning the pay, it being my desire to be there to-day because it is the first pay that Mr. Coventry (34) has been at, and I would be thought to be as much with Mr. Coventry (34) as I can. Here we staid till noon, and by that time paid off the Breda, and then to dinner at the tavern, where I have obtained that our commons is not so large as they used to be, which I am glad to see.
After dinner by water to the office, and there we met and sold the Weymouth, Successe, and Fellowship hulkes, where pleasant to see how backward men are at first to bid; and yet when the candle is going out, how they bawl and dispute afterwards who bid the most first. And here I observed one man cunninger than the rest that was sure to bid the last man, and to carry it; and inquiring the reason, he told me that just as the flame goes out the smoke descends, which is a thing I never observed before, and by that he do know the instant when to bid last, which is very pretty.
In our discourse in the boat Mr. Coventry (34) told us how the Fanatiques and the Presbyters, that did intend to rise about this time, did choose this day as the most auspicious to them in their endeavours against monarchy: it being fatal twice to the King (32), and the day of Oliver's (63) death1. But, blessed be God! all is likely to be quiet, I hope.
After the sale I walked to my brother's, in my way meeting with Dr. Fairbrother, of whom I enquired what news in Church matters. He tells me, what I heard confirmed since, that it was fully resolved by the King's new Council that an indulgence should be granted the Presbyters; but upon the Bishop of London's (64) speech2 (who is now one of the most powerful men in England with the King (32)), their minds were wholly turned. And it is said that my Lord Albemarle (53) did oppose him most; but that I do believe is only in appearance. He told me also that most of the Presbyters now begin to wish they had complied, now they see that no Indulgence will be granted them, which they hoped for; and that the Bishop of London hath taken good care that places are supplied with very good and able men, which is the only thing that will keep all quiet.
I took him in the tavern at Puddle dock, but neither he nor I drank any of the wine we called for, but left it, and so after discourse parted, and Mr. Townsend not being at home I went to my brother's, and there heard how his love matter proceeded, which do not displease me, and so by water to White Hall to my Lord's lodgings, where he being to go to Hinchingbroke to-morrow morning, I staid and fiddled with Will Howe some new tunes very pleasant, and then my Lord came in and had much kind talk with him, and then to bed with Mr. Moore there alone. So having taken my leave of my Lord before I went to bed, I resolved to rise early and be gone without more speaking to him [Continued tomorow]
Note 1. Cromwell (63) had considered the 3rd of September as the most fortunate day of his life, on account of his victories at Dunbar and Worcester. It was also remarkable for the great storm that occurred at the time of his death; and as being the day on which the Fire of London, in 1666, burnt with the greatest fury. B.
Note 2. Gilbert Sheldon (64), born July 19th, 1598; Fellow of All Souls, Oxford, 1622; Warden, 1635; Bishop of London, 1660-63; Archbishop of Canterbury, 1663. Died November 9th, 1677.

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John Evelyn's Diary 26 October 1690. 26 Oct 1690. Kinsale at last surrendered, meantime King James's party burn all the houses they have in their power, and among them that stately palace of Lord Ossory's (25), which lately cost, as reported, £40,000. By a disastrous accident, a third-rate ship, the Breda, blew up and destroyed all on board; in it were twenty-five prisoners of war. She was to have sailed for England the next day.

Coronation

John Evelyn's Diary 13 September 1691. 13 Sep 1691. A great storm at sea; we lost the "Coronation" and "Harwich" above 600 men perishing.

Harwich

John Evelyn's Diary 13 September 1691. 13 Sep 1691. A great storm at sea; we lost the "Coronation" and "Harwich" above 600 men perishing.

Penelope

On 18 Feb 1944 Commander John Montagu Granville Waldegrave 1905–1944 (38) was killed in action when the Penelope was torpedoed by U-410 while returning from Anzio.

