1520-May 1536 Field of the Cloth of Gold and Anne Boleyn

1520 Cleanse the Causeway

1520 Field of the Cloth of Gold

1521 Trial and Execution of the Duke of Buckingham

1522 Henry VIII Meeting with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor

1522 Sacking of Morlaix

1525 Battle of Pavia

1525 Knighting of Henry Fitzroy

1526 Battle of Linlithgow Bridge

1527 Sack of Rome

1528 June Sweating Sickness Outbreak

1529 Oct Wolsey surrenders the Great Seal

1529 Henry VIII Creates New Peerages

1530 Death of Cardinal Wolsey

1532 Cranmer appointed Archbishop of Canterbury

1532 Anne Boleyn's Investiture as Marchioness of Pembroke

1532 Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn Visit France

1533 Buggery Act

1533 Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn

1533 Statute in Restraint of Appeals

1533 Anne Boleyn's First Appearance as Queen

1533 Katherine Aragon Demoted to Princess

1533 Cranmer declares Henry and Catherine's Marriage Invalid

1533 Coronation of Anne Boleyn

1533 Birth and Christening of Elizabeth I

1533 Marriage of Henry Fitzroy and Mary Howard

1534 Treasons Act

1534 First Act of Succession

1534 Execution of Elizabeth "Holy Maid of Kent" Barton

1534 First Act of Supremacy

1535 Trial and Execution of Bishop Fisher and Thomas More

1536 Death of Catherine of Aragon

1536 Funeral of Catherine of Aragon and Anne Bolyen's Miscarriage

1536 Henry VIII becomes Supreme Head of the Church

1536 Mayday Jousting

1536 Arrest and Imprisonment of Anne Boleyn and her Co accused

1536 Trial of Anne Boleyn and her brother George

1536 Execution of Anne Boleyn's Co-accused

1536 Execution of Anne Boleyn

1540 Arrest, Attainder and Execution of Thomas Cromwell

1520-May 1536 Field of the Cloth of Gold and Anne Boleyn is in 16th Century Events.

Cleanse the Causeway

On 30 Apr 1520 a skirmish took place on the High Street Edinburgh in which around five hundred supporters of James Hamilton 1st Earl Arran 1475-1529 (45) fought with a similar number of supporters of Archibald Douglas 6th Earl Angus 1489-1557 (31), chiefs of Clan Hamilton and Douglas respectively, over who had control over King James V of Scotland 1512-1542 (8).

Around eighty of the Hamilton's were killed with the Douglases victorious as a consequence of around eight hundred more supporters arriving under the leadership of Angus' (31) brother William Douglas Prior of Coldingham 1493-1528 (27).

John Montgomerie Master of Eglinton 1483-1520 (37) was killed.

Around 1535 Corneille de Lyon Painter 1520-1575. Portrait of King James V of Scotland 1512-1542. Around 1536 Corneille de Lyon Painter 1520-1575. Portrait of King James V of Scotland 1512-1542.

Field of the Cloth of Gold

After Jun 1520 William Sandys 1st Baron Sandys Vyne 1470-1540 was created 1st Baron Sandys Vyne for having organised the Field of the Cloth of Gold.

In Jun 1520 Arthur Hopton 1489-1555 (31) attended Field of the Cloth of Gold.

In Jun 1520 Henry VIII (28) hosted Field of the Cloth of Gold at Balinghem.

Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset 1477-1530 (42) carried the Sword of State.

John Stokesley Bishop of London 1475-1539 (45) attended as Henry VIII's chaplain.

Edmund Braye 1st Baron Braye 1484-1539 (36), Gruffydd ap Rhys ap Thomas Deheubarth 1478-1521 (42), Anthony Poyntz 1480-1533 (40), William Coffin MP 1495-1538 (25), William "Great" Courtenay 1477-1535 (43), Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542 (37), William Paston 1479-1554 (41), William Denys 1470-1533 (50), Richard Cecil 1495-1553 (25), William Parr 1st Baron Parr Horton 1483-1547 (37), Ralph Neville 4th Earl Westmoreland 1498-1549 (22), John Mordaunt 1st Baron Mordaunt 1480-1562 (40), Henry Guildford 1489-1532 (31), Marmaduke Constable 1480-1545 (40), William Compton Courtier 1482-1528 (38), William Blount 4th Baron Mountjoy 1478-1534 (42), Thomas Cheney Treasurer 1485-1558 (35), Henry Willoughby 1451-1528 (69), John Rodney 1461-1528 (59), John Marney 2nd Baron Marney 1484-1525 (36), William Sidney 1482-1554 (38), John Vere 14th Earl Oxford 1499-1526 (20), John Vere 15th Earl Oxford 1471-1540 (49), Edmund Walsingham 1480-1550 (40), Thomas West 8th Baron De La Warr 5th Baron West 1457-1525 (63), Robert Willoughby 2nd Baron Willoughby Broke 10th Baron Latimer 1472-1521 (48), Anthony Wingfield 1487-1552 (33), William Scott 1459-1524 (61) and Thomas Brooke 8th Baron Cobham 1470-1529 (50) attended.

William Carey 1500-1528 (20) jousted. Margaret Dymoke 1500-1545 (20) attended.

William Sandys 1st Baron Sandys Vyne 1470-1540 (50) organised.

Jane Parker Viscountess Rochford 1505-1542 (15) attended.

Thomas Wriothesley Garter King of Arms 1488-1534 (32) was present.

Edward Chamberlayne 1484-1543 (36) attended.

1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1538 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of the wife of Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542. He had three wives. The sitter is believed to his third wife. In 1527 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Henry Guildford 1489-1532 wearing the Garter and Inter twined Knots Collar with St George Pendant. Standing three-quarter length, richly dressed in velvet, fur and cloth-of-gold. Holbein has meticulously shown the varied texture of his cloth-of-gold double which is woven into a pomegranate pattern with a variety of different weaves including loops of gold thread. Similarly, he has carefully articulated the band of black satin running down Guildford's arm against the richer black of the velvet of his sleeve. A lavish use of both shell-gold paint and gold leaf (which has been used to emulate the highlights of the gold thread in the material) emphasises the luxuriousness of the sitter's dress and his high status. In his right-hand he holds the Comptroller of the Household Staff of Office. In 1527 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Mary Wotton 1499-1535 when she was twenty-seven commissioned with that of her husband Henry Guildford 1489-1532 possibly to celebrate their marriage. Hung with gold chains and embellished with pearls, Baroness Guildford embodies worldly prosperity, and with her prayer book she is also the very image of propriety.

Trial and Execution of the Duke of Buckingham

In Apr 1521 Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham 1478-1521 (43) was arrested and imprisoned at Tower of London. He was accused of listening to prophecies of the King's death and intending to kill the King. Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (48) presided at his trial. Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset 1477-1530 (43) and Henry Guildford 1489-1532 (32) acted as judges. Thomas Brooke 8th Baron Cobham 1470-1529 (51), Anthony Poyntz 1480-1533 (41) and Edmund Walsingham 1480-1550 (41) as jurors. Trial and Execution of the Duke of Buckingham

In 1527 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Henry Guildford 1489-1532 wearing the Garter and Inter twined Knots Collar with St George Pendant. Standing three-quarter length, richly dressed in velvet, fur and cloth-of-gold. Holbein has meticulously shown the varied texture of his cloth-of-gold double which is woven into a pomegranate pattern with a variety of different weaves including loops of gold thread. Similarly, he has carefully articulated the band of black satin running down Guildford's arm against the richer black of the velvet of his sleeve. A lavish use of both shell-gold paint and gold leaf (which has been used to emulate the highlights of the gold thread in the material) emphasises the luxuriousness of the sitter's dress and his high status. In his right-hand he holds the Comptroller of the Household Staff of Office. In 1527 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Mary Wotton 1499-1535 when she was twenty-seven commissioned with that of her husband Henry Guildford 1489-1532 possibly to celebrate their marriage. Hung with gold chains and embellished with pearls, Baroness Guildford embodies worldly prosperity, and with her prayer book she is also the very image of propriety.

On 17 May 1521 Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham 1478-1521 (43) was executed at Tower Hill for no specific reason other than his having a significant amount of Plantagenet blood and was, therefore, considered a threat by Henry VIII (29). He was posthumously attainted by Act of Parliament on 31 July 1523, disinheriting his children. He was buried at St Peter's Church Britford. Duke of Buckingham 1C 1444 extinct.

1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547.

Henry VIII Meeting with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor

In May 1522 Henry VIII (30) met with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558 (22) at Dover. William Blount 4th Baron Mountjoy 1478-1534 (44), William Compton Courtier 1482-1528 (40), John Marney 2nd Baron Marney 1484-1525 (38), William Scott 1459-1524 (63) and John Vere 15th Earl Oxford 1471-1540 (51) were present. Henry VIII Meeting with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor.

1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1548. Titian Painter 1488-1576. Equestrian Portrait of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558. 1519. Bernard Van Orley Painter 1491-1541. Portrait of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558.

Sacking of Morlaix

On 01 Jul 1522 Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (79) was present at Morlaix during the Sacking of Morlaix. Giles Hussey 1495- (27) was knighted by Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (79).

Knighting of Henry Fitzroy

Around 18 Jun 1525 Henry Clifford 2nd Earl Cumberland 1517-1570 (8) and Eleanor Brandon Countess Cumberland 1519-1547 (6) were married at Bridewell Palace. They were half third cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III England. She a granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547 (33) was present.

1563. Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of either Eleanor Brandon Countess Cumberland 1519-1547 or her daughter Margaret Clifford Countess Derby 1540-1596. 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547.

On 18 Jun 1525 Henry Fitzroy (6) was created 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset by his father Henry VIII (33) at Bridewell Palace.

Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland 1478-1527 (47) carried the Sword of State. Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 (47) read the patents of nobility. Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (41), Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset 1477-1530 (47),

Henry Counrtenay (29) was created 1st Marquess Exeter 1C 1525. Gertrude Blount Marchioness Exeter 1503-1558 (22) by marriage Marchioness Exeter.

Henry Clifford (32) was created 1st Earl Cumberland, Warden of the West Marches and Governor of Carlisle Castle.

Thomas Manners (33) was created 1st Earl Rutland 3C 1525. Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland 1495-1551 (30) by marriage Countess Rutland.

