1425-1449 Loire Campaign Joan of Arc and the end of the Hundred Years War is in 15th Century Events.
1425 Purge of the Albany Stewarts
On 18 May 1425 Murdoch Stewart 2nd Duke Albany 1362-1425 (63), his two sons Walter Stewart 1394-1425 (31) and Alexander Stewart -1425, and Duncan Lennox 8th Earl Lennox 1345-1425 (80) were tried at Stirling Castle in the presence of James I King Scotland 1394-1437 (30).
An assize of seven earls and fourteen lesser nobles heard the evidence that linked the prisoners to the rebellion in the Lennox—in a trial lasting just one day the four men were found guilty of treason.
The jury which condemned them was composed of 21 knights and Peers, including Albany's half uncle Walter Stewart 1st Earl Atholl 1360-1437 (65), first cousin Alexander Stewart 1st Earl Mar 1375-1435 (50), first cousins once-removed Archibald Douglas 2nd Duke Touraine 1390-1439 (35), and Alexander, Earl of Ross and Lord of the Isles.
On 24 May 1425 Murdoch Stewart 2nd Duke Albany 1362-1425 (63),Walter Stewart 1394-1425 (31),Alexander Stewart -1425 and Duncan Lennox 8th Earl Lennox 1345-1425 (80) were beheaded at Heading Hill Stirling Castle
1426 Henry VI Knighting ceremony
On 19 May 1426, Whitsunday, Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (4) was knighted by his uncles John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford 1389-1435 (36) and Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester 1390-1447 (35) at Leicester. Henry then went on to knight Ralph Longford 1400-1432 (25), Thomas Courtenay 13th Earl Devon 1414-1458 (12) and Robert Wingfield 1403-1454 (23).
Parliament Passes a Bill to Prevent Catherine of Valois Marrying
In 1428 Parliament Passes a Bill to Prevent Catherine of Valois Marrying without the consent of the King. The Bill appears to be in response to rumours that Catherine of Valois (26) and Edmund Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (22) were having an affair, and were planning to marry.
Siege of Orléans
On 12 Oct 1428 the Siege of Orléans commenced at Orléans. During the course of the siege Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche 4th Earl Salisbury 1388-1428 (40) and Jean Poton Xaintrailles 1390-1461 (38) were wounded. William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk 1396-1450 (31) commanded the English forces during some of the siege.
On 03 Nov 1428 Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche 4th Earl Salisbury 1388-1428 (40) died from wounds received at the Siege of Orléans. His daughter Alice Montagu 5th Countess Salisbury 1407-1462 (21) succeeded 5th Earl Salisbury 2C 1337, 7th Baron Montagu, 6th Baron Monthermer. Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (28) by marriage 5th Earl Salisbury 2C 1337.
On 08 May 1429 William Moleyns 1405-1429 (23) died at the Siege of Orléans.
1429 Battle of the Herrings
On 12 Feb 1429 John Fastolf 1380-1459 (49) was at Rouvray leading a supply train of some 300 carts of crossbows, cannons, etc and also barrels of herrings to Orléans. A force of 400 strong Scottish cavalry led by Charles Bourbon I Duke Bourbon 1401-1456 (28) and John Stewart of Darnley 1st Count Évreux 1380-1429 (49) attacked the supply train and were destroyed by English archers protected by supply wagons. John Stewart of Darnley 1st Count Évreux 1380-1429 (49) was killed. He was buried at Orléans Cathedral.
Chronicle of Jean de Wavrin 1429 Chapter VII How the duike of Bedford made a great assemblage of troope to send to the siege of Orléans.. And there came thither some French captains to fight him, who for a good while before were well aware of his coming, such as Charles duke of Bourbon, the two marshals of France, the constable of Scotland and his son, the lord of La Tour, the lord of Chauvigny, the lord of Graville, sir William d'Albret, the viscount of Thouars, the bastard of Orléans, sir James de Chabannes, the lord of La Fayette, Pothon de Saintrailles, La Hire, sir Théaulde de Valpergue and many other noble men, who all together were from three to four thousand combatants of good stuff. Of their coming the said English were informed beforehand by some of their men who were in garrison thereabouts in the fortresses holding their party, on account of which news these English, like men full of confidence, put themselves in good order with great diligence, and with their waggons formed a large enclosure in the open fields in which they left two entrances open, and there all together they placed themselves in the manner following, that is to say, the archers guarding those entrances and the men-at-arms very near in the necessary places; and on one of the sides in the strongest place were the merchants, waggoners, pages, and other people with little power of defence, with the horses and mares.