Harp Frigate

Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 March 1660. 17 Mar 1660. This morning bade adieu in bed to the company of my wife. We rose and I gave my wife some money to serve her for a time, and what papers of consequence I had. Then I left her to get her ready and went to my Lord's with my boy Eliezer to my Lord's lodging at Mr. Crew's (62). Here I had much business with my Lord, and papers, great store, given me by my Lord to dispose of as of the rest. After that, with Mr. Moore home to my house and took my wife by coach to the Chequer in Holborn, where, after we had drank, &c., she took coach and so farewell. I staid behind with Tom Alcock and Mr. Anderson, my old chamber fellow at Cambridge his brother, and drank with them there, who were come to me thither about one that would have a place at sea. Thence with Mr. Hawly to dinner at Mr. Crew's (62). After dinner to my own house, where all things were put up into the dining-room and locked up, and my wife took the keys along with her.
This day, in the presence of Mr. Moore (who made it) and Mr. Hawly, I did before I went out with my wife, seal my will to her, whereby I did give her all that I have in the world, but my books which I give to my brother John (19), excepting only French books, which my wife is to have. In the evening at the Admiralty, I met my Lord there and got a commission for Williamson to be captain of the Harp frigate, and afterwards went by coach taking Mr. Crips with me to my Lord and got him to sign it at table as he was at supper. And so to Westminster back again with him with me, who had a great desire to go to sea and my Lord told me that he would do him any favour. So I went home with him to his mother's house by me in Axe Yard, where I found Dr. Clodius's wife and sat there talking and hearing of old Mrs. Crisp playing of her old lessons upon the harpsichon till it was time to go to bed. After that to bed, and Laud, her son lay with me in the best chamber in her house, which indeed was finely furnished.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 18 March 1660. 18 Mar 1660. I rose early and went to the barber's [Jervas] in Palace Yard and I was trimmed by him, and afterwards drank with him a cup or two of ale, and did begin to hire his man to go with me to sea. Then to my Lord's lodging where I found Captain Williamson and gave him his commission to be Captain of the Harp, and he gave me a piece of gold and 20s. in silver. So to my own house, where I staid a while and then to dinner with Mr. Shepley at my Lord's lodgings. After that to Mr. Mossum's, where he made a very gallant sermon upon "Pray for the life of the King and the King's son". (Ezra vi. 10.) From thence to Mr. Crew's (62), but my Lord not being within I did not stay, but went away and met with Mr. Woodfine, who took me to an alehouse in Drury Lane, and we sat and drank together, and ate toasted cakes which were very good, and we had a great deal of mirth with the mistress of the house about them. From thence homewards, and called at Mr. Blagrave's, where I took up my note that he had of mine for 40s., which he two years ago did give me as a pawn while he had my lute. So that all things are even between him and I. So to Mrs. Crisp, where she and her daughter and son and I sat talking till ten o'clock at night, I giving them the best advice that I could concerning their son, how he should go to sea, and so to bed.