Henry Brandon (2) was created 1st Earl Lincoln 7C 1525. Given the Earldom of Rutland to reflect his descent from Anne York Duchess Exeter 1439-1476 (85) sister of the previous Earl of Rutland (82). At the same time his arms Manners were augmented with the Manners Augmented

Robert Radclyffe (42) was created 1st Viscount Fitzwalter.

1527 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 wearing a Lancastrian Esses Collar with Beaufort Portcullis and Tudor Rose Pendant. Around 1543 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545. Around 1538 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of the wife of Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542. He had three wives. The sitter is believed to his third wife.

Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554, William Fitzalan 18th Earl Arundel 1476-1544 and John Vere 14th Earl Oxford 1499-1526 attended.

Battle of Pavia

On 24 Feb 1525 Richard Pole "White Rose" 5th Earl of Suffolk 1480-1525 (45) was killed during the Battle of Pavia. Robert Stewart 4th Lord Aubigny 1470-1544 (55) fought.

Louis II de la Tremoille 1460-1525 (64) was killed.

PAINTINGS/UNKNOWN/Battle_Pavia.jpgUnknown_Painter. Battle of Pavia with the fallen Richard Pole "White Rose" 5th Earl of Suffolk 1480-1525 (45) bottom left corner indicated by "Le Duc de Susfoc dit Blance Rose".

René de Brosse -1525 was killed at the Battle of Pavia.

Battle of Linlithgow Bridge

On 04 Sep 1526 the Battle of Linlithgow Bridge was fought between supporters of Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 (36), the king's mother, commanded by John Stewart 3rd Earl Lennox 1490-1526 (36) and supporters of Archibald Douglas 6th Earl Angus 1489-1557 (37) commanded by James Hamilton 1st Earl Arran 1475-1529 (51), over who would have control over King James V of Scotland 1512-1542 (14) in his minority.

John Stewart 3rd Earl Lennox 1490-1526 (36) was killed possibly after surrendering. Matthew Stewart 4th Earl Lennox 1516-1571 (9) succeeded 4th Earl Lennox 2C 1488.

William Cunningham 4th Earl Glencairn 1493-1548 (33) was captured.

Around 1525 Unknown Painter. French. Portrait of an Unknown Woman formerly known as Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541. Around 1535 Corneille de Lyon Painter 1520-1575. Portrait of King James V of Scotland 1512-1542. Around 1536 Corneille de Lyon Painter 1520-1575. Portrait of King James V of Scotland 1512-1542.

Sack of Rome

On 06 May 1527 Charles Bourbon III Duke Bourbon 1490-1527 (37) was killed during the Sack of Rome.

1528 June Sweating Sickness Outbreak

In 1528 Francis Poyntz 1485-1528 (42) died of sweating sickness during the 1528 June Sweating Sickness Outbreak.

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. 16 Jun 1528. Love Letters XII. 4383. Henry VIII (36). to Anne Boleyn (27).

There came to me in the night the most afflicting news possible. I have to grieve for three causes: first, to hear of my mistress's (27) sickness, whose health I desire as my own, and would willingly bear the half of yours to cure you; secondly, because I fear to suffer yet longer that absence which has already given me so much pain, God deliver me from such an importunate rebel!; thirdly, because the physician I trust most is at present absent when he could do me the greatest pleasure. However, in his absence, I send you the second, praying God he may soon make you well, and I shall love him the better. I beseech you to be governed by his advice, and then I hope to see you soon again!1528 June Sweating Sickness Outbreak

1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1534 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Queen Anne Boleyn of England. The attribution is contentious. Around 1580 based on a work of around 1534.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Anne Boleyn of England.

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. 20 Jun 1528. Love Letters III. 4403. Henry VIII (36). to Anne Boleyn (27).

The doubt I had of your health troubled me extremely, and I should scarcely have had any quiet without knowing the certainty; but since you have felt nothing, I hope it is with you as with us. When we were at Waltham, two ushers, two valets de chambre, your brother (25), master "Jesoncre" (Treasurer), fell ill, and are now quite well; and we have since removed to Hunsdon, where we are very well, without one sick person. I think if you would retire from Surrey, as we did, you would avoid all danger. Another thing may comfort you:—few women have this illness; and moreover, none of our court, and few elsewhere, have died of it. I beg you, therefore, not to distress yourself at our absence, for whoever strives against fortune is often the further from his end.1528 June Sweating Sickness Outbreak

On 22 Jun 1528 William Carey 1500-1528 (28) died of sweating sickness. He was buried at Compton Wynyates.1528 June Sweating Sickness Outbreak

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. 23 Jun 1528. Love Letters IX. 4410. Henry VIII (36). to Anne Boleyn (27).

The cause of my writing at this time, good sweetheart, is only to understand of your good health and prosperity, whereof to know I would be as glad as in manner mine own; praying God that (and it be His pleasure) to send us shortly together, for I promise you I long for it, howbeit trust it shall not be long to; and seeing my darling is absent, I can no less do than to send her some flesh representing my name, which is hart's flesh for Henry, prognosticating that hereafter, God willing, you must enjoy some of mine, which, He pleased, I would were now. As touching your sister's (29) matter, I have caused Water Welze to write to my Lord my mind therein, whereby I trust that Eve shall not have power to deceive Adam; for surely, what soever is said, it cannot so stand with his honor but that he must needs take her his natural daughter now in her extreme necessity. No more to you at this time, mine own darling, but that a while I would we were together of an evening. With the hand of yours, &c.1528 June Sweating Sickness Outbreak

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. 30 Jun 1528. Le Grand, III. 143. 1440. Du Bellay to Montmorency.1528 June Sweating Sickness Outbreak

Such conversations as he has had with Wolsey (55) he has pretty well foreseen. Will not presume to say things are going wrong, but if they go on, you will not gain much. I protest, if I have not my recall, I will go without it; and whoever would whip me, not being my master, shall find I fear less 100 deaths than one dishonor. Job would have lost patiencc in my place. Whatever you have done, I hear from Richard d'Albene that he has not a crown, and I am sure if my man had one, he has given it him. He would have spent 1,000 crowns in nine months in that stupid way;—a good thing to resolve me, seeing I had assigned all my property to bankers and bull-brokers before my departure.

News has arrived that Campeggio is coming. Dr. Stephen will be soon at Lyons, who is coming to prepare his lodging; "et puis en dancera qui pourra." The young lady (27) is still with her father. The King (37) keeps moving about for fear of the plague. Many of his people have died of it in three or four hours. Of those you know there are only Poowits, Carey and Cotton (Compton) (46) dead; but Feuguillem, the marquis [Dorset] (51), my lord William, Bron (Brown), Careu, Bryan [Tuke], who is now of the Chamber, Nourriz (Norris), Walop, Chesney, Quinston (Kingston), Paget, and those of the Chamber generally, all but one, have been or are attacked. Yesterday some of them were said to be dead. The King (37) shuts himself up quite alone. It is the same with Wolsey (55). After all, those who are not exposed to the air do not die. Of 40,000 attacked in London, only 2,000 are dead; but if a man only put his hand out of bed during twenty-four hours, it becomes as stiff as a pane of glass. So they do need patience; but I would sooner endure that than what is inflicted on me, for it does not last so long. But, with your aid, or even without it, I mean to be off. After my protests for the last four months, no one will be able to blame me. Let those who have the charge look to it. Moreover, in choosing the persons, you had better not send an Italian, for Wolsey (55) will not have one. Some days ago he told me he would not trust them for their partiality; besides, a man who speaks Latin is required, and he has often been in terrible difficulty for want of it; but you have plenty of bishops and others who will do. In any case, don't send a man who will not spend money, else matters will not mend. I do not speak without reason.

As Wolsey told me he would cause the money of the contribution to be paid to me for you, I spoke to a merchant that it might be paid you at Lyons. Let me know how much is due to you at the end of July, if, as I suppose, it begins on the first day of this month.

Wolsey is informed of great overtures made by the Emperor to the Venetians and duke of Bari, which he thinks they will accept, and that the Duke's ambassador had yielded to the Emperor the investiture of Milan, pretending he had been forced to do so.

The King and Wolsey wish a confirmation by France of the privileges of the isles of Grenesay (Guernsey),—a sort of neutrality which they obtained long ago from the Pope. Such a confirmation was made by Louis XI. London, 30 June.

P.S.—There have died at Wolsey's house the brother of the earl of Derby and a nephew of the duke of Norfolk; and the Cardinal has stolen away with a very few people, letting no one know whither he has gone. The King has at last stopped twenty miles from here, at a house built by Wolsey, finding removals useless. I hear he has made his will, and taken the sacraments, for fear of sudden death. However, he is not ill. I have not written this with my own hand, as you do not read it easily when I write hastily.

Around 1590 based on a work of around 1520.Unknown Painter. French. Portrait of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey 1473-1530. Around 1527 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Brian Tuke Secretary -1545.

On 30 Jun 1528 William Compton Courtier 1482-1528 (46) died of sweating sickness. His son Peter Compton 1523-1544 (5) became a ward of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey 1473-1530 (55).1528 June Sweating Sickness Outbreak. In his will he left Anne Stafford Countess Huntingdon 1483-1544 (45) a life interest in property in Leicestershire and founded a chantry where prayers would be said daily for her soul.

1535. Ambrosius Benson Painter 1495-1550. Portrait of Anne Stafford Countess Huntingdon 1483-1544.

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. 07 Jul 1528. Love Letters XIII. 4477. Henry VIII (37) to Anne Boleyn (27).

Since her last, Walter Welshe, Master Browne, Thos. Care, Yrion of Brearton, John Coke the potecary, are fallen of the sweat in this house, and, thank God, have all recovered, so the plague has not yet quite ceased here. The rest of us are well, and I hope will pass it. As for the matter of Wylton, my lord Cardinal has had the nuns before him, and examined them in presence of Master Bell, who assures me that she whom we would have had abbess has confessed herself to have had two children by two different priests, and has since been kept, not long ago, by a servant of lord Broke that was. "Wherefore I would not, for all the gold in the world, cloak your conscience nor mine to make her ruler of a house which is of so ungodly demeanour; nor I trust you would not that neither for brother nor sister I should so distayne mine honor or conscience. And as touching the prioress or dame Ellenor's eldest sister, though there is not any evident case proved against them, and the prioress is so old that of many years she could not be as she was named, yet notwithstanding, to do you pleasure, I have done that nother of them shall have it, but that some other good and well-disposed woman shall have it, whereby the house shall be the better reformed, whereof I ensure you it hath much need, and God much the better served. As touching your abode at Hever, do therein as best shall like you, for you know best what air doth best with you; but I would it were come thereto, if it pleased God, that nother of us need care for that, for I ensure you I think it long. Suche (Zouch) is fallen sick of the sweat, and therefore I send you this bearer because I think you long to hear tidings from us, as we do in likewise from you.".

