1540-1543 Catherine Howard and Cromwell's Execution is in 16th Century Events.
Arrest, Attainder and Execution of Thomas Cromwell
On 18 Apr 1540 Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540 (55) was created 1st Earl Essex 6C 1540
On 19 Apr 1540 Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540 (55) was appointed Lord Chamberlain.
On 10 Jun 1540 Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540 (55) attended Meeting of the Privy Council where he was arrested. It isn't entirely clear why he was arrested but his role in the King's recent failed marriage to Anne of Cleves (24) is likely to have played a part William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton 1490-1542 (50) removed Cromwell's (55) St George of the Order of the Garter. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London.
Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII Volume 15 10 Jun 1540. After 10 Jun 1540. Burnet, iv. 415. 60. Not printed in the Statutes at Large. [c. 62]. Attainder of Thomas Crumwell, earl of Essex (55), whom the King has raised from a very base and low degree to the state of an earl, and who nevertheless, as is proved by many "personages of great honor, worship, and discretion," has been the most detestable traitor that has been seen during the King's reign, and has of his own authority set at liberty divers persons convicted of misprision of treason and others apprehended upon suspicion of treason; and also has, for sums of money, granted licences for the export of money, corn, &c., contrary to the King's proclamations; and also has appointed commissioners in important affairs without the King's knowledge; and also "being a person of as poor and low degree as few be" within this realm, has said publicly, "That he was sure of you" (i.e. the King), and it is detestable that any subject should speak so of his sovereign; and also has give passports to divers persons to go over sea without search; and also, being a detestable heretic, has dispersed into all shires false and erroneous books, many of which were printed beyond seas, tending to the discredit of the blessed sacrament of the altar and other articles of religion declared by the King by the authority of Parliament, and has caused parts of the said books to be translated into English, and although the report made by the translator thereof has been that the matter was expressly against the sacrament of the altar, has, after reading the translation, affirmed the heresy so translated to be good; and also has obstinately maintained that every Christian may be a minister of the said sacrament as well as a priest; and also, being the King's vicegerent to reform errors and direct ecclesiastical causes, has, without the King's knowledge, licensed heretics to preach and teach, and has actually written to sheriffs in sundry shires, as if it were the King's pleasure, to set at large many false heretics; and also upon complaints being made to him of heretics, has defended the said heretics, and rebuked the credible persons, their accusers, &c.; and moreover, 31 March 30 Hen. VIII., in the parish of St. Peter the Poor in London, upon information made to him against certain new preachers, as Robert Barnes and other, whereof part be now in the Tower for preaching against the King's proclamations, did arrogantly say in defence of their preaching, "That if the King would turn from it, yet I would not turn; and if the King did turn and all his people I would fight in the field in my own person with my sword in my hand against him and all other," and held up his dagger saying, "Or else this dagger thrust me to the heart if I would not die in that quarrel against them all; and I trust if I live one year or two it shall not lie in the King's power to resist or let it if he would," and affirming the words by a great oath, &c.; and moreover by bribery and extortion he obtained innumerable sums of money, and, being so enriched, has held the nobles of the Realm in great disdain, "and being put in remembrance of others of his estate which your Highness hath called him unto offending in like treasons," said, 31 Jan. 31 Hen. VIII., in the parish of St. Martin in the Fields, Midd., "That if the lords would handle him so, that he would give them such a breakfast as never was made in England, and that the proudest of them should know." To suffer as a heretic or traitor, at the King's pleasure, and forfeit all property held since 31 March 30 Hen. VIII. Saving clause excepting the deanery of Wells from forfeiture.Arrest, Attainder and Execution of Thomas Cromwell
On 29 Jun 1540 a bill of attainder against Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540 (55) was passed in the House of Lords.