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Flying Greyhound

Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 September 1667. 17 Sep 1667. Up, and at the office all the morning, where Mr. Wren (38) come to us and sat with us, only to learn, and do intend to come once or twice a week and sit with us. In the afternoon walked to the Old Swan, the way mighty dirty, and there called at Michell's, and there had opportunity para kiss su moher, but elle did receive it with a great deal of seeming regret, which did vex me. But however I do not doubt overcoming her as I did the moher of the monsieur at Deptford. So thence by water to Westminster, to Burgess, and there did receive my orders for £1500 more for Tangier.
Thence to the Hall, and there talked a little with Mrs. Michell, and so to Mrs. Martin's to pay for my cuffs and drink with her.... [Missing text: ", and did hazer la cosa with her."]
And by and by away by coach and met with Sir H. Cholmly (35), and with him to the Temple, and there in Playford's (44) shop did give him some of my Exchequer orders and took his receipts, and so parted and home, and there to my business hard at the office, and then home, my wife being at Mrs. Turner's (44), who and her husband come home with her, and here staid and talked and staid late, and then went away and we to bed. But that which vexed me much this evening is that Captain Cocke (50) and Sir W. Batten (66) did come to me, and sat, and drank a bottle of wine, and told me how Sir W. Pen (46) hath got an order for the "Flying Greyhound" for himself, which is so false a thing, and the part of a knave, as nothing almost can be more. This vexed me; but I resolve to bring it before the Duke, and try a pull for it.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 October 1667. 06 Oct 1667. Lord's Day. Up, and dressed myself, and so walked out with the boy to Smithfield to Cow Lane, to Lincolne's, and there spoke with him, and agreed upon the hour to-morrow, to set out towards Brampton; but vexed that he is not likely to go himself, but sends another for him. Here I took a Hackney coach, and to White Hall, and there met Sir W. Coventry (39), and discoursed with him, and then with my Lord Bruncker (47), and many others, to end my matters in order to my going into the country to-morrow for five or six days, which I have not done for above three years. Walked with Creed into the Park a little, and at last went into the Queen's (28) side, and there saw the King (37) and Queen (28), and saw the ladies, in order to my hearing any news stirring to carry into the country, but met with none, and so away home by coach, and there dined, and W. How come to see me, and after dinner parted, and I to my writing to my Lord Sandwich (42), which is the greatest business I have to do before my going into the country, and in the evening to my office to set matters to rights there, and being in the garden Sir W. Pen (46) did come to me, and fell to discourse about the business of "The Flying Greyhound", wherein I was plain to him and he to me, and at last concluded upon my writing a petition to the Duke of York (33) for a certain ship, The Maybolt Gallyott, and he offers to give me £300 for my success, which, however, I would not oblige him to, but will see the issue of it by fair play, and so I did presently draw a petition, which he undertakes to proffer to the Duke of York (33), and solicit for me, and will not seem to doubt of his success.
So I wrote, and did give it him, and left it with him, and so home to supper, where Pelling comes and sits with me, and there tells us how old Mr. Batelier is dead this last night in the night, going to bed well, which I am mightily troubled for, he being a good man. Supper done, and he gone, I to my chamber to write my journal to this night, and so to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 April 1668. 20 Apr 1668. Up betimes and to the getting ready my answer to the Committee of Accounts to several questions, which makes me trouble, though I know of no blame due to me from any, let them enquire what they can out1. I to White Hall, and there hear how Henry Brouncker (41) is fled, which, I think, will undo him: but what good it will do Harman (43) I know not, he hath so befooled himself; but it will be good sport to my Chancellor (59) to hear how his great enemy is fain to take the same course that he is. There met Robinson, who tells me that he fears his master, W. Coventry, will this week have his business brought upon the stage again, about selling of places, which I shall be sorry for, though the less, since I hear his standing for Pen the other day, to the prejudice, though not to the wrong, of my Lord Sandwich (42); and yet I do think what he did, he did out of a principle of honesty.
Thence to Committee of Accounts, and delivered my paper, and had little discourse, and was unwilling to stay long with them to enter into much, but away and glad to be from them, though very civil to me, but cunning and close I see they are.
So to Westminster Hall, and there find the Parliament upon the Irish business, where going into the Speaker's chamber I did hear how plainly one lawyer of counsel for the complainants did inveigh by name against all the late Commissioners there.
Thence with Creed, thinking, but failed, of dining with Lord Crew, and so he and I to Hercules Pillars, and there dined, and thence home by coach, and so with Jack Fenn to the Chamberlain of London to look after the state of some Navy assignments that are in his hands, and thence away, and meeting Sir William Hooker, the Alderman (56), he did cry out mighty high against Sir W. Pen (46) for his getting such an estate, and giving £15,000 with his daughter, which is more, by half, than ever he did give; but this the world believes, and so let them.
Thence took coach and I all alone to Hyde Park (passing through Duck Lane among the booksellers, only to get a sight of the pretty little woman I did salute the other night, and did in passing), and so all the evening in the Park, being a little unwilling to be seen there, and at night home, and thereto W. Pen's (46) and sat and talked there with his wife and children a good while, he being busy in his closet, I believe preparing his defence in Parliament, and so home to bed.
Note 1. The first part of the entry for April 20th is among the rough notes, and stands as follows: "Monday 20. Up and busy about answer to Committee of Accounts this morning about several questions which vexed me though in none I have reason to be troubled. But the business of The Flying Greyhound begins to find me some care, though in that I am wholly void of blame". This may be compared with the text.