1529 Oct Wolsey surrenders the Great Seal

On 17 Oct 1529 Cardinal Thomas Wolsey 1473-1530 (56) surrendered the Great Seal to Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (56) and Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (45).

Around 1590 based on a work of around 1520.Unknown Painter. French. Portrait of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey 1473-1530. Around 1543 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545.

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. 25 Oct 1529. Rym. XIV. 349. 6025. Card. Wolsey (56).

Memorandum of the surrender of the Great Seal by Cardinal Wolsey, on 17 Oct., to the dukes of Norfolk (56) and Suffolk (45), in his gallery at his house at Westminster, at 6 o'clock p.m., in the presence of Sir Wm. Fitzwilliam (39), John Tayler, and Stephen Gardiner (46). The same was delivered by Tayler to the King (38) at Windsor, on the 20 Oct., by whom it was taken out and attached to certain documents, in the presence of Tayler and Gardiner, Hen. Norris (47), Thos. Heneage (49), Ralph Pexsall, clerk of the Crown, John Croke, John Judd, and Thos. Hall, of the Hanaper.

On the 25th Oct. the seal was delivered by the King at East Greenwich to Sir Thos. More (51), in the presence of Hen. Norres (47) and Chr. Hales, Attorney General, in the King's privy chamber; and on the next day, Tuesday, 26 Oct., More took his oath as Chancellor in the Great Hall at Westminster, in presence of the dukes of Norfolk (56) and Suffolk (45), Th. marquis of Dorset (52), Hen. marquis of Exeter (33), John earl of Oxford (58), Hen. earl of Northumberland (27), Geo. earl of Shrewsbury (61), Ralph earl of Westmoreland (31), John bishop of Lincoln, Cuthbert bishop of London (55), John bishop of Bath and Wells, Sir Rob. Radclyf, viscount Fitzwater (46), Sir Tho. Boleyn, viscount Rocheforde (52), Sir Wm.Sandys, Lord (52) and others.

Close Roll, 21 Hen. VIII. m. 19d.

Around 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton 1490-1542. 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1527 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 wearing a Lancastrian Esses Collar with Beaufort Portcullis and Tudor Rose Pendant. Around 1538 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of the wife of Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542. He had three wives. The sitter is believed to his third wife. Before 1537 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539.

Henry VIII Creates New Peerages

On 01 Dec 1529 ...

Andrew Windsor 1st Baron Windsor 1467-1543 (62) was created 1st Baron Windsor. Elizabeth Blount Baroness Windsor 1469-1543 (60) by marriage Baroness Windsor.

John Hussey 1st Baron Hussey Sleaford 1465-1537 (64) was created 1st Baron Hussey Sleaford. Anne Grey Baroness Hussey Sleaford by marriage Baroness Hussey Sleaford.

On 02 Dec 1529 ...

Thomas Wentworth 1st Baron Wentworth 1501-1551 (28) was created 1st Baron Wentworth. Margaret Fortescue Baroness Wentworth 1502-1551 (27) by marriage Baroness Wentworth.

Thomas Burgh 7th Baron Cobham Sternborough 5th Baron Strabolgi 1st Baron Burgh 1488-1550 (41) was created 1st Baron Burgh of Gainsborough. Agnes Tyrwhitt Baroness Cobham, Strabolgi and Burgh 1481- (48) by marriage Baroness Burgh of Gainsborough.

On 04 Dec 1529 Edmund Braye 1st Baron Braye 1484-1539 (45) was created 1st Baron Braye.

Around 1550 John

On 08 Dec 1529 King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547 (38) created three Earldoms ...

Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539 (52) was created 1st Earl Wiltshire 6C 1529, 1st Earl Ormonde 2C 1529, 1st Viscount Rochford. Elizabeth Howard Countess Wiltshire Countess Ormonde 1480-1538 (49) by marriage Countess Wiltshire, Earl Ormonde 2C 1529. His mother (75) was the daughter of the last Earl Ormonde Thomas Butler 7th Earl Ormonde 1426-1515.

George Hastings 1st Earl Huntingdon 1487-1544 (42) was created 1st Earl Huntingdon 7C 1529. Anne Stafford Countess Huntingdon 1483-1544 (46) by marriage Countess Huntingdon.

Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542 (46) was created 1st Earl of Sussex by King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547 (38). Elizabeth Stafford Countess Sussex 1479-1532 (50) by marriage Countess of Sussex.

1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Before 1537 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539. 1535. Ambrosius Benson Painter 1495-1550. Portrait of Anne Stafford Countess Huntingdon 1483-1544. Around 1538 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of the wife of Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542. He had three wives. The sitter is believed to his third wife.

In early Dec 1529 King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547 created five Baronies ...

Death of Cardinal Wolsey

On 29 Nov 1530 Cardinal Thomas Wolsey 1473-1530 (57) died in Leicester. Just before his death he reputedly spoke these words: "I see the matter against me how it is framed. But if I had served God as diligently as I have done the King, he would not have given me over in my grey hairs".

Around 1590 based on a work of around 1520.Unknown Painter. French. Portrait of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey 1473-1530.

Cranmer appointed Archbishop of Canterbury

After 01 Sep 1532 Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556, whilst staying in Mantua, received a royal letter dated 01 Sep 1532 by which he was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury; he was ordered to return to England. Cranmer's appointment, supported, if not arranged, by the Boleyn family who he subsequently supported.

1533 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556. In 1544 Gerlach Flicke Painter 1520-1558. Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556.

Anne Boleyn's Investiture as Marchioness of Pembroke

On 01 Sep 1532 Queen Anne Boleyn of England (31) was created 1st Marquess Pembroke with Henry VIII (41) performing the investiture at Windsor Castle. Note she was created Marquess rather than the female form Marchioness alhough Marchioness if a modern form that possibly didn't exist at the time.

Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539 (55), Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (48), Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (59), Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland 1495-1551 (37), Jean Dinteville, Edward Lee Archbishop of York 1482-1544 (50), John Stokesley Bishop of London 1475-1539 (57) were present.

Stephen Gardiner Bishop of Winchester 1483-1555 (49) read the Patent of Creation.

Mary Howard Duchess Richmond and Somerset 1519-1557 (13) carried Anne's (31) train replacing her mother Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk 1497-1558 (35) who had been banished from Court. Anne (31) and Mary (13) were cousins.

Charles Wriotheley Officer of Arms 1508-1562 (24) attended.

Around 1534 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Queen Anne Boleyn of England. The attribution is contentious. Around 1580 based on a work of around 1534.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Anne Boleyn of England. 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Before 1537 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539. Around 1543 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545.

Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn Visit France

Around Nov 1532 Henry VIII (41) and Queen Anne Boleyn of England (31) met with Francis I King France 1494-1547 (38) at Calais. Henry Howard 1516-1547 (16) was present.

Thomas Manners 1st Earl Rutland 1492-1543 (40) and Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland 1495-1551 (37) accompanied them.

1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1534 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Queen Anne Boleyn of England. The attribution is contentious. Around 1580 based on a work of around 1534.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Anne Boleyn of England. Around 1533 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Henry Howard 1516-1547. Around 1533 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Henry Howard 1516-1547. Around 1575 Unknown Painter. Based on a work of 1546. After William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547. Around 1575 based on a work of 1546.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547. In 1546 Unknown Painter. Italian. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547 wearing his Garter Collar and Leg Garter. His right Thomas of Brotherton 1st Earl Norfolk 1300 1338 Arms, his left Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355 1397 Arms.

1533 Buggery Act

In 1533 Parliament, steered by Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540 (48), passed the 1533 Buggery Act, formally known as An Acte for the punishment of the vice of Buggerie, in which buggery was punishable by death.

Around 1625 based on a work of 1532.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540.

On 28 Jul 1540 Walter Hungerford 1st Baron Hungerford Heytesbury 1503-1540 (37) was beheaded at Tower Hill. He, together with his chaplain, a Wiltshire clergyman named William Bird, Rector of Fittleton and Vicar of Bradford, who was suspected of sympathising with the pilgrims of grace of the north of England, was attainted by act of parliament. Hungerford was charged with employing Bird in his house as chaplain, knowing him to be a traitor; with ordering another chaplain, Hugh Wood, and one Dr. Maudlin to practise conjuring to determine the king's length of life, and his chances of victory over the northern rebels; and finally with committing offences forbidden by the 1533 Buggery Act.

In 1553 the 1533 Buggery Act was repealed by Catholic Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (36) who preferred such matters to be dealt with by Ecclesiastical Courts.

Around 1554 Antonis Mor Painter 1517-1577. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558. Around 1556 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558.

In 1563 the 1533 Buggery Act was re-enacted by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (29).

Around 1546. William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland before her accession painted for her father. Around 1570 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. In 1579 George Gower Painter 1540-1596. The Plimton Sieve Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1585 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Ermine Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1592 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636. The Ditchley Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. After 1585 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1563 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.

On 14 May 1631 Mervyn Tuchet 2nd Earl Castlehaven 1593-1631 (38) was beheaded at Tower Hill for the unnatural crime of sodomy in accordance with the 1533 Buggery Act, committed with his page Laurence (or Florence) FitzPatrick, who confessed to the crime and was executed; and assisting Giles Browning (alias Broadway), who was also executed, in the rape of his wife Anne, Countess of Castlehaven (51), in which Lord Castlehaven was found to have participated by restraining her. James Tuchet 3rd Earl Castlehaven 1617-1686 (14) succeeded 3rd Earl Castlehaven, 3rd Baron Audley of Orier in England. He didn't succeed to his father's English titles Baron Audley of Heighley in Staffordshire and Baron Tuchet as a result of his father's attainder.