On 28 Jul 1540 Walter Hungerford 1st Baron Hungerford Heytesbury 1503-1540 (37) was beheaded at Tower Hill. He, together with his chaplain, a Wiltshire clergyman named William Bird, Rector of Fittleton and Vicar of Bradford, who was suspected of sympathising with the pilgrims of grace of the north of England, was attainted by act of parliament. Hungerford was charged with employing Bird in his house as chaplain, knowing him to be a traitor; with ordering another chaplain, Hugh Wood, and one Dr. Maudlin to practise conjuring to determine the king's length of life, and his chances of victory over the northern rebels; and finally with committing offences forbidden by the 1533 Buggery Act.
Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Howard
On 28 Jul 1540 Henry VIII (49) and Catherine Howard (17) were married at Oatlands Palace by Bishop of London Edmund Bonner (40). He a son of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. She by marriage Queen Consort England.
Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland 1495-1551 (45) was appointed Lady in Waiting to Queen Catherine Howard of England 1523-1542 (17).
Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540 (55) was one of several executions the same day at Tower Hill.
Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII Volume 16 1540 1541. 29 May 1541. 868. Marillac to Francis I.1541 Executions
What has here happened since he wrote last, on the 22nd, gives matter to write. To begin with, a case more worthy of compassion than of long letters, the countess of Saalberi (67), mother of Cardinal Pol (41) and the late lord Montaigue (49), was yesterday morning, about 7 o'clock, beheaded in a corner of the Tower, in presence of so few people that until evening the truth was still doubted. It was the more difficult to believe as she had been long prisoner, was of noble lineage, above 80 years old, and had been punished by the loss of one son and banishment of the other, and the total ruin of her house. Further reflections upon this. The manner of proceeding in her case and that of a lord who was executed at the same time (who is not yet named, but is presumed to be lord Leonard de Clidas (62), formerly the King's lieutenant in Ireland) seems to argue that those here are afraid to put to death publicly those whom they execute in secret. It may be added that yesterday all the heads which were fixed upon the bridge of the river which passes by this town were taken down; in order that the people may forget those whose heads kept their memory fresh, if it were not that this will people the place with new, for Marillac hears from a good place that, before St. John's tide, they reckon to empty the Tower of the prisoners now there for treason.
The talk of going to the North continues, and provisions are already being sent; which are the greater as the company will be 4,000 or 5,000 horse, as well because the King (49) wishes to go with more magnificence (as he has not yet been there) as to be secure against any seditious designs. They will be gentlemen of these quarters of King (Kent), whom he trusts most. The 50 gentlemen of the house will each have tent and war equipment, as also will several other young lords; so that it will be rather like following a camp than going to the chase.
As instructed in last packet of the 20th, will write to no one of affairs here. Would not have done it in the past had he known Francis's pleasure, but was only written to to address all he wrote to Francis, not that he should not write to others. Will write affairs concerning war or peace to Mons. de Vendosme, as long as he is in Picardy, and in his absence a word to M. du Bies, to prevent them thinking better or worse in the absence of news. Is not spoken to about the Cauchoide nor about the conversation he wrote last in cipher.
Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII Volume 16 1540 1541. 10 Jun 1541. 897. Chapuys (51) to the Queen of Hungary.1541 Executions
If the affair is mentioned, will follow her instructions in her letter of the 28th ult. Expects to be summoned before the King (49) two days hence. Is vexed at not having received the copy of her answer to the King, referred to in his despatch of 26 May. The news since that date is that on the 27th three of the chief conspirators in the North — an abbot and two gentlemen — were hung and quartered. About the same time took place the lamentable execution of the countess of Salisbury (67) at the Tower in presence of the Lord Mayor and about 150 persons. When informed of her sentence she found it very strange, not knowing her crime; but she walked to the space in front of the Tower, where there was no scaffold but only a small block. She there commended her soul to God, and desired those present to pray for the King, Queen, Prince, and Princess. The ordinary executioner being absent, a blundering "garçonneau" was chosen, who hacked her head and shoulders to pieces. A most virtuous lady nearly 90 years of age. When her death was resolved on her nephew (grandson) (21), the son of lord Montague (49), who had been allowed occasionally to go about within the Tower, was more strictly guarded. It is to be supposed he will soon follow his father and grandmother. London, 10 June 1541. Original at Vienna.