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The Prosperous

Diary of Samuel Pepys 18 September 1667. 18 Sep 1667. Up betimes and to Captain Cocke (50), in his coach which he sent for me, and he not being ready I walked in the Exchange, which is now made pretty, by having windows and doors before all their shops, to keep out the cold.
By and by to him, and he being ready, he and I out in his coach to my Chancellor's (58); there to Mr. Wren's (38) chamber, who did tell us the whole of Sir W. Pen's (46) having the order for this ship of ours, and we went with him to St. James's, and there I did see the copy of it, which is built upon a suggestion of his having given the King (37) a ship of his, "The Prosperous", wherein is such a cheat as I have the best advantage in the world over him, and will make him do reason, or lay him on his back. This I was very glad of, and having done as far as I could in it we returned, and I home, and there at the office all the morning, and at noon with my Lord Bruncker (47) to the Treasurer's office to look over the clerks who are there making up the books, but in such a manner as it is a shame to see.
Then home to dinner, and after dinner, my mind mighty full of this business of Sir W. Pen's (46), to the office, and there busy all the afternoon. This evening Sir W. Batten (66) and Sir W. Pen (46) and I met at Sir W. Batten's (66) house, and there I took an opportunity to break the business, at which Sir W. Pen (46) is much disturbed, and would excuse it the most he can, but do it so basely, that though he do offer to let go his pretence to her, and resign up his order for her, and come in only to ask his share of her (which do very well please me, and give me present satisfaction), yet I shall remember him for a knave while I live. But thus my mind is quieted for the present more than I thought I should be, and am glad that I shall have no need of bidding him open defiance, which I would otherwise have done, and made a perpetual war between us.
So to the office, and there busy pretty late, and so home and to supper with my wife, and so to bed.