On 05 Dec 1640 John Atherton Bishop 1598-1640 (42) was hanged at St Stephen's Green for offences against the 1533 Buggery Act a law he had pushed for in Ireland.

In 1810 two men were hanged and six pilloried, known as the Vere Street Coterie, for offences against the 1533 Buggery Act. The The club had been operating for less than six months.

On 08 Jul 1810 the Bow Street police raided the White Swan on Vere Street in London that had been established as a molly-house in early 1810 by two men, James Cook and Yardley. Twenty-seven men were arrested, but the majority of them were released (perhaps as a result of bribe); eight were tried and convicted. On 27 Sep 1810 six men were pilloried at the Haymarket. On 07 Mar 1811 John Hepburn (46) and Thomas White (16), a drummer boy, were hanged at Newgate Prison despite not being present on the night of the raid.

On 27 Nov 1835 James Pratt 1805-1835 and John Smith 1795-1835 were the last two men to be executed under the 1828 Offences Against the Person Act which had replaced the 1533 Buggery Act. They were hanged in front of Newgate Prison.

In 1861 the 1861 Offences against the Person Act reduced the act of buggery to a non-captital offence.

Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn

On 25 Jan 1533 Henry VIII (41) and Queen Anne Boleyn of England (32) were married by Rowland Leigh Bishop Coventry and Lichfield (46) at Whitehall Palace. He a son of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Anne Savage Baroness Berkeley 1496-1546 (37), Thomas Heneage 1480-1553 (53) and Henry Norreys 1482-1536 (51) witnessed.

Sometime after the marriage Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland 1495-1551 (38) was appointed Lady in Waiting to Queen Anne Boleyn of England (32). She would go to serve Henry's next three wives.

1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1534 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Queen Anne Boleyn of England. The attribution is contentious. Around 1580 based on a work of around 1534.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Anne Boleyn of England.

Statute in Restraint of Appeals

In Mar 1533 Parliament enacted the Statute in Restraint of Appeals by which Henry VIII (41) forbade all appeals to the Pope in Rome on religious or other matters, making the King the final legal authority in all such matters in England, Wales, and other English possessions. Considered to be a cornerstone of the English Reformation.

1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547.

Anne Boleyn's First Appearance as Queen

On 12 Apr 1533, Saturday, Easter Eve, Queen Anne Boleyn of England (32) made her first appearance as Queen attending mass at the Queen's Closet at Greenwich Palace. She was accompanied by sixty ladies including Margaret "Madge" Shelton -1555.

The Venetian Ambassdor reported ... "This morning of Easter Eve, the Marchioness Anne went with the King (41) to high mass, as Queen, and with all the pomp of a Queen, clad in cloth of gold, and loaded (carga) with the richest jewels; and she dined in public; although they have not yet proclaimed the decision of the Parliament.".

Around 1534 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Queen Anne Boleyn of England. The attribution is contentious. Around 1580 based on a work of around 1534.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Anne Boleyn of England. 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547.

Calendar of State Papers Spain Volume 5 Part 2 1531-1533. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (43) to the Emperor (33). See Anne Boleyn's First Appearance as Queen.

On Saturday, the eve of Easter, Lady Anne (32) went to mass in truly Royal state, loaded with diamonds and other precious stones, and dressed in a gorgeous suit of tissue, the train of which was carried by the daughter (14) of the duke of Norfolk (60), betrothed to the duke of Richmond (13). She was followed by numerous damsels, and conducted to and from the church with the same or perhaps greater ceremonies and solemnities than those used with former queens on such occasions. She has now changed her title of marchioness for that of queen, and preachers specially name her so in their church prayers. At which all people here are perfectly astonished, for the whole thing seems a dream, and even those who support her party do not know whether to laugh or cry at it. The King (41) is watching what sort of mien the people put on at this, and solicits his nobles to visit and pay their court to his new queen, whom he purposes to have crowned after Easter in the most solemn manner, and it is said that there will be banqueting and tournaments on the occasion. Indeed some think that Clarence, the king-at-arms who left for France four days ago, is gone for the purpose of inviting knights for the tournament in imitation of the Most Christian King when he celebrated his own nuptials. I cannot say whether the coronation will take place before or after these festivities, but I am told that this King (41) has secretly arranged with the archbishop of Canterbury (43), that in virtue of his office, and without application from anyone he is to summon him before his court as having two wives, upon which, without sending for the Queen (47), he (the Archbishop) will declare that the King (41) can lawfully marry again, as he has done, without waiting for a dispensation, for a sentence from the Pope, or any other declaration whatever.

1548. Titian Painter 1488-1576. Equestrian Portrait of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558. 1519. Bernard Van Orley Painter 1491-1541. Portrait of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558. 1533 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556. In 1544 Gerlach Flicke Painter 1520-1558. Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556. Around 1497. Juan de Flandes Painter 1440-1519. Portrait of Catherine of Aragon or Joanna Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Catherine of Aragon.

Katherine Aragon Demoted to Princess

Calendar of State Papers Spain Volume 5 Part 2 1531-1533. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (43) to the Emperor (33).Katherine Aragon Demoted to Princess

On Wednesday the said Duke (60), and the others of whom I wrote to Your Majesty in my last despatch, called upon the Queen (47) and delivered their message, which was in substance as follows: "She was to renounce her title of queen, and allow her case to be decided here, in England. If she did, she would confer a great boon on the kingdom and prevent much effusion of blood, and besides the King (41) would treat her in future much better than she could possibly expect." Perceiving that there was no chance of the Queen's (47) agreeing to such terms, the deputies further told her that they came in the King's name to inform her that resistance was useless (quelle se rompist plus la teste), since his marriage with the other Lady had been effected more than two months ago in the presence of several persons, without any one of them having been summoned for that purpose. Upon which, with much bowing and ceremony, and many excuses for having in obedience to the king's commands fulfilled so disagreeable a duty, the deputies withdrew. After whose departure the lord Mountjoy (55), the Queen's (47) chamberlain, came to notify to her the King's intention that in future she should not be called queen, and that from one month after Easter the King (41) would no longer provide for her personal expenses or the wages of her servants. He intended her to retire to some private house of her own, and there live on the small allowance assigned to her, and which, I am told, will scarcely be sufficient to cover the expenses of her household for the first quarter of next year. The Queen (47) resolutely said that as long as she lived she would entitle herself queen; as to keeping house herself, she cared not to begin that duty so late in life. If the King (41) thought that her expenses were too great, he might, if he chose, take her own personal property and place her wherever he chose, with a confessor, a physician, an apothecary, and two maids for the service of her chamber; if that even seemed too much to ask, and there was nothing left for her and her servants to live upon, she would willingly go about the world begging alms for the love of God.

Though the King (41) is by nature kind and generously inclined, this Anne has so perverted him that he does not seem the same man. It is, therefore, to be feared that unless Your Majesty applies a prompt remedy to this evil, the Lady (32) will not relent in her persecution until she actually finishes with queen Katharine (47), as she did once with cardinal Wolsey (60), whom she did not hate half as much. The Queen (47), however, is not afraid for herself; what she cares most for is the Princess (17).

1548. Titian Painter 1488-1576. Equestrian Portrait of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558. 1519. Bernard Van Orley Painter 1491-1541. Portrait of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558. Around 1497. Juan de Flandes Painter 1440-1519. Portrait of Catherine of Aragon or Joanna Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Catherine of Aragon. 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1534 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Queen Anne Boleyn of England. The attribution is contentious. Around 1580 based on a work of around 1534.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Anne Boleyn of England. Around 1590 based on a work of around 1520.Unknown Painter. French. Portrait of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey 1473-1530. Around 1554 Antonis Mor Painter 1517-1577. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558. Around 1556 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558.

Calendar of State Papers Spain Volume 5 Part 2 1531-1533. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (43) to the Emperor (33).Katherine Aragon Demoted to Princess

The name and title which the King (41) wishes the Queen (47) to take, and by which he orders the people to call her, is the old dowager princess (la vielle et vefve princesse). As to princess Mary (17) no title has yet been given to her, and I fancy they will wait to settle that until the Lady (32) has been confined (que la dame aye faict lenfant).

On 16 Apr 1533, Wednesday, Catherine of Aragon (47) was demoted from Queen to Princess.

Cranmer declares Henry and Catherine's Marriage Invalid

On 23 May 1533 Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury (43) declared the marriage of Henry VIII (41) and Catherine of Aragon (47) invalid.

1533 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556. In 1544 Gerlach Flicke Painter 1520-1558. Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556. 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1497. Juan de Flandes Painter 1440-1519. Portrait of Catherine of Aragon or Joanna Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Catherine of Aragon.

Coronation of Anne Boleyn

On 01 Jun 1533 the six months pregnant Queen Anne Boleyn of England (32) was crowned Queen Consort England by Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556 (43) at Westminster Abbey. See Coronation of Anne Boleyn.

John Vere 15th Earl Oxford 1471-1540 (62) bore the Crown. Henry Grey 1st Duke Suffolk 1517-1554 (16) carried the Salt. Margaret Wotton Marchioness Dorset 1487-1535 (46) rode in the procession. William Coffin MP 1495-1538 (38) was appointed Master of the Horse. Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542 (50) served as Lord Sewer. Henry Parker 1513-1552 (20) and William Coffin MP 1495-1538 (38) were knighted. Thomas Berkeley 6th Baron Berkeley 1505-1534 (28) and Thomas Stanley 2nd Baron Monteagle 1507-1560 (26) were created Knight of the Bath. Margaret Wotton Marchioness Dorset 1487-1535 (46) rode in the procession. Arthur Hopton 1489-1555 (44) attended.

Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 (55) refused to attend. Shortly thereafter, More was charged with accepting bribes, but the charges had to be dismissed for lack of any evidence.

Anne Braye Baroness Cobham 1501-1558 (32) was the attendant horsewoman.

Charles Wriotheley Officer of Arms 1508-1562 (25) attended.

Around 1534 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Queen Anne Boleyn of England. The attribution is contentious. Around 1580 based on a work of around 1534.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Anne Boleyn of England. 1533 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556. In 1544 Gerlach Flicke Painter 1520-1558. Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556. Around 1538 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of the wife of Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542. He had three wives. The sitter is believed to his third wife. 1527 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 wearing a Lancastrian Esses Collar with Beaufort Portcullis and Tudor Rose Pendant.