On 20 Jun 1541 Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre Gilsland 1515-1541 (26) was tried for the murder of John Busbrig, servant of Nicholas Pelham 1517-1560 (24) on whose land they were poaching on 30 Apr 1541. Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (68) was appointed Lord High Steward.
Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII Volume 16 1540 1541. 02 Jul 1541. 954. Chapuys (51) to the Queen of Hungary.1541 Executions
Almost immediately after Chapuys's return the King (50) gave the people of Dunkirk permission to buy here a quantity of wood for their own use for curing herrings, and he has frequently reminded Chapuys of the favor, saying he was surprised that the town had not sent a deputation to say how much wood they required. The deputation has arrived, and now, after being kept 13 days without an answer, they have been told that it is mere loss of time to solicit such things till the Queen has promised to release the harness, copper, and war ammunition purchased by the King some time ago at Antwerp.
On St. Peter's eve lord Leonard (62), uncle of the Marquis of Osceter (24) (Dorset) and of the Chancellor's (53) wife, was beheaded in front of the Tower. Hears he was accused of letting his nephew (16), the young earl of Kildare, escape to France and thence to Liege.
That afternoon two gentlemen were hung, one of whom had an income of over 12,000 ducats a year, and was the handsomest and best bred man in England, only 25 years old and married to a niece of the Duke of Norfolk (68). He was sentenced for having belonged to a set of eight rakish youths, one of whom had killed a poor old man in an unpremeditated fray. For the same cause lord Dacres (26) also, son1 of the Duke of Norfolk's (68) sister (71), and cousin of this Queen (18), 23 years old and possessing a property of about 5,000 ducats a year, was hung from the most ignominious gibbet, and for greater shame dragged through the streets to the place of execution, to the great pity of many people, and even of his very judges, who wept when they sentenced him, and in a body asked his pardon of the King. But the thing which astonished people most was, that, the same day lord Dacres was hung, another young man (28), son of the Treasurer of the Royal household (56), who was one of those present at the old man's death, was freely pardoned, though he had been already tried for some like misdemeanour.
At the same time in the North, Sir John Neville (53) and about 60 more, among whom at least 25 were ecclesiastics, were executed for the conspiracy of which Chapuys wrote some time ago. Has just heard of the arrival of a Polish gentleman with eight or ten servants. Will endeavour to discover who he is and what he comes for. London, 2 July 1541. Original at Vienna.
Note 1. Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre Gilsland 1515-1541 (26), Lord Dacre, was the grandson of Anne Bourchier Baroness Dacre Gilsland 1470-1530 (71) who was the maternal half-sister of Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (68); Anne and Thomas' mother was Elizabeth Tilney Countess Surrey 1444-1497 (97).1541 Executions
Catherine Howard Trial and Executions
Catherine Howard Trial
On 07 Nov 1541 Catherine Howard (18) was interrogated by Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury (52) and John Gresham Lord Mayor (46) at Winchester Palace in Southwark.
Catherine Howard Tyburn Executions
Battle of Solway Moss
On 24 Nov 1542 Malcolm Fleming 3rd Lord Fleming 1494-1547 (48) was captured at the Battle of Solway Moss.
On 25 Nov 1542 Thomas Wharton 1st Baron Wharton 1495-1568 (47) commanded the English forces at Battle of Solway Moss at Solway Moss. John Thynne 1515-1580 (27) fought. Of the Scottish army Malcolm Fleming 3rd Lord Fleming 1494-1547 (48), Gilbert Kennedy 3rd Earl Cassilis 1515-1558 (27) and Laurence Oliphant 3rd Lord Oliphant -1566 fought.
William Cunningham 4th Earl Glencairn 1493-1548 (49) was captured and committed to the custody of Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (69). He was released on payment of a ransom of a thousand pounds and subscribing by his own hand to support Henry VIII's (51) project of a marriage between the young Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553 (5) and the Mary Queen of Scots.