In the way you have heard the English waited for their enemies for the space of full two hours, who came with great tumult and formed themselves in battle array before the said enclosure out of reach of the arrows; and it seemed to them, considering their noble quality and their great number, and that they had only to do with men gathered from many levies, of whom but from five to six hundred were English, natives of the country of England, that they could not escape from their hands, but would be very soon vanquished; nevertheless there were some wise persons who had great doubt lest the contrary should happen to them, especially because the intentions of the said French captains were not well accordant one with the other, for some, especially the Scots, wished to fight on foot, and others wished to remain on horseback.
There were made new knights, by the hand of the lord of La Fayette. Charles de Bourbon and some others; but meanwhile the said constable of Scotland, his son and his men dismounted and then very shortly they went to attack their enemies, some on foot and others on horseback, and were received by them very courageously; and their archers who were very well shielded by their waggons began to shoot very sharply, in such manner that at the onset they made their enemies fall back before them, fully two to three hundred horsemen who had come to fight at one of the entrances of the said enclosure. And there the said constable of Scotland, thinking he was well followed up by the French, was discomfited and slain on the spot,1 with him died his son and sir William d'Albret, the lord of Orval, the lord of Chasteau-Brun, the lord of Monpipel, sir John de Larget, the lord of Verduisant, the lord of Yvri, the lord of La Greve, sir Anthony de Prully, and full six score gentlemen, and others to the number of five hundred combatants or more, much the greater part of whom were Scots: the other captains seeing this departed thence and went away, flying in great confusion, so that one did not wait for another, and they returned to the places whence they had come. And the English, filled with very great gladness on account of the fair victory that they had gained with so little loss, praised their Creator aloud, and then, after the dead were despoiled, they refreshed themselves and rested that night in the said village of Rouvray, and on the next day departing thence sir John Fastolf and all his men, of whom he was supreme captain, took the road towards Orléans, and they and their waggons made such good progress that a few days after, exhibiting great joy, they arrived at the siege, where they were received with great gladness by their people, who, when they knew of their good fortune, heartily praised God for it, making a great noise with trumpets and clarions, and they were also very well refreshed by the victuals which they brought to them: and the said conflict from that day forward was commonly named the battle of the Herrings, and the reason of this name was because a great part of the waggons of the said English were loaded with herrings and other victuals for Lent. For this ill fortune of the French which had thus befallen, king Charles was very sad at heart, seeing that on all sides his affairs turned out contrary to his desire, and continued going on from bad to worse. This battle of the Herrings happened on the eve of Behourdis ^ about three o'clock in the afternoon; and on the side of the English there died, of people of name, but one single man called Besautrau, a very handsome esquire and valiant man in arms, a nephew of sir Simon Morhier, provost of Paris; and there were made knights among the English, Le Gallois Damay lord of Orville, Gerard Kollin, and Louis de Lurieu, a Savoyard. And the said English might be about sixteen hundred combatants of good stuff besides the common people, and the French were six thousand men, all trained and expert in arms; many noble men also were made knights there with the duke of Bourbon, all of whose names I have not been able to learn, except those which follow, that is to say, the lord of Chasteau-Brun and Yvonet de Clichon; and there were no prisoners but one Scot. Thus then as you have heard sir John Fastolf master of the household of the regent arrived gloriously at the siege before Orléans with a great quantity of provisions and other things necessary for those who were at the said siege, the account of which we will leave until it be the time to return to it.1429 Battle of the Herrings
Note 1. M.S. H. adds that the constable's name was sir John Stuart,
1429 Joan of Arc meet Charles VII at Chinon
1429 Relief of Orléans
On 08 May 1429 Joan of Arc (17) led the French army to successfully relieve the Siege of Orléans.
Joan of Arc and Charles VII meet at Loches
On 11 May 1429 following her success at Orléans Joan of Arc (17) met Charles "Victorious" VII King France 1403-1461 (26) at the Royal Lodge at Loches where she persuaded him to be crowned at Reims Cathedral.
Battle of Jargeau
On 11 Jun 1429 Joan of Arc (17) and Jean Poton Xaintrailles 1390-1461 (39) fought at Jargeau, Loiret during the Battle of Jargeau. Alexander Pole -1429 was killed. William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk 1396-1450 (32) surrendered.