Birth and Christening of Elizabeth I

On 07 Sep 1533 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland was born to Henry VIII (42) and Queen Anne Boleyn of England (32).

Around 1546. William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland before her accession painted for her father. Around 1570 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. In 1579 George Gower Painter 1540-1596. The Plimton Sieve Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1585 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Ermine Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1592 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636. The Ditchley Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. After 1585 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1563 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1534 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Queen Anne Boleyn of England. The attribution is contentious. Around 1580 based on a work of around 1534.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Anne Boleyn of England.

On 10 Sep 1533 the future Elizabeth I was christened at the Palace of Placentia.

Gertrude Blount Marchioness Exeter 1503-1558 (30), Walter Blount, Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556 (44) and Margaret Wotton Marchioness Dorset 1487-1535 (46) were Godparents.

Henry Bourchier 2nd Earl Essex 3rd Count Eu -1540 carried the covered gilt basin. Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (49) escorted the Dowager Duchess of Norfolk. Henry Grey 1st Duke Suffolk 1517-1554 (16) carried the Salt. Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk 1497-1558 (36) carried the Chrisom. Agnes Tilney Duchess Norfolk 1477-1545 (56) carried Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter 1496-1538 (37) carried a taper of virgin wax.

Edward Stanley 3rd Earl Derby 1509-1572 (24), Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539 (56), Henry Grey 4th Earl Kent 1495-1562 (38) and George Boleyn 2nd Viscount Rochford 1503-1536 (30) supported the train of the mantle.

Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (60), William Howard 1st Baron Howard 1510-1573 (23) and John Hussey 1st Baron Hussey Sleaford 1465-1537 (68) carried the canopy.

1533 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556. In 1544 Gerlach Flicke Painter 1520-1558. Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556. Around 1543 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545. Around 1532 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Edward Stanley 3rd Earl Derby 1509-1572. Before 1537 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539.

Marriage of Henry Fitzroy and Mary Howard

On 28 Nov 1533 Henry Fitzroy Tudor 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset 1519-1536 (14) and Mary Howard Duchess Richmond and Somerset 1519-1557 (14) were married. They were third cousins. He a son of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. She by marriage Duchess of Richmond and Somerset. Another coup for the Howard Family especially in view of Henry Fitzroy being considered by some as a possible heir in view of Anne Boleyn having given birth to a girl.

Execution of Elizabeth "Holy Maid of Kent" Barton

On 20 Apr 1534 Elizabeth "Holy Maid of Kent" Barton 1506-1534 (28) was hanged at Tyburn for treason. Five of her supporters were executed alongside her: Edward Bocking, Benedictine monk of Christ Church, Canterbury, John Dering, Benedictine monk, Henry Gold, priest, Hugh Rich, Franciscan friar and Richard Risby, Franciscan friar.

First Act of Succession

In Mar 1534 Parliament enacted the First Act of Succession. The Act made Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (18) illegitimate and Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland the heir to King Henry VIII (42). The Act also required all subjects, if commanded, to swear an oath to recognize this Act as well as the king's supremacy.

Around 1554 Antonis Mor Painter 1517-1577. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558. Around 1556 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558. Around 1546. William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland before her accession painted for her father. Around 1570 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. In 1579 George Gower Painter 1540-1596. The Plimton Sieve Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1585 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Ermine Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1592 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636. The Ditchley Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. After 1585 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1563 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547.

1534 Treasons Act

After 1534 Parliament enacted the Treason Act made it treason, punishable by death, to not swear an oath recognising the King Henry VIII as the "... Only Head of the Church of England ...".

1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547.

First Act of Supremacy

On 03 Nov 1534 Parliament enacted the First Act of Supremacy by which Henry VIII (43) and his heirs were declared to be Supreme Head of the Church of England. Henry had now abandoned Rome completely.

1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547.

Trial and Execution of Bishop Fisher and Thomas More

On 22 Jun 1535 John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535 (65) was beheaded on Tower Hill.

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525. Portrait of Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 in the Masters Lodge St John's College. Commissioned by John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535. Note the Beaufort Arms on the wall beneath which is the Beafort Portcullis. Repeated in the window. She is wearing widow's clothes, or possibly that of a convent; Gabled Headress with Lappets. On 29 Mar 2019, St John's College, Cambridge, which she founded, announced the portrait was original work by Wewyck.

Hall's Chronicle Henry VIII The XXVII Year. Trial and Execution of Bishop Fisher and Thomas More

Also the xxii. day of the same moneth Ihon Fysher bishop of Rochester (65) was beheaded, and his head set vpon London bridge. This bishop was of very many menne lamented, for he was reported to be a man of great learnyng, and a man of very good life, but therin wonderfully deceiued, for he maintained the Pope to be supreme head of the Church, and very maliciously refused the kynges tytle of supreme head. It was sayd that the Pope, for that he helde so manfully with him and stoode so stifly in his cause, did elect him a Cardinal, and sent the Cardinalles hat as farre as Caleys, but the head it should haue stande on, was as high as Lodon bridge or euer the hat could come to Bishop Fysher, & then it was to late and therfore he neither ware it nor enioyed his office. This man as I sayd was accoumpted learned, yea, and that very notably learned, and yet haue you heard howe he was deceiued with Elizabeth Barton that called herself the holy mayd of Kent, and no doubt so was he in the defence of that vsurped authoritie, the more pitie: wonderful! it is that a man beyng lerned should be so blind in the scriptures of God that proueth the supreme aucthoritie of princes so manyfestly. Also the vi. day of lulye was sir Thomas More (57) beheaded for the like treason before rehersed, which as you haue heard was for the deniyng of the kynges Maiesties supremitie. This manne was also coumpted learned, & as you haue heard before he was lorde Chauncelor of England, and in that tyme a great persecutor of suche as detested the supremacy of the bishop of Rome, whiche he himselfe so highly fauored that he stoode to it till he was brought to the Skaffolde on the Tower Hill where on a blocke his head was striken from his shoulders and had no more harme. I cannot tell whether 1 should call him a foolishe wyseman, or a wysefoolishtnan, for vndoubtedly he beside his leamyng, had a great witte, but it was so mingled with tauntyng and mockyng, that it semed to them that best knew him, that he thought nothing to be wel spoken except he had ministered some mocke in the communcacion insomuche as at is commyng to the Tower, one of the .-officers demauded his vpper garment for his fee, meanyng his goune, and he answered, he should haue it, and tookc him his cappe, saiyng it was the vppermoste garment that he had. Lykewise, euen goyng to his death at the Tower gate, a poore woman called vnto him and besought him to declare that he had certain euidences of hers in the tyme that he was in office (which after he was appreheded she could not come by) and that he would intreateshe .might haue them agayn, or els she was vndone. He answered, good woman haue .pa.cience a title while, for the kyng is so good vnto me that euen within this halfe houre he will discharge me of all busynesses, and helpe thee himselfe. Also when he went vp the stayer on the Skaffolde, he desired one of the Shiriffes officers togeuehim his hand to helpe him vp, and sayd, when I come doune againe, let me shift for my selfe aswell as I can. Also the bagman kneled doune to him aslcyng him forgiuenes of his death (as the maner is) to whom he sayd I forgeue thee, but I promise thee that thon shah neuer haue honestie of the strykyng of my head, my necke is so short. Also euen when he shuld lay doune his head on the blocke, he hauyng a great gray beard, striked out his beard and sayd to the hangma, I pray you let me lay my beard ouer the blocke least ye should cut it, thus w a mocke he ended his life.

1527 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 wearing a Lancastrian Esses Collar with Beaufort Portcullis and Tudor Rose Pendant.

Before 22 Jun 1535 Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Walden 1488-1544 presided over the trial of John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535 and Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 both of whom refused to take the Oath Of Supremacy. The judges including Anne Boleyn's father William Boleyn 1451-1505 and brother Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539. Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540 brought Richard Rich 1st Baron Rich 1497-1567 as a witness who testified that Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 had denied that the King was the legitimate head of the Church. However, Richard Southwell 1503-1564 to the contrary.

The jury took, somewhat unsurprisingly, only fifteen minutes to conclude Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 (57) was guilty. He was sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered; the King (43) commuted this to beheading.

In 1569 Unknown Painter. Posthumous portrait of Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Walden 1488-1544. Before 1537 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539. Around 1625 based on a work of 1532.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540. Around 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Richard Southwell 1503-1564. Around 1575 based on a work of 1536.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Richard Southwell 1503-1564. 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547.

On 06 Jul 1535 Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 (57) was beheaded on Tower Hill.

Death of Catherine of Aragon

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII Volume 10 January-June 1536. 37. Sir Edw. Chamberleyn (52) and Sir Edm. Bedyngfeld (57) to Cromwell (51).Death of Catherine of Aragon

This 7th Jan., about 10 a.m., the Lady Dowager (50) was annealed with the Holy ointment, Chamberleyn and Bedyngfeld being summoned, and before 2 p.m. she died. Wishes to know the King's (44) pleasure concerning the house, servants, and other things. The groom of the Chamber here can cere her. Will send for a plumber to close the body in lead.

Around 1625 based on a work of 1532.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540. Around 1497. Juan de Flandes Painter 1440-1519. Portrait of Catherine of Aragon or Joanna Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Catherine of Aragon. 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VIII 1536 27th Year. This yeare, the morrowe after twelve daie being Fridaie and the 7th daie of Januarie, 1536 the honorable and noble Princes, Queene Katherin (50), former wife to King Henrie the VIII (44), departed a.d. 1536. from her worldlie lief at Bugden, [Note. Bugden three miles from Kimbolton Castle] in Huntingdon shire, about tenne of the clocke at night [Note. This would appear to be an error for 2 o'clock in the afternoon], and she was buried at Peterborowe the 29th daie of Januarie, being Saturdaie.

See Death of Catherine of Aragon.