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The Maybolt Galyott

Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 October 1667. 06 Oct 1667. Lord's Day. Up, and dressed myself, and so walked out with the boy to Smithfield to Cow Lane, to Lincolne's, and there spoke with him, and agreed upon the hour to-morrow, to set out towards Brampton; but vexed that he is not likely to go himself, but sends another for him. Here I took a Hackney coach, and to White Hall, and there met Sir W. Coventry (39), and discoursed with him, and then with my Lord Bruncker (47), and many others, to end my matters in order to my going into the country to-morrow for five or six days, which I have not done for above three years. Walked with Creed into the Park a little, and at last went into the Queen's (28) side, and there saw the King (37) and Queen (28), and saw the ladies, in order to my hearing any news stirring to carry into the country, but met with none, and so away home by coach, and there dined, and W. How come to see me, and after dinner parted, and I to my writing to my Lord Sandwich (42), which is the greatest business I have to do before my going into the country, and in the evening to my office to set matters to rights there, and being in the garden Sir W. Pen (46) did come to me, and fell to discourse about the business of "The Flying Greyhound", wherein I was plain to him and he to me, and at last concluded upon my writing a petition to the Duke of York (33) for a certain ship, The Maybolt Gallyott, and he offers to give me £300 for my success, which, however, I would not oblige him to, but will see the issue of it by fair play, and so I did presently draw a petition, which he undertakes to proffer to the Duke of York (33), and solicit for me, and will not seem to doubt of his success.
So I wrote, and did give it him, and left it with him, and so home to supper, where Pelling comes and sits with me, and there tells us how old Mr. Batelier is dead this last night in the night, going to bed well, which I am mightily troubled for, he being a good man. Supper done, and he gone, I to my chamber to write my journal to this night, and so to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 October 1667. 13 Oct 1667. Lord's Day. Up, and by water to White Hall, and thence walked to Sir W. Coventry's (39) lodgings, but he was gone out, so I to St. James's, and there to the Duke of York's (33) chamber: and there he was dressing; and many Lords and Parliament-men come to kiss his hands, they being newly come to town. And there the Duke of York (33) did of himself call me to him, and tell me that he had spoke to the King (37), and that the King (37) had granted me the ship I asked for; and did, moreover, say that he was mightily satisfied with my service, and that he would be willing to do anything that was in his power for me: which he said with mighty kindness; which I did return him thanks for, and departed with mighty joy, more than I did expect.
And so walked over the Park to White Hall, and there met Sir H. Cholmly (35), who walked with me, and told me most of the news I heard last night of the Parliament; and thinks they will do all things very well, only they will be revenged of my Chancellor (58); and says, however, that he thinks there will be but two things proved on him; and that one is, that he may have said to the King (37), and to others, words to breed in the King (37) an ill opinion of the Parliament—that they were factious, and that it was better to dissolve them: and this, he thinks, they will be able to prove; but what this will amount to, he knows not. And next, that he hath taken money for several bargains that have been made with the Crown; and did instance one that is already complained of: but there are so many more involved in it, that, should they unravel things of this sort, every body almost will be more or less concerned. But these are the two great points which he thinks they will insist on, and prove against him.
Thence I to the Chapel, and there heard the sermon and a pretty good anthem, and so home by water to dinner, where Bowies and brother, and a good dinner, and in the afternoon to make good my journal to this day, and so by water again to White Hall, and thence only walked to Mrs. Martin's, and there sat with her and her sister and Borroughs... [Missing text: "did tocar la prima" ] and there drank and talked and away by water home, and there walked with Sir W. Pen (46), and told him what the Duke of York (33) told me to-day about the ship I begged; and he was knave enough, of his own accord, but, to be sure, in order to his own advantage, to offer me to send for the master of the vessel, "The Maybolt Galliott", and bid him to get her furnished as for a long voyage, and I to take no notice of it, that she might be the more worth to me: so that here he is a very knave to the King (37), and I doubt not his being the same to me on occasion.
So in a doors and supped with my wife and brother, W. Hewer (25), and Willett, and so evened with W. Hewer (25) for my expenses upon the road this last journey, and do think that the whole journey will cost me little less than £18 or £20, one way or other; but I am well pleased with it, and so after supper to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 October 1667. 14 Oct 1667. Up, and by water to White Hall, and thence walked to St. James's, and there to Mr. Wren's (38); and he told me that my business was done about my warrant on the Maybolt Galliott; which I did see, and though it was not so full in the reciting of my services as the other was in that of Sir W. Pen's (46), yet I was well pleased with it, and do intend to fetch it away anon.
Thence with Sir Thomas Allen (34), in a little sorry coach which he hath set up of late, and Sir Jeremy Smith, to White Hall, and there I took water and went to Westminster Hall, and there hear that the House is this day again upon the business of giving the King (37) the thanks of the House for his speech, and, among other things, for laying aside of my Chancellor (58).
Thence I to Mrs. Martin's, where by appointment comes to me Mrs. Howlett, which I was afraid was to have told me something of my freedom with her daughter, but it was not so, but only to complain to me of her son-in-law, how he abuses and makes a slave of her, and his mother is one that encourages him in it, so that they are at this time upon very bad terms one with another, and desires that I would take a time to advise him and tell him what it becomes him to do, which office I am very glad of, for some ends of my own also con sa fille, and there drank and parted, I mightily satisfied with this business, and so home by water with Sir W. Warren, who happened to be at Westminster, and there I pretty strange to him, and little discourse, and there at the office Lord Bruncker (47), W. Pen, T. Hater and I did some business, and so home to dinner, and thence I out to visit Sir G. Carteret (57) and ladies there; and from him do understand that the King (37) himself (but this he told me as a great secret) is satisfied that this thanks which he expects from the House, for the laying aside of my Chancellor (58), is a thing irregular; but, since it is come into the House, he do think it necessary to carry it on, and will have it, and hath made his mind known to be so, to some of the House. But Sir G. Carteret (57) do say he knows nothing of what my Lord Bruncker (47) told us to-day, that the King (37) was angry with the Duke of York (34) yesterday, and advised him not to hinder what he had a mind to have done, touching this business; which is news very bad, if true. Here I visited my Baroness Carteret (65), who hath been sick some time, but now pretty well, but laid on her bed.
Thence to my Lord Crew (69), to see him after my coming out of the country, and he seems satisfied with some steps they have made in my absence towards my Lord Sandwich's (42) relief for money: and so I have no more to do, nor will trouble myself more about it till they send for me. He tells me also that the King (37) will have the thanks of the House go on: and commends my Lord Keeper's speech for all but what he was forced to say, about the reason of the King's sending away the House so soon the last time, when they were met, but this he was forced to do.
Thence to Westminster Hall, and there walked with Mr. Scowen, who tells me that it is at last carried in the House that the thanks shall be given to the King (37)—among other things, particularly for the removal of my Chancellor (58); but he tells me it is a strange act, and that which he thinks would never have been, but that the King (37) did insist upon it, that, since it come into the House, it might not be let fall.