Battle of Meung sur Loire
On 15 Jun 1429 Joan of Arc (17) and Jean Poton Xaintrailles 1390-1461 (39) fought at Meung-sur-Loire, Loiret during the Battle of Meung sur Loire capturing the bridge over the Loire.
Battle of Beaugency
On 17 Jun 1429 Joan of Arc (17) and Jean Poton Xaintrailles 1390-1461 (39) fought at Loiret, Loiret during the Battle of Beaugency.
Battle of Patay
In 1429 Bernard Armagnac -1462 fought at Battle of Patay.
On 18 Jun 1429 the Battle of Patay was the final engagement of the Loire Campaign of the Hundred Years War. The French forces commanded by Joan of Arc (17), Étienne Vignolles "La Hire" -1443 and Jean Poton Xaintrailles 1390-1461 (39) defeated an English force of 5000. The English lost around 2000 men with Thomas Scales 7th Baron Scales 1397-1460 (32), Thomas Rempston 1389-1458 (40), and John "Old Talbot" Talbot 1st Earl Shrewsbury 1st Earl Waterford 1383-1453 (46) being captured. John Fastolf 1380-1459 (49) fought.
Coronation of Charles VII of France
On 17 Jul 1429 Charles "Victorious" VII King France 1403-1461 (26) was crowned at Reims Cathedral with Joan of Arc (17) present.
Guy 14th de Laval Count 1406-1486 (23), who was present, was created Count Laval.
English Coronation of Henry VI
On 06 Nov 1429 Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (7) was crowned VI King England by Cardinal Henry Beaufort 1375-1447 (54) at Westminster Abbey. Henry Beauchamp 1st Duke Warwick 1425-1446 (4) carried the child King. John Mowbray 3rd Duke Norfolk 1415-1461 (14) attended. John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont 1409-1460 (20) was knighted.
Capture of Joan of Arc at the Siege of Compiègne
On 23 May 1430 Joan of Arc (18) was captured during the Siege of Compiègne. John Luxemburg II Count Ligny 1392-1441 (38) commanded the rear-guard. Philip "Good" Valois III Duke Burgundy 1396-1467 (33) fought.
Birth of Edmund Tudor
On 11 Jun 1430 Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond 1430-1456 was born to Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (30) and Catherine of Valois (28) at Much Hadham Palace Much Hadham (which belonged to the Bishops of London). There is speculation that the biological father was Edmund Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (24) with whom Catherine of Valois (28) was rumoured to have had an affair. Interesting, perhaps, that he was named Edmund rather than Owen. Interesting that he took the Royal Arms of England differenced. Also interesting that his younger brother was named Jasper; a Persian name meaning 'Keeper of the Treasure'.
Trial of Joan of Arc
On 09 Jan 1431 Joan of Arc (19) was tried at Rouen Castle, Rouen. John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford 1389-1435 (41) and Henry Beauchamp 1st Duke Warwick 1425-1446 (5) were present.
Execution of Joan of Arc
Siege of Louviers
On 03 Oct 1431 Thomas Beaufort Count Perche 1405-1431 (26) was killed at Louviers, Eure, Haute Normandie during the Siege of Louviers.
French Coronation of Henry VI
On 16 Dec 1431 Henry VI (10) was crowned II King France: Lancaster at Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral by Cardinal Henry Beaufort 1375-1447 (56). A somewhat futile exercise; the last gasps of the Hundred Years War. The ceremony had been arranged by John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford 1389-1435 (42). His wife Anne Valois 1404-1432 (27) attended.
Walter Hungerford 1st Baron Hungerford 1378-1449 (53) was appointed Carver. Thomas Harrington 1400-1460 (31), Hugh Courtenay 12th Earl Devon 1389-1422 (42) and his son Thomas (17) attended.
John Duke of Bedford marries Jacquetta Luxemburg
On 22 Apr 1433 John Duke Bedford (43) and Jacquetta Luxemburg (18) were married at Thérouanne. He a son of Henry IV King England 1367-1413. She a great x 5 granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272. She by marriage Duchess Bedford. The marriage caused a rift with Philip "Good" Duke Burgundy (36), John's late wife's brother, who regarded the marriage, some five months after his sister's death, an insult to her memory. There was no issue from the marriage with John dying a year and a half later.
1434 Neville Beauchamp Marriage Alliance
In 1434 the Beauchamp and Neville families were joined together by two child marriages, siblings from both families, which would have a far reaching effect since Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (5) would eventually become Earl of Warwick.