Note. Stow and Hall, with other authorities, state that Queen Katharine died on the 8th Jannarj, but the correctness of our text as to the day is placed beyond a doubt by the original letter of Sir Edward Chamberleyn and Sir Edmund Bedyngfeld transmitting this intelligence to Cromwell, still extant in the Public Record Office, and which runs thus: "Pleaseth yt yower honorable Maystershipp to be adrertysed, that this 7th day of January, abowt 10 of the clock before none, the Lady Dowager was aneled with the Holy Oyntment, Mayster Chamberlein and I called to the same; and before 2 of the clock at aftemone she departed to God. Besechyng yow that the Kyng may be advertyscd of the same, and furder to know yower pleasonr yn erciy thyng aperteynyng to that purpose; and, furder, in all other causes concemyng the hows, the serrantes, and all other thynges, as shall stand wyth the Kynge's pleasour and yowers.".

Vienna Archives 1536. 07 Jan 1536.Death of Catherine of Aragon 284. The good Queen (50) died in a few days, of God knows what illness, on Friday, 7 Jan. 1536. Next day her body was taken into the Privy Chamber and placed under the canopy of State (sous le dhoussier et drapt destat), where it rested seven days, without any other solemnity than four flambeaux continually burning. During this time a leaden coffin was prepared, in which the body was enclosed on Saturday, the 15th, and borne to the chapel. The vigils of the dead were said the same day, and next day one mass and no more, without any other light than six torches of rosin. On Sunday, the 16th, the body was removed again into the Privy Chamber, where it remained till Saturday following. Meanwhile an "estalage," which we call a chapelle ardente, was arranged, with 56 wax candles in all, and the house hung with two breadths of the lesser frieze of the country.

On 07 Jan 1536 Catherine of Aragon (50) died at Kimbolton Castle in the arms of her great friend María de Salinas Baroness Willoughby Eresby 1490-1539 (46).

John Stow's Annales of England 1536. 08 Jan 1536. The eight of Januarie dyed Ladie Katherine Dowager at Kymbalton, ad was buryed at Peterborowe.Death of Catherine of Aragon

Calendar of State Papers Spain Volume 5 Part 2 1531-1533. 21 Jan 1536. Eustace Chapuys (46) to the Emperor (35).Death of Catherine of Aragon

The good Queen (50) breathed her last at 2 o'clock in the afternoon. Eight hours afterwards, by the King's (44) express commands, the inspection of her body was made, without her confessor or physician or any other officer of her household being present, save the fire-lighter in the house, a servant of his, and a companion of the latter, who proceeded at once to open the body. Neither of them had practised chirurgy, and yet they had often performed the same operation, especially the principal or head of them, who, after making the examination, went to the bishop of Llandaff, the Queen's confessor, and declared to him in great secrecy, and as if his life depended on it, that he had found the Queen's (50) body and the intestines perfectly sound and healthy, as if nothing had happened, with the single exception of the heart, which was completely black, and of a most hideous aspect; after washing it in three different waters, and finding that it did not change colour, he cut it in two, and found that it was the same inside, so much so that after being washed several times it never changed colour. The man also said that he found inside the heart something black and round, which adhered strongly to the concavities. And moreover, after this spontaneous declaration on the part of the man, my secretary having asked the Queen's physician whether he thought the Queen (50) had died of poison, the latter answered that in his opinion there was no doubt about it, for the bishop had been told so under confession, and besides that, had not the secret been revealed, the symptoms, the course, and the fatal end of her illness were a proof of that.

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No words can describe the joy and delight which this King (44) and the promoters of his concubinate (35) have felt at the demise of the good Queen (50), especially the earl of Vulcher (59), and his son (33), who must have said to themselves, What a pity it was that the Princess (19) had not kept her mother (50) company. The King (44) himself on Saturday, when he received the news, was heard to exclaim, "Thank God, we are now free from any fear of war, and the time has come for dealing with the French much more to our advantage than heretofore, for if they once suspect my becoming the Emperor's friend and ally now that the real cause of our enmity no longer exists I shall be able to do anything I like with them." On the following day, which was Sunday, the King (44) dressed entirely in yellow from head to foot, with the single exception of a white feather in his cap. His bastard daughter (2) was triumphantly taken to church to the sound of trumpets and with great display. Then, after dinner, the King (44) went to the hall, where the ladies were dancing, and there made great demonstration of joy, and at last went into his own apartments, took the little bastard (2), carried her (2) in his (44) arms, and began to show her first to one, then to another, and did the same on the following days. Since then his joy has somewhat subsided; he has no longer made such demonstrations, but to make up for it, as it were, has been tilting and running lances at Grinduys. On the other hand, if I am to believe the reports that come to me from every quarter, I must say that the displeasure and grief generally felt at the Queen's (50) demise is really incredible, as well as the indignation of the people against the King (44). All charge him with being the cause of the Queen's (50) death, which I imagine has been produced partly by poison and partly by despondency and grief; besides which, the joy which the King (44) himself, as abovesaid, manifested upon hearing the news, has considerably confirmed people in that belief.

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Great preparations are being made for the burial of the good Queen (50), and according to a message received from Master Cromwell (51) the funeral is to be conducted with such a pomp and magnificence that those present will scarcely believe their eyes. It is to take place on the 1st of February; the chief mourner to be the King's own niece (18), that is to say, the daughter of the duke of Suffolk (52); next to her will go the Duchess (39), her mother; then the wife of the duke of Norfolk (39), and several other ladies in great numbers. And from what I hear, it is intended to distribute mourning apparel to no less than 600 women of a lower class. As to the lords and gentlemen, nothing has yet transpired as to who they are to be, nor how many. Master Cromwell (51) himself, as I have written to Your Majesty (35), pressed me on two different occasions to accept the mourning cloth, which this King (44) offered for the purpose no doubt of securing my attendance at the funeral, which is what he greatly desires; but by the advice of the Queen Regent of Flanders (Mary), of the Princess herself, and of many other worthy personages, I have declined, and, refused the cloth proffered; alleging as an excuse that I was already prepared, and had some of it at home, but in reality because I was unwilling to attend a funeral, which, however costly and magnificent, is not that befitting a queen of England.

The King (44), or his Privy Council, thought at first that very solemn obsequies ought to be performed at the cathedral church of this city. Numerous carpenters and other artizans had already set to work, but since then the order has been revoked, and there is no talk of it now. Whether they meant it in earnest, and then changed their mind, or whether it was merely a feint to keep people contented and remove suspicion, I cannot say for certain.

1548. Titian Painter 1488-1576. Equestrian Portrait of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558. 1519. Bernard Van Orley Painter 1491-1541. Portrait of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558. Around 1534 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Queen Anne Boleyn of England. The attribution is contentious. Around 1580 based on a work of around 1534.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Anne Boleyn of England. Before 1537 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 1477-1539. Around 1554 Antonis Mor Painter 1517-1577. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558. Around 1556 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558. Around 1546. William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland before her accession painted for her father. Around 1570 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. In 1579 George Gower Painter 1540-1596. The Plimton Sieve Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1585 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Ermine Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1592 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636. The Ditchley Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. After 1585 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1563 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1543 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545. In 1544 Master John Painter. Portrait of Mary Tudor Queen Consort France 1496-1533.

Hall's Chronicle Henry VIII The XXVII Year. In Nonember was a solempne procession through the citie of London of all the priestes and religious in and about the citie for the recoueryng of the Frenche kyng to his health. And the viii. day of January folowyng dyed the princes dowager at Kymbalton and was buried at Peterborough. Quene Anne ware yelowe for the mournyng.

Funeral of Catherine of Aragon and Anne Bolyen's Miscarriage

On 24 Jan 1536 Henry VIII (44) held a tournament at the Palace of Placentia some two weeks after Catherine of Aragon's (50) death.

1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1497. Juan de Flandes Painter 1440-1519. Portrait of Catherine of Aragon or Joanna Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Catherine of Aragon.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VIII 1536 27th Year. This yeare also, three daies before Candlemas, Queene Anne (35) was brought a bedd and delivered of a man chield, as it was said, afore her tyme, for she said that she had reckoned herself at that tyme but fiftene weekes gonne with chield; it was said she tooke a fright, for the King ranne that time at the ring and had a fall from his horse, but he had no hurt; and she tooke such a fright withall that it caused her to fall in travaile, and so was delivered afore her full tyme, which was a great discompfort to all this realme.

Around 1534 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Queen Anne Boleyn of England. The attribution is contentious. Around 1580 based on a work of around 1534.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Anne Boleyn of England.

John Stow's Annales of England 1536. 29 Jan 1536. The twentie nine of Januarie, Queene Anne was delivered of a man Childe before her time, which was borne deade.Funeral of Catherine of Aragon and Anne Bolyen's Miscarriage

Vienna Archives 1536. And on the morrow the three masses by three bishops: the first by the bishop of Rochester, with the abbot of Thame as deacon, and the abbot of Walden as sub-deacon; the second by the bishop of Ely, with the abbot of Tournay (66) (Thorney) as deacon, and the abbot of Peterborough as sub-deacon; the third by the bishop of Lincoln, with the bishop of Llandaff as deacon, and that of Ely as sub-deacon; the other bishops and abbots aforesaid assisting at the said masses in their pontificals, so the ceremony was very sumptuous. The chief mourner was lady Eleanor (17), daughter of the duke of Suffolk (52) and the French queen (39), and niece of king Henry, widower now of the said good Queen. She was conducted to the offering by the Comptroller and Mr. Gust (56), new receiver of the moneys the King takes from the Church. Immediately after the offering was completed the bishop of Rochester preached the same as all the preachers of England for two years have not ceased to preach, viz., against the power of the Pope, whom they call bishop of Rome, and against the marriage of the said good Queen and the King, alleging against all truth that in the hour of death she acknowledged she had not been queen of England. I say against all truth, because at that hour she ordered a writing to be made in her name addressed to the King as her husband, and to the ambassador of the Emperor, her nephew, which she signed with these words—Katharine, queen of England—commending her ladies and servants to the favor of the said ambassador. At the end of the mass all the mourning ladies offered in the hands of the heralds each three ells in three pieces of cloth of gold which were upon the body, and of this "accoutrements" will be made for the chapel where the annual service will be performed for her. After the mass the body was buried in a grave at the lowest step of the high altar, over which they put a simple black cloth. In this manner was celebrated the funeral of her who for 27 years has been true queen of England, whose holy soul, as every one must believe, is in eternal rest, after worldly misery borne by her with such patience that there is little need to pray God for her; to whom, nevertheless, we ought incessantly to address prayers for the weal (salut) of her living image whom she has left to us, the most virtuous Princess her daughter, that He may comfort her in her great and infinite adversities, and give her a husband to his pleasure, &c.Funeral of Catherine of Aragon and Anne Bolyen's Miscarriage

1563. Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of either Eleanor Brandon Countess Cumberland 1519-1547 or her daughter Margaret Clifford Countess Derby 1540-1596. Around 1543 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545. In 1544 Master John Painter. Portrait of Mary Tudor Queen Consort France 1496-1533.