After walking there awhile I took coach and to the Duke of York's House, and there went in for nothing into the pit, at the last act, to see Sir Martin Marrall, and met my wife, who was there, and my brother, and W. Hewer (25) and Willett, and carried them home, still being pleased with the humour of the play, almost above all that ever I saw.
Home, and there do find that John Bowles is not yet come thither. I suppose he is playing the good fellow in the town.
So to the office a while, and then home to supper and to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 October 1667. 27 Oct 1667. Lord's Day. Up, and to my office, there, with W. Hewer (25), to dictate a long letter to the Duke of York (34), about the bad state of the office, it being a work I do think fit for the office to do, though it be to no purpose but for their vindication in these bad times; for I do now learn many things tending to our safety which I did not wholly forget before, but do find the fruits of, and would I had practised them more, as, among other things, to be sure to let our answers to orders bear date presently after their date, that we may be found quick in our execution. This did us great good the other day before the Parliament. All the morning at this, at noon home to dinner, with my own family alone.
After dinner, I down to Deptford, the first time that I went to look upon "The Maybolt", which the King (37) hath given me, and there she is; and I did meet with Mr. Uthwayte, who do tell me that there are new sails ordered to be delivered her, and a cable, which I did not speak of at all to him. So, thereupon, I told him I would not be my own hindrance so much as to take her into my custody before she had them, which was all I said to him, but desired him to take a strict inventory of her, that I might not be cheated by the master nor the company, when they come to understand that the vessel is gone away, which he hath promised me, and so away back again home, reading all the way the book of the collection of oaths in the several offices of this nation, which is worth a man's reading, and so away home, and there my boy and I to sing, and at it all the evening, and to supper, and so to bed. This evening come Sir J. Minnes (68) to me, to let me know that a Parliament-man hath been with him, to tell him that the Parliament intend to examine him particularly about Sir W. Coventry's (39) selling of places, and about my Lord Bruncker's (47) discharging the ships at Chatham by ticket: for the former of which I am more particularly sorry that that business of Sir W. Coventry (39) should come up again; though this old man tells me, and, I believe, that he can say nothing to it.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 11 December 1667. 11 Dec 1667. By coach to White Hall, and there attended the Duke of York (34), as we are wont, who is now grown pretty well, and goes up and down White Hall, and this night will be at the Council, which I am glad of.
Thence to Westminster Hall, and there walked most of the morning, and among others did there meet my cozen Roger Pepys (50), who intends to go to Impington on this day s'ennight, the Parliament break up the night before. Here I met Rolt (38) and Sir John Chichly (27), and Harris (33), the player, and there we talked of many things, and particularly of "Catiline", which is to be suddenly acted at the King's house; and there all agree that it cannot be well done at that house, there not being good actors enow: and Burt' acts Cicero, which they all conclude he will not be able to do well. The King (37) gives them £500 for robes, there being, as they say, to be sixteen scarlett robes.
Thence home to dinner, and would have had Harris (33) home with me, but it was too late for him to get to the playhouse after it, and so home to dinner, and spent the afternoon talking with my wife and people at home till the evening, and then comes Sir W. Warren to talk about some business of his and mine: and he, I find, would have me not to think that the Parliament, in the mind they are in, and having so many good offices in their view to dispose of, will leave any of the King's officers in, but will rout all, though I am likely to escape as well as any, if any can escape; and I think he is in the right, and I do look for it accordingly. Then we fell to discourse of my little vessel, "The Maybolt", and he thinks that it will be best for me to employ her for a voyage to Newcastle for coles, they being now dear, and the voyage not long, nor dangerous yet; and I think I shall go near to do so. Then, talking of his business, I away to the office, where very busy, and thither comes Sir W. Pen (46), and he and I walked together in the garden, and there told me what passed to-day with him in the Committee, by my Lord Sandwich's (42) breaking bulk of the prizes; and he do seem to me that he hath left it pretty well understood by them, he saying that what my Lord did was done at the desire, and with the advice, of the chief officers of the fleete, and that it was no more than admirals heretofore have done in like cases, which, if it be true that he said it, is very well, and did please me well. He being gone, I to my office again and there late, and so weary home.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 31 December 1667. 31 Dec 1667. Up, without words to my wife, or few, and those not angry, and so to White Hall, and there waited a long time, while the Duke of York (34) was with the King (37) in the Caball, and there I and Creed stayed talking without, in the Vane-Room, and I perceive all people's expectation is, what will be the issue of this great business of putting these great Lords out of the council and power, the quarrel, I perceive, being only their standing against the will of the King (37) in the business of the Chancellor (58). Anon the Duke of York (34) comes out, and then to a Committee of Tangier, where my Lord_Middleton (59) did come to-day, and seems to me but a dull, heavy man; but he is a great soldier, and stout, and a needy Lord, which will still keep that poor garrison from ever coming to be worth anything to the King (37). Here, after a short meeting, we broke up, and I home to the office, where they are sitting, and so I to them, and having done our business rose, and I home to dinner with my people, and there dined with me my uncle Thomas (72), with a mourning hat-band on, for his daughter Mary, and here I and my people did discourse of the Act for the accounts1, which do give the greatest power to these people, as they report that have read it (I having not yet read it, and indeed its nature is such as I have no mind to go about to read it, for fear of meeting matter in it to trouble me), that ever was given to any subjects, and too much also.
After dinner with my wife and girl to Unthanke's, and there left her, and I to Westminster, and there to Mrs. Martin's, and did hazer con elle what I desired, and there did drink with her, and find fault with her husband's wearing of too fine clothes, by which I perceive he will be a beggar, and so after a little talking I away and took up my wife again, and so home and to the office, where Captain Perryman did give me an account, walking in the garden, how the seamen of England are discouraged by want of money (or otherwise by being, as he says, but I think without cause, by their being underrated) so far as that he thinks the greatest part are gone abroad or going, and says that it is known that there are Irish in the town, up and down, that do labour to entice the seamen out of the nation by giving them £3 in hand, and promise of 40s. per month, to go into the King of France's (29) service, which is a mighty shame, but yet I believe is true. I did advise with him about my little vessel, "The Maybolt", which he says will be best for me to sell, though my employing her to Newcastle this winter, and the next spring, for coles, will be a gainful trade, but yet make me great trouble, but I will think of it, and so to my office, ended my letters, and so home to supper and to bed, good friends with my wife. Thus ends the year, with great happiness to myself and family as to health and good condition in the world, blessed be God for it! only with great trouble to my mind in reference to the publick, there being little hopes left but that the whole nation must in a very little time be lost, either by troubles at home, the Parliament being dissatisfied, and the King (37) led into unsettled councils by some about him, himself considering little, and divisions growing between the King (37) and Duke of York (34); or else by foreign invasion, to which we must submit if any, at this bad point of time, should come upon us, which the King of France (29) is well able to do. These thoughts, and some cares upon me, concerning my standing in this Office when the Committee of Parliament shall come to examine our Navy matters, which they will now shortly do. I pray God they may do the Kingdom service therein, as they will have sufficient opportunity of doing it!

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 19 January 1668. 19 Jan 1668. Lord's Day. My wife the last night very ill of those, and waked me early, and hereupon I up and to church, where a dull sermon by our lecturer, and so home to dinner in my wife's chamber, which she is a little better. Then after dinner with Captain Perryman down to Redriffe, and so walked to Deptford, where I sent for Mr. Shish (63) out of the Church to advise about my vessel, "The Maybolt", and I do resolve to sell, presently, for any thing rather than keep her longer, having already lost £100 in her value, which I was once offered and refused, and the ship left without any body to look to her, which vexes me.
Thence Perryman and I back again, talking of the great miscarriages in the Navy, and among the principal that of having gentlemen commanders. I shall hereafter make use of his and others' help to reckon up and put down in writing what is fit to be mended in the Navy after all our sad experience therein.
So home, and there sat with my wife all the evening, and Mr. Pelting awhile talking with us, who tells me that my Lord Shrewsbury (45) is likely to do well, after his great wound in the late dwell. He gone, comes W. Hewer (26) and supped with me, and so to talk of things, and he tells me that Mr. Jessop is made Secretary to the Commissions of Parliament for Accounts, and I am glad, and it is pretty to see that all the Cavalier party were not able to find the Parliament nine Commissioners, or one Secretary, fit for the business. So he gone, I to read a little in my chamber, and so to bed.

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HMS Elizabeth

On 04 Sep 1733 the 1706 Establishment 70-Gunner HMS Elizabeth was ordered. Her keel was laid down at Woolwich Dockyard on 15 Mar 1735 and she was launched on 29 Nov 1737.

Attack on Port Louis

On 08 Mar 1748 William Cust 1720-1747 (28) was killed by a cannon-ball whilst leading the attack on Port Louis on HMS Elizabeth.

On 10 May 1766 HMS Elizabeth was broken up.

HMS Southampton

HMS Southampton was a Chatham Class light cruiser laid down on 06 Apr 1911 and launched on 16 May 1912. It was sold for scrap on 13 Jul 1926.

Battle of Jutland

After 31 May 1916 in the Battle of Jutland HMS Southampton torpedoed the German light cruiser SMS Frauenlob, which subsequently sank.

On 07 Jun 1916 Leading Seaman James Horace Wainscott -1916 died from wounds received at the Battle of Jutland whilst serving aboard HMS Southampton. Grave at All Hallows' Church Harthill.