Henry Beauchamp 1st Duke Warwick 1425-1446 (8) and Cecily Neville Duchess Warwick 1424-1450 (10) were married at Titchfield Abbey. They were third cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England.
Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (5) and Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick 1426-1492 (7) were married. They were third cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England.
Battle of Gerberoy
On 09 May 1435 a French force commanded by Étienne Vignolles "La Hire" -1443 heavily defeated an English force commanded by John Fitzalan 14th Earl Arundel 1408-1435 (27) at the Battle of Gerberoy.
John Fitzalan 14th Earl Arundel 1408-1435 (27) was killed. His son Humphrey Fitzalan 15th Earl Arundel 1429-1438 (6) succeeded 15th Earl Arundel Sussex, 5th Baron Maltravers 1C 1330, 5th Baron Arundel 1C 1377.
Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers 1405-1469 (30) fought.
Death of John of Bedford
On 14 Sep 1435 John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford 1389-1435 (46) died at Castle of Joyeux Repos, Rouen without legitimate issue. Duke Bedford 2C 1433 extinct. Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester 1390-1447 (44) became heir to the throne.
Congress and Treaty of Arras
In Sep 1435 the Congress and Treaty of Arras was one of the last treaties of the Hundred Years War effectively bringing English rule in France to an end following the successful campaign of Joan of Arc five years earlier and the death of John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford 1389-1435 (46).
Death of Dowager Queen Consort Catherine of Valois
On 03 Jan 1437 Catherine of Valois (35) died. She had been married aged eighteen to Henry V King England 1386-1422 (50) for two years three months. Their son was Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (15).
After Henry V died she disappears somewhat from the records other than for Parliament to legislate against her marrying without permission, which she then duly did, to Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (37), and had two sons, the elder of which was father to Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.
Assassination of King James I of Scotland
On 21 Feb 1437 James I King Scotland 1394-1437 (42) was assassinated at Blackfriars, Perth. James I King Scotland 1394-1437 (42) was buried at Carthusian Charterhouse, Perth. His son James II King Scotland 1430-1460 (6) succeeded II King Scotland: Stewart. His wife, Joan Beaufort Queen Consort Scotland 1404-1445 (33), managed to escape.
Death of Sigismund King of Hungary Germany Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor
Douglas Black Dinner
On 24 Nov 1440 William Crichton -1454 arranged a dinner of reconciliation at the Great Hall, Edinburgh Castle. During the course of the dinner the young brothers William Douglas 3rd Duke Touraine 1424-1440 (16) and David Douglas 1430-1440 (10) was beheaded in front of the young James II King Scotland 1430-1460 (10).
Trial and Punishment of Eleanor Cobham
In 1441 Eleanor Cobham 1400-1452 (41), wife of the heir presumptive Humphrey 1st Duke Gloucester (50), brother of the deceased Henry V King England 1386-1422 (54), uncle of Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (19), was tried for predicting the future of the King; in reality a veiled attack on her husband who had over-reached himself. She had consulted two astrologers Thomas Southwell and Roger Bolingbroke. All three were arrested, tried and found guilty. Eleanor denied most of the charges but confessd to obtaining potions from Margery Jourdemayne "The Witch of Eye" 1415-1441 (26). Thomas Southwell died whilst in the Tower of London.
Margery Jourdemayne "The Witch of Eye" 1415-1441 (26) was burned at the stake.
Eleanor was sentenced to do public penance, divorce her husband and remain confined for the remainder of her life.
Treaty of Tours
On 28 May 1444 the Treaty of Tours was concluded. The terms included the marriage of Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (22) and Margaret of Anjou (14) in return for which England ceded the strategically important French County of Maine to France; she brought no dowry. The Treaty was negotiated by William de la Pole Duke of Suffolk (47). The cessation of Maine subsequently came as something of surprise to Edmund Beaufort Earl Somerset (38) who was its Governor. He, Somerset (38), was offered the Governorship of Normandy instead leading to a further rift between Somerset (38) and Richard Duke of York (32) who had already been offered Normandy. These seeds of the Wars of the Roses were falling on fertile ground.
Battle of Arbroath
On 24 Jan 1445 the Battle of Arbroath was fought between Clan Lindsay and Clans Ogilvy, Gordon, Oliphant, Seton and Forbes. David Lindsay 3rd Earl Crawford 1405-1445 (40) was killed when attempting to prevent the battle by riding between the two armies in an attempt to call a truce. Unfortunately a member of the Clan Ogilvy, thinking the Earl was attacked threw his spear at the Earl, hitting him in the mouth, killing him instantly. Clan Lindsay victorious.