On 29 Jan 1536 Catherine of Aragon (50) was buried at Peterborough Cathedral at a service for a Princess rather than Queen. Eleanor Brandon Countess Cumberland 1519-1547 (17) was Chief Mourner. Henry VIII (44) refused their daughter Mary (19) permission to attend. On the same day Queen Anne Boleyn of England (35) miscarried a child.

William Harvey Officer of Arms 1510-1567 (26) attended; the only officer of arms to do so.

Around 1554 Antonis Mor Painter 1517-1577. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558. Around 1556 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558.

Calendar of State Papers Spain Volume 5 Part 2 1531-1533. 17 Feb 1536. Eustace Chapuys (46) to the Emperor (35).

Funeral of Catherine of Aragon and Anne Bolyen's Miscarriage

On that very day the good queen of England's (50) burial took place, which was attended by four bishops and as many abbots, besides the ladies mentioned in my preceding despatches. No other person of rank or name was present except the comptroller of the Royal household. The place where she lies in the cathedral church of Peterborough is a good way from the high altar, and in a less honourable position than that of several bishops buried in the same church. Had she not been a dowager Princess, as they have held her both in life and death, but simply a Lady, they could not have chosen a less distinguished place of rest for her, as the people who understand this sort of thing tell me. Such have been the wonderful display and incredible magnificence which these people gave me to understand would be lavished in honour and memory of one whose great virtues and royal relationship certainly entitled her to uncommon honours!! Perhaps one of these days they will repair their fault, and erect a suitable. Monument or institute some pious foundation to her memory in some suitable spot or other.

On the same day that the Queen (50) was buried this King's concubine (35) miscarried of a child, who had the appearance of a nude about three months and a half old, at which miscarriage the King (44) has certainly shown great disappointment and sorrow. The concubine (35) herself has since attempted to throw all the blame on the duke of Norfolk (63), whom she hates, pretending that her mishap was entirely owing to the shock she received when, six days before, he (the Duke) came to announce to her the King's fall from his horse. But the King knows very well that it was not that, for his accident was announced to her in a manner not to create alarm; besides which, when she heard of it, she seemed quite indifferent to it. Upon the whole, the general opinion is that the concubine's miscarriage was entirely owing to defective constitution, and her utter inability to bear male children; whilst others imagine that the fear of the King treating her as he treated his late Queen, which is not unlikely, considering his behaviour towards a damsel of the Court, named Miss Seymour (27), to whom he has latterly made very valuable presents—is the oral cause of it all. The Princess' governess, her daughters, and a niece of hers, have greatly mourned over the concubines miscarriage, never ceasing to interrogate one of the Princess' most familiar maids in waiting on the subject, and asking whether their mistress had been informed of Anne's miscarriage, for if she had, as was most likely, they still would not for the world that she knew the rest of the affair and its causes, thereby intending to say that there was fear of the King's taking another wife.

1548. Titian Painter 1488-1576. Equestrian Portrait of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558. 1519. Bernard Van Orley Painter 1491-1541. Portrait of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558. 1537. Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Jane Seymour Queen Consort England 1509-1537 wearing a pendant with the letters IHS ie the first three letters of Christ's name in Greek.

Calendar of State Papers Spain Volume 5 Part 2 1531-1533. 06 Mar 1536. 35. Dr. Ortiz to the Empress.

His last letter, announcing the death and martyrdom of the queen of England (50), was dated the 30th of January.

Since then he (Ortiz) has received one, dated the 19th of January, [from Chapuys?], informing him that the Princess (20) (Mary) was in good health. The Queen before dying showed well what her whole life had been; for not only did she ask for, and receive, all the sacraments ordained by the Church, but answered the questions put by the priest with such ardour and devotion that all present were edified. Some of those who were by her bedside, having suggested that it was not yet time to receive the sacrament of Extreme Unction, she replied that she wished to hear and understand everything that was said, and make fitting answers. She preserved her senses to the last, &c.

They say that when the king of England (44) heard of the death of his Queen, dressed in mauve silk as he was at the time, and with a white feather in his cap, he went to solace himself with the ladies of the palace. In fact it may well be said of him and of his kingdom what the Prophet Isaias says, cap. lvii., "Justus periet, et non est qui recogitet in corde suo, et viri misericordia colliguntur quia non est qui intelligat."

Her Highness the Queen was buried with the honors of a Princess [dowager], 18 miles from the place where she died, at an abbey called Yperberu (Peterborough), the King having only sent thither some ladies of his Court to attend the funeral. The King and the concubine (35) were not in London, but at a place on the road called Octinton (Huntingdon).

Anne Bolans (35) is now in fear of the King deserting her one of these days, in order to marry another lady.

The King having sent his ambassadors into Scotland to persuade the king (23) of that country to separate from, and refuse obedience to, the Apostolic See, it happened that the very day and moment when the English were delivering their embassy a storm arose, and a most tremendous clap of thunder was heard, at which king James (23) horrified rose from his seat, crossed himself, and exclaimed, "I scarcely know which of the two things has caused me most fear and horror, that thunder and lightning we have just heard, or the proposition you have made me." After which, and in the very presence of the English ambassadors, he ordered unconditional obedience to the Church to be proclaimed throughout his dominions.

Here, at Rome, when the news of the good Queen's death arrived, the Papal bull excommunicating king Henry for his iniquitous conduct, and depriving him of his kingdom, was already sealed and closed. Since then nothing further has been done in the matter, but the executory letters (executoriales) in the principal cause have actually been taken out, though with no small trouble.—Rome, 6 March 1536.

Since the above was written I have had a letter from the Imperial ambassador in France, in date of the 15th ultimo, intimating that, according to news received from England, the King wished to marry the Princess to a gentleman of his kingdom, and that king Francis had told the Imperial ambassador that in consequence of a fall from his horse king Henry had been two hours unconscious without speech1; seeing which Ana Bolans (35) (Boleyn) was so struck that she actually miscarried of a son. Great news these, for which we are bound to thank God, because, were the Princess to be married as reported, she may at once be considered out of danger; for her marriage may hereafter be dissolved and declared null, as it would effectually be owing to the violence used, and the evident fear the Princess has of her life, should she not consent to it. At any rate, it must be owned that though the King himself was not converted like St. Paul after his fall, at least his adulterous wife (35) has miscarried of a son.

Note 1. Que el Rey de Inglaterra auia caitlo con su cavallo, y estado mas de dos horas sin habla, de lo qual la Ana (35) tuvo tan grande alteracion que movió un hijo."

Funeral of Catherine of Aragon and Anne Bolyen's Miscarriage.

Around 1535 Corneille de Lyon Painter 1520-1575. Portrait of King James V of Scotland 1512-1542. Around 1536 Corneille de Lyon Painter 1520-1575. Portrait of King James V of Scotland 1512-1542.

Hall's Chronicle Henry VIII The XXVII Year. And in February folowyng was quene Anne brought a bedde of a childe before her tyme, brought a bedde of a childe whiche was borne dead.

Henry VIII becomes Supreme Head of the Church

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VIII 1536 27th Year. This yeare also, the first Soundaie after Candlemas, being the sixt daie of Februarie, the Archbishopp of Canterberie, called Thomas Cranmer (46), preached at Paules Crosse, my Lord Chauncelor (48) being then present at his sermon, and their he approved, by scripture and by the decrees of the Popes lawes, that the Bishop of Rome, otherwise called Pope, was Antichrist, and also brought divers expositions of holie sainctes and doctors for the same; and how craftelie, and by what meanes, and how long, he had taken upon him the power of God and the aucthoritie aboTe all princes christened, and how his aucthoritie and lawes was contrarie to scripture and the lawe of God, as he then honorably declared and approved to the cleere understanding of all the people.Henry VIII becomes Supreme Head of the Church

1533 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556. In 1544 Gerlach Flicke Painter 1520-1558. Portrait of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556. In 1569 Unknown Painter. Posthumous portrait of Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Walden 1488-1544.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VIII 1536 27th Year. The seconde sermon, being on Septuagesima Sundaie, their preached at Powles Crosse the Bishop of Rochester.Henry VIII becomes Supreme Head of the Church

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VIII 1536 27th Year. . The Sondaie of Sexagesima preached at St. Poules Crosse the Bishopp of Lincolne.Henry VIII becomes Supreme Head of the Church

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VIII 1536 27th Year. The Soundaie of Quinquegesima, being the 27th daie of Februarie and Leepe yeare, a.v. 1535, preached at Paules Crosse the Bushoppe of Durhame, named Dr. Dunstall (62), sometime Bishopp of London, and afore that, being Master of the Rolls; and their were present at his sermon the Ardibishopp of Canterberie (46) with eight other bishopps, sitting at the crosse before the preacher; and the Lorde Chauncellor of Englande (48), the Duke of Norfolke (63), the Duke of Suffolke, with six Erles and divers other lordes, stoode behinde the preacher within the pulpitt, and also fower monkes of the Charterhouse of London were brought to the said sermon, which denied the King (44) to be supreame heade of the Church of Englande. And their the said preacher declared the profession of the Bishopp of Rome when he is elected Pope, according to the confirmation of eight universall general counsells, which were congregate for the faith of all Christendome; and everie Pope taketh an othe on the articles, promising to observe, keepe, and hould all that the said counsells confirmed, and to dampne all that they dampned; and how he, contrarie to his oth, hath usurped his power and aucthoritie over all Christendome; and also how uncharitably he had handled our Prince, King Henrie the Eight (44), in marying [him to] his brother's wife, contrarie to Godes lawes and also against his owne promise and decrees, which he opened by scriptures and by the cannons of the Appostles; and also how everie Kinge hath the highe power under God, and ought to be the supreame head over all spirituall prelates, which was a goodlie and gracious hearing to all the audience being their present at the same sermon. And in his prayers he said, after this manner, ye shall pray for the universall church of all Christendome, and especiall for the prosperous estate of our Soveraigne' and Emperour King Henrie the Eight, being the onelie supreame head of this realme of Englande; and he declared also in his said sermon how that the Cardinalls of Rome bee but curattes and decons of the cittie and province of Bome, and how that everie curate of any parrish have as much power as they have, according to scripture, save onelie that the Pope of Bome hath made them so high aucthorities onelie for to ezhalt his name and power in Christen realmes for covetousnes, as by his owne decrees he evidentlie their approved.

1541 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of Henry Brandon 2nd Duke Suffolk 1535-1551. 1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547.

1536 Mayday Jousting

This yeare, on Maye daie, 1536, beinge Moundaie, was a great justing at Greenewych, where was chalengers my Lorde of Bochforde and others, and defenders Mr. Noris and others.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VIII 1536 27th Year. This yeare, on Maye daie, 1536, beinge Moundaie, was a great justing at Greenewych, where was chalengers my Lorde of Rochforde (33) and others, and defenders Mr. Noris (54) and others..

Arrest and Imprisonment of Anne Boleyn and her Co accused

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VIII 1536 27th Year. And the secondo dale of Maie, Mr. Noris (54) and my Lorde of Rochforde (33) were brought to the Towre of London as prisonners; Queen Anne (35) and the same dale, about five of the clocke at night, Anne Bolleine was brought to the Towre of London by my Lord Chauncelor (48), the Duke of Norfolke (63), Mr. Secretarie (51), and Sir William Kingston (60), Constable of the Tower; and when she came to the court gate, entring in, she fell downe on her knees before the said lordes, beseeching God to helpe her as she was not giltie of her aocusement, and also desired the said lordes to beseech the Kinges grace to be good unto her, and so they left her their prisoner. See Arrest and Imprisonment of Anne Boleyn and her Co accused.

Around 1534 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Queen Anne Boleyn of England. The attribution is contentious. Around 1580 based on a work of around 1534.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Anne Boleyn of England. In 1569 Unknown Painter. Posthumous portrait of Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Walden 1488-1544. Around 1625 based on a work of 1532.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540.

On 02 May 1536 Queen Anne Boleyn (35) was charged with treason and accused of 'despising her marriage and entertaining malice against the King, and following daily her frail and carnal lust' !She was imprisoned in the Tower of London. Five ladies were appointed to serve Anne whilst in prison including her aunt by marriage Elizabeth Wood aka Wode, wife of her uncle James Boleyn 1463-1561 (73) and her aunt Anne Boleyn 1475-1556 (60), and Elizabeth Chamber Baroness St John Bletso -1602.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VIII 1536 27th Year. Item, the 12th daie of Maie, 1536, being Fridaie, their were arraygned at Westminster Sir Frances Weston (25), knight, Henrie Norrisy (54) esquier, Brerton, and Markes (24), being all fower of the Kinges Privie Chamber, and their condemned of high treason against the Kinge (44) for using fornication with Queene Anne (35), wife to the Kinge, and also for conspiracie of the Kinges death, and their judged to be hanged, drawen, and quartered, their members cutt of and brent [burned] before theim, their heades cutt of and quartered; my Lord Chauncelor (48) being the highest Commissioner he geving their judgment, with other lordes of the Kinges Counsell being presente at the same tyme. See Arrest and Imprisonment of Anne Boleyn and her Co accused.

1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. 1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547. Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547.

Trial of Anne Boleyn and her brother George

On 15 May 1536 Queen Anne Boleyn (35) tried at the King's Hall in the Tower of London.

Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (63) was appointed Lord High Steward and presided. Henry Howard 1516-1547 (20) attended. Henry Pole 1st Baron Montagu 1492-1539 (44) was one of the judges. Elizabeth Browne Countess Worcester 1502-1565 (34) was the principal witness.

The jurors were:

Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (52).

Edward Clinton 1st Earl Lincoln 1512-1585 (24).

Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre Gilsland 1515-1541 (21).

George Hastings 1st Earl Huntingdon 1487-1544 (49).

Thomas Manners 1st Earl Rutland 1492-1543 (44).

John Mordaunt 1st Baron Mordaunt 1480-1562 (56).

Ralph Neville 4th Earl Westmoreland 1498-1549 (38).

Henry Parker 11th Baron Marshal 10th Baron Morley 1481-1556 (55).

Edward Stanley 3rd Earl Derby 1509-1572 (27).

Thomas Stanley 2nd Baron Monteagle 1507-1560 (28).

John Vere 15th Earl Oxford 1471-1540 (65).

Thomas Wentworth 1st Baron Wentworth 1501-1551 (35).

Henry Somerset 2nd Earl Worcester 1496-1549 (40).

Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland 1478-1527 (58).

Thomas Burgh 7th Baron Cobham Sternborough 5th Baron Strabolgi 1st Baron Burgh 1488-1550 (48).

Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter 1496-1538 (40).

William Fitzalan 18th Earl Arundel 1476-1544 (60).

Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl Arundel 1512-1580 (24).

Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Walden 1488-1544 (48).

Edward PowersLord Powers.

William Sandys 1st Baron Sandys Vyne 1470-1540 (66).

Thomas Ware.

Andrew Windsor 1st Baron Windsor 1467-1543 (69).

George Brooke 9th Baron Cobham 1497-1558 (39).

She was found guilty and sentenced to be beheaded. John Spelman Judge 1480-1546 (56) signed the death warrant.

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After Anne's trial her brother George Boleyn 2nd Viscount Rochford 1503-1536 (33) was also tried and found guilty.

Around 1534 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Queen Anne Boleyn of England. The attribution is contentious. Around 1580 based on a work of around 1534.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Anne Boleyn of England. Around 1533 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Henry Howard 1516-1547. Around 1533 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Henry Howard 1516-1547. Around 1575 Unknown Painter. Based on a work of 1546. After William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547. Around 1575 based on a work of 1546.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547. In 1546 Unknown Painter. Italian. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547 wearing his Garter Collar and Leg Garter. His right Thomas of Brotherton 1st Earl Norfolk 1300 1338 Arms, his left Thomas of Woodstock Plantagenet 1st Duke Albemarle 1st Duke Gloucester 1355 1397 Arms. Around 1543 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545. Around 1538 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Edward Clinton 1st Earl Lincoln 1512-1585. Around 1565 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Edward Clinton 1st Earl Lincoln 1512-1585. In 1583 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Edward Clinton 1st Earl Lincoln 1512-1585 wearing his Garter Collar. Around 1556 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Mary Neville Baroness Dacre Gilsland 1524-1576 with an inset portrait of husband Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre Gilsland 1515-1541. Around 1532 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Edward Stanley 3rd Earl Derby 1509-1572. Around 1550 John In 1550 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl Arundel 1512-1580 with the motto Invidia Torquet Autorem meaning Let envy torment its author. Around 1565 Unknown Painter. Anglo-Netherlandish. Portrait of Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl Arundel 1512-1580. In 1569 Unknown Painter. Posthumous portrait of Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Walden 1488-1544. Around 1538 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of George Brooke 9th Baron Cobham 1497-1558.

Execution of Anne Boleyn's Co-accused

On 17 May 1536 George Boleyn 2nd Viscount Rochford 1503-1536 (33), Henry Norreys 1482-1536 (54), Francis Weston 1511-1536 (25), William Brereton -1536 and Mark Smeaton 1512-1536 (24) were beheaded at Tower Hill. They were buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church Tower of London.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VIII 1536 27th Year. Allso the 17th day of May, beinge Weddensday, the Lord of Rochforde, Mr. Norys, Mr. Bruton, Sir Francis Weston, and Markys, were all beheaded [Note. Smeaton was hanged] at the Tower-hill; and the Lord of Rocheforde, brother to Queene Anne, sayde these wordes followinge on the scaffolde to the people with a lowde voyce: Maisters all, I am come hither not to preach and make a sermon, but to dye, as the lawe hath fownde me, and to the lawe I submitt me, desiringe you all, and speciallie you my maisters of the Courte, that you will trust on God speciallie, and not on the vanities of the worlde, for if I had so done, I thincke I had bene alyve as yee be now; allso I desire you to helpe to the settinge forthe of the true worde of God; and whereas I am sclaundered by it, I have bene diligent to reade it and set it furth trulye; but if I had bene as diligent to observe it, and done and lyved thereafter, as I was to read it and sett it forthe, I had not come hereto, wherefore I beseche you all to be workers and lyve thereafter, and not to reade it and lyve not there after. As for myne offences, it can not prevayle you to heare them that I dye here for, but I beseche God that I may be an example to you all, and that all you may be wayre by me, and hartelye I require you all to pray for me, and to forgive me if I have offended you, and I forgive you all, and God save the Kinge. Their bodies with their heades were buried within the Tower of London; the Lord of Rochfordes bodie and head within the chappell of the Tower, Mr. Weston and Norys in the church yeard of the same in one grave, Mr. Bruton and Markes in another grave in the same churche yerde within the Tower of London. See Execution of Anne Boleyn's Co-accused.

Execution of Anne Boleyn

On 19 May 1536 Queen Anne Boleyn of England (35) was beheaded at Tower Green Tower of London. Unusually a sword was used. Her execution was witnessed by Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (52), Catherine Carey 1524-1569 (12) and Henry Fitzroy Tudor 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset 1519-1536 (16).

Anne's last words, as reported by Edward Hall, were as follows:

Good Christian People, I am come hither to die, for according to the law, and by the law I am judged to die, and therefore I will speak nothing against it. I am come hither to accuse no man, nor to speak any thing of that, whereof I am accused and condemned to die, but I pray God save the king and send him long to reign over you, for a gentler nor a more merciful prince was there never; and to me was he ever a good, a gentle and sovereign lord. And if any person will meddle of my cause, I require them to judge the best. And thus I take my leave of the world and of you all, and I heartily desire you all to pray for me. O Lord, have mercy on me, to God I commend my soul.

To Christ I commend my soul, Jesu receive my soul.

She was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church Tower of London.

Around 1534 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543. Drawing of Queen Anne Boleyn of England. The attribution is contentious. Around 1580 based on a work of around 1534.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Anne Boleyn of England. Around 1543 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545. Around 1562 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of (probably) Catherine Carey 1524-1569.