Richard of York meets Margaret of Anjou
Marriage of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou
On 23 Apr 1445 Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (23) and Margaret of Anjou (15) were married at Titchfield Abbey Fareham. They were third cousins. He a son of Henry V King England 1386-1422.
Richard of York returns to England
On 20 Oct 1445 Richard 3rd Duke York (34) returned to England at the end of his five-year appointment in France.
Death of Humphrey of Lancaster
On 20 Feb 1447 Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester 1390-1447 (56) was arrested on a charge of treason by John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont 1409-1460 (37), Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham 1402-1460 (44), Edmund Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (41), Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (47) and Ralph Boteler 6th Baron Sudeley 1389-1473 (58).
On 23 Feb 1447 Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester 1390-1447 (56) died at Bury St Edmunds. He was possibly poisoned although more likely he died from a stroke. He was buried at St Alban's Cathedral. His death left England with no heir to the throne in a direct line. Richard 3rd Duke York (35) became heir presumptive until the birth of Edward of Westinster Prince of Wales 1453-1471 six years later.
Richard York appointed Lieutenant of Ireland
Warwick "Kingmaker" Becomes Earl of Warwick
On 03 Jan 1448 Anne Beauchamp 15th Countess Warwick 1443-1448 (4) died at Ewelme aged four whilst in the care of Alice Chaucer Duchess Suffolk 1404-1475 (44).
After a prolonged legal dispute between her three half-aunts, and her full aunt, the courts decided her full aunt Anne Beauchamp (21) should succeed. Anne Beauchamp (21) succeeded 16th Countess Warwick. Her husband Richard Neville (19) by marriage 16th Earl Warwick 1C 1088; the first step on his journey to becoming Kingmaker.
The decision of the court was not subscribed to by Edmund Beaufort Earl Somerset (42) who was married to Anne's (21) half-sister Eleanor (39); he wanted his share of the considerable Beauchamp inheritance.
Battle of Sark
On 23 Oct 1448 Hugh Douglas 1st Earl Ormonde -1455 commanded at during the Battle of Sark inflicting a heavy defeat on the English forces. Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1421-1461 (27) and Thomas Harrington 1400-1460 (48) were captured. Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland 1393-1455 (55) escaped.
Battle of Formigny
On 15 Apr 1450 the Battle of Formigny was a descisive victory for the French that destroyed the England's last army in France bringing to end English control of Normandy.
Charles Bourbon I Duke Bourbon 1401-1456 (49) and Arthur Montfort III Duke Brittany 1393-1458 (56) commanded the French. The English commander Thomas Kyriell 1396-1461 (54) was captured.
The battle is considered to be one of the first where cannon played a decisive role.
Murder of William de la Pole
Before 01 May 1450 William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk 1396-1450 exiled for five years for having lost the English possessions in Northern France including Anjou and Maine which were part of Margaret of Anjou's wedding settlement.
On 01 May 1450 William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk 1396-1450 (53) was beheaded at sea whilst travelling into exile his ship having been intercepted by the Nicholas of the Tower. On 01 May 1450 His son John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 (7) succeeded 2nd Marquess Suffolk 1C, 5th Earl Suffolk 3C 1385. Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (6) by marriage Marchioness Suffolk 1C.
1450 Jack Cade's Rebellion
From Apr 1450 to Jun 1450 Jack Cade's Rebellion was a popular revolt against the government of England which took place the south-east. Their leader Jack Cade led an army of men to London to force reform. When in the London the rebels, against the order of their leader, looted the city resulting in the citizens of London forcing them out culminating in a battle on London Bridge.
On 04 Jul 1450 the rebels were beheaded at the Standard Cheapside.
James Fiennes 1st Baron Saye and Sele 1395-1450 (55) was beheaded. His son William Fiennes 2nd Baron Saye and Sele 1428-1471 (22) succeeded 2nd Baron Saye and Sele.
His son in law William Cromer 1416-1450 (34) was beheaded.
On 07 Jun 1450 Humphrey Stafford 1400-1450 (50) was killed at Sevenoaks. William Tresham -1450 was indicted for treason. Robert Poynings 1419-1461 (31) joined the rebellion.
On 12 Jul 1540 Jack Cade was captured at which time he was wounded and died of his wounds.
Death of King James V of Scotland
Battle of Brechin
16 Apr 1130. The Battle of Brechin took place around three miles north of Brechin. The rebellion was led by two pretenders to the Scottish crown, Malcolm Mac Alexander -1134 illegitimate son of Alexander I of Scotland (52), and Angus of Moray -1130 who was the grandson of King Lulach who had been deposed and killed by David (46) taking advantage of David I King Scotland 1084-1153 (46) being in England.
On 18 May 1452 the Battle of Brechin was fought between supporters of James II King Scotland 1430-1460 (21) and his rellious nobility including the Black Douglases. Alexander Gordon 1st Earl Huntley -1470 defeated the rebels led by Tiger Earl (29) on behalf on the King. John Lindsay 1423-1452 (29),and the brothers William Gordon -1452 and Henry Gordon -1452, were killed.
Warwick becomes Kingmaker
Before 09 Dec 1462 Alice Montagu 5th Countess Salisbury 1407-1462 died. Her son Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 succeeded 6th Earl Salisbury 2C 1337, 8th Baron Montagu, 7th Baron Monthermer adding to the earldom of Warwick he had already acquired through his wife some fourteen years previously. The combined earldoms of Warwick and Salisbury made Warwick the second most powerful man in the Kingdom making him Kingmaker.
Knighting at Greenwich
On 05 Jan 1453 brothers John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (22) and Thomas Neville 1430-1460 (23), William "Black William" Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke 1423-1469 (30), brothers Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond 1430-1456 (22) and Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (21) and Roger Lewknor were knighted by King Henry VI (31) at GreenwichKnighting at Greenwich
Battle of Heworth Moor
On or before 24 Aug 1453 Thomas Neville 1430-1460 (23) and Maud Stanhope 4th Baroness Cromwell Baroness Willoughby Eresby -1497 were married. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. Maud Stanhope 4th Baroness Cromwell Baroness Willoughby Eresby -1497 was the niece and heiress of Ralph Cromwell 3rd Baron Cromwell 1403-1456 (50) meaning traditional Percy lands would become Neville lands. The Percy's, being the older family, especially Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460 (30), took umbrage with the ensuing two year feud known as the Neville Percy Feud.
On 24 Aug 1453 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (22) was ambushed at Heworth Moor York by Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460 (30) leading a force of 700 or more men when returning with his brother's wedding party from Tattershall Castle Tattershall to Sheriff Hutton.
Battle of Castillon
On 07 Jul 1453 the Battle of Castillon, the last battle of the Hundred Years War, was fought at Castillon.
John "Old Talbot" Talbot 1st Earl Shrewsbury 1st Earl Waterford 1383-1453 (70) was killed. His grandson Thomas Talbot 2nd Viscount Lisle 1449-1470 (4) succeeded 2nd Viscount Lisle 1C 1451, 2nd Baron Lisle 4C 1444. Margaret Herbert Viscountess Lisle by marriage Viscountess Lisle. On His son John Talbot 2nd Earl Shrewsbury 2nd Earl Waterford 1417-1460 (35) succeeded 2nd Earl Shrewsbury 2C 1442, 2nd Earl Waterford, 7th Baron Furnivall 1C 1295, 11th Baron Strange Blackmere 1C 1309, 8th Baron Talbot 1C 1331. Elizabeth Butler Countess Shrewsbury Countess Waterford 1424-1473 (29) by marriage Countess Shrewsbury Earl Waterford.
John Talbot 1st Viscount Lisle 1426-1453 (27) was killed. He the son of John "Old Talbot" Talbot 1st Earl Shrewsbury 1st Earl Waterford 1383-1453 (70).
Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford 1st Baron Moleyns 1431-1464 (22) and John Foix 1st Earl Kendal 1410-1485 (43) were captured.
Henry VI's first Illness
In Aug 1453 Henry VI King England II King France 1421-1471 (31) suffered his first bout of illness; a mental breakdown. He was unresponsive for a year. His paternal grand-father Charles VI of France (84) suffered a similar illness; his sobriquet "Mad".
Birth of Edward of Westminster
On 13 Oct 1453 Edward of Westinster Prince of Wales 1453-1471 was born to Henry VI (31) and Margaret of Anjou (23) at Westminster Palace. When King Henry (31) recovered from his catatonic state in Jan 1455, he greeted the child as a 'miracle'. There is some speculation as the child's actual father since King Henry (31) and Queen Margaret (23) had been married for eight years before the birth. Edmund Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (47) was suggested at